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LIMBA ENGLEZĂ

THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS


ANUL: I
SEMESTRUL I si II
I. INTRODUCTION - KEYWORDS
II. UP AND DOWN
III. ECONOMICS
IV. MEASURING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: MAIN INDEXES
V. SENTENCES

THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS -


LIMBAJUL ECONOMIC
I Introducere - Keywords
Acest capitol prezinta vocabularul general precum si definitiile indicator-cheie absolute
necesari accesului la informatia economica. El constituie o prima initiere si totodata baza
pe care se vor acumula cunostintele mai complexe oferite pe parcursul celor doua semestre
ale anului I.
Keywords - Cuvinte - Cheie
Achizite acquisition, purchase
Acord agreement
Actionar shareholder, stockholder
Actiune(bursiera) share, (US)stock
A administra(a conduce a gestiona) to manage, (un cont) to handle
Administrator(conducator) manager
Administratie (conducere) management
Afaceri business trade
Afacere(contract) deal
Agricol agricultural, farm, farming
Agricultor farmer
Alocatie allowance, subsidy
(cu) amanuntul retail ( a vinde cu amanuntul) to retail, to
sell
by retail
(vanzator) cu amanuntul retailer
angajat 1.(statut) employee 2.(calificare)clerk
angros wholesale
angrosist wholesaler
antreprenor employer 2.(sens economic general )
entrepreneur, (pentru lucrari etc.)
contractor
articol article, item
asigurare 1.(activitate) insurance
2. (societate) insurance company
B
balanta balance
banca 1.(institutie) bank 2.(activitate) banking
bani money, (metal) silver
bani marunti, maruntis small change
beneficiu profit
Atentie benefit= 1)avantaj
2) alocare alocatie subventie bloc (commercial) bloc
buget budget
bun, bunuri good
Atentie, good nu se foloseste la singular decat in sens macro-economic : un mijloc de productie a capital
good. In sensul de marfa ,el nu se foloseste decat la plural (goods) , o marfa a commodity
Bursa stock-exchange,executive(piata
bursiera)
Stock-market
C
Capital,capitaluri capital
Cadre, personal de conducere executive
Atentie: cuvantul englez capital folosit cu acest sens nu are pl:
a-si procura fonduri to raise capital
A cadea, a scadea, a se reduce to fall, to drop, to decrease
Cadere(scadre) fall, drop, decrease
Cerere demand (cerere si oferta law of demand
and
supply
cheltuiala, cheltuieli spending , expense (pozitie
bugetara) expenditure
cifra figure
cifra de afaceri turn over
comerciant shopkeeper, trader
client customer (servicii) client
comert trade
competitiv competitive
competitivitate competitiveness
a concedia(a disponibliliza) to lay-off, to dismiss, to make (workers)
redundant
concediere(economica) redundancy lay-off, laying-off
concentare concentration
concurent competitor
concurenta competition
concurential competitive
Conjunctura = atentie in lb engleza nu exista o traducere unica a acestui termen, folositi the economy sau
expresii ca (present) economic trends, the (present) economic situation,the (present) state of the
economy, the business outlook ,the economic situation.
Constructie housing, construction
Constituirea unei intreprinderi business formation
(cererea unei intreprinderi)
consum consumption
a consuma to consume
consummator consumer
cont account
contabilitate accounting
contabil taxpayer
cost cost
cota quota
Creanta debt[det]
Atentie: in lb engleza exista un singur cuvant pt creanta (bani care ne sunt datorati) si datorie (bani pe care ii
datoram): dept
Credit credit
Creditor creditor
A creste to raise, to rise, to increase, to go up
cresterea growth
criza slump, depression, crises(pl crises)
a cumpara to buy, to purchase
cumparare purchase , buy
comparator buyer, purchaser
D
Datorie debt
Debuseu outlet
Deficit deficit
Deflatie deflation
Deflationist deflationary
Depresie(econmica) depression
Dereglementare
(neitreventia statului ineconomie) deregulation
devize currency
director manager
disponibilizare mass-dismissal
distributie distribution
dividend dividend
drept 1.law 2.(vama etc) duty
E
Echilibru balance
Economic economic
Atentie : economical inseamna economic in sensul de economicos, prin care se poate economisi sau rentabil.
Economie 1. (stiinta) economics
2. (caracteristici economice ale unei tari sau conjunctura
economica) (the) economy ; economia romaneasca: the Romanian economy (nu uitati
articolul the!); economiile lumii a treiathird-world economies
economii saving, savings
a economisi to save
econom (persoana care economiseste) saver, small investor
export export
a exporta to export
exportator exporter
exterior foreign, overseas (GB)
F
a fabrica, a
produce to manufacture, to make, to
build
fabricant, producator manufacturer, maker,
builder
a factura to invoice, to bill, to
charge
factura invoice, bill
faliment bankruptcy, failure
financiar (adj.) financial
finantare financing, funding
a finanta to finance, to fund
finante finance
finantist financier
fisc (the) tax authorities;
(GB) the Inland
Revenue;
(US) the Internal Revenue Services
(IRS)
fiscal tax, fiscal
flux flow
fond, fonduri 1.m.sg. fund 2.m.pl. fun
ds,
capital money
formare 1.(de personal) training
2.(a unei societati etc.) formation,
forming,
founding, setting up,
creation
a furniza to supply
furnizor supplier
a fuziona to merge
fuziune merger
G
a (se) globaliza to globalize (to go
global)
globalizare globalization
greva strike
grevist
I
importator importer
import import
a importa to import
a impoza, a impozita to tax
impozare, impozitare taxation
impozite tax, taxes
indice, indicator index,
pl. indexes, indices;
indicator
industrializare industrialization
industrializat industrialized
industrie industry
industrial adj. industrial
industrias industrialist, business
man
inflatie inflation
inflationist inflationary
informatica information technolog
y; computing; computer science; dat
a processing
interior (intern) domestic, home
a investi to invest
investitie investment
investitor investor
Î
împrumut loan
a împrumuta (a lua cu împrumut) to borrow
încetinire slow-down
a înfiinta to set up
întreprindere business, firm,
enterprise,
concern
L
liber schimb free-trade
lichiditati cash, liquidities
locuinta housing
lucrator worker, (GB) working
man
M
marasm slump, doldrums
marfa commodity, product
marfuri goods, commodities,
products
masa monetara money supply
materii prime raw materials
mana de
lucru labour force, (US) labor
force, workforce
menaj household
mondial world, global
moneda currency
multinational multinational
munca work
a munci to work
muncitor worker, (GB) working
man
a muta to relocate
mutare relocation
N
national national, home,
domestic
a nationaliza to nationalize
nationalizare nationalization
a negocia to negotiate
negociere negotiation
negustor merchant, dealer
nivel level
nivel de trai standard of living
O
obligatiune (bursiera) bond
oferta supply
a oferi, a face o oferta to make an offer
P
patron manager, fam. boss
patronat management
pensionare retirement
pensionar retiree, (GB) pensioner
piata market
plafon ceiling
plata payment
a plati to pay
planseu floor
plusvaloare increase in value;
(capitaluri)

capital gains
povara (fiscala) burden
a prevedea (a prognoza) to forecast
previziune (prognoza) forecast
a privatiza to privatize
privatizare privatization
producator producer
a produce to produce
productivitate productivity
produs product(agricol)produce
progres progress
Atentie:Pentru a traduce un progres(al stiintei etc )folositi advance sau breaktrough
profit profit
proportie rate
protectionism protectionism
protectionist protectionist ; adj. protectionist,
protective
publicitate 1. advertising 2.(=anunt) advertisment,
ad
R
randament output ;(agricol,financiar)yield ;return
raspundere responsibility;(susceptibil de a antrena urmariri judiciare) liability
raspunzator 1. adj.responsible;(suscesptibil de a fi urmarit in justitie)
liable
2. n.official; person in charge
recesiune recession
recuperare(revenire, recovery ;(bursa)rally
restabilire)
a relansa to boost,to spur,to stimulate,to revive,to
refuel
relansare boosting, revival, stimulation, spurring; (prin investitii
de stat), pump-priming
rentabil profitable
rentabilitate profitability
resurse resources
revendicare claim
S
salariat wage-earner
salariu salary (al unui muncitor) wage(s);(al
unor cadre etc.)
sanatate health
schimburi trade
sectorul privat private sector
sectorul public public sector
servicii service(s)
serviciu,slujba employment,(o slujba-a job)
sindicalist union official,union member
sindicat union(GB trde union;US labor union)
social social
societate 1(inreprindere)company,business firm,US corporation
2society
Atentie:in afara sensului general(viata in societate)
society desemneaza o asociere in scop nelucrativ
sondaj (opinie) poll,survey
stoc(uri) inventory,stoc,store
strain foreigner(n.);foreign(adj,)
subventie subsidy;allowance
a subventiona to subsidize
suma amount
s
somaj unemployment;(US joblessness)
somer unemployed person
somerii, populatia the jobless,the unemployed
aflata in somaj
T
tarif(taxa,curs) rate
transport transport,(US) transportation
trimestru quarter
Ţ
tara country
U
utilizator user
uzina factory, plant
V
valuta currency
vama customs
Atentie: nu omiteti s final in cuvintul englez
vanzator, vanzatoare salesperson, salesman,
saleswoman; seller
a vinde to sell
vanzare sale

II. Up and down - Crestere si descrestere

1. VOCABULAR
Limba engleza dispune de un numar foarte mare de termini pentru a desemna o
crestere sau o scadere ,in functie de gradul de intensitate si de rapiditatea lor.
Iata o lista cu substantivrle si verbele cele mai frecvent folosite,asa cum apar ele
intr-un context economic,referitoare la cresterea /scaderea cursului etc.
a) a creste, a se mari
to go up
to rise
to increase
to move up
to inch up a creste putin cate putin
to surge a creste dintr-o data
to balloon a creste rapid
to soar a urca
to skyrocket a creste fulgerator
to peak a atinge nivelul cel mai inalt,nivelul maxim
a rise
an increase
b)a scadea,a cobori
to go down
to fall a fall
to drop a drop
to decrease a decrease
to sage a se prabusi
to slump a cadea brusc,a se prabusi a slump ocriza economica
o recesiune
to plunge a plonja,a scadea in mod dramatic si brusc
to sink a scadea mult
to plummet a scadea brusc
to collapse a se prabusi a collapse
to be on the skids a fi in decline,a fi pe cale de a se scufunda
a downturn o cadere,o recesiune
c) &nb 17217w2211r sp; a se stabiliza
dupa o scadere
to bottom out (indica in acelasi timp faptul ca va incepe cursul sa creasca)
dupa o crestere
to reach a plateau
to level off
d) a se redresa
to recover a recovery
to look up
to turn up an upturn
to pick up
to pick up
to improve
to rally (mai ales la bursa) a rally
e) &nb 17217w2211r sp; a fluctua
to fluctuate
to seesaw
to go into a roller-coaster (a fi ca pe un tobogan cu suisuri si coborari)
f) &nb 17217w2211r sp; a face sa urce, a face sa creasca
to raise
to raise a raise (US)
to hike (US) a hike
to drive up
to step up a accelera ritmul
to boost a stimula, a promova a boost
g) a face sa coboare, a face sa scada
to bring down
to cut a cut
to cut back a cutback
to slash a reduce considerabil a slash
2. PREPOZITII
Atentie la folosirea prepozitiilor:
an increase of 5% sau a 5% increase
an increase in production sau a production increase
it increased by 5% sau (US) it increased 5%
Acest lucru este valabil pentru toate verbele si substantivele care desemneaza cresterea
sau scaderea (to go up, rise, drop, fall, decrease etc.)
Dar: a shortage of foreign currency.
3. FOLOSIREA VIRGULEI SI A PUNCTULUI
Atentie la folosirea corecta a punctului sau a virgulei:
2,5 la suta = 2.5 (two point five) per cent
o,5 la suta = 0.5 (zero point five) per cent sau .5% (point five)
10000 se scrie in engleza 10,000
5000 lire = £ 5000
2 milioane de dolari = $ 2 million sau $ 2 m.
Atentie si la :
Sute/ mii/ milioane/ miliarde de dolari
Hundreds, thousands, millions, billions of dollars dar
Cinci sute/ mii/ milioane/ miliarde de dolari:
Five hundred/ thousand/ million/ billion dollars.
Hundred, thousand etc. sunt invariabile atunci cand sunt precedate de o cifra.
III. ECONOMICS - Economie
1. DATE GENERALE CU PRIVIRE LA ACTIVITATEA ECONOMICA
Agenti economici economic agents
Agregate economice economic aggregates
Ajustat (corectat) in functie de sezon seasonally adjusted
Ameliorare (imbunatatire) improvement
Anual annual, yearly
Austeritate austerity
Autarhie self-sufficiency
Birocratie red tape, bureaucracy
Bloc comercial trading bloc
Bogatie wealth
Brut gross
Capitalism capitalism
Cadere (scadere) fall, drop
Ciclu cycle
Cifra figure, digit, number
Competitivitate competitiveness
Concurent competitor
Concurenta competition
Conjunctura current situation, current trend,
economic outlook
Crestere increase, rise
Crestere puternica surge
Criza crisis, slump
Curba curve
Date data
Declin decline
Decolare take off
Deflatie deflation
Densitatea populatiei population density
Depresiune depression
Dereglementare (neinterventie a statului) deregulation
Dezvoltare development
Economia unei tari the economy
Economic (rentabil) economical
Economic economics
Economie (stiinta) economics
Economie libera laisser-faire economy, liberal
economy (atentie la cuvantul liberal, care in
America de Nord denumeste o orientare politica
progresista, de stanga in alte cuvinte (n. a.))
Economie paralela, subterana underground economy
Economie planificata state controlled, state-run,
planned economy
Econommist economist
Eficienta efficiency
Era post-industriala post-industrial era
Evolutie evolution
Expansiune (avant, dezvoltare) expansion, development
Expansiune expansion
Flexibilitate flexibility
Fluctuatie fluctuation, swing
Fluxuri economice economic flows
Fluxuri migratoare migratory flows
Grad, masura scale, table
Grafic graph, chart
Impas stalemate
Imobilism status quo
Independenta (economica) self-sufficiency
Indexare indexing
Indice index (pl. indexes, indices)
Indicatori economici economic indicators
Indicatori de tendinta trend indicators
Indicatori (principali) leading, key indicators
Industrializare industrialization
Inferior lower
Infrastructuri infrastructures
Imbatranirea populatiei ageing
Incetinire slowdown, slackness
La scara redusa small-scale
Legea ofertei si a cererii law of supply and demand
Liberalism laisser-faire, free market economy,
liberalism (atentie la cuvantul liberal, care in
America de Nord denumeste o orientare politica
progresista, de stanga in alte cuvinte (n. a.))
Libera concurenta, piata libera free market
Liber schimb free trade
Lumea a treia Third-World
Lunar monthly
Macroeconomie macroeconomics
Mercantilism mercantilism
Mediu (adj.) average, median, mean
microeconomie microeconomics
migrari ale populatiei population shifts
miscare de fonduri movement of capital
miscare de marfuri movement of goods
mutare relocation
neoliberalism neo-conservative economic policy
neo-liberalism
net net
oferta, cerere supply, demand
parteneri comerciali trade partners
perspectiva outlook, prospects
pe scara larga large-scale
pe termen lung long-term
pe termen mediu medium-term
pe termen scurt short-term
piramida vârstelor age pyramid
plafon ceiling
plan de relansare recovery plan, incentive plan
planificare planning
politica economica economic policy
politica de preturi pricing policy
populatia activa working population
prag threshold
pragul saraciei poverty line
pret price
previziuni(prognoze) economic forecasts, survey
economice
procentaj percentage
productivism productivism
proiect project
progres progress, advantage
prosperitate, avânt boom, prosperity
protectie sociala social protection
rata fertilitatii fertility rate
rata mortalitatii death, mortality rate
rata mortalitatii infantile infant mortality rate
rata natalitatii birth rate
rata rate
recesiune recession
redresare, recuperare recovery, rebound, rally
reforma reform
relansare(revigorare) revival
restructurare restructuring
retea network
revolutie industriala industrial revolution
rigoare austerity
saturatie saturation, glut
saracie poverty
scadere decrease
schimburi comerciale trade exchanges
societate bogata affluent society
societate cu doi parteneri two-tier society
societate de consum consumer society
societate de servicii service society
speranta de viata life expectancy
spirit de initiativa entrepreneurial spirit, entrepreneurship
stagflatie stagflation
stagnare stagnation
statistica statistics
strategie strategy
strategie de reconversie reconversion strategy
strategie de redistribuire redeployment strategy
strategie de recentrare core strategy
subdezvoltare under development
superior(adj.) upper
supraîncalzire overheating
taraganare sluggishness
tendinta (ascendenta, upward, downward, trend
descendenta)
teoria ofertei supply-side, economics
transa bracket
tara care creste rapid fast-growing country
(cu crestere rapida)
tara care se dezvolta rapid fast-developing country
tara industrializata industrialized, developed country
tara în curs de dezvoltare developing country
tarile cele mai sarace less developed countries (LDC)
(mai putin dezvoltate)
tari recent industrializate newly industrialized countries
urbanizare urbanization
zilnic daily
2. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY INDEXES INDICATORII ACTIVITĂŢII ECONOMICE

alocatie allowance
cheltuieli expenditures, spendings
conducere(gestiune) management
consum casnic (al menajelor) household consumption
controlul preturilor price control
costuri salariale labour costs
credit credit
crestere a cereri excess demand
crestere a productivitatii productivity gain
crestere zero zero growth
disponibilizare dismissal
disponibilizare (economica) lay-of, redundancies
deficit deficit
economii savings
economii ale menajelor household savings
econom (persoana care economisteste) saver, investor
emisiune monetara money issuing
excedent surplus
export export
flexibilitate elasticity, flexibility
import import
impozit asupra consumului consumer tax
impozit asupra plusvalorii capital gains tax
impozit asupra venitulu societatilor corporate income tax
impozit direct/indirect direct taxation/ indirect taxation,
excise duties
impozit funciar land tax
impozit (taxa) de succesiune inheritance tax
impozit pe venit (al persoanelor fizice) (individual) income tax
indemnizatie allowance, indemnity
indicele costului vietii Cost of Living index (C.O.L. index)
indicele preturilor (bunurilor de consum) consumer price index
inflatie inflation
inflatie cu doua cire double digit inflation
inghetarea salariilor wage-freeze
lipsa, penurie shortage
masa monetara money supply
masa salariala aggregate remuneration, payroll
menaj, gospodarie household
mic investitor small investor
nivel de trai standard of living
nivelul general al preturilor overall price level
PIB commercial merchant GDP
Plusvaloare capital gain
PNB pe cap de locuitor GNP per capita
Politica bugetara budget policy
Prestatii sociale social security benefits
Productivitate productivity
Produs intern brut (PIB) Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Produs national brut (PNB) Gross National Product (GNP)
Putere de cumparare purchasing power
Randament return, productivity, yield
Rata de crestere growth rate
Reducerea personalului unei societati downsizing
Relaxarea politicii de credite easing of credit restrictions, easy credit
policy
Rentabilitate profitability
Restrictie de credit credit squeeze, tight credit policy
Resurse (naturale) (natural) resources
Salariu mediu median wage
Salariu minim minimum wage
Spirala inflationista wage and price spiral
Stoc stock
Subproductie underproduction
Subventie subsidy, subvention
Supraproductie overproduction
Surplus surplus
Taxe si impozite asupra produselor petroliere (TIPP) domestic oil tax
TVA (taxa pe valoare adaugata) Value-Added Tax (VAT)
Unitate de productie production unit
Valoare adaugata added value
Valoarea de piata market value
Venit income, revenue
Venitul mediu al menajelor household median income
Venit national national income
Venit pe cal de locuitor per capita income
2. BUSINESS AND EMPLOYMENT FIRME SI LOCURI DE MUNCA
Agricultor farmer
Angajare cu jumatate de norma/ cu norma intreaga part-time/full-time employment
angajare pe viata lifetime employment
angajare temporara temporary, precarious employment
angajat employee
angajator(patron) employer
antreprenor, intreprinzator entrepreneur
aport social social contributions
aportul social al parto- employer's social contributions
nului(al angajatorului)
artisan, mestesugar craftsman, artisan
artizanat, activitate craft industry, cottage industry
mestesugareasca
atelier workshop
autoritatile publice the public authorities
avantaje sociale benefits
beneficiu(comercial) profit
birou office
bogatii the rich
cadru, cadre (de conducere) executive, manager
cadru de conducere top executive
cadru mediu middle manager
cadru superior senior executive, senior manager
castiguri earnings
cecurile de afaceri business circles, quarters
cifra de afaceri turnover
clasa bogata the well-off
clasa conducatoare the ruling class
clasa de mijloc the middle class
clasa defavorizata the lower class
clasa muncitoare the working class
clasa superioara the upper class
clasa sociala social class, social status
comerciant shopkeeper, store operator(US), tradesman (GB)
companie, firma, societate company
companie multinationala multinational company
concern (clasa de comert) concern
conducatorul intreprinderii company manager, head, owner
conglomerat conglomerate
cooperativa cooperative
corporatism corporatism
crearea(infiintarea) (business) formation, start-up, set-up
unei intreprinderi
deposit warehouse
faliment bankruptcy
filiala subsidiary, affiliate
firma firm
functionar (al statului) state employee, civil servant
fuziune merger, amalgamation
greva strike
grevist striker
grila de salarizare wage scale
grup group
holding holding company
inginer engineer
intreprindere firm, company (GB), corporation (US)
intreprindere de statie state-owner company, public utility company
intreprinderi mici si small and medium sized business
mijlocii(IMM)
maistru foreman, supervisor
mana de lucru workforce, manpower
munca minorilor child labour
munca grea hard labor
muncitor worker
muncitorii zilieri(sezonieri) day laborers
nationalizare nationalization
partener partner
patronat management circles, the employers
pensionare retirement
pensioner retiree, pensioner
pescar fisherman
privatizare privatization
profesie occupation, trade
profesie (liberala) profession
profesii liberale professional people
profit profit
salariat wage-earner
salariu wage, salary
saracii the poor
sectorul public/ privat public/private sector
sectie (in fabrica) the shop floor
sediu head office, registered office
serviciu public civil service, public service
sindicalism trade unionism
sindicalist unionist
sindicat trade union, labour union (US)
societate (comerciala) company, firm, corporation (US)
societate mixta joint venture
sucursala branch
sef, patron, director, boss, owner, manager, employer
angajator
somaj unemployment
somer unemployed
uzina factory, plant
4. PRODUCTS, MARKETS AND FINANCE PRODUSE, PIEŢE sI FINANŢE
actiune share, stock (US)
angrosist wholesaler
aparate casnice household appliances, white goods
articol item, article
banca bank
bunuri goods
bunuri de folosinta durable goods, durables
îndelungata
bunuri de marfuri commodity exchange, commodity
market
bursa de valori stock exchange, stock market
capital, capitaluri capital
casa de economii savings bank
client (servicii) client
client customer
client permanent patron
clientela clientele
comerciant shopkeeper, tradesman, dealer,
merchant
comerciant cu amanuntul retail dealer, retailer
comert commerce, trade
comert en detail retail trade
(cu amanuntul)
comert en gros wholesale trade
conducator, director, manager
manager
consumator consumer
creanta debt
creditor creditor
cumparare purchase
cumparator purchaser, buyer
datorie debt
debitor debtor
devize currency
distribuitor distributor
distributie distribution
distributie în masa mass retail, mass distribution
exportator exporter
fabricant manufacturer
febra cumparaturilor spending spree
finantist financier
fiscalitate, sistem fiscal taxation, tax system
importator importer
intermediar middleman, intermediary
investitie investment
investitor investor
împrumut loan
îndatorare debt, indebtness
marfa commodity
marfuri, bunuri goods, merchandise, wares
marfuri de larg consum mass consumption goods
marfuri de prima necessitate staple goods, staples
marfuri de uz casnic household goods
mijloace de productie capital goods
obligatiune bond, debenture
oportunitate (pe o piata) niche
piata market
piete financiare financial markets
plasament (investitie investment
mobiliara)
politica fiscala fiscal policy, taxation policy
politica vamala tariff policy
producator producer, manufacturer
productia interna domestic output, national production,
nationala
productie output, production
productie în vrac in bulk production, output
produs (industrial) product
produs agricol produce
produs de lux luxury goods
produs finit finished product
produs semi-finit semi-finished product
produse alimentare produce, foodstuffs
produse lactate dairy produce
produse perisabile perishable goods, perishables
protectia consumatorilor consumerism
rata de schimb exchange rate
rata dobânzii interest rate
renta revenue
reprezentant representative, agent
servicii services
subcontractare subcontracting
subcontractor subcontractor

taxa vamala customs duty


titlu (de valoare) security
troc barter
unitate de productie production unit
valoare (bursiera) security
vama customs
vânzator, -oare, salesman, -woman; seller
agent de vânzare
vânzare sale
5. MAIN VERBS VERBELE PRINCIPALE
a cadea to drop
a câstiga (bani) to make, to earn
a cheltui to spend
a comercializa to market
a concedia to dismiss
a conduce to run, to operate, to lead, to manage
a consuma to consume
a creste to increase, to rise, to grow
a creste (puternic) to surge, to skyrocket
a cuceri (o piata) to grab, to seize, to corner
a cumpara to buy, to purchase
a da faliment to go bankrupt
a dezvolta to develop, to expand
a disponibiliza to lay off, to make redundant
(din ratiuni economice)
a economisi to save, to spare
a exploata (o to operate
întreprindere)
a exporta to export
a fabrica to manufacture
a face afaceri cu to do business with
a face o afacere cu to make a deal with
a gestiona (a administra) to manage, to handle
a importa to import
a investi to invest
a încheia (un contract, to sign, to close, to clinch
o afacere)
a înfiinta to set up
a lansa to launch
a se mari to increase, to rise
a muta to relocate
a opri inflatia, somajul to curb, to stern the tide of, to check
a patrunde (pe o piata etc.) to penetrate, to break into, to tap
a produce to produce
a realiza un profit to make a profit
a reduce to reduce, to cut, to lower
a reduce (puternic) to slash
a reforma to reform
a relansa to spur, to boost, to revive, to prime
a scadea to decrease, to fall
a scadea, a se prabusi to plummet, to collapse
(preturi)
a stapâni, a controla to control
(costurile, cheltuielile)
a subcontracta to subcontract, to contract out
a sustine to sustain
a trata cu, a se to deal with
confrunta cu
a vinde to sell
6. A COUNTRY'S NATIONAL ECONOMY ECONOMIA NAŢIONALĂ A UNEI ŢĂRI
sectorul primar primary sector
sectorul secundar secondary sector
sectorul tertiar tertiary sector
1. AGRICULTURA FARMING
a) productia agricola agricultural production
bere beer
cacao cocoa
cafea coffee
cartof potato
ceai tea
cereale cereals
citrice citrus
grâu wheat (US), corn (GB)
oleaginoase oilseeds
orez rice
porumb maize (GB), corn (US)
tutun tobacco
vita-de-vie vine
zahar sugar
b ) zootehnia (cresterea cattle-raising, cattle-breeding, cattle
animalelor) rearing

bovine cattle
ovine the ovine race
pasari poultry
porcine swine, pigs
c ) piscicultura (pescuitul) fishing industry (the)
flota comerciala merchant fleet
piscicultura aqua farming
port pescaresc fishing harbor
d ) industria forestiera forest industry (the)
padure, lemn wood
2. INDUSTRIA ENERGETICA POWER INDUSTRY (THE)
carbune (huila, lignit) coal (coal, beown coal)
energia nucleara the nuclear energy, nuclear power
gaze naturale natural gas
hidroelectricitate hydroelectricity
petrol oil (US), petroleum (GB)
surse de energie alternativa solara, alternative sources of energy (sun,
eoliana etc.) wind, etc.)
3.METALURGIA GREA HEAVY
METALLURGICAL
INDUSTRY (THE)
(siderurgie, minerale) ( iron and steel industry, ore)
aluminiu aluminum (US), aluminium
bauxita bauxite
cobalt cobalt
crom chromium
cupru copper
fier iron
fosfati phosphates
mangan manganese
nichel nickel
otel steel
plumb lead
staniu tin
zinc zinc
4. INDUSTRIA MINIERA MINING INDUSTRY (THE)
argint silver
aur gold
diamante diamond
5. INDUSTRIA TEXTILA TEXTILE INDUSTRY (THE)
bumbac cotton
fibre artificiale artificial fibres
fibre sintetice synthetic fibres
in linen
iuta jute
lana wool
matase silk
6. ALTE RAMURI DE PRODUCTIE OTHER PRODUCTIONS
ciment cement
cauciuc rubber
mase plastice plastics
7. INDUSTRIILE PRELUCRATOARE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
industria aeronautica si aerospace industry (the)
spatiala
industria aparatelor de cale rail, railway, railroad industry (the)
industria automobilelor car industry (the)
industria navala shipbuilding (the)
8.TRANSPORTURI TRANSPORT, TRANSPORTATION
transportul aerian air transport(ation)
transportul feroviar rail transport(ation)
transportul maritim sea transport(ation)
transportul rutier road transport(ation)
transportul terestru ground transport(ation)
9. DIVERSE MISCELLANEOUS
alimentatie food diet
analfabetism iliteracy
timp liber leisure
sanatate health
scolarizare schooling
rata dotarii equipment rate
turism tourism
7.INDUSTRIES AND SECTORS INDUSTRII SI SECTOARE
industria agro-alimentara agro-business (the)
industria alimentara food industry (the)
industia chimica chemical industry (the)
industria de armament arms industry (the)
industria de constructii building industry,building trade
(the)
industria de telecomunicatii telecommunications industry (the)
industiile de varf leading industries (the)
industria farmaceutica pharmaceutical industry (the)
industria grea/usoara heavy/light industry (the)
industria informatica computer industry (the)
industria petrochimica petrochemical industry (the)
industria producatoare clothing industry (the)
de confectii
industria produselor de lux luxury goods industry (the)
industria spectacolului show business, entertainment
industry (the)
industria de inalta tehnologie high tech industry (the)
8.MISCELLANEOUS DIVERSE
audiovizualul audio-visual industry (the)
averea imobiliara real estate
editurile publishing industry (the)
industria producatoare de imbracaminte (productie in serie) ready-to-wear industry (the)
locuinte housing
mass-media media(the)
robotica robotics
sectorul asigurarilor insurance industry(the)
sectorul bancar banking industry(the)
telematica telematics
9. Vocabular suplimentar Additional vocabulary
baraj dam
bazin field
centrala (energetica) power plant
companie aeriana airline company
extractie de minereuri mining
foraj drilling, boring
furnal blast furnace
linie de montaj assembly line
masina-unealta machine tool
mina mine
otelarie steel mill
piese de schimb spare parts
rafinarie refinery
ssantier naval shipyard
transportator, caraus carrier, haulier
zacamint deposit

IV. Measuring economic activity : main indexes - Evaluarea


activitatii economice: principalii indicatori
Gross National Product (GNP) Produsul national brut (PNB)
The total final value of goods and services produced in a national economy over one year.
The Growth Rate (rata de crestere) of an economy is the increase in its GNP from one
year to another.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) produsul intern brut (PIB)
The index measures the value of goods and services produced on the national territory over
a year.
Balance of trade, trade balance balanta comerciala
The difference over a period of time (generally a year) between the value of a country's
imports and exports of merchandise. The balance is said to be favourable (US favorable)
when it shows a surplus of exports, in which case it shows a deficit. An unfavourable
balance is referred to as a trade gap.
Balance of payments balanta de plati
A system for the recording of a country's total transactions with the rest of the world during
a given period of time (usually a year).
Consumer Price Index (CPI) indicele preturilor (bunurilor) de consum.
A measure of change in consumers prices, determined by a monthly survey.
Also known as Cost-of-Living Index.
Household consumption consumul casnic (al menajelor);
Industrial consumption indicele productiei industriale;
A monthly statistics on the total output of factories and mines.
Unemployment figures (US Jobless Rate) numarul soemerilor/rata somajului.
The proportion of the labour (US labor) force that is without paid work.
Exchange rate rata de schimb.
The prices at which a country's currency can be converted into another's.
Other indexes and yardsticks alti indicatori si instrumente de masura;
Consumer demand nivelul consumului, cererea consumatorilor;
Purchasing power puterea de cumparare;
Standard of living nivelul de trai;
Population growth cresterea demografica;
Birth rate rata natalitatii;
Death rate rata mortalitatii;
Life expectancy/expectation speranta de viata.

V. SENTENCES
1. The economy's performance in the last few months has not been encouraging.
2. Sluggishness has persisted throughout the year, and most estimates have had to be
revised downwards.
3. The immediate outlook is gloomy.
4. There is a widespread concern over a deepening of the business slowdown.
5. Business is at a standstill.
6. A devaluation would give exporters a competitive edge.
7. The aftermath/ outcome of a devaluation is often a rise in the production costs, prices
and wages.
8. We are headed for a slump.
9. The situation is compounded of inflation and social unrest.
10. Stagflation is rampant.
11. There are disturbing reports of mounting chaos and widespread lay-offs.
12. Unemployment has been inching up all year.
13. Beleaguered industrialists are casting about for means of coping with the rash
of wildcat strikers.
14. The rising tide of inflation will have to be stemmed.
15. Unions should be discouraged from speeding up the wage-price spiral.
16. If consumer demands levels off or falls, employers will eventually have no
alternative than to cut their payrolls.
17. The government is now contemplating a wage-freeze.
18. Additional measures will have to be taken to reduce inflationary/upward
pressures on costs and prices.
19. According to the forecasts of experts, household consumption should go up in
the next quarter.
20. Expectations of an early rebound in the economy have been disappointed.
21. Many economists feel that artificially stimulated demand is preferable to slack
economy.
22. There is no alternative but to spur the lagging economy.
23. Some amount of pump-priming will be needed if the country is to be set on its
feet again.
24. The country now seems on its way to recovery.
25. A powerful surge of buying has been developing.
26. (The) consumers have gone on a spending spree.
27. The revival spreads although the country is still plagued by inflation.
28. Despite official optimism, it is still far from sure that the economy is recovering from
its mild recession.
29. Retail sales are up only 3% over last year - an actual drop in volume after
discounting inflation.
30. New incentives to spur capital spending are currently under active/serious
consideration.
31. There is a need to spur/stimulate employment and consumption.
32. The question is: how to retain prosperity curbing/checking inflation.
33. Seasonally adjusted unemployment figures tend to suggest that business start-ups
have not been so/as numerous as expected.
34. Businessmen have been loath to use the credit already available.
35. With interest rates falling, hot money will flow to other areas/regions.
36. Confidence cannot be restored overnight.
37. The business slowdown is causing serious concern in government circles.
38. The Gross National Product (GNP) has increased (by) 5.25%.
39. The Xmas (i.e. Christmas - n.red.) buying spree should not be mistaken for a
genuine recovery.
40. Production is down 4.5% on last year