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TECHNICAL COLLEGE ENGINEERING

ENERGY ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


Second class 2017-2018
FLUID PRACTICAL

Experiment No. 3
(Archimedes principle and buoyancy force )

Name: Bryar Khalel Abdullqder

Name of teacher : Kawar Abid

The date of submission of the report


1/4/2018
Introduction:
The famous length tells us that Archimedes was the person who
discovered that the volume of displaced water equals the volume
of a submerged object. He came up with that idea as he was
trying to measure the volume of a crown of unusual ship puzzled
he had filled his bathtub flush with water and water over flowed
when he got inside of the tube .the idea that amount of water
splashed out of the tube is exactly the volume of his own body
struck him and he ran outside of his house crying”Ewreka”his
means ,’I have found it, Archimedes, principle it self is not
directly about volume ,it is about buoyancy. It state s that the
buoyant upward force action on an object entreaty or partially
submerged in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid is equal
to the weight can be directly casualty from the mass or from the
density and volume:
Fg=mg+qVg
The buoyant force is found by applying the same idea to the fluid
instead of the object:
FB=m fluid g = q Fluid V displaced g(1)
Here m fluid is the mass of the displaced fluid ,which is broken
down as the density of fluid q fluid multiplied by the submerged
volume of the object V displaced.
For a prism-shaped object like a cylinder, the submerged
volume of the object V displace.
For a prism- shape object like a cylinder ,the submerged volume
is equal to the cross to the cross-sectional area, A, multiplied by
the submerged depth .so the buoyant force can be write has
FB=q fluid A dg(2)
.

Objective:
Verify Archimedes, principle and use the Archimedes, principle
to determine the a given liquid.

Equipments:

1-Graduated cylinder.
2-Digital balance.
3-Vernier.
4-Ruler.
5-String .
6-Extra masses.
7-Beakers.
8- Jar.
Theory:
Archimedes’ principle states that a body wholly or partially submerged
in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal in magnitude to the weight of the
fluid displaced by the body. It is important to remember that fluid
includes liquids and gases. This force is given by:
FB = ρVg (Eq 1)
where ρ(rho)is the density of the fluid, V is the volume of fluid displaced
and g is acceleration due to gravity. It is the buoyant force that keeps
ships afloat in water and hot air balloons floating in air. In this
experiment, the buoyant force will be measured three ways and the
results compared. The first method is by the measurement of force. This
method involves weighing an object first in air, then in water, and using
the difference in weight as the buoyant force. Though the object's mass
does not change, its apparent weight will change when measured while
immersed in a fluid that is denser than air. The second method is the
displaced volume method. The volume of fluid displaced by the object is
measured and its weight calculated. The weight of the water displaced is
equal to the buoyant force exerted on the object, by Archimedes'
Principle. The third method is by the buoyant force equation method. By
measuring the dimensions of the object and calculating the volume, one
can determine the buoyant force (by using Εq-1) that would be exerted
on the object when it is submerged in a fluid of known density ρ. Please
note that for the third method, the volumes of interest are different for
objects that float and objects that sink.
PROCEDURE:

1. Using the triple-beam balance, find


the mass of each of the six objects in
Figure 1. List the objects in order
from least to greatest mass. Are any
of the masses nearly the same?

2. Using the calipers, measure


the dimensions of the 3
cylinders and the 2 blocks.
Remember to divide the
diameter by 2 to get the
radius, r.

Calculate the volume of


these objects.

3. There is no simple formula for the volume of the irregularly shaped


object so it is necessary to find the volume by measuring the
volume of water it displaces:

A. Put the beaker under the


overflow can spout as shown in
Figure 2.
B. Pour water into the overflow can until it overflows into the beaker.
Allow the water to stop overflowing on its own and empty the
beaker into the sink and return it to its position under the overflow
can spout without jarring the overflow can.

C. Tie a string on the irregular object.

D. Gently lower the irregular object into the overflow can until
it is completely submerged. Allow the water to stop overflowing
and then pour the water from the beaker into the graduated
cylinder. Measure the volume of water that was displaced by
reading the water level in the graduated cylinder in milliliters (1 ml
= 1 cm3).

4. List the 6 objects in order from least to greatest volume. Is this the
same order as the mass list? Are any of the volumes nearly the
same?

5. Calculate the density of each object. List the 6 objects in order


from least to greatest density? Is this list in the same order as
either the mass list or the volume list? Do any of the objects have
densities that are nearly the same?

6. Group the objects according to the type of material of which they


are made. In which list (mass, volume, or density) are the objects
grouped similarly?
Conclusion:

After performing the experiment, therefore say that the force


present which the fluid exerts on an object placed in it is equal
to the weight of the fluid the object displaces. Archimedes’
principle also makes possible the determination of the density of
an object that is so irregular in shape that its volume cannot be
measured directly. If the object is weighed first in air and then
in water, the difference in weights will equal the weight of the
volume of the water displaced, which is the same as the volume
of the object. Thus the weight density of the object (weight
divided by volume)can readily be determined. In very high
precision weighing, both in air and in water, the displaced
weight of both the air and water has to be accounted for in
arriving at the correct volume and density.

*Discussion
1-
Gold(Au)
Q=m/V =19300kg/m3
Fb Au=QvG=1930*10-3*9.81+26.48 N
2-why is it easier to float in the sea than a river or
swimming pool?
Because salt water is denser than fresh water making you more
buoyant. The easiest pace in the water to swim is the dead sea
.because it has the highest concentration of salt. And you can
float very easily.
3-How can a ship made of steel ((psteel=7.88g/cm3))float
in water?
The simple answer is that ships .even those weighing hundreds
of thousand of to us weight less that water prisely.they weigh
less that the amount of water they displace.
4-Explain how a hot air balloon flies.
Hot air balloons fly when the air inside the hot air ballads is
less is less dense than cool air .the heated air causes the balloon
to rise simply because it is lighter than an equal volume of cold
air .buoyancy is an upward force that the air exert. And it helps
hot .air ballads and blimps stay in the air.