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Designation: D 189 – 06

Designation: 13/94
An American National StandardBritish Standard 4380
Standard Test Method for
Conradson Carbon Residue of Petroleum Products
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 189; the number
immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption
or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses
indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (
) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of
—Removed “asbestos” from 6.4 and reinstated original research report footnote
editorially in October 2007.
—Updated Summary of Changes and added to research report footnote
editorially in December 2008.
1. Scope*
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the amountof carbon residue
(Note 1) left after evaporation and pyrolysisof an oil, and is intended to provide
some indication of relativecoke-forming propensities. This test method is
generally ap-plicable to relatively nonvolatile petroleum products
whichpartially decompose on distillation at atmospheric
pressure.Petroleum products containing ash-forming constituents asdetermined by
Test Method D 482 or IP Method 4 will have anerroneously high carbon residue,
depending upon the amountof ash formed (Note 2 and N o t e 4 ).

4. Carbon Residue Test1.


To be able to determine the carbon residue of a liquid fuel.


To be able to know the definition of a carbon residue test.


To be able to have knowledge about carbon residue of a liquid fuel.2.

THEORY AND HYPOTHESIS:Carbon residue for a fossil fuel can be defined as
the tendency of that fuel to form carbondeposits at high temperature in an
inert atmosphere. Carbon residue for a fuel is measured inweight percentage (wt
%) or parts per million by weight (ppm wt). High carbon residue value
isundesirable for a fuel.When oil is heated to a high temperature in the absence
of sufficient air a portion of the oil willdistill, thus leaving a carbon residue. The
amount of this residue is an index to the extent the oil islikely to decompose in
service. Under engine-operating conditions, the amount and type of thecarbon
formed has an important effect upon the performance of the engine. While no
maximumresidue specifications for lubricating oils are commonly given, a
relatively smaller amount in one oilcompared with another should be
favorable.Apparatus known as the Conradson carbon-residue tester is widely
used in this country. Itconsist of a porcelain crucible with a Skidmore iron
crucible resting upon a layer of sand in a secondlarger iron crucible, all of which
are supported upon a wire triangle on a metal stand of specifieddimensions. The
assembled tester is shown in the figure. The crucibles are surrounded by
anasbestos block and covered by a sheet-iron hood and chimney. Heat is applied
by a Meker burner.An analytical balance is used to weigh the sample of oil and
the residue.A clean porcelain crucible is weighed to the nearest 5mg, then filled
with a 10g sample of oil andweighed to the same accuracy. The crucible is then
placed in a Skidmore crucible. The sand in thelarge iron crucible is leveled, and
the Skidmore crucibles are covered, and the assembly of cruciblesis centered on
a wire triangle with the asbestos insulation on a suitable ring stand. The whole
iscovered with the sheet-iron hood, and heat is applied with a strong flame from
the Meker burner sothat the pre ignition period will be from 8.5 to 11.5 min.
When smoke appears from the chimney,the burner is moved or tilted so that the
flame passes up one side of the crucible and ignites the oilvapor. The burner is
momentarily removed and the gas flame adjusted so that the vapors burn

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