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Fluid mechanic

Experiment ( 2 )

Determination of liquid

viscosity by stock's method

Name:bwar kazim

Second year

Abstract

This report discusses the methods with which the viscosity

of liquid glycerin is determined, and uses the data to

validate Stokes’ Law. Two experiments were performed:

the viscosity of glycerin was determined using a rotational

viscometer, and the data used to validate Stokes’ Law

was collected using a falling ball viscometer. Results

showed that either method showed significant error and

did not validate Stokes’ Law; though the revised Stokes’

Law equation gave much more accurate results for the

viscosity determined from the falling ball viscometer.

Introduction

properties of liquid glycerin and to experimentally

determine its viscosity. Viscosity can be described as a

fluid’s resistance to shear strain when submitted to a

shear stress. High viscosity liquids will be especially

prone to resisting shear stress. This idea of resistance to

flow was taken a step further in the first experiment and

the data collected was used to verify Stokes’ Law for a

sphere falling in a liquid. In experiment, a falling marble

was dropped in glycerin and its terminal velocity measured

for use in calculating the drag force. For experiment, a

rotational viscometer was used to find glycerin’s viscosity

at laboratory room temperature. Stokes’ Law is only valid

for non-turbulent flow, so Reynolds number for the falling

ball viscometer was also determined.

Stokes’ Law and Reynolds Number

experienced by a falling sphere to the sphere’s (constant)

velocity in a liquid of known viscosity.

(terminal) velocity, and d is the diameter of the sphere.

balance of forces that result in no acceleration.

force, and mg is the weight of the sphere (mass multiplied

by the acceleration due to gravity).

described as:

where is the buoyant force, is the liquid’s density, and d is

the sphere’s diameter.

gravity, is the sphere’s density, and d is the sphere’s

diameter.

fluid’s density, d is the sphere’s diameter, and g is the

acceleration due to gravity.

Stokes’ Law and Reynolds Number

calipers, 2 spheres, a Mettler-Toledo balance, a stop-watch, a

meter stick, a flexible pick-up tool, and a 2L graduated cylinder

filled with liquid glycerin. The temperature of the room was noted

for later use in finding the tabulated values of viscosity and density

of the glycerin. For each sphere, the diameter was measured

using the dial calipers, and their mass found using the Mettler-

Toledo balance. After filling the graduated cylinder with glycerin,

the distance between two positions sufficiently far enough away

from the top was measured. Using the pick-up tool and stop

watch, each sphere was dropped into the liquid glycerin and the

time to travel the measured distance recorded.

us the approximate terminal velocity of each sphere. After

using linear interpolation to find the value of the glycerin’s

viscosity and density at the room temperature of 24

degrees Celsius, the values for buoyant force, drag force,

Reynolds number, and the Stokes’ value for drag force

were calculated using Equations 1, 3, 5 and 6. Using

these values, the percent difference between the

experimentally determined drag force and the drag force

according to Stokes’ Law was calculated.

The Reynolds number must be determined in order for us

to determine whether Stokes’ Law is even applicable to

the experiment. If Reynolds number is low enough,

Stokes’ Law should hold and we can validate it by

comparing the drag force according to the experiment to

the drag force calculated using Stokes’ Law.

By equating the experimental drag force to the theoretical

Stokes’ drag force and rearranging, we were able to

determine the experimental viscosity of the glycerin:

sphere diameter, is the sphere density, is the glycerin

density, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and V is the

velocity.

Reading

1 density of ball of ball viscosity

g/cm3

g/cm3 cm/s

Discussion

1- What the effect of fluid temperature on

viscosity value?

A/ With high temperatures, viscosity decreases in liquids.

viscosity value?

A/If the density of fluid increase so the viscosity increase

too.

viscosity value?

A/ The viscosity is directly with the radius of the ball

viscosity value?

A/ The viscosity of the fluid is directly with the ball density.

viscosity value?

A/ If the velocity of the ball increase, the viscosity of the

fluid is decrease.

And if the velocity of the ball decrease, the viscosity of

fluid increase. It is mean the relationship between them is

indirectly.

6- What the effect of ball weight on

viscosity value?

A/The relationship between viscosity and weight of the ball

is directly.

density?

A/ Get the mass of the ball by the electronic balance and

get the volume by this role 4/3 (3.14) (r3).

And then we will mass divided by the volume to determine

the density.

diameter?

A/ we can find diameter by use rules or anything to

measure.

velocity?

A/ No effect.

different size spheres be the same?

A/ no it isn't same velocity. Because the velocity of the

sphere connect to the weight.

11- Dose a larger sphere have a higher

terminal velocity?

A/ no, the size of the sphere is directly with the velocity.3-

the viscosity is directly with the radius of the ball.

different size sphere

Be the same? why or why not ?

change with properties of two different sphere.

method?

A/ no it cannot.

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