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# Power System Analysis

## University college of engineering &

technology
Electrical engineering department

## Ybus formation using MATLAB

Objectives:

 To get acquainted with the formulation of the Ybus by reading the data
regarding the power system from an external file.
Software required:
 MATLAB

Theory:

The bus admittance matrix is an n*n matrix (where n is the number of buses in
the system) constructed from the admittances of the equivalent circuit elements of the
segments making up the power system. Most system segments are represented by a
combination of shunt elements (connected between a bus and the reference node) and series
elements (connected between two system buses).

In realistic systems which contain thousands of buses, the Y matrix is quite sparse. Each bus in a
real power system is usually connected to only a few other buses through the transmission
lines. The Y Matrix is also one of the data requirements needed to formulate a power flow
study. Ybus matrix form:

The admittances Y11, Y22,... Ynn are called the self-admittances at the nodes, and each equals
the sum of all the admittances terminating on the node identified by the repeated subscripts.
The other admittances are the mutual admittances of the nodes, and each equals the negative
of the sum of all admittances connected directly between the nodes identified by the double
subscripts.

For small transmission systems of about less than 10 nodes or buses, Y matrix can be calculated
manually. But for a realistic system with relatively large number of nodes or buses, say 1000
nodes, a computer program for computing Ybus is more practical to use.

## 1 Prepared by: Engr

M.Zubair
Power System Analysis
Student name:------------------------------------------------------- Roll No:----------------------------Section:----

Starting from the single line diagram of a power system, there are four main
steps in creating the Y Matrix.

##  The single line diagram is converted to an impedance diagram.

 All voltage sources are converted to their equivalent current source representations.

##  The impedance diagram is then converted to an admittance diagram.

 The Ybus matrix itself is created. Formulation of the Ybus matrix follows two simple rules:

##  The admittance of elements connected between node k and reference

is added to the (k, k) entry of the admittance matrix.

##  The admittance of elements connected between nodes j and k is

added to the (j, j) and (k, k) entries of the admittance matrix. The
negative of the admittance is added to the (j, k) and (k, j) entries of the
admittance matrix.

Procedure:

##  Create a new m file having the following data

S E R X B

1 2 .004 .05433 0

4 5 .006 .08 0

Where

S = Starting bus

E = Ending bus

## 2 Prepared by: Engr

M.Zubair
Power System Analysis
Student name:------------------------------------------------------- Roll No:----------------------------Section:----

## B = Total primitive admittance of the transmission line representing the line

charging (Using PI-Model)

 Form the Ybus manually of the above system and write it in the space given below

 Write the Ybus program in MATLAB and write the code and output in the space given
below

## 3 Prepared by: Engr

M.Zubair
Power System Analysis
Student name:------------------------------------------------------- Roll No:----------------------------Section:----

Precautions:

 If the network is inductive then the diagonal entries should have the positive real
part and negative imaginary part.

 Since the pi-model of the line is used so half of the total primitive admittance will
be attached at both the busus connected to line.

## 4 Prepared by: Engr

M.Zubair
Power System Analysis
Student name:------------------------------------------------------- Roll No:----------------------------Section:----

 If more than one component is connected in parallel between two nodes the
equivalent primittive admittance of the components is first obtained before
determining the entry in the Ybus.

 In MATLAB if i or j are used as local variable in the program then their by default
(iota) values will be overwritten and it will not be possible to introduce complex
numbers in code.

 The code should be general i.e., no matter how large or small the system may be
it should be intelligent enough to do the requisite computations for the
evaluation of the right Ybus.

Assignment:

 Write a code for Ybus determination for a general network which contains tap
changing transformers. Attach the code and output with the manual.

S E R X B a

1 2 .004 .05433 0 1

M.Zubair