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Second class 2017-2018

FLUID PRACTICAL

Experiment No. 3

(Archimedes principle and buoyancy force )

1/4/2018

Introduction:

The famous length tells us that Archimedes was the person who

discovered that the volume of displaced water equals the volume

of a submerged object. He came up with that idea as he was

trying to measure the volume of a crown of unusual ship puzzled

he had filled his bathtub flush with water and water over flowed

when he got inside of the tube .the idea that amount of water

splashed out of the tube is exactly the volume of his own body

struck him and he ran outside of his house crying”Ewreka”his

means ,’I have found it, Archimedes, principle it self is not

directly about volume ,it is about buoyancy. It state s that the

buoyant upward force action on an object entreaty or partially

submerged in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid is equal

to the weight can be directly casualty from the mass or from the

density and volume:

Fg=mg+qVg

The buoyant force is found by applying the same idea to the fluid

instead of the object:

FB=m fluid g = q Fluid V displaced g(1)

Here m fluid is the mass of the displaced fluid ,which is broken

down as the density of fluid q fluid multiplied by the submerged

volume of the object V displaced.

For a prism-shaped object like a cylinder, the submerged

volume of the object V displace.

For a prism- shape object like a cylinder ,the submerged volume

is equal to the cross to the cross-sectional area, A, multiplied by

the submerged depth .so the buoyant force can be write has

FB=q fluid A dg(2)

.

Objective:

Verify Archimedes, principle and use the Archimedes, principle

to determine the a given liquid.

Equipments:

1-Graduated cylinder.

2-Digital balance.

3-Vernier.

4-Ruler.

5-String .

6-Extra masses.

7-Beakers.

8- Jar.

Theory:

Archimedes’ principle states that a body wholly or partially submerged

in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal in magnitude to the weight of the

fluid displaced by the body. It is important to remember that fluid

includes liquids and gases. This force is given by:

FB = ρVg (Eq 1)

where ρ(rho)is the density of the fluid, V is the volume of fluid displaced

and g is acceleration due to gravity. It is the buoyant force that keeps

ships afloat in water and hot air balloons floating in air. In this

experiment, the buoyant force will be measured three ways and the

results compared. The first method is by the measurement of force. This

method involves weighing an object first in air, then in water, and using

the difference in weight as the buoyant force. Though the object's mass

does not change, its apparent weight will change when measured while

immersed in a fluid that is denser than air. The second method is the

displaced volume method. The volume of fluid displaced by the object is

measured and its weight calculated. The weight of the water displaced is

equal to the buoyant force exerted on the object, by Archimedes'

Principle. The third method is by the buoyant force equation method. By

measuring the dimensions of the object and calculating the volume, one

can determine the buoyant force (by using Εq-1) that would be exerted

on the object when it is submerged in a fluid of known density ρ. Please

note that for the third method, the volumes of interest are different for

objects that float and objects that sink.

PROCEDURE:

the mass of each of the six objects in

Figure 1. List the objects in order

from least to greatest mass. Are any

of the masses nearly the same?

the dimensions of the 3

cylinders and the 2 blocks.

Remember to divide the

diameter by 2 to get the

radius, r.

these objects.

object so it is necessary to find the volume by measuring the

volume of water it displaces:

overflow can spout as shown in

Figure 2.

B. Pour water into the overflow can until it overflows into the beaker.

Allow the water to stop overflowing on its own and empty the

beaker into the sink and return it to its position under the overflow

can spout without jarring the overflow can.

D. Gently lower the irregular object into the overflow can until

it is completely submerged. Allow the water to stop overflowing

and then pour the water from the beaker into the graduated

cylinder. Measure the volume of water that was displaced by

reading the water level in the graduated cylinder in milliliters (1 ml

= 1 cm3).

4. List the 6 objects in order from least to greatest volume. Is this the

same order as the mass list? Are any of the volumes nearly the

same?

from least to greatest density? Is this list in the same order as

either the mass list or the volume list? Do any of the objects have

densities that are nearly the same?

are made. In which list (mass, volume, or density) are the objects

grouped similarly?

Conclusion:

present which the fluid exerts on an object placed in it is equal

to the weight of the fluid the object displaces. Archimedes’

principle also makes possible the determination of the density of

an object that is so irregular in shape that its volume cannot be

measured directly. If the object is weighed first in air and then

in water, the difference in weights will equal the weight of the

volume of the water displaced, which is the same as the volume

of the object. Thus the weight density of the object (weight

divided by volume)can readily be determined. In very high

precision weighing, both in air and in water, the displaced

weight of both the air and water has to be accounted for in

arriving at the correct volume and density.

*Discussion

1-

Gold(Au)

Q=m/V =19300kg/m3

Fb Au=QvG=1930*10-3*9.81+26.48 N

2-why is it easier to float in the sea than a river or

swimming pool?

Because salt water is denser than fresh water making you more

buoyant. The easiest pace in the water to swim is the dead sea

.because it has the highest concentration of salt. And you can

float very easily.

3-How can a ship made of steel ((psteel=7.88g/cm3))float

in water?

The simple answer is that ships .even those weighing hundreds

of thousand of to us weight less that water prisely.they weigh

less that the amount of water they displace.

4-Explain how a hot air balloon flies.

Hot air balloons fly when the air inside the hot air ballads is

less is less dense than cool air .the heated air causes the balloon

to rise simply because it is lighter than an equal volume of cold

air .buoyancy is an upward force that the air exert. And it helps

hot .air ballads and blimps stay in the air.

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