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Archaebacteria kingdom is a group of single-celled organisms adapted to living

under extreme conditions. The following article will cover some information
related to archaebacteria kingdom.

Archaebacteria kingdom is a group of bacteria that are anaerobic, as well as

aerobic prokaryotes. These bacteria are adapted to living in extreme
environmental conditions, like near volcanic activity, deep oceans, etc, and do
not need oxygen and light to survive. All living organisms are placed in the five
kingdom system: plantae, animalia, fungi, protoctista and monera. Not so long
ago, before 1977, archae were considered to be a group of bacteria. They were
thus, placed in Kingdom Plantae. Soon, they were placed under the new
kingdom Monera, after the bacteria. Carl Woese and George Fox, were two
scientists who proposed in 1977, that archaebacteria should have a separate
kingdom of their own. By 1990, scientists found out that the 16S rRNA and
18S rRNA sequences were totally different in archea from other bacteria.
Genome analysis of archaeain 2003, confirmed that they are different from
bacteria. Thus, finally they were removed from kingdom Monera and the five
kingdom of living things was converted into six kingdom system, with the
inclusion of the new archaebacteria kingdom. Do you want to know what is the
difference between archaebacteria and bacteria? The following characteristics
will help you understand the reason for this transition.

In a Nutshell

 Kingdom: Archaebacteria
 Type of Organism: Unicellular
 Cellular Structure: Prokaryotic
 Habitat: Extreme Environment
 Peptidoglycan in Cell Wall: Absent
 Reproduction Method: Asexual
 Nutrition Mode: Heterotrophs/Autotrophs

Characteristics of Archaebacteria

The term achaio is a Greek word for 'ancient'. This term aptly describes the
archaebacteria who are thought to have a common ancestor like the bacteria
and eukaryotes. Archaebacteria is similar in structure to eukaryotes than
bacteria. There are several archaebacteria kingdom characteristics that help in
distinguishing them from eubacteria. These characteristics of archaebacteria
are as follows:

 Archaebacteria have no peptidoglycan in their cell walls.

 The cell wall is made up of glycoproteins and polysaccharides.
 The cell wall envelopes have a high resistance to antibiotics and lytic
agents due to difference in cell wall composition.
 They have a very different lipid bi-layer making up the cell membranes.
 The RNA polymerase of archaea is very similar to that of eukaryotes.
 The ribosomal proteins in eukaryotes and archea are also similar to each

Archaebacteria are about 1/10th of a µmeter to about 15 µmeter in size. A few

are flagellated and the flagella structure is different from the flagella of other
bacteria. The archaebacteria are non-pathogenic bacteria that live in and
around other organisms. However, they do not cause any infections or

Sub-groups of Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria are autotrophs and use CO2 in atmosphere as a source of

carbon for a process called carbon fixation. Archaebacteria are able to survive
in extreme conditions and therefore also known as extremophiles. They can
survive in conditions that are highly acidic, alkaline, saline aquatic
environment. Some are even able to survive in temperatures above 100°
Celsius or 212° Fahrenheit. Few can even withstand over 200 atmosphere
pressure and live really deep within the earth. They employ different chemical
reactions to be able to survive in these harsh conditions. Thus, they are divided
into 3 subgroups - methanogens, extreme halophines and thermoacidophiles.
Let us learn more about the characteristics according to the sub-groups.

1. Methanogens

Metanogens are able to reduce CO2 into methane (CH4). They are obligately
anaerobic and can die if exposed to oxygen. They produce marsh gas that can
be observed as bubbles in stagnant water. They are also present in the gut of
cattle and termites, since there is no oxygen there. Methanogens use carbon
dioxide as an electron acceptor to oxidize hydrogen using co-enzymes like co-
enzyme M and methanofuran. These co-enzymes are very unique to
archaebacteria. These bacteria are rod shaped or spherical, and can be gram
positive as well as negative.

2. Halophiles

Halophiles are bacteria that can survive in 10 times the concentration of salt
present in sea. You can find halophilic archaebacteria in Great Salt Lake in
Utah and the Dead Sea in Middle East. Halobacter uses photophosphorylation
for metabolism. They use light activated ion pumps like bacteriorhodopsin and
halorhodopsin for generation of ion gradients to pump out ions across the
plasma membrane. The energy that is stored in the electrochemical gradients is
converted to ATP by ATP synthase. They contain bacteriorhodopsin, a red or
orange pigment.

3. Thermoacidophiles

The thermoacidophiles are organisms that can survive in extremely high

temperatures and low pH. They can survive in 100° Celsius with a pH of 2.
Most of these organisms are anaerobic in nature.

Reproduction in archaea is carried out asexually by binary or multiple fission,

fragmentation or budding. They do not undergo meiosis and therefore
organisms of a species that are present in more than one form share the same
genetic matter. Archaebacteria do not form spores and a few species
of Haloarchaea undergoes phenotypic switching. This means it can grow
several different cell types that are resistant to osmotic shock. Thus, the
organisms can survive in low salt concentration aquatic environment.

Importance of Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria are important, nay, almost indispensable, for the following

 They have phylogenetic importance that helps in studying their homology
and establish their phylogeny.
 Their ability to tolerate extreme conditions helps researchers learn about
the climatic conditions, environment and their survival on ancient earth.
 Methanogens can grow in biogas fermentors and decompose cow dung
into methane gas as a by-product. Thus, they are used for production of
domestic gas for cooking.
 Organisms like Methanobacterium ruminantium are present in the guts of
ruminating animals, helping them digest the cellulose.
 Poor ores of molybdenum are microbial leached using Sulfolobus.
 Archaebacteria are also used to synthesize thermophilic enzymes,
restriction enzymes and are also used as biosensors.
 Archaebacteria have an important role in many chemical cycles, like
carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, sulfur cycle, etc.
 Due to their extremophilic nature, archaebacteria have proven to be of
great help in the field of Bioechnology, by helping in the production of
enzymes that work at very high temperatures, as well as in the
production of some antibiotics.

Examples of Archaebacteri

 Methanobacterium
 Methanococcus
 Methanospirillum
 Halococcus
 Halobacterium
 Thermoplasma
 Thermoproteus
 Sulfolobus
 Pyrolobus fumarii
 Methanococcus jannaschii
 Nanoarchaeum equitans
 Ignicoccus

The characteristics of archaebacteria kingdom prove that life can exist

anywhere, under any condition. The mere existence of these extremophiles
gives us hope. Maybe we will discover something on the other planets yet

Eubacteria are the most commonly found organisms in the world. They are also
known as true bacteria, and are present on almost all surfaces. They are
prokaryotic cells, and hence do not have a nucleus. The eubacteria kingdom is
one of the six kingdoms in which the entire living world is classified. This
kingdom consists of nearly 5000 species that have been discovered till date,
and this number might increase in the near future as many researches are
being conducted regularly. This class of microorganism was discovered in
1982. They are present in both living as well as non living things. In this
article, we will discuss the characteristics, shapes and classification of this


Eubacteria were previously under the kingdom 'Monera' which also included
Archaebacteria. But later, due to the differences between these two taxonomies
and large number of eubacteria, they were separated and a new kingdom was
created with the name Eubacteria. These bacteria can be classified into three
main phyla and the characteristic features of each species can be differentiated
on the bases of these categories. They are as follows.
1. Cyanobacteria Phyla: This category has those bacteria which contain
chlorophyll pigment. They can make their own food and are found in
both land and ocean. They lack flagella.
2. Spirochetes Phyla: This category consists of bacteria which move in a
twisting motion. They have flagella which help them move. Some of these
eubacteria may cause dangerous diseases.
3. Proteotic Bacteria Phyla: This phylum consists of bacteria which can
move either with the help of their flagella or by gliding. Most of the
eubacteria are anaerobic under this category. Some are helpful while
some can cause serious diseases.

Shape and Structure

Eubacteria are unicellular organisms. They can also be classified according to

their shape and are found in three different shapes. Following are the shapes
and examples of some of the eubacteria.

1. Round or Spherical or Oval Shaped: Micrococcus, Streptococcus and

2. Rod Shaped: Lactobacillus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas.
3. Spiral or Comma Shaped: Vibrio, Camphilovextor and Triponema.

Structure of these bacteria depend upon their shape and type. The general
structure of an eubacteria consists of a rigid cell wall which holds all the
organelles inside it. The wall is made up of amino acids and a sugar chain.
Some even have a membrane outside their cell wall. Penicillin resistant
eubacteria have a special component in their cell wall, which reacts with this
antibiotic and makes it ineffective. The cell wall is lined with a plasma
membrane from the inner side of the wall, and in some eubacteria the flagella
is connected with this plasma membrane. The cell is filled with cytoplasm
which consists of other cell organelles like single cell chromosome and
ribosomes. The most important point which makes them prokaryote is the
absence of nucleus. The reproduction in most of the eubacteria is done by
binary fission, but some also reproduce by budding.

Eubacteria Kingdom Facts

Eubacteria can be present anywhere and everywhere. They can grow and
flourish very fast. Following are some of the facts about eubacteria which help
you to understand this living organism more closely.

 They can survive in extreme conditions like in the areas of volcanic

 They are considered as plants because of the presence of chlorophyll.
 Some eubacteria are considered as helpful bacteria. For instance,
lactobacillus helps in the formation of curd. This eubacteria is rod
shaped and is beneficial for human health. Apart from this, there are
many which help in the making cheese and pickles.
 Nitrogen fixing eubacteria helps in the process of nitrogen fixation which
helps in maintaining the appropriate nitrogen level in the atmosphere.
 They live in raw meat, raw milk, human intestine, sewage water, etc.
 Eubacteria derive nutrition from three major sources, viz. sunlight,
organic and inorganic components.
 Some eubacteria are harmful and can cause meningitis, cholera, typhus,
lyme's, salmonellosis, tetanus, tuberculosis, etc.
 Some of the eubacteria examples are Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli,
Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, etc.

With this information, we can say that the eubacteria kingdom is an important
part of living organisms. Though there are some species that may cause harm
to the human body, this bacteria phylum is definitely an important part of our
Plant Kingdom
(or Plantae)
Virtually all other living creatures depend on plants to survive.
Through photosynthesis, plants convert energy from sunlight into food stored
as carbohydrates. Because animals cannot get energy directly from the sun,
they must eat plants (or other animals that have had a vegetarian meal) to
survive. Plants also provide the oxygen humans and animals breathe, because
plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and release oxygen into the
Plants are found on land, in oceans, and in fresh water. They have been on
Earth for millions of years. Plants were on Earth before animals and currently
number about 260,000 species. Three features distinguish plants from

Mosses and “allies,” or related
species (Bryophyta and allies) Mosses
or bryophyta are non-vascular. They are an
important foundation plant for the forest
ecosystem and they help prevent erosion by
carpeting the forest floor. All bryophyte species
reproduce by spores not seeds, never have
flowers, and are found growing on the ground, on
rocks, and on other plants.
Originally grouped as a single division or phylum,
the 24,000 bryophyte species are now grouped in three divisions: Mosses (Bryophyta),
Liverworts (Hepatophyta), and Hornworts (Anthocerotophyta). Also included among the
non-vascular plants is Chlorophyta, a kind of fresh-water algae.


Ferns and allies (Pteridophyta and allies)

Unlike mosses, ferns and related species have a vascular
system, but like mosses, they reproduce from spores
rather than seeds. The ferns are the most plentiful plant
division in this group, with 12,000 species. Other
divisions (the fern allies) include Club mosses or
Lycopods (Lycopodiophyta) with 1,000
species, Horsetails (Equisetophyta) with 40 species, and
Whisk ferns (Psilophyta) with 3 species.
Conifers and allies (Coniferophyta and
allies) Conifers and allies
(Coniferophyta and allies) Conifers
reproduce from seeds, but unlike plants
like blueberry bushes or flowers where
the fruit or flower surrounds the seed,
conifer seeds (usually cones) are “naked.”
In addition to having cones, conifers are
trees or shrubs that never have flowers
and that have needle-like leaves.
Included among conifers are about 600
species including pines, firs, spruces,
cedars, junipers, and yew. The conifer allies include three small divisions with
fewer than 200 species all together: Ginko (Ginkophyta) made up of a single
species, the maidenhair tree; the palm-like Cycads (Cycadophyta), and herb-
like plants that bear cones (Gnetophyta) such as Mormon tea.

Flowering Plants (Magnoliophyta)

The vast majority of plants (around
230,000) belong to this category,
including most trees, shrubs, vines,
flowers, fruits, vegetables, and legumes.
Plants in this category are also
called angiosperms. They differ from
conifers because they grow their seeds
inside an ovary, which is embedded in a
flower or fruit.
The major group of animals are
classified under the Kingdom
Animalia, also known as
Metazoa. This kingdom does
not contain prokaryotes. All the
members of this kingdom are
multicellular, eukaryotes. They
are heterotrophs, they depend
on other organisms directly or
indirectly for food. Most of the
animals ingest food and digest
in the internal cavity. Most of
the organisms are motile which
means they can move
independently and

There are around 9 to 10

million species of animals, and
about 800,000 species are
identified. Fossil records of
animals were found in the era
of the Cambrian explosion,
about 540 million years ago.
Animals are divided into
various sub-groups, biologists
have identified about 36 phyla
within the animal kingdom
including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, amphibians etc.

Kingdom Animalia Definition

The word 'animal' is derived from the Latin word animalis which means 'having
breath'. The Kingdom Animalia is characterized by eukaryotic and
heterotrophic organisms. They are multicellular and lack cell wall. They depend
directly or indirectly of plants for their food. Food is ingested and digested in
their internal cavity and food reserves are stored as glycogen or fat. Nutrition is
holozoic, i.e., by ingestion of food. Animals follow a definite growth pattern, the
adults have a definite shape and size. Higher forms of animals exhibit well
developed sensory and neuromotor mechanism. Most of the organisms are
capable of locomotion. Reproduction is by copulation of male and female which
is followed by development in embryonic stages.
Kingdom Animalia Characteristics

General characteristics of the Kingdom Animalia are as follows:

 Animals are eukaryotic, multicellular and heterotrophic organisms.
 They have multiple cells with mitochondria and they depend on other
organisms for food.
 Habitat - Most of the animals inhabit seas, fewer are seen in fresh water
and even fewer on land.
 There are around 9 to 10 million animal species that inhabit the earth.
Only 800,000 species are identified.
 Biologists recognize 36 phyla in the animals kingdom.
 Size - The sizes of animals ranges from a few celled organism like the
mesozoans to animals weighing many tons like the blue whale.
 Animal bodies - Bodies of animals are made of cells organized into
tissues which perform specific functions. in most animals tissue are
organized into complex organs, which form organ systems.
 Cell structure - The animal cell contains organelles like the nucleus,
mitochondria, Golgi complex, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum,
lysosomes, vacuoles, centrioles, cytoskeleton.
 Animals are made up of many organ systems, that aids in performing
specific functions that are necessary for the survival of the organism.
 Organ systems are skeletal system, muscular system, digestive system,
respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, reproductive
system, immune system and the endocrine system.
 Body symmetry - Most of the animals are bilaterally symmetrical, while
primitive animals are asymmetrical and cnidarians and echinoderms are
radially symmetrical.
 Locomotion - Most animals have the ability to move, they show rapid
movement when compared to plants and other organisms.
 Respiration - It is a gaseous exchange of taking in oxygen and giving out
carbon dioxide. This process takes place in organs of respiration like the
lungs, gills, book gills and book lungs and some animals skin is also
used for respiration.
 Digestion - Animals ingest food, and digestion takes place in the internal
cavity like the digestive system in animals, in primitive animals vacuoles
are for digestion.
 Nervous system - Sensory mechanism and the coordination of the organ
systems is carried on by the nervous system. In animals the nervous
system comprises of nerve ganglions, or brain, spinal cords and nerves.
 Circulatory system - The distribution of nutrients, exchange of gases and
removal of wastes takes place in the circulatory system. This system
comprises of the heart, blood vessels and the blood.
 Excretory system - Removal of wastes from kidneys.
 Skeletal system - support and protection is provided by the skeletal
 Reproductive system - Most animals reproduce sexually, by the fusion of
haploid cells like the eggs and the sperms.
 Glands of the endocrine system help in control and coordination of the
body system.

Kingdom Animalia Classification

Kingdom Animalia has approximately 36 sub-divisions known as 'phyla'. Each

phyla share particular properties structurally and functionally which together
separate it from other phyla. Below are the most common phyla classified
under traditional biological methodology.

Phylum Porifera - They are primitive organisms, most of them are salt-water
sponges. They do not have organs or nerve cells or muscle cells.
Approximately, 8,000 species exist today. Example: Sycon, Euspongia,

Phylum Coelentrata (Cnidaria) - This group is composed of jelly-fish and

other lower aquatic animals. Approximately, 15,000 species exist
today.Example: Aurelia, Adamsia.

Phylum Platyhelminthes - This group consists of flat worms. They inhabit

both marine and fresh water habitats and they are mostly endoparasites
found in animals. Example: Taenia, Fascicola.

Phylum Aschelmeinthes - It is a group of round worms, most of them are

parasites. This phylum consists of about 80,000 parasitic worms.

Phylum Annelida - They are present in aquatic, terrestrial and are free-living
or parasitic in nature. This phylum comprises of segmented worms.
Example: Earthworm, Leech etc.

Phylum Arthropoda - This is the largest phylum which consists of insects.

There are over 1 million species of insects existing today. Example: Locusts,
Butterfly, Scorpion, Prawn.

Phylum Mollusca - It is the second largest phylum. They are terrestrial and
aquatic. Example: Pila, Octopus.

Phylum Echinodermata - This consists of sea stars and sea urchins. There
are about 6,000 species. Example: Asteria, Ophiura.

Phylum Chordata - Animals of this phylum have a characteristic feature of

presence of notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord and paired pharyngeal gill
slits. Within this phylum advanced group called vertebrates which include
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.

Kingdom Animalia Examples

Some of the well known examples of Kingdom Animalia

Phylum Porifera - Sycon, Euspongia, Spongilla.

Phylum Coelentrata - Aurelia, Adamsia.

Phylum Platyhelminthes - Taenia (Tapeworm), Fascicola (Liver fluke).

Phylum Aschelminthes - Ascaris (Round worm), Wuchereria (Filaria

worm), Ancylostoma (hook worm).

Phylum Annelida - Nereis, Pheretima (earthworm), Hirudinaria (blood sucking


Phylum Arthropoda - Apis (honey bee), Bombyx (Silkworm), Laccifer (lac

insect), Anopheles, Culex and Aedes (mosquiotes), Locusta (locust), Limulus (kin
g crab).

Phylum Mollusca - Pila (Apple snail), Octopus (devil fish), Pinctada (pearl
oyster), Aplysia (sea-hare), Sepia (cuttle-fish), Dentalium (Tusk
Shell), Chaetopleura (Chiton).

Phylum Echinodermata - Ascarias (star fish), Echinus (sea

urchin), Antedon (Sea lily), Cucumaria (sea cucumber), Ophiura (brittle star).

Phylum Chordata - Balanoglossus, Ascidia. All fishes, amphibians, reptiles,

birds and mammals.