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A thesis and a case on why Geo has exacerbated the conditions in Pakistan and why it is biased. The article discusses the origins of Geo and its connections with shady operatives. We present the actual proof of the affiliates of Geo. The information on the CIA psy-ops discusses how the CIA operates in other countries.
IS GEO PART OF CIA PSY-OPS? by Moin Ansari Updated August 11th, 2008
Geo was started with the help of an ex US Naval Petty Officer by the name of Hazinski who has links with Mr. Casper Weinberger and many Indian channels.
| NEW YORK | RUPEE NEWS | January 2nd, 2008 | Moin Ansari| Just because it is in Urdu doesn’t make it true! Just because it was broadcast by a Pakistani channel doesn’t make it right! Just because it shows the Pakistani flag doesn’t mean it it loyal to Pakistan or patriotic. QUESTIONS GEO CANNOT ANSWER: Why does Geo collude with foreign media? Why does it focus on creating chaos and general discontent? Why does it act like an instrument of an politicalparty? Why does Geo behave like the arm of a foreign force? Why did Geo deliberately broadcast falsebad news about the economy when the stock market was booming? What hand did Geo play in scaring the foreign investors away from Pakistan? Why did Geo repeat the false news about the growth figures which led to the crash of the stock market? Why does Geo show wrong Pakistani maps? Why does Geo almost never cover the insurgencies in India? Why is Geo so infatuated with Anti-Pakistan Bollywood films? Why is Geo bent upon creating a ―Indianization‖ of Pakistan? Why does Geo pay so much attention to Bollywood? Why does Geo show dead bodies? Is this all part of a psy-op or is it part of an agenda? Mr. Husain Haqqani of the Hudson institute is on the payroll of JINSA and AIPAC (public information posted on Rupee News) is a known neocon with his own agenda. His wife Ms. Isphani is involved with VOA and Geo pursuing the same Neocon agenda. A company is known by the company it keeps. Geo certainty deals with some ―colorful‖ characters. Its genesis, consultants, and affiliations leave much to be desired. We have attempted to put together a thesis and a case on why Geo has exacerbated the conditions in Pakistan and why it is biased. The article discusses the origins of Geo and its connections with shady operatives. We present the actual proof of the affiliates of Geo. The information on the CIA psy-ops discusses how the CIA operates in other countries.
Quote: ―There is a hidden hand in this‖ Sher Bukhsh Mazari SUMMARY OF ARTICLE
1) Questions that Geo cannot answer 2) General discussion of CIA ops 3) CIA is active in Pakistan. NY Times report 4) CIA Dirty Tricks Department 5) Details on efforts to destabilize Pakistan THE CIA connection… BENAZIR BHUTTO‘S ASSASSINATION WAS PRE-PLANNED: THE ZIA MODEL WITH A TWIST: THE GREAT GAME CONTINUES: When the Elephants dance, the grass gets crushed. The continued CIA involvement in Pakistan. Another Pakistani leaders falls to an international game between the USA, and China and Russia, and Pakistanis again pay the price 6) Strange happenings at Geo that cannot be explained 7) Geo origins and the people who helped in starting Geo. Geo‘s connections to some ver un savory characters 8) Geo links with David Hazinski a known Neocon with deep links to Neocon organizaitons that have spoken up against Pakistan 9) Discussion of Weinberger‘s his beliefs and his association with Geo and Mr. Hazinski 10) Discussion of the beliefs of Mr. Hazinski‘s 11) Detailed discussion of the Media‘s role in destabilizing Pakistan 12) Appendices, Farah Ispahani role in VOA and Geo, Resume of Mr. Hazinski AMERICAN MEDIA WITH GEO AND ARY UNLEASHES ANTI-PAKISTAN CAMPAIGN ON CUE: CIA PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS (PSY-OP) FROM THE MANUAL: The declassified documents are old, but it gives us a glimpse into what can happen. New techniques are more sophisticated. (The implements of psychological warfare are: open propaganda, subversion, special operations
(sabotage. where military operations are under way. ―It is not important to see who is pulling the trigger. the Soviet Union and other principal powers. The programs are planned more or less centrally in all nations. but executed by a variety of agencies. sympathy. NY Times Jan. Most counter-terrorism operations in Pakistan have been conducted by the C. officials see an opportunity in the changing power structure for the Americans to advocate for the expanded authority in Pakistan. notably by Italy. if the C. believing that foreign factor (not al-Qaeda) could not be ruled out in this high-profile assassination that has badly shaken Pakistan. The principal effects sought are persuasion.I.. in some cases using intelligence provided by Pakistani sources. ancient in origin. division and physical interference. The legal status would not change if the administration decided to act more aggressively. What is really important is to reach the hand that pulled the strings. the government has fixed the responsibility on Baitullah Mehsud and al-Qaeda on the basis of a telephonic conversation reportedly monitored by intelligence agencies. However she was fired from her job for corruption. a nuclear-armed country. are modernly employed. including some with NATO forces. in Afghanistan. 6th. economic pressures.I. were given broader authority.A. Feb. President Zia ul Haq was blown up in a military plane and Benazir Bhutto became the Prime Minister. espionage). Quote: ISLAMABAD: Was Benazir Bhutto‘s assassination part of a larger international conspiracy to destabilise and de-nuclearise Pakistan? This is the question that boggles many minds even in the government circles. officials said. . it could call for help from the military or deputize some forces of the Special Operations Command to act under the authority of the agency. terrorization. Although.A. The new options for expanded covert operations include loosening restrictions on the C. also don‘t bother much about the hired assassin.A. we think the extremists now see a chance for the big prize . ―After years of focusing on Afghanistan. 2007 In the 1980s. 1943 ) THE COVERT US INTERVENTION IN PAKISTAN IS CONFIRMED BY THE NY TIMES OF JAN 6th. Memorandum on Intelligence for Psychological Warfare. to strike selected targets in Pakistan.‖ one senior official said. political and cultural pressures. These operations. Germany. However.I. 2008 Quote: ―At the White House and the Pentagon.creating chaos in Pakistan itself. confusion. some government officials really smell a ***.‖ an official source said. guerrilla warfare. the military can take the lead. by General John Magruder.
a book authored by Ayesha Siddiqa Agha. even confirmed this fact in his column in Jang that appeared on last Monday. when no known Islamic group has claimed responsibility. & CIA DOLLARS CREATE DEMONSTRATIONS: Tons of money was sent to Pakistan for a well organized campaign to launch street demonstrations against President Musharraf. a private intelligence service founded by experts close to British intelligence. especially after the Red Mosque operation. but the shadowy group‘s backers didn‘t repent. A succession of ―religious rebels‖ with suspicious foreign links have suddenly emerged in Pakistan over the past months claiming to be ―Pakistani Taliban‖.The Pakistan People‘s Party and spokesmen of Baitullah Mehsud and al-Qaeda had already rejected the interior ministry‘s assertion. (Ahmed Quraishi is an investigative reporter. . currently hosting a weekly political talk show titled Worldview from Islamabad. Some botched US and Pakistani military operations against al-Qaeda that caused civilian deaths accidentally fed this media campaign. during the PNA demonstration millions of Dollars were dispersed among professional agitators. assets within the Pakistani media started promoting the idea that the Pakistani military was killing its own people. which had been further contradicted by certain news reports that claimed that the slain leader was in contact with Mehsud. Inc: Inside Pakistan‘s Military Economy. PPP spokesman Farhatullah Babar. where he continues to operate and remote-control his assets in Pakistan. and now the Maulana of Swat. Money and weapons have been fed into the religious movements and al-Qaeda remnants in the tribal areas. As in 1979. -Saboteurs trained in Afghanistan have been inserted into Pakistan to aggravate extremist passions here. A senior journalist. rose from the dead to restart a separatist war in southwestern Pakistan. Brahmdagh Bugti. Uzbek and Tajiks were recruited to create mayhem in Pakistan. Ansari Abbasi in The News OLD CIA DIRTY TRICKS DEPT. His grandson. Bugti‘s death was a blow to neo-BLA. -Exploiting the situation. . encrypted communication equipment far superior to what the Pakistani military owns. is currently enjoying a safe shelter in the Afghan capital. Hamid Mir. -A shadowy group called the BLA. Some of the names include Abdul Rashid Ghazi. Kabul. Ahmed Quraishi has quoted $500 million in funds were disbursed. when contacted. a Cold War relic. He also revealed the startling fact he was told by Benazir Bhutto before her death that she was informed by the Americans that Washington did not want the restoration of deposed chief justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry. The rest of the unsuspecting media quickly picked up this message.This was the perfect timing for the launch of Military. -Chinese citizens continue to be targeted by individuals pretending to be Islamists. although did not rule out international dimension to Benazir‘s killing but he was more convinced that it was a heinous plot hatched inside Pakistan. Mr. and are using.) . Baitullah Mehsud. a columnist for a Pakistani English-language paper and a correspondent for ―Jane‘s Defence Weekly‖. Some of them have used.
Why does Geo generally show the Indian version of events and why does its news sound like a translation of CNN news? Geo‘s dangerous general policies are the main reason that the Pakistan was not allowing Geo to resume its transmission.The media has been unleashed about the so called ―instability‖ in Pakistan creating a justification for continued and more abrasive offensive action in South Asia. Where is the funding for all this coming from? Whether Geo is an unwilling victim of its sponsors and her affiliates in the USA or India. Another Pakistani leaders falls to an international game between the USA. This expose of Geo origins has tries to uncover the reasons why Geo acts so strangly. The Emergency imposed by the previous government was to thwart the campaign of disinformation that was running concurrently by Time magazine and Newsweek Magazine and the Neocon News agencies in the West. This to create instability in Pakistan that will be used as an excuse to continue the perpetual mimetic warfare in the Muslim world. Amazingly Geo is now starting a new ―English News‖ channel to continue its activities against the the country. nor Uganda. nor China nor Israel nor Russia face the US medias pontification on how great democracy is. nor Haiti. and Pakistanis again pay the price Professor Michel Chossudovsky sheds some light on the plan: Quote: . Pakistan has been facing the brunt of the US initiative to implement ―Democracy‖ in Pakistan even though the credentials of the champions of democracy are very weak. The continued CIA involvement in Pakistan. and China and Russia. nor Taiwan. or is Geo running a planned campaign and got caught with its pants down. There are reports in the press that Geo has been instrumental in the campaign of disinformation about Pakistan. It has become a willing or unwilling instrument of those who wanted to destabilize Pakistan. but it also employs program hosts whose credentials and loyalty to Pakistan is questionable. For example Mr. the grass gets crushed. Neither Egypt. The governemnt of Pakistan and the ISI of Pakistan got wind of Geo plans and recommended to the President to take action against Geo. nor Congo. Geo employs a lot of good reporters. Shaharyar Azhar is a known follower of Neocon philosophy and ideas always highlighting the negative news about Pakistan and not taking India or other countries to task. All Geo viewers want to find out the truth! THE DETAILS TO DESTABILIZE PAKISTAN ARE AVAILABLE IN THE MEDIA AND KNOWN TO THE PAKISTANI LEADERSHIP WHICH HAS TAKEN PREVENTATIVE ACTIONS THE CIA connection… BENAZIR BHUTTO’S ASSASSINATION WAS PRE-PLANNED: THE ZIA MODEL WITH A TWIST: THE GREAT GAME CONTINUES: When the Elephants dance.
a report by the US National Intelligence Council and the CIA forecast a ―Yugoslav-like fate‖ for Pakistan ―in a decade with the country riven by civil war. a leadership which will serve US imperial interests.This US agenda for Pakistan is similar to that applied throughout the broader Middle East Central Asian region. as seen recently in Balochistan.S. December 2007). US strategy. while concurrently contributing under the disguise of ―decentralization‖. 2 March 2005). consists in . ―U. in relation to previous US sponsored regimes. It is part of an evolving US foreign policy agenda. The official justification and pretext for an increased military presence in Pakistan is to extend the ―war on terrorism‖. 29 December 2007) ―Regime change‖ with a view to ensuring continuity under military rule is no longer the main thrust of US foreign policy. which favors disruption and disarray in the structures of the Pakistani State. Global Research. …. to the weakening of the central government and the fracture of Pakistan‘s fragile federal structure. well before the actual attempts took place. Washington is also beefing up its covert support to the ―terrorists. Special Forces are expected to vastly expand their presence in Pakistan.― It has been known for months that the Bush-Cheney administration and its allies have been maneuvering to strengthen their political control of Pakistan. proposed the toppling of Pakistan‘s military… The assassination of Bhutto appears to have been anticipated. characterized by the dominant role of the Pakistani military and intelligence has been scrapped in favor of political breakup and balkanization. to justify its counterrorism program. The regime of Pervez Musharraf cannot prevail. …. The political impasse is deliberate. (Larry Chin. Washington‘s foreign policy course is to actively promote the political fragmentation and balkanization of Pakistan as a nation. Concurrently. supported by covert intelligence operations. including an expanded US military presence inside Pakistan. Indirect rule by the Pakistani military and intelligence apparatus is to be replaced by more direct forms of US interference.‖ …Already in 2005. One can expect that Washington will push for a compliant political leadership. bloodshed and inter-provincial rivalries. paving the way for the expansion and deepening of the ―war on terrorism‖ across the region. A new political leadership is anticipated but in all likelihood it will take on a very different shape. with no commitment to the national interest. This expanded military presence is also dictated by the Middle East-Central Asia geopolitical situation and Washington‘s ongoing plans to extend the Middle East war to a much broader area.Continuity. Various American destabilization plans. There were even reports of ―chatter‖ among US officials about the possible assassinations of either Pervez Musharraf or Benazir Bhutto.‖ (Energy Compass. known for months by officials and analysts. as part of an effort to train and support indigenous counter-insurgency forces and clandestine counterterrorism units‖ (William Arkin. Washington Post.
Nudity is not modernity. -Geo does not focus foreign interference in Pakistani affairs. to Bihar to Kashmir. -Geo did not discuss the 89 separatist movements in India in 2007 …from Seven Northeastern sister states. -Geo focuses on the negative news and instead of focusing on solutions it shows bodies of dead people in contradiction of PEMRA and all decency requirements. -Geo focuses on petrol prices but does not inform the viewers that most private cars in Pakistan now run on CNG (liqufied petroluem gas) which costs $5 for a tank full. Syria. Iran. to the Naxalite insurrection. -Some of the shows are way beyond the pale on being modern. The broader objective is to fracture the Nation State and redraw the borders of Iraq. The Younger generation is being spoiled by using them as instruments of hedonism. -In a planned manner Geo supresses and ignores good news like 5. Afghanistan and Pakistan Professor Michel Chossudovsky STRANGE HEPPENINGS AT GEO THAT CANNOT BE EXPLAINED: Here are some facts about Geo and some example of how Geo demorolizes the population and the general body of the Pakistani dispora. abetting and financing secessionist movements while also weakening the institutions of the central government.1 billion dollar of oil refinery in Pakistan -Geo usually ignoress good news like $28 Billion Emar international island development -Geo is averse to good news about Pakistan–there is no discussion of the Bullet Trains in Pakistan. Morning host shows are in English and ―Urdlish‖ ( a horrible combination). to Assam etc… -Geo Dramas: 50 percent of the dramas are Indian dramas on Geo and 25 percent are with mix cast (Indian and Pakistani) and Indian film -Geo focuses on showing beheading of people and other depressing news. -GEO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CRASH OF THE STOCK MARKET: Geo repeatedly telecasted false news about the Pakistani economy. . Science and Technology is modernity. Most people driving cars are not affected by the rise in petrol (gasoline) prices.triggering ethnic and religious strife. Why did Geo not focus on showing 250 million people sleeping on sidewalks in India? -Geo did not cover for 36 hours the killing of 3000 Muslims in Gujrat? Urdu is not used by many hosts. the political situation and hence the stock market crashed in PakistanIn a pre-orchestrated campaign.
Some Geo maps sill show the Nothern Areas as part of India or partof Kashmir. Ronald Reagan‘s indicted and pardoned Secretary of Defense who predicted the ―Next War‖ with a rogue state like Iran. Junagarh are non-existant on Geo. He was a member of NSF student Hamid Mir the Editor of ―Ausaf‖ get Rs. Some of them banded together to make Pakistan and others banded together to make India.-Geo plays into the hands of the opposition parties.com/Welcome. Casper Weinberger and many Indian channels. Even during British times there were more than 500 states in the Subcontinent. 4) Geo has strategic links with SkyTV of the UK. Mr. Partition signifies a temporary dissection of the whole. After the ban Goo kept on broadcasting for 36 hours without any income?Let us investigate the players involved with Geo from information that is publicly available.html ORIGINS OF GEO: Geo was started with the help of an ex US Naval Petty Officer by the name of Hazinski who has links with Mr. See article on VOA Geo alliance in Pakistan. It does not discuss opportunities for development. Shaharayar interviewed the President of Azad Kashmir he interrupted him and did not allow him to speak about the problems with the article of accession of Kashmir to India (which is now lost) if it ever existed. http://www. We see these links which will be analyzed.intelligentmc. -Discussion of Kashmir.2870 Peachtree Road #713. salary? Dr. -Kamran Khan was getting RS 25 lakh per month. Most Geo maps show Kashmir as part of Pakistan. CNN. Shahid Mahmud used to get Rs 22 laks per month. According to (Intelligent Media Consultants) ―Most recently. 22 Lakh per month. 1) The contravercial David Hazinski an ex US Navy Petty Officer with contacts with the State Department and the American Jewish Committee (AJC) 2) Who is Todd Fratz and why does Geo associate with such characters? 3) Casper Weinberger. Zad Kashmir is never shown. Income vs. salary?When Geo was not able to broadcast the 8-hour cricket match. Why does Geo align itself with known war mongeres. Hazinski is the principal of the company called IntelligentMC (http://www. IBN-CNN in India and the Voice of America (VOA).gov/pakistan/h05111301.usembassy. -When Mr. Nadia Khan gets Rs 6 lacs per month. he re-designed the central International Broadcast Center for the Voice of America in Washington and is consulting on new network launches for the VOA‖. Income vs. Geo said they lost 1 billion Rupees.html. . India was never whole. -Geo continues to use Indian jargon like ―partition‖. Manvanagar.
Atlanta. url: http://www. He has links to ―Cox Center for International Mass Communication Training and Research at The University of Georgia‖ David Hazinski. the first all-news. USA.‖ he says. is the principle architect of GEO-TV and managed the station‘s launch. which primarily consists of newspaper journalists. They haven‘t been exposed to lots of TV. after he shepherded the successful launch of a similar station in India in January 2001. adding that he had never taught production techniques in a classroom setting to non-English speaking students. GA 30305-2918. ―These print people were basically issued cameras and editing equipment and within months were transformed from pen and paper to this new electronic media. who estimates that he taught 100 . In addition to designing a systems approach for GEO-TV. As one of the owners of Intelligent Media Consultants.the other principal of Intelligent MC is Mr. a former NBC news correspondent who says he and his partners have helped launch at least a dozen news operations in the last 10 years. email: info@intelligentmc.‖ At GEO-TV‘s main broadcast center in Karachi. Hazinski says he is able to tailor unique approaches that maximize their limited budgets. Some of them didn‘t even know how to use a keyboard when we started.even if we aired it in the U. Pope says he was amazed at their perseverance and enthusiasm.S. Greg Pope. Hindi-language channel in India. now has a 60% share of the news audience in India.‖ says Pope.com. ―We basically had to convert people from print journalists to TV journalists.com). based on what we learned in Pakistan.‖ Considering the steep learning curve for the Pakistani journalists.‖ says Pope. an Atlanta-based company that helps its clients design efficient and profitable network operations through the creative application of broadcast technology. Hazinski built a newsroom around 24 Mac G4s running Final Cut Pro.‖ says Hazinski. ―These are new markets. spent one month in Karachi this summer training GEOTV‘s news staff. ―These people are willing to try new things because they don‘t want to pay the outrageous costs associated with news production in the United States.‖ Because most of Intelligent Media‘s clients are unfamiliar with broadcast news techniques. ―Right now. ―This is really the cutting edge of technology and journalism. ―Todd comes to IMC from 10 years at CNN in Atlanta‖. Hazinski has worked all over the world launching news operations in markets starved for unbiased reporting. News footage is captured with 40 Sony PD150s and 15 PD100s. Pakistan‘s largest newspaper publisher and GEO-TV‘s owner. we‘re convinced we can launch a network today for half of what it would have cost three years ago. a freelance editor and producer formerly with CNN. ―These people are tired of having Western news and government news shoved down their throats. Hazinski helped teach the station‘s staff how to use the equipment and how to produce television news. NewTek Video Toaster 2 systems are used at bureaus in Islamabad and Lahore to switch between the main broadcast center. Todd Frantz.intelligentmc. And no one would see any quality difference on the air . associate professor at the University of Georgia‘s Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication. Aaj Tak. Hazinski was contacted by the Jang Group.
Fax Number: (706) 542-2183.. They want to represent themselves in their own way.people to shoot and edit video. and Alsumaria in Beirut and Baghdad. Also posted on (http://www. Europe. Pope says that while he was training the news staff.‖ says Pope. [GEO-TV] will change the face of Pakistan. Mr. However. Hazinski spent two years as writer.‖ But there is still a chance that the government will shut down GEO-TV.uga.pdf) Athens World: Response to Professor David Hazinski WHAT DOES THE GEO CONSULTANT MR.com . Hazinski has been advocating restricting what he calls ―Citizenship jounalism‖ which he considers dangerous.shorten that long URL into a Tiny URL) Investigative reporters may scrutinize the details of Mr. LLC.2005. He has also consulted for broadcasters and publishers such as the Voice of America. (TinyURL. These include Aaj Tak and CNN-IBN in India and GEO TV in Pakistan.. ―If they have minimal government interference. covering the U. so there is hope that GEO-TV will succeed. Office: 139.. E-Mail Address: hazinski@grady. the university‘s highest teaching award and has been appointed a Senior Teaching Fellow and a member of the Teaching Academy. Hazinski served six years as an international correspondent for NBC News. it was widely believed that there were spies for PTV within their ranks.uga. mostly on the sub-continent. and national journalism awards. resume posted at the bottom of this post.com/opinion/content/o. a company responsible for training the staffs and helping to launch eight television networks around the world. Before coming to UGA. in recent years the Jang Group has won many battles for freedom of the press.edu/CV/Hazinski.grady. including a Golden Quill for Investigative Reporting. state.S.edu Hazinski holds a Josiah Meigs Distinguished Teaching Professorship. Gramedia in Indonesia. http://www.ened_1213. While on the faculty. A Voice for the People WHO IS DAVID DAVID HAZINSKI? Why did Geo hire a known Neocon for help in content? He owns Intelligent Media Consultants.ajc.html . You can read his article at the bottom of this page. cohost and technology advisor of the internationally syndicated World Business Review with Caspar Weinberger. the Secretary of Defense under Ronald Reagan. and Central America — and ten years before that as a TV reporter with stations in Charlotte and Pittsburgh. ―They want their own voice. He has received more than a dozen local. HAZINSKI BELIEVE IN? His address to the American Jewish Council dated 12/13/2007.
2006). to present five possible near-future scenarios in which the U. awarded in recognition for an ―outstanding and invaluable‖ contribution to military cooperation between the UK and the US. making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date. Number two casts Iran as a rogue state using ballistic missiles to alter the Middle East‘s balance of power. The formal indictment charged Weinberger withseveral felony counts of lying to the Iran-Contra independent counsel during its investigation. chemical warfare and a nuclear exchange. however.W. Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (‘GBE‘) in 1988. particularly during the Falklands War of 1982. after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. Following his resignation as Secretary of Defense.S.S. In 1996. Wikipedia WEINBERGER DISCUSSES IRAN AND THE NEXT WAR: From Publishers Weekly Weinberger. Bush on December 24. familiar to readers of techno-thrillers. Walsh. the U. This format.S. PUblisher‘s Weekly posted on Amazon DESTABILIZING PAKISTAN: Geo has been blamed for participating in and highlighting . A fourth describes the conquest of Europe by a resurgent Russia?again with the aid of nuclear weapons. 1981.March 28. Weinberger received a Presidential pardon from President George H. The authors tell their stories through the eyes of fictional participants. until November 23. and Japan reignite the Pacific War of 1941-1945. Scenario one is based on a North Korean invasion of South Korea that ends in stalemate after a limited nuclear exchange. this time using ―cyberstrikes‖ against information systems. 1992. Because of America‘s reduction of its conventional armed forces and its failure to build a missile defense system. 1917 . goes to war. He is also known for his roles in the Strategic Defense Initiative program and the Iran-Contra Affair. after Bush had failed to win a second term. secretary of defense for most of the Reagan years. After he published his book. which raised questions about the adequacy of US military capabilities following the end of the Cold War. his colleagues from the Reagan administration broke contact and refused to speak with him. Weinberger was placed under indictment by Independent Counsel Lawrence E. The third scenario postulates a radical Mexican government scapegoating the U. is an effective framework for dramatizing a set of pessimistic conclusions. Weinberger co-authored a book entitled The Next War.WHO IS CASPER WEINBERGER? And why did Geo associate with a known war monger? Caspar Willard ―Cap‖ Weinberger (August 18. was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21. as the source of its country‘s woes. Weinberger and Schweizer nevertheless make a case deserving serious consideration by citizens and policy-makers alike. In scenario five. none of the scenarios have outcomes more positive than stalemate achieved at high cost. collaborates with Schweizer. president of the James Madison Institute. 1987. The authors‘ lament for such a missile system and for the armed forces of the past won‘t convince those who believe that the dominant modes of future conflict will be terrorism and guerrilla war.
106) .106) .com (#100). foxnews. . Why is Geo not reporting Gen. geo.pk (rank #781. Exploiting the situation. Some of the names include Abdul Rashid Ghazi. currently hosting a weekly political talk show titled Worldview from Islamabad. Money and weapons have been fed into the religious movements and al-Qaeda remnants in the tribal areas. geo. and now the Maulana of Swat. a book authored by Ayesha Siddiqa Agha.) This compares Geo with ARY and PTV Quote: SnapShot of ptv.Compete This compares Geo with CNN and Foxnews websites. Some botched US and Pakistani military operations against al-Qaeda that caused civilian deaths accidentally fed this media campaign. Chinese citizens continue to be targeted by individuals pretending to be Islamists.tv (#65.tv (#65.events per CNN instructions. arydigitaltv. (Ahmed Quraishi is an investigative reporter. .com (rank #20).225).This was the perfect timing for the launch of Military. assets within the Pakistani media started promoting the idea that the Pakistani military was killing its own people.com. Some of them have used.com. Kayani‘s statement that he suspects a foreign hand in the assassination to destabilize and denuclearize Pakistan? The silence is deafening! Saboteurs trained in Afghanistan have been inserted into Pakistan to aggravate extremist passions here. Pakistanis should cancel Geo and let them suffer.Compete Here are thestatistics on the number of posts and discussion of Geo on various boards: Quote: Geo tv . encrypted communication equipment far superior to what the Pakistani military owns. a private intelligence service founded by experts close to British intelligence. Baitullah Mehsud. Quote: SnapShot of cnn. The rest of the unsuspecting media quickly picked up this message. Inc: Inside Pakistan‘s Military Economy.forum posts | BoardReader If things do not change. a columnist for a Pakistani English-language paper and a correspondent for ―Jane‘s Defence Weekly‖. especially after the Red Mosque operation. and are using. A succession of ―religious rebels‖ with suspicious foreign links have suddenly emerged in Pakistan over the past months claiming to be ―Pakistani Taliban‖. when no known Islamic group has claimed responsibility.
sports. and entertainment. contemporary production designed with young and urban Pakistanis in mind. education. the conflict in the Middle East. engaging programs on both radio and TV. ―Beyond the Headlines will focus not only on the big issues of the day. The half-hour program will air on GEO TV in Pakistan at 7:30 p. A familiar face to Pakistanis.m. Beyond the Headlines (Khabron se Aage). and has played a key role in increasing radio and TV service to Pakistan.‖ said VOA Director David S. ―This new program. politics. the leading cable/satellite broadcaster in the Urdu language. Simmons is chairman of the BBG‘s Voice of America Committee. Simmons.S. ABC.END OF ARTICLE =========================== APPENDIX A press releases: VOA Launches Urdu TV For Pakistan. Monday through Friday and on selected international satellites. ―We look forward to opening this important new channel of communication between the American people and Pakistan. bringing more than 20 years of experience in print and television media at such news organizations as CNN. We want to provide a unique mix of stories that viewers can‘t find anywhere else. social issues. religion.‖ said Steven J. Anchoring Beyond the Headlines will be Aneka Osman. the UK-based Pakistani . will continue VOA‘s 63-year tradition of broadcasting accurate and balanced information. and our new show is a reflection of that.‖ Farah Ispahani is the managing editor and executive producer for Beyond the Headlines.‖ ―The links between Pakistan and the United States are strong and growing. . business. 14. including AsiaSat (Virtual Channel 409) and IOR (Virtual Channel 420). demonstrates our growing commitment to reach the people of Pakistan with new. who is a fluent Urdu speaker. Pakistan-India relations. Before she joined VOA. and culture stories that illuminate the world we live in. D. Osman worked as an English language news anchor on Pakistan Television. She joined VOA earlier this year. Jackson. She has covered regional and national security issues. She has also worked on Prime Television. Programs will examine international developments. a member of the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG). which oversees all United States international radio and television services. For example. a fast-paced. but also on features. was instrumental in the launch of CNN‘s Paula Zahn Now and Anderson Cooper 360. 11/13/2005 Washington.‖ Simmons added. together with our expanded radio service. we‘ll show how Pakistanis live and work and go to school in the U.C. and NBC. ―We‘re particularly delighted with our partnership with GEO TV.The Voice of America (VOA) will launch Beyond the Headlines-its new television program in Urdu-on Monday. Nov. technology. Ispahani. including Beyond the Headlines. and Pakistan‘s general elections.
Ayaz Gul is VOA Urdu‘s Chief Reporter and Pakistan Coverage Coordinator for Radio Aap ki Dunyaa (Your World Radio). It ranges from the CNN YouTube debates to political blogs to cellphone video of that sniper who opened fire at an Omaha Mall. and distribute words and images over the Internet. The news industry should find some way to monitor and regulate this new trend. and Beyond the Headlines. which first went on the air in 1942. Programs are produced in 44 languages. VOA‘s Urdu radio service. is an associate professor of telecommunications and head of broadcast news at the University of Georgia‘s Grady College of Journalism. Information without journalistic standards is called gossip. accurate. For more information. Published on: 12/13/07 You‘re beginning to get a lot more news … from you. VOA‘s Urdu Service broadcasts 12 hours a day of news and information to millions of Pakistanis and other Urdu speakers on Radio Aap ki Dunyaa.000 hours of news. information. digital audio satellite. and it opens up information flow to the strong probability of fraud and abuse. The program is distributed by medium wave at 972 kHz. The Voice of America. has been filing on-the-scene reports in Urdu and English for VOA since 1996. The launch of Beyond the Headlines adds two-and-half hours of television to the Urdu Service‘s weekly broadcast schedule. David Hazinski. skill and standards are really what make people into trusted professionals. Supporters of ―citizen journalism‖ argue it provides independent. and on the Business Plus Channel. Education.S. government through the Broadcasting Board of Governors. the reality is it really isn‘t journalism at all. he worked for the Japanese network NHK and for the German news agency DPA as a reporter specializing in Pakistan‘s foreign and domestic news. who is based in Pakistan. the Internet and a three-hour shortwave broadcast. Prior to joining VOA. educational. Advocates argue that the acts of collecting and distributing makes these people ―journalists.gov Unfettered ‗citizen journalism‘ too risky By DAVID HAZINSKI.‖ Tools are merely that. . a former NBC correspondent. call VOA‘s Office of Public Affairs at or E-Mail publicaffairs@voa. and cultural programming every week to an estimated worldwide audience of more than 100 million people.channel. VOA broadcasts more than 1. These are all examples of so called ―citizen journalism. Gul.‖ the hot new extension of the news business where the audience becomes the reporter. While it has its place. and his reports are translated into numerous languages throughout VOA. The premise of citizen journalism is that regular people can now collect information and pictures with video cameras and cellphones.‖ This is like saying someone who carries a scalpel is a ―citizen surgeon‖ or someone who can read a law book is a ―citizen lawyer. reliable information that the traditional media don‘t provide. is a multimedia international broadcasting service funded by the U.
broadcast news writing. Citizen journalism allows them to involve audiences. Having just anyone produce widely distributed stories without control can have the reverse effect from what advocates intend. But it is also ripe for abuse. much as volunteer teachers. gay. So without any real standards. mandatory education or boards of review. There are commonly accepted ethical principles . journalism . Citizen reports can be a valuable addition to news and information flow with some protections: • Major news organizations must create standards to substantiate citizen-contributed information and video. bisexual and transgendersteering committee. Journalists generally don‘t like any kind of standards or regulation.two source confirmation of controversial information or the balanced reporting of both sides of a story. Teach upper level and graduate professional courses in radio/ television news production. It‘s just a matter of time before something like a faked Rodney King beating video appears on the air somewhere. There is no licensing. but at least they have mechanisms to regulate themselves. and it is a free source of information and video. Broadcast News . CNN‘s last YouTube Republican debate included a question from a retired general who is on Hillary Clinton‘s lesbian. for example. Henry W. anyone has a right to declare himself or herself a journalist. testing. Most other professions do a poor job of self-regulation. Associate Professor/Head. Journalism organizations who choose to do nothing may soon find the line between professional and citizen journalism gone as well as the trust of their audiences.com. 1987 to present. tracked by sites such as snopes. but adhering to the principles is voluntary. documentary production and advanced television news. • They should clarify and reinforce their own standards and work through trade organizations to enforce national standards so they have real meaning. Major media outlets also encourage it. False Internet rumors about Sen. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication. There are literally hundreds of Internet hoaxes and false reports passed off as true stories.has never adopted uniform self-regulating standards. Barack Obama attending a radicalMuslim school became so widespread that CNN and other news agencies did stories debunking the rumors. Many argue that standards could infringe on freedom of the press and journalism shouldn‘t be regulated.at least in the United States . • Journalism schools such as mine at the University of Georgia should create mini-courses to certify citizen journalists in proper ethics and procedures.But unlike those other professions. paramedics and sheriff‘s auxiliaries are trained and certified. Continuing to do nothing as information flow changes will further erode it. But we have already seen the line between news and entertainment blur enough to destroy significant credibility. Journalism organizations should head that off. and ensure its accuracy and authenticity. Journalists do not. Leads a professional focused .
4/2002. Co-direct a team of international consultants who created. Specifically direct a two-month staff training program which trained approximately 100 people in all phases of television production. Associate Project Manager/Training Director.5/2005. Ga. NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. 4/20047/2004. Took part in all levels of macro-planning.) . PA. INC. a 24-hour local news and information channel in the Bengali language which launched in May.C. International network news correspondent based in the Atlanta. Freelance assignments for NBC News. WSOC-TV (CHARLOTTE. Took part in all levels of macro-planning. Co-direct a team of international consultants who created.000 applicants and trained a staff of 300. personnel. Associate Project Manager/Training Director. and the NBC and The Source national radio networks. PAKISTAN). United Press International Television. warehousing and freight consolidation with gross receipts exceeding three million dollars a year. NBC NEWS (NEW YORK. GEO-TV / JANG PUBLISHING GROUP (KARACHI. INDIA).) Service on international issues including the return of the Iranian hostages. Specifically direct a three-month hiring and staff training process which processed 15. the rise of Solidarity in Poland and the ongoing civil war in Northern Ireland.) Correspondent. 2005. Officer and part owner of a firm engaged in trucking.Y. a 24-hour local news and information city channel. N. a 24-hour news channel based in Karachi. Took part in all levels of macro-planning. Pakistani with major centers in Islamabad. Specifically direct a two month staff training process which trained approximately 100 people in all phases of television news production.9/2002. along with their Pakistani counterparts. N. 1973-1976. responsible for primarily hard news coverage in the Southeastern United States and Central America. 1985-present. GA. WPXI-TV (PITTSBURGH. ADDITIONAL EXPERIENCE STAR ANANDA (KOLKATTA. commercially broadcast college news and public affairs television programs. Reports appeared regularly on the TODAY SHOW. UAE. along with their Austrian counterparts. PULS-TV (VIENNA. Political and general assignments reporter. along with their Indian counterparts. Also responsible for primary field-testing and implementation of the NBC News computer system. Associate Project Manager/Training Director. and the TVN international syndication service. AUSTRIA). 1981-1987.faculty which originated and administers student-produced. Vice President. equipment acquisition and finance. bureau. the installation of Pope John Paul II. the first in that country. Lahore and Dubai. Morning and elections anchor. Contributor to all levels of corporate decision making including future planning. Directed a team of international consultants who created. NBC Weekend News. VIDEO COMMUNICATIONS. Newsweek TV.) Reporter. 12/2004 . (ATLANTA.
S. Bachelor of Arts.) Principal. INTELLIGENT MEDIA CONSULTING. LLC (ATLANTA. Da Nang. 1999-present. Radioman. Gramedia‘s launch of Channel 7 in Indonesia.S. Pennsylvania. Clients included: •National Association of Retired Persons •IBM (instructional and national video news releases) •National Air and Space Museum •Bass Anglers Sportsman Society •United Way •Sioux Nations •Government of Indonesia •Apple Computers •Georgia Board of Education •U. Engaged as an independent writer. education and public service programming. D. 1989-present. Owner and executive officer of a firm engaged in international television and media startups and systems design. Pittsburgh.C. Chief Executive Officer and equity owner of a firm engaged in television production. discharged honorably. and the re-design of the U. Navy. University of Pittsburgh. BROADCAST PRODUCER/TALENT. and industrial and instructional video materials. 1973. Duquesne University. 1987-present. Graduate School of Education. narrator and/or on-camera performer for both broadcast and instructional information. media consulting. the production of video news releases. Pennsylvania. producer. 1980. Voice of America‘s International Broadcasting Bureau in Washington. Pittsburgh. Projects include Aaj Tak in India.President.S. Fish & Wildlife Service •Federal Bureau of Investigation •American Guernsey Association •Sylvan Learning Centers •MIT •Atlanta Committee For The Olympic Games •Lucent Technologies •BellSouth •AT&T •Sterling Commerce EDUCATION Masters of Education. Republic of . Educational Communications and Technology. satellite distribution. GA. Journalism. Second Class Petty Officer. MILITARY U.
created. Georgia GameDay.Expanded student ―internet live shots‘ to include wireless video-over-IP transmissions. to certify distance learning courses and programs for adult education courses. 1988-present. 1995. inc. 300 participating schools at this time. 1968-70. . . . 1990.principal faculty. Superceded by a daily. . Camera South.originated. 1992. .Produced (to our knowledge). rundown.created. magazine format entertainment program shown on commercial stations.originated a broadcast news writing course now the foundation for the broadcast news sequence. . with Prof. an Apple-based newsroom information and video playback system that includes teleprompter. 1990. 2001. story management. with Professor Al Wise. .Radioman Class ―A‖ program COURSES TAUGHT . . scripting and scheduling system. 1999. with Clarke County School District.Broadcast News Writing . . a multimedia interactive program to teach broadcast news writing. made nationwide spring.Broadcast Show Origination . 1990. 2000-present.Initiated remote field video editing for the construction of on-scene reports using laptop computers and digital cameras. with contributions from six other universities.Documentary Production Management .Advanced Radio and Television News Production .Television News Reporting . the first student television ―live shots‖ over the internet.originated University News college news program.Initiated a joint venture with R/com Networks. * Management Consultant. spring. 2004. . . a student produced sports show. Martha Cameron.Currently developing with IMC Principal Todd Fantz. 1987-1990. which on a half dozen commercial stations. Orange County Newschannel.Radio and Television News Production .Initiated a new remote broadcasting system on campus which allows student journalists to report ―live‖ via electric news vehicles and cable channel modulation. bringing network level professionals to campus to work with students. with CNN Director of Technology Todd Fantz. news wire parcing. 1994. live news program broadcast to three area counties. Navy Courses Completed: . .originated Broadcast News Bluejeans Workshop. 2000. which continues. 2005. . cooperative Micro-society Broadcasting Program.Basic Electronics and Electricity .Viet Nam. .originated CNN Newsource college affiliate program.
Dept. 2005 . * Broadcast Education Association. Outdoor ADventures. 1992-93.―Video News Release Labels Go Unread‖. 1991. Fish & Wildlife Service. Electronic Media. Co-chair. new media systems design. Radio-Television News Directors Association. . * Executive Producer. . Fish & Wildlife Service.present.C. American Association of Retired Persons 1988 International Convention. 1998-present. Electronic Media. National University News Network Committee.* Executive Producer. Georgia. training pamphlet written for U.―Throwing Money After High Tech No Help to News‖. 1993. .S. * Turner Broadcasting/CNN Educational Committee. * Consultant. faculty screening committee. judge. 1991. Keith L. TV satellite coverage.―Crisis Communications‖. * Broadcast Education Association. 1988-89. 1998-2000. 1988. Washington. . OK. September 24. 1986. 1987. 1995. October. Winter. judge. DL Quarterly. National Public Radio. . training pamphlet written for U. 1990. 1991-present. * Consultant. December 12. American Association of Retired Persons 1990 International Convention. 2005-present. * Executive Producer. Electronic Media. International Broadcast Bureau. * Consultant.S. November 18. 1990. Fish & Wildlife Service. 1991. U. Electronic Media. . spring. Feedback. News Division. Office of the Attorney General of the United States. 1993. judge.―Television Guide‖. * Consultant. Baghdad & Beirut. September. * Correspondent/Producer. Chair. Forces Command. 1989. U.―The Future of TV News‖. Broadcast Education Association. Tokyo & Norman. 2001. 1991.―Women See Opportunities in TV News‖. 1990. Alsumaria Television Network. on media management and crisis communications. Gramedia International. * National Association of Farm Cooperatives. 1991. Army Headquarters.―Hi Tech/Low Cost College Computer Graphics‖.―Digital Compression‘s Maiden Voyage‖. 2002. * Consultant. 2004-present. Voice of America. . January. 1992.S. summer. November 4.―(Almost) Free Live Shots Using Apple iChat AV‖. Electronic Media.2000.―Equal Time‖. . October. 1990. . * U.2000. judge. SELECTED PUBLICATIONS . Outdoor ADventures. * Consultant. * Education Task Force. Indonesia. Savannah.S. 1990.―A Powerful Tool For Publicity‖. * International Association of Business Communicators. February. * Consultant. * Consultant. of the Interior. * Radio-Television News Directors Association. CNN Broadcast News Training Program. 1994-present. WJCL-TV. Fish and Wildlife Service. Media Management & Crisis Communications. Weather News International. 1994.1995. Bass Anglers Sportsman Society National Championship. * Golden Quill Awards. American Journal of Commercial Art. Jakarta.1999. Production and Satellite Coverage. 2001. The Chronicle of Higher Education. * Peabody Awards. 1987. . August. * Consultant. Ware Awards.S. 1993. 1992-93. D. * Consultant. .―Video News Releases That Work‖.
. 1981. 1995 American Corporate Video Awards.First Place.. 1975. 1977. News Division. Pittsburgh Chapter. 10% as her successor Open letter to Mr. 1981. American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. See: ―Kissinger threatened Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto‖ HONORS AND AWARDS . . . . 1992. 1995 Broadcast Education Association.First Place. . DL Quarterly. San Francisco State Media Award. Best News Story of The Year. . Video News Release. Investigative Reporting. 1995 International Mercury Awards. Golden Quill Award.Winner. Show some leadership Open Letter to Mr.―New Age Broadcast News Instruction‖. Meigs Department Teaching Award. Hands Off Pakistan Here we go again! Another Indian prophecy of doom. Golden Phoenix. Investigative Reporting. 10% Asif Zardari. Pittsburgh Chapter. juried faculty production. Enterprise/Investigative Reporting. . International Academy of Communications Arts & Sciences. 1978. Best News Story of The Year. American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. 1994. . Outstanding Use of Television.Winner.First Place. American Federation of Television and Radio Artists. International Academy of Communications Arts & Sciences. .Winner. 1995. . . International Mercury Awards.Winner. . Best Video News Release. North and South Carolina Radio and Television News Directors Association. Bilawal Bhutto The CIA connection-Benazir Bhutto assassination was pre-planned.Kappa Tau Alfa.Co-winner.Silver Award. Public Relations Society of America. January. The first one was in 1947 We would like to refer our readers to the an article on ―Toppling the US military‖ that is worth its weight in gold.Finalist. 2005. Pittsburgh Chapter. 1981.Winner. Open Letter to Mr. Video News Release. . Zardari The 4th Bhutto assassination is a message to the USA. Journalism Scholastic Honorary. Search for it on this site. the Zia model with a twist Benzir Bhuttos revenge from the grave: Annointing a despised and corrupt politician Mr.Winner. Best Video News Release.
University of Georgia. Senior Teaching Fellow. 1997. .Appointed. . International Academy of Communications Arts & Sciences. $23. 2000. 1996. International Academy of Communications Arts & Sciences. . Video News Release.Appointed.. Stop the arson and the carnage. Apex Awards For Publication Excellence..Silver Award. 2004. The speech that Bilawal Bhutto should have given. . Ask for a national Day of prayer and reconciliation SELECTED PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES SELECTED GRANTS AND DONATIONS ?? Multi-machine video editing. The words that Zardari should have shouted.000. Teaching Academy Member. 1998. Video News Releases. Nothing is good enough! Pakistanis to USA: We want ―Friends Not Masters‖ Say Thank You Pakistan US Relations should be normal not transactional Response to Congressman Hoyer on Pakistan‖ On inadequate US Aid to Pakistan Where is Osama Bin Laden Where are the Pakistani nukes? Where is Leadership of the PPP? Why is it behaving like Nero. When the Elephants dance the grass gets stamped upon…Pakistanis suffer. The purpose of this assignation is to destabilize Pakistan and find a reason to secure the Nukes Criticism of Benazir Bhutto‘s 5E Campaign program Criticism of Benazir Bhutto.Award of Distinction.Award of Excellence. University of Georgia. International Merc Mercury Awards. 2003.Awarded Joshua Meigs Distinguished Teaching Professorship.The Benzair Bhutto Assassination was pre planned. . 2004. Communications Concepts. The thoughts that Fahim should have communicated The CIA Connection……. 1990. 2004. The continued CIA involvement in Pakistan. 2001. Pre-Assassination Who killed Liaqat Ali Khan? On deconstructing the wrong paradigm of the USA media Rebutting Cohen Pakistanis are immune to another prophecy of doom Pakistanis want to hear ―Thank You‖ from the ingrate Americans. 1999. Video News Releases. International Mercury Awards. . . the Zia model with a twist. The Great Game continues. 1996.Distinguished Teaching Award.
Scholarship and Awards . $35. FLA.000. World Business Review with Caspar Weinberger. 1995. ?? Cox Broadcasting analog router. 1998.000.College Informational Resources Committee (Chair) .000. 1997. $400. 1995 ?? CNN Headline News set. ?? CNN technology.000.University Technology Advisory Committee . 1999?? Remote digital broadcasting.000. (Chair) . 2000.Department Facilities Committee .) Co-Host and Technology Advisor.Joint Faculty/Staff Grievance Committee (Chair) . cohost and advise the production of a weekly.University Provost‘s IT Task Force Member .000. INC.000. 1994. ?? Sony Corporation video switcher. ?? Fox Broadcasting Atlanta television set.Cox Center for International Training and Research . establishing 14 bureaus around the . $98.National College News Network Committee.Department Admissions Committee INNOVATIVE INSTRUCTION CHARLOTTE BAY TRADING COMPANY (CHARLOTTE. ?? Georgia lottery matching grant. University of Georgia. $240.?? Apple Computer digital editing.) MULTI MEDIA PRODUCTIONS ―USA‖. ?? VizRT Graphics Grant. $75.Academic Honesty Committee . 4/2000-12/2000. a new satellite and terrestrially distributed 24-hour national news channel in the Hindi language. INDIA) Project Manager.University Unified Grievance Committee .University CIO Search Committee . Broadcast Education Association. Write. 1995.000. AAJ TAK / INDIA TODAY (NEW DELHI. Project involves creating a main facility from scratch. $55. along with their Indian counterparts. (BOCA RATON. 1996. COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY COMMITTEES .Faculty Search Committee (Chair) . $520. University of Georgia/VizRt. 1996-1999.Faculty Affairs Committee .000. $220. $580. television and Internet distributed program featuring interviews with CEO‘s from Fortune 500 companies on their latest technology and business systems.1999-2000 Facilities Self-Study . 2003. internationally syndicated radio. ?? Georgia Public Television satellite truck.000. In charge of an international team of consultants who created.University Council . $110.C. N.
the training of 250 initial staff. Project management included establishment of programming. and the introduction of new technology and systems design. contracted construction.country. Hazinski EMPLOYMENT HISTORY UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA (ATHENS. and overall organizational structure and control. hiring and personnel guidelines. vendor oversight. GA.) . David C. policies and procedures. look and feel.
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