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AC TEST SYSTEMS

SERIES RESONANT TEST SETS


GROUNDED TANK TYPE
INTRODUCTION

Practical high Q series resonant testing1 was developed by Hipotronics more than 25 years ago. This
method provides undistorted high voltage at power frequency for testing high kVAR
capacitive loads. It does so at lower cost and with substantially lower single phase input
power compared to conventional test transformers. In addition to its superior technical
performance, this technique saves costs in the following ways:

¥ Lower test equipment cost for systems rated 250 kVA and above.
¥ Reduced costs because of the substantially reduced input kVA required.
¥ Lower installation cost for power service because the load is at unity power factor.
¥ Operating costs are reduced because input kVA requirement is low and mains unbalance is
minimized.

APPLICATION

Series Resonant Test Sets are designed to take advantage of the energy storage properties of
predominantly capacitive test objects. When applicable, the resonant technique results
in substantial performance and cost advantages. These are covered in detail in later
sections of this brochure. Applications include withstand and partial discharge testing of:

¥ SF6 Insulated Bus and ¥ Power Factor and Coupling Capacitors


Switchgear ¥ Capacitive VT's and Inductive PT's and CT's
¥ Air or Oil Insulated Switchgear ¥ Power Generators
¥ High Voltage Insulated Conductors
These sets include a high voltage variable reactor (inductor) whose inductance can be varied to match
the capacitive reactance of the test object. When this condition exists the system is said to be in
resonance and several major advantages are realized compared to conventional AC test transformers,
namely:

¥ Very low (real) input power is required for large output (reactive) power.
¥ The output voltage is naturally filtered, output voltage waveform distortion <Ê0.5% THD.
¥ In the event of a fault in the test object, the system de-tunes and power follow from the mains
is eliminated thus limiting damage to the fault site to a minimum.
¥ The system is operated in a controlled resonant condition so accidental resonance cannot
occur as sometimes happens with conventional test transformers testing capacitive loads.

Series resonant test systems are the ideal solution for obtaining high quality, high voltage at high
reactive power while requiring only low input power from a single phase source.

1 This method meets all applicable IEC/IEEE specifications for dielectric testing.

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TYPICAL SYSTEMS

A one-line diagram for a typical series resonant test system designed for high voltage partial
discharge testing, e.g. for power cable testing, is shown in FigureÊ1. Any given system may or may
not include all of the components shown in this diagram, or, conversely, additional system elements
may be included, depending on the application.

Figure 1 - One-Line Diagram for a Series Resonant Test System

1. Double Shielded Isolation Transformer 6. Cable Termination


(DSIT) 7. Test Object
2. Power Cubicle 8. Controls
2a. Main Power Circuit Breaker 9. Partial Discharge Detector
2b. Voltage Regulator 10. Computer Control
2c. HV ON/OFF Contactor 10a. Computer
2d. Line Voltage Filter 10b. Laser Printer
3. Exciter Transformer 10c. Disk Drive
4. High Voltage Reactor
5. HV Filter/Voltage Divider
Control interconnections are made by shielded multi-core cable. Coaxial cable is used for
signal measurement interconnect. Both control interconnect and signal cable is supplied with the
system. Power cable between the mains and the DSIT transformer, the DSIT transformer to the
Power Cubicle and from the Power Cubicle to the exciter transformer is not supplied. HV bus between
the HV reactor and filter and filter to the test object is also not supplied. However, the proper size
for the power cable and HV bus is specified in the system documentation so that local contractors
may perform this part of the installation.
The application and general specifications for each of the components shown in Figure 1
are covered later on in this section. More detailed specifications are listed in the sections which
follow.

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Tank Type Series Resonant System Specifications for Power Cable
Standard System Specifications According to IEC Requirements
Catalog Power Cubicle HV HV Max Cable
Number DSIT Regulator LVF Exciter Reactor Filter Class
TSR50-250CVF2H N/A POW-12.5 EXC1.25/0.875-12.5 R750/35-250 2L-75-10 30/36
VRSR-12.5 LVF-12.5

TSR75-750CVF4H DSIT-25 POW-25 EXC1.875/1.25-18.75 R775/50-750 2L-75-10 45/52


VRSR-25 LVF-25
TSR75-1000CVF4H DSIT-25 POW-25 EXC1.875/1.25-25 R775/50-1000 2L-75-30 45/52
VRSR-25 LVF-25

TSR100-1000CVF4H DSIT-25 POW-25 EXC2.5/1.875/1.25-25 R7100/75/50-1000 2L-100-30 60/72


VRSR-25 LVF-25
TSR100-1500CVF4H DSIT-37.5 POW-37.5 EXC2.5/1.875/1.25-37.5 R7100/75/50-1500 2L-100-30 60/72
VRSR-37.5 LVF-37.5

TSR200-2000CVF4H DSIT-50 POW-50 EXC20/10/8.75/3.75-50 R7200/175/75-2000 2L-200-30 132/145


VRSR-50 LVF-50 includes type test voltage tap
TSR200-2500CVF4B DSIT-62.5 POW-75 EXC20/10/8.75/3.75-62.5 R7200/175/75-2500 2L-200-30 132/145
VRSR-75 LVF-75 includes type test voltage tap
TSR200-3000CVF4B DSIT-75 POW-75 EXC20/10/8.75/3.75-75 R7200/175/75-3000 2L-200-30 132/145
VRSR-75 LVF-75 includes type test voltage tap

TSR250-2500CVF4B DSIT-75 POW-75 EXC25/6.25/4.375/2.5-62.5 R7250/175/100-2500 2L-250-30 150/170


VRSR-75 LVF-75 includes type test voltage tap avail w/ 50kV low tap
TSR250-3000CVF4B DSIT-75 POW-75 EXC25/6.25/4.375/2.5-75 R7250/175/100-3000 2L-250-30 150/170
VRSR-75 LVF-75 includes type test voltage tap avail w/ 50kV low tap
TSR250-3500CVF4B DSIT-100 POW-100 EXC25/6.25/4.375/2.5-87.5 R7250/175/100-3500 2L-250-30 150/170
VRSR-100 LVF-100 includes type test voltage tap avail w/ 50kV low tap

TSR350-6000CVF4B DSIT-150 POW-150 EXC35/8.75/6.25/4.4-150 R7350/250/175-6000 1L-350-30 220/245


VRSR-150 LVF-150 includes type test voltage tap 2 units
TSR350-10000CVF4B DSIT-250 POW-250 EXC35/8.75/6.25/4.4-250 R7350/250/175-10000 1L-350-30 220/245
VRSR-250 LVF-250 includes type test voltage tap 2 units

Catalog Number Format


TSRVVV-KVAR Catalog Number for the HV Tank VVV = Highest Tap Voltage

C Control Type A = Electromechanical with Digital Meters


D =970 Microprocessor
D = 380 volts B = 220 volts
V System Input Voltage E = 440 volts C = 208 volts
F = 480 volts X = 400 volts
5 = 50 Hz 6 = 60 Hz
F Operating Frequency
2 = 20 4 = 40
Q Quality Factor
B Bushing Orientation A = Angled V = Vertical
H = Horizontal

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Tank Type Series Resonant System Specifications for Power Cable
Standard System Specifications According to AEIC Requirements
Catalog Power Cubicle HV HV Max Cable
Number DSIT Regulator LVF Exciter Reactor Filter Class
TSR50-250CVF2H N/A POW-12.5 EXC1.25/0.875-12.5 R750/35-250 2L-75-10 15
VRSR-12.5 LVF-12.5

TSR75-750CVF4H DSIT-25 POW-25 EXC1.875/1.25-18.75 R775/50-750 2L-75-10 28


VRSR-25 LVF-25

TSR100-1000CVF4H DSIT-25 POW-25 EXC2.5/1.875/1.25-25 R7100/75/50-1000 2L-100-30 35


VRSR-25 LVF-25
TSR100-2000CVF4H DSIT-50 POW-50 EXC2.5/1.875/1.25-50 R7100/75/50-2000 2L-100-30 35
VRSR-50 LVF-50

TSR150-1500CVF4B DSIT-37.5 POW-37.5 EXC3.75/2.5/1.875-37.5 R7150/100/75-1500 2L-150-30 69


VRSR-37.5 LVF-37.5
TSR150-2500CVF4B DSIT-75 POW-75 EXC3.75/2.5/1.875-62.5 R7150/100/75-2500 2L-150-30 69
VRSR-75 LVF-75

TSR200-2500CVF4B DSIT-75 POW-75 EXC20/5/3.75/2.5-62.5 R7200/150/100-2500 2L-200-30 115


VRSR-75 LVF-75 includes type test voltage tap 75 kV low tap option
TSR200-5000CVF4B DSIT-125 POW-125 EXC20/5/3.75/2.5-125 R7200/150/100-5000 2L-200-30 115
VRSR-125 LVF-125 includes type test voltage tap 75 kV low tap option

TSR250-2500CVF4B DSIT-75 POW-75 EXC25/6.25/3.752.5-62.5 R7250/150/100-2500 2L-250-30 138


VRSR-75 LVF-75 includes type test voltage tap 75 kV low tap option
TSR250-3500CVF4B DSIT-100 POW-100 EXC25/6.25/3.75/2.5-87.5 R7250/150/100-3000 2L-250-30 138
VRSR-100 LVF-100 includes type test voltage tap 75 kV low tap option
TSR250-5000CVF4B DSIT-125 POW-125 EXC25/6.25/3.75/2.5-125 R7250/150/100-5000 2L-250-30 138
VRSR-125 LVF-125 includes type test voltage tap 75 kV low tap option

TSR350-6000CVF4B DSIT-150 POW-150 EXC35/8.75/6.25/4.4-150 R7350/250/175-6000 1L-350-30 220/245


VRSR-150 LVF-150 includes type test voltage tap 2 units
TSR350-10000CVF4B DSIT-250 POW-250 EXC35/8.75/6.25/4.4-250 R7350/250/175-10000 1L-350-30 220/245
VRSR-250 LVF-250 includes type test voltage tap 2 units

Catalog Number Format


TSRVVV-KVAR Catalog Number for the HV Tank VVV = Highest Tap Voltage

C Control Type A = Electromechanical with Digital Meters


P =970 Microprocessor
D = 380 volts B = 220 volts
V System Input Voltage E = 440 volts C = 208 volts
F = 480 volts X = 400 volts
5 = 50 Hz 6 = 60 Hz
F Operating Frequency
2 = 20 4 = 40
Q Quality Factor
B Bushing Orientation A = Angled V = Vertical
H = Horizontal

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HV Reactor S pecifications 50 Hz Units to Test Power Cables according to IEC-840

50 Hz IEC Standard Designs

Catalog Tap 1 Tap 2 Tap 3 Power Tap 1 Tap 2 Tap 3 Dimensions Weight
Number of Reactor kV kV kV kVAR Max nF Max nF Max nF L x H x W mm/in kg/lb.
R750/35-250SR 50 3 5 N/A 250 318 650 NA 1041 x 1041 x 889 885
41 x 41 x 35 1947
R775/50-750SR 75 5 0 N/A 750 425 955 NA 1448 x 1905 x 1250 4037
57 x 75 x 49 8881
R775/50-1000SR 75 5 0 N/A 1000 566 1274 NA 1524 x 1956 x 1219 5500
60 x 77 x 48 12100
R7100/75/50-1000SR 100 75 50 1000 318 566 1274

R7100/75/50-1500SR 100 75 50 1500 478 849 1911 2007 x 2134 x 1753 7484
79 x 84 x 69 16465
R7200/175/75-2000SR 200 175 75 2000 159 208 1132

R7200/175/75-2500SR 200 175 75 2500 199 260 1415

R7200/175/75-3000SR 200 175 75 3000 239 312 1699

R7250/175/100-2500SR 250 175 100 2500 127 260 796 2261 x 2718 x 1842 13381
89 x 107 x 72.5 29500
R7250/175/100-3000SR 250 175 100 3000 153 312 955
R7250/175/100-3500SR 250 175 100 3500 178 364 1115 2692 x 3429 x 2134 20639
106 x 135 x 84 45000
R7350/250/175-6000SR 350 250 175 6000 156 306 624 3048 x 3505 x 2235 27670
120 x 138 x 88 61000
R7350/250/175-10000SR 350 250 175 10000 260 510 1040

Duty Cycle Ratings


Standard Duty Cycle is for production testing of power cable and is 15 min. on/15 min. off repeated 32
times per 24 hours at maximum ratings or 30 minutes on/30 minutes off repeated 16 times per day. All
systems can be rated for continuous duty at full voltage and reduced current for sample testing for additional
cost.

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HV Reactor S pecifications 60 Hz Units to Test Power Cable According to ICEA/AEIC

60 Hz AEIC Standard Designs

Catalog Tap 1 Tap 2 Tap 3 Power Tap 1 Tap 2 Tap 3 Dimensions Weight
Number of Reactor kV kV kV kVAR Max nF Max nF Max nF L x H x W mm/in kg/lb.
R750/35-250SR 50 3 5 N/A 250 265 541 NA 1041 x 1041 x 889 885
41 x 41 x 35 1947
R775/50-750SR 75 5 0 N/A 750 354 796 NA 1448 x 1905 x 1250 4037
57 x 75 x 49 8881
R7100/75/50-1000SR 100 75 50 1000 265 472 1061

R7100/75/50-2000SR 100 75 50 2000 531 943 2122

R7150/100/75-1500SR 150 100 75 1500 177 398 707 2007 x 2134 x 1753 7484
79 x 84 x 69 16465
R7150/100/75-2500SR 150 100 75 2500 295 663 1179 2184 x 2286 x
1650
86 x 90 x 65
R7200/150/100-2500SR 200 150 100 2500 166 295 663

R7200/150/100-5000SR 200 150 100 5000 332 589 1326

R7250/150/100-2500SR 250 150 100 2500 106 295 663 2261 x 2718 x 1842 13381
89 x 107 x 72.5 29500
R7250/150/100-3500SR 250 150 100 3500 149 413 928 2692 x 3429 x 2134 20639
106 x 135 x 84 45000
R7250/150/100-5000SR 250 150 100 5000 212 589 1326 2896 x 3454 x 2184 24500
114 x 136 x 86 53900
R7350/250/175-6000SR 350 250 175 6000 130 255 520 3048 x 3505 x 2235 27670
120 x 138 x 88 61000
R7350/250/175-10000SR 350 250 175 10000 217 424 866

Duty Cycle Ratings


Standard Duty Cycle is for production testing of power cable and is 15 min. on/15 min. off repeated 32
times per 24 hours at maximum ratings or 30 minutes on/30 minutes off repeated 16 times per day. All
systems can be rated for continuous duty at full voltage and reduced current for sample testing for additional
cost.

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DSIT Specifications

T he double shielded isolation transformer provides a galvanic isolation from the mains. Each transformer is
provided with two electrostatic shields; one over the primary and one before the secondary. Between the
shields is a low capacitance insulation system designed to reduce the coupling of high frequency noise between
the local mains and the test power for the resonant system.
T he double shielded transformers are mounted in oil filled steel tanks and are fitted with air bushings for
connections. T he electrostatic shields are also brought out on insulated terminals to allow the optimum
grounding and noise reduction configuration to be made.
T he double shielded isolation transformer also adapts the local voltage to the standard system voltage used
by Hipotronics which is 480 volts. Listed below are standard primary voltages of 380/400 or 480 volts. Other
voltages may be used for the primary voltage and the actual system input voltage is listed in the technical
summary.

Catalog Rating Attn. Size Weight


Number kVA Voltage Freq. dB L x W x D (in) L x W x D (m) lb. kg

DSIT-25 25 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 23 x 33 x 22 0.56 x 0.84 x 0.56 650 295


V

DSIT-37.5 37.5 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 27 x 32 x 23 0.69 x 0.81 x 0.58 900 406
V

DSIT-50 50 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 27 x 32 x 23 0.69 x 0.81 x 0.58 900 406


V

DSIT-75 75 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 28 x 34 x 26 0.71 x 0.86 x 0.66 1200 545


V

DSIT-100 100 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 31 x 37 x 32 0.79 x 0.94 x 0.81 1550 703
V

DSIT-125 125 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 31 x 37 x 38 0.79 x 0.94 x 0.97 2150 975
V

DSIT-150 150 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 33 x 40 x 38 0.84 x 1.0 x 0.97 2600 1180
V

DSIT-250 250 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 35 x 40 x 38 0.84 x 1.0 x 0.97 2950 1340
V

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Voltage Regulator Specifications

The voltage regulators used by Hipotronics systems are all designed for 480 volts. The input voltage to
the system is adapted to the 480 volt level by the DSIT, double shielded isolation transformer. The voltage
regulator is located in a steel enclosure which includes the main power circuit breaker, the main power
contactor, plus the safety and protective relays to control the system. Also included in the voltage
regulator section are the low power isolation transformers for supplying the control systems and
accessories.

Catalog Input Output Freq. Power Duty Dimensions Weight


Number Voltage Voltage kVA WxHxD lb./kg

VRSR-12.5 480 480 50/60 12.5 Included in Control Section N/A

VRSR-25 480 480 50/60 25 See 25" x 70" x 30" 325/148


HV 635 x 1778 x 762 mm
Reactor
VRSR-37.5 480 480 50/60 37.5 25" x 70" x 30" 350/160
Specificati
635 x 1778 x 762 mm
on

VRSR-50 480 480 50/60 50 25" x 70" x 30" 700/318


635 x 1778 x 762 mm

VRSR-75 480 480 50/60 75 25" x 70" x 30" 950/432


635 x 1778 x 762 mm

VRSR-100 480 480 50/60 100 25" x 70" x 30" 1750/795


635 x 1778 x 762 mm

VRSR-125 480 960 50/60 125 25" x 72" x 42" 2100/956


635 x 1829 x 1067 mm

VRSR-150 480 960 50/60 150 25" x 72" x 42" 2100/956


635 x 1829 x 1067 mm

VRSR-250 480 960 50/60 250 25" x 72" x 42" 3200/1456


635 x 1829 x 1067 mm

Low Voltage Filters

All systems are supplied with Low voltage filters to be connected between the output of the voltage
regulator and the exciter transformer. Filters are either mounted within the voltage regulator cubicle or are
mounted in a separate metal enclosure. All filters are matched to the supply/regulator voltage and are
designed to provide at least 40 dB of attenuation in the PD measurement band

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Exciter Transformers

All Exciter Transformers are rated for the same duty cycle as the corresponding HV Reactor. The tap
voltages are listed in the chart above. Test systems rated above 150 kV are provided with an additional tap
calculated with a Q of 10 to allow the reactor to be used with water terminations with short sample lengths
of cable. The power rating of this HV tap is reduced to equal the current rating of typical sample
capacitances. The special output tap is available by manual connection from the exciter tank via an air
insulated bushing. All normal taps are connected via a motorized tap switch selected from the control desk.
The HV reactor taps and exciter taps are synchronized.
Each exciter is designed as an isolation transformer with an electrostatic shield for additional filtering of
PD noise and for transient protection. All taps are protected via a lightning arrestor to absorb the energy
stored in the reactor inductance which is reflected during a flashover back to the exciter.
The exciter is fitted with an independent voltage divider for driving the exciter kilovoltmeter in the
control section. The low voltage secondary winding of the exciter is returned through a shunt or CT to
provide current metering signals and to provide phase information for the automatic tuning circuitry.
For large systems, the exciter transformer is located inside a separate oil filled tank. For systems below
1500 kVA, the exciter may be located inside the HV reactor tank.

High Voltage Filter Specifications

Catalog Voltage Width Height Depth Weight


Number kV in. / mm in. / mm in. / mm lb. / kg

2L-75-X 75 102 / 2591 51 / 1295 20 / 508 552 / 250

2L-100-X 100 93 / 2632 49 / 1245 20 / 508 635 / 288

2L-150-X 150 93 / 2632 58 / 1473 20 / 508 740 / 335

2L-200-X 200 96 / 2430 74 / 1850 20 / 508 1000 / 450

2L-250-X 250 120 / 3048 91 / 2311 24 / 610 1300 / 590

1L-350-X 350 66 / 1665 94 / 2388 94 / 2388 1150 / 523

Current Rating: X = A - 10A


B - 30A

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DOUBLE SHIELDED ISOLATION TRANSFORMER

Double shielded isolation transformers (DSIT's) are recommended for high


voltage test systems intended to be used for partial discharge tests. This
transformer provides two important functions. It isolates the test system from
the power system ground and it attenuates high frequency noise which may
appear on the mains. Ground isolation is particularly important. It permits the
ground for the test system to be selected for the minimum PD background noise levels. This
insures that the test system can achieve the highest possible PD sensitivity. The double
shielded isolation transformer is the first component in the system. It precedes the system
main power circuit breaker. The user must provide protection for this transformer. A
properly rated fused disconnect switch is recommended.

Features
¥ All transformers in the
DSIT Series are
manufactured by
Hipotronics to carefully
minimize the coupling
capacitances.
¥ Both primary and
secondary windings are
shielded with the shield
connections brought out
to insulated bushings.
¥ Coils are wound with wire
covered with an additional
layer of Nomex¨ or kraft Figure 2 - Example of a large DSIT Transformer
paper to provide maximum insulation protection from voltage surges and transients.
¥ The core-coil structure is installed in an oil filled, grounded steel tank.

DSIT Specifications

T he double shielded isolation transformer provides a galvanic isolation from the mains. Each
transformer is provided with two electrostatic shields; one over the primary and one before the
secondary. Between the shields is a low capacitance insulation system designed to reduce the
coupling of high frequency noise between the local mains and the test power for the resonant
system.
T he double shielded transformers are mounted in oil filled steel tanks and are fitted with air
bushings for connections. T he electrostatic shields are also brought out on insulated terminals to
allow the optimum grounding and noise reduction configuration to be made.
T he double shielded isolation transformer also adapts the local voltage to the standard system
voltage used by Hipotronics which is 480 volts. Listed below are standard primary voltages of
380/400 or 480 volts. Other voltages may be used for the primary voltage and the actual system
input voltage is listed in the technical summary.

Catalog Rating Attn. Size Weight


Number kVA Voltage Freq. dB L x W x D (in) L x W x D (m) lb. kg

DSIT-25 25 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 23 x 33 x 22 0.56 x 0.84 x 0.56 650 295


V

DSIT-37.5 37.5 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 27 x 32 x 23 0.69 x 0.81 x 0.58 900 406

1
V

DSIT-50 50 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 27 x 32 x 23 0.69 x 0.81 x 0.58 900 406


V

DSIT-75 75 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 28 x 34 x 26 0.71 x 0.86 x 0.66 1200 545


V

DSIT-100 100 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 31 x 37 x 32 0.79 x 0.94 x 0.81 1550 703
V

DSIT-125 125 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 31 x 37 x 38 0.79 x 0.94 x 0.97 2150 975
V

DSIT-150 150 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 33 x 40 x 38 0.84 x 1.0 x 0.97 2600 1180
V

DSIT-250 250 380/400/480:480 50/60Hz >10 35 x 40 x 38 0.84 x 1.0 x 0.97 2950 1340
V

2
POWER CUBICLE

The Power Cubicle Cabinet contains four major


components of the system; the Main Power
Circuit Breaker, the Voltage Regulator, the HV
ON/OFF Contactor and a Low Voltage Filter.
Each of these components is described below.

MAIN POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER

The Main Power Circuit Breaker enables the test system to be energized and
provides protection to the mains and to the system in the event of a fault in the
power cubicle. The Main Power Circuit Breaker must be ON in order to use any
of the system functions. This circuit provides power to the Voltage Regulator
and, through a control power step-down transformer in the Power Cubicle, to
the Control System.

VOLTAGE REGULATOR

Voltage regulators for resonant systems are used to adjust the input voltage to
the exciter transformer and therefore the output voltage from the system.
These regulators are motor driven and are controlled from the control panel.
An optional, automatic regulation system is available in which the setting of
the system voltage regulator is controlled by means of a feedback amplifier
which compares the output voltage to a preset level and drives the system regulator up or
down as required to equalize the output and the preset level. The regulator setting may also be
controlled by computer in systems which include one of the computer control options.

Hipotronics larger resonant test systems use a


patented1 Peschel Variable Transformer
(PVT¨) regulator. This device is a linear
variable transformer which uses a unique
copper alloy brush system. This brush
assembly consists of two copper alloy brushes
which make contact with the even and odd
turns, respectively, on the regulator coil. The
circulating current which would normally flow
in the brushes due to the short circuited turn
effect is eliminated in the PVT¨ by a pair of
back-to-back diode assemblies in series with
the two brushes. These diode networks are Figure 3 - Regulator Simplified Schematic.
designed to have a forward voltage drop Isolated designs are also available.
greater than the turn-to-turn voltage of the
regulator coil. The forward voltage drop of the
diodes opposes the turn-to-turn voltage thereby limiting the magnitude of the "shorted turn"
current to a negligible value. This feature permits linear, brush-type variable transformers to
be designed which are simple to operate and maintain and can be used at virtually any power
level or mains voltage.

1 U.S. Patent. 4,189,762 and various foreign patents.

3
PVT© regulators have been used extensively and
successfully in various test equipment applications
and as stand alone components in power systems for
well over ten years. This unique regulator benefits
from the following design features:

Features

¥ No shorted turns (as occurs in carbon roller


type regulators).
¥ Continuously adjustable output (resolution
better than 1%).
¥ Linear impedance vs. position characteristic.
¥ Epoxy encapsulated coil, nickel plated coil
face.
¥ Less weight and smaller size than competitive
systems.

Figure 4 - Typical Voltage Regulator

Vernier Regulators
For systems with 970 Control units, an additional voltage regulator is supplied to allow the
voltage to be preset with higher accuracy under automatic control. The vernier regulator is
typically rated for 10 percent of the rated voltage of the main voltage regulator. The vernier
is also motorized and operates as a Òfine adjustmentÓ for the voltage control system. This
feature is particularly helpful with high Q factor systems where a small change in the input is
amplified 40 to 90 times on the output. In cases where the test duration is 30 minutes, the
automatic voltage control can maintain the voltage within 1% once the preset target has
been reached.

Voltage Regulator Specifications

The voltage regulators used by Hipotronics systems are all designed for 480 volts. The
input voltage to the system is adapted to the 480 volt level by the DSIT, double shielded
isolation transformer. The voltage regulator is located in a steel enclosure which includes the
main power circuit breaker, the main power contactor, plus the safety and protective relays
to control the system. Also included in the voltage regulator section are the low power
isolation transformers for supplying the control systems and accessories.

Catalog Input Output Freq. Power Duty Dimensions Weight


Number Voltage Voltage kVA WxHxD lb./kg

VRSR-12.5 480 480 50/60 12.5 Included in Control Section N/A

VRSR-25 480 480 50/60 25 See 25" x 70" x 30" 325/148


HV 635 x 1778 x 762 mm
Reactor
VRSR-37.5 480 480 50/60 37.5 25" x 70" x 30" 350/160
Specificati
635 x 1778 x 762 mm
on

VRSR-50 480 480 50/60 50 25" x 70" x 30" 700/318


635 x 1778 x 762 mm

4
VRSR-75 480 480 50/60 75 25" x 70" x 30" 950/432
635 x 1778 x 762 mm

VRSR-100 480 480 50/60 100 25" x 70" x 30" 1750/795


635 x 1778 x 762 mm

VRSR-125 480 960 50/60 125 25" x 72" x 42" 2100/956


635 x 1829 x 1067 mm

VRSR-150 480 960 50/60 150 25" x 72" x 42" 2100/956


635 x 1829 x 1067 mm

VRSR-250 480 960 50/60 250 25" x 72" x 42" 3200/1456


635 x 1829 x 1067 mm

HIGH VOLTAGE ON/OFF CONTACTOR

The HV ON/OFF contactor connects the output of the Voltage Regulator to the
test system. This contactor is interlocked so that it can only be closed when all
external interlocks are closed and the Voltage Regulator is at its lowest position
(this is the Zero Start interlock feature). The HV ON/OFF contactor can be
opened either manually with the HV OFF push-button on the control panel or by
the Arc Detector circuit in the controls which senses faults in the test object.

LOW VOLTAGE FILTER

Input Line Filters are designed to attenuate electrical noise signals in the PD
measurement band which may be conducted by the mains into the HV test circuit.
These filters are passive networks consisting of series inductors and shunt
capacitors, usually in a "pi" configuration. This configuration provides a low pass
characteristic to minimize pass band loss and maximize high frequency
attenuation.

Standard filters used in Hipotronics HV Resonant Test Systems are described below.

Features

¥ Power frequency range of 50-60 Hz


¥ Insertion loss less than 2%
¥ Greater than 40 dB attenuation from 30 kHz to 1 MHz
¥ Capacitors in hermetically sealed cans to prevent leaks
¥ Internal bleeder resistors to discharge capacitors

5
0
PD Detector
-10
Bandwidth
-20
Response (db)

-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
10 100 1000
Freq. (kHz)

Typical Low voltage filter response characteristics.

Low Voltage Filters

All systems are supplied with Low voltage filters to be connected between the output of
the voltage regulator and the exciter transformer. Filters are either mounted within the
voltage regulator cubicle or are mounted in a separate metal enclosure. All filters are matched
to the supply/regulator voltage and are designed to provide at least 40 dB of attenuation in
the PD measurement band

6
EXCITER TRANSFORMER

The exciter transformer is designed to step up the mains voltage and supply the
real power required by the test system . An exciter also provides galvanic
isolation and electrostatic shielding of the high voltage test circuit from the
mains. The exciter is either installed in the HV reactor tank (systems rated 100
kV, 1000 kVA and below) or housed in a separate grounded steel, oil filled tank with output
termination via bushing(s). The tank is fitted with lifting lugs, eye-bolts on the top header
and channels on the bottom to facilitate lifting (in low kVA designs the exciter is included in
the HV reactor tank).

The windings in the exciter are shielded to


reduce electrical noise coupling through
the transformer, an important factor for
PD measurements. The secondary winding
is provided with full kVA taps. An
additional high voltage tap can also be
provided to permit the system to be used
at reduced kVA with high loss loads (e.g.
water terminations) which significantly
affect the system quality factor.

The exciter transformer is fitted with a


surge arrester on the output to clamp the
high voltage transient resulting from arc
extinction after a test sample failure. This
prevents damage to the exciter, regulator Figure 6 - Medium Size Exciter Transform
and/or control circuits which might otherwise result from this transient.
The primary winding of the exciter is designed to match the maximum output of the voltage
regulator.
Exciter Transformers

All Exciter Transformers are rated for the same duty cycle as the corresponding HV
Reactor. The tap voltages are listed in the chart above. Test systems rated above 150 kV are
provided with an additional tap calculated with a Q of 10 to allow the reactor to be used with
water terminations with short sample lengths of cable. The power rating of this HV tap is
reduced to equal the current rating of typical sample capacitances. The special output tap is
available by manual connection from the exciter tank via an air insulated bushing. All normal
taps are connected via a motorized tap switch selected from the control desk. The HV
reactor taps and exciter taps are synchronized.
Each exciter is designed as an isolation transformer with an electrostatic shield for
additional filtering of PD noise and for transient protection. All taps are protected via a
lightning arrestor to absorb the energy stored in the reactor inductance which is reflected
during a flashover back to the exciter.
The exciter is fitted with an independent voltage divider for driving the exciter
kilovoltmeter in the control section. The low voltage secondary winding of the exciter is
returned through a shunt or CT to provide current metering signals and to provide phase
information for the automatic tuning circuitry.
For large systems, the exciter transformer is located inside a separate oil filled tank. For
systems below 1500 kVA, the exciter may be located inside the HV reactor tank.

7
High Voltage Filter Specifications

Catalog Voltage Width Height Depth Weight


Number kV in. / mm in. / mm in. / mm lb. / kg

2L-75-X 75 102 / 2591 51 / 1295 20 / 508 552 / 250

2L-100-X 100 93 / 2632 49 / 1245 20 / 508 635 / 288

2L-150-X 150 93 / 2632 58 / 1473 20 / 508 740 / 335

2L-200-X 200 96 / 2430 74 / 1850 20 / 508 1000 / 450

2L-250-X 250 120 / 3048 91 / 2311 24 / 610 1300 / 590

1L-350-X 350 66 / 1665 94 / 2388 94 / 2388 1150 / 523

Current Rating: X = A - 10A


B - 30A

8
HIGH VOLTAGE REACTOR

The high voltage reactor is the key component in a resonant test set. For voltages
up to 400 kV the reactor is installed in a grounded steel tank, filled with transformer
oil, and fitted with a condenser output bushing. The tank is braced for full vacuum so
that the final processing of the coils can be done in situ. The bottom of the tank is
supported by structural steel channels to permit lifting by fork lift devices. In addition, lifting
lugs are provided on the sides of the tank. Jacking pads are also provided. An oil drain and
sampling valve is fitted to the bottom of the tank on one side. This valve is protected from
accidental damage by heavy steel plates welded to the tank on either side of the valve. Two
copper grounding pads, drilled and tapped according to ANSI Standards, are provided on
diagonally opposite sides of the tank.

The core of the reactor is fabricated


in two matching sections. These two
sections are assembled to form the
complete core with an air gap. Two
coils are installed on the core such
that the air gaps are completely
enclosed in the coils. This
configuration restricts flux fringing in
the gaps and greatly reduces losses in
the reactor. A ball bearing drive
mechanism is used to vary the air gap
in the core. The lower half of the
core is fixed to the reactor frame.
The upper half is attached to four
tubes which contain ball nuts. The ball
nuts ride on ball screws which are
connected to a drive chain system
located at the top of the reactor. The Figure 7 - Typical Tank Type HV Reactor
reactor drive motor and chain drive
system are located in a housing on
top of the reactor, outside of the oil tank, to facilitate servicing. This basic drive technique,
the lightest and most compact available
in the market, has established an
excellent service record in over twenty
five years of field use.

Reactor coils are commonly designed


with lower voltage taps. This permits the
resonant system to tune to larger
capacitive loads at lower voltages, a
useful feature in testing power cable and
power factor correction capacitors.
These taps are coupled to the output
bushing by means of a motor driven tap
switch or are brought out through
individual bushings depending on the
design.
Figure 8 - High Voltage Reactor Core-Coil
Reactor coils are wound with synthetic
enamel insulated magnet wire which is

9
covered with additional cellulose wrapping. The wrapping insures complete oil impregnation
of the coil and also increases the turn-to-turn insulation. These are important considerations
in test equipment since partial discharges due to voids in the coil wire insulation are
eliminated and the chance of a turn-to-turn fault in the coil caused by test specimen failure is
greatly reduced by the higher impulse withstand capability. The coil structure is designed in a
stepwise geometry in which the higher voltage portions of the coils are progressively reduced
in length. This produces a capacitive grading for the coils which results in a linear voltage
distribution under impulse conditions. Oil channels are provided in the coils where required to
eliminate hot spots.

Continuous duty designs include internal manifolds to direct cooling oil to these channels and
to the gaps. The major insulation of the coils is thermally upgraded kraft paper (65oC rise,
105oC operating). This paper is coated with a pattern of un-cured epoxy so that successive
layers bond to each other when the coils are baked, and the epoxy is cured, during the normal
processing cycle.

All tank type high voltage reactors are provided with a tap to permit operation in parallel
resonance or as an auto-transformer for testing light capacitive or resistive loads.

Features

The design of the high voltage reactor incorporates the following key features:

¥ Patented drive mechanism refined by over a quarter century of successful service in the
field; provides 20:1 tuning range restricted to the linear portion of the tuning curve.

¥ Rugged reactor drive screws, with heavy duty threads, located on the axis of the
electromagnetic force between core segments; much superior in terms of reliability,
minimum backlash and size compared to off axis drives which must try to control
forces through a large moment arm.

¥ Low reactor core flux density design to control electromagnetic force between core
segments and reduce core loss and audible noise.

¥ Proprietary coil manufacturing and processing techniques applied to the complete


winding, from coil form to outer layer shield. These techniques eliminate internal voids
in the coil structure and guarantee low PD levels.

¥ Cellulose covered wire used for the coil winding enhances the turn-to-turn steady state
and transient voltage withstand levels and insures a void free winding structure.

¥ Continuously variable drive speed from 15 to 150 seconds for full range of inductance
adjustment.

¥ Electromagnetic brake to hold reactor position.

¥ Torque limiter design for safety

¥ Low audible noise level < 80dB

HV Reactor Specifications 50 Hz Units to Test Power Cables according to IEC-840

10
50 Hz IEC Standard Designs

Catalog Tap 1 Tap 2 Tap 3 Power Tap 1 Tap 2 Tap 3 Dimensions Weig
Number of Reactor kV kV kV kVAR Max nF Max nF Max nF L x H x W mm/in kg/l
R750/35-250SR 50 3 5 N/A 250 318 650 NA 1041 x 1041 x 889 885
41 x 41 x 35 194
R775/50-750SR 75 5 0 N/A 750 425 955 NA 1448 x 1905 x 1250 403
57 x 75 x 49 888
R775/50-1000SR 75 5 0 N/A 1000 566 1274 NA 1524 x 1956 x 1219 550
60 x 77 x 48 1210
R7100/75/50-1000SR 100 75 50 1000 318 566 1274

R7100/75/50-1500SR 100 75 50 1500 478 849 1911 2007 x 2134 x 1753 748
79 x 84 x 69 1646
R7200/175/75-2000SR 200 175 75 2000 159 208 1132

R7200/175/75-2500SR 200 175 75 2500 199 260 1415

R7200/175/75-3000SR 200 175 75 3000 239 312 1699

R7250/175/100-2500SR 250 175 100 2500 127 260 796 2261 x 2718 x 1842 1338
89 x 107 x 72.5 2950
R7250/175/100-3000SR 250 175 100 3000 153 312 955
R7250/175/100-3500SR 250 175 100 3500 178 364 1115 2692 x 3429 x 2134 2063
106 x 135 x 84 4500
R7350/250/175-6000SR 350 250 175 6000 156 306 624 3048 x 3505 x 2235 2767
120 x 138 x 88 6100
R7350/250/175-10000SR 350 250 175 10000 260 510 1040

Duty Cycle Ratings


Standard Duty Cycle is for production testing of power cable and is 15 min. on/15 min. off
repeated 32 times per 24 hours at maximum ratings or 30 minutes on/30 minutes off repeated
16 times per day. All systems can be rated for continuous duty at full voltage and reduced
current for sample testing for additional cost.

11
HV Reactor Specifications 60 Hz Units to Test Power Cable According to ICEA/AEIC

60 Hz AEIC Standard Designs

Catalog Tap 1 Tap 2 Tap 3 Power Tap 1 Tap 2 Tap 3 Dimensions Weig
Number of Reactor kV kV kV kVAR Max nF Max nF Max nF L x H x W mm/in kg/l
R750/35-250SR 50 3 5 N/A 250 265 541 NA 1041 x 1041 x 889 885
41 x 41 x 35 194
R775/50-750SR 75 5 0 N/A 750 354 796 NA 1448 x 1905 x 1250 403
57 x 75 x 49 888
R7100/75/50-1000SR 100 75 50 1000 265 472 1061

R7100/75/50-2000SR 100 75 50 2000 531 943 2122

R7150/100/75-1500SR 150 100 75 1500 177 398 707 2007 x 2134 x 1753 748
79 x 84 x 69 1646
R7150/100/75-2500SR 150 100 75 2500 295 663 1179 2184 x 2286 x
1650
86 x 90 x 65
R7200/150/100-2500SR 200 150 100 2500 166 295 663

R7200/150/100-5000SR 200 150 100 5000 332 589 1326

R7250/150/100-2500SR 250 150 100 2500 106 295 663 2261 x 2718 x 1842 1338
89 x 107 x 72.5 2950
R7250/150/100-3500SR 250 150 100 3500 149 413 928 2692 x 3429 x 2134 2063
106 x 135 x 84 4500
R7250/150/100-5000SR 250 150 100 5000 212 589 1326 2896 x 3454 x 2184 2450
114 x 136 x 86 5390
R7350/250/175-6000SR 350 250 175 6000 130 255 520 3048 x 3505 x 2235 2767
120 x 138 x 88 6100
R7350/250/175-10000SR 350 250 175 10000 217 424 866

Duty Cycle Ratings


Standard Duty Cycle is for production testing of power cable and is 15 min. on/15 min. off
repeated 32 times per 24 hours at maximum ratings or 30 minutes on/30 minutes off repeated
16 times per day. All systems can be rated for continuous duty at full voltage and reduced
current for sample testing for additional cost.

12
2L SERIES HIGH VOLTAGE FILTERS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDERS

High voltage filters are recommended when the resonant set is to be used for partial
discharge testing. The high voltage capacitors and inductors used in these filters, are
specially designed and manufactured by Hipotronics for the rigorous flashover and low
PD requirements of routine testing of HV power cable. These components are designed
to be partial discharge free and are produced in a number of different form factors to
suit the requirements of the system into which they are to be installed. This engineering
and manufacturing capability contributes to short delivery times and guaranteed quality control for
the entire system. In addition to providing attenuation of conducted noise or any radiated noise that
enters the system before the filter, the filter often acts as a basic capacitive load for operating the
resonant test set. This is particularly useful during set-up, training or for trouble shooting.

The filters are supplied in a multi-stage or single stage series inductance and shunt capacitance
configurations depending on the degree of filtering required and the voltage and current ratings. The
output stage of the multistage designs also functions as a voltage divider and power separation filter
for driving commercial partial discharge detectors. A PD/kV quadripole is installed in this stage to
supply signals to the system Kilovoltmeter Meter, Arc Detector, Phase synchronizer, and Partial
Discharge Detector.

As more capacitive load is added to the output, more attenuation will result. This is particularly
advantageous when testing HV power cables. As the load increases, the gain of the PD detector must
also be increased to maintain the same level of measurement sensitivity. Without a HV filter, more
care in noise elimination is necessary. With a HV filter, the noise will be attenuated by a larger factor
(see graph). Please note that attenuation specifications given on the next page are for no load
conditions.

10

-1 0 PD
Response (db)

Detector
-2 0 Bandwidth

-3 0

-4 0

-5 0

-6 0
0.001 0.01 0.1 1.0 1 0.0
Freq. (MHz)

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Electrical Specifications for 2L Series HV filters

The following specifications apply to the 2L series of multistage designs:

¥ Better than 40 dB attenuation over the frequency range from 15 kHz to 500 kHz.
¥ Less than 2 pC generated by the HV filter components at rated voltage.
¥ Capacitors with a low loss paper/polypropylene dielectric system impregnated with mineral
based dielectric fluid.
¥ All capacitor sections use a multi-tab design for minimum self inductance and high self-
resonant frequency.
¥ Internal spark gaps to protect the filter inductors during flashover.
¥ Mobile base on soft rubber, pneumatic tires .
¥ An oil type cable termination for terminating the cable under test and to facilitate routine
testing with test voltages up to 75 kV ac (2L-75 only).
¥ All units designed for repeated flashover service as found in factory test environments.
¥ Operating duty cycles are designed to match the series resonant test set for which the filter is
to be connected.

Specifications for 2L-Series Designs

Catalog Voltage Cap. Attn. Width Height Depth Weight Figure


Number kV nF dB in. / mm in. / mm in. / mm lb. / kg Number
2L-75-X 75 21 >40 102 / 2591 51 / 1295 20 / 508 552 / 250 9
2L-100-X 100 12 >40 93 / 2632 49 / 1245 20 / 508 635 / 288 10
2L-150-X 150 12 >40 93 / 2632 58 / 1473 20 / 508 740 / 335 10
2L-200-X 200 12 >40 120 / 3048 91 / 2311 24 / 610 1300 / 590 11
2L-250-X 250 12 >40 120 / 3048 91 / 2311 24 / 610 1300 / 590 11

Current Rating:X = A - 10 Amps


B - 30 Amps

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The general configuration of these filters is shown in Figures 9 - 11 below. Note that Model 2L-75
includes a built in oil-type cable termination. In all three cases below the input to the filter (source
side) is on the right and the output (load side) is on the left.

Figure 9 - Model 2L-75


Figure 10 - Models 2L-100 and 2L-150

Figure 11 - Model 2L-250

Revised February 1999 19 Client Storage:Hipotronics Website: Things to change:Tank Type:4BHV_NEW.DOC


1L SERIES HIGH VOLTAGE FILTERS AND VOLTAGE DIVIDERS

High voltage filters are recommended when the resonant set is to be used for partial
discharge testing. The high voltage capacitors and inductors used in these filters, are
specially designed and manufactured by Hipotronics for the rigorous flashover and low
PD requirements of routine testing of HV power cable. These components are designed
to be partial discharge free and are produced in a number of different form factors to
suit the requirements of the system into which they are to be installed. This engineering
and manufacturing capability contributes to short delivery times and guaranteed quality control for
the entire system. In addition to providing attenuation of conducted noise or any radiated noise that
enters the system before the filter, the filter often acts as a basic capacitive load for operating the
resonant test set. This is particularly useful during set-up, training or for trouble shooting.

The filters are supplied in a multi-stage or single stage series inductance and shunt capacitance
configurations depending on the degree of filtering required and the voltage and current ratings. The
output stage of the multistage designs also functions as a voltage divider and power separation filter
for driving commercial partial discharge detectors. A PD/kV quadripole is installed in this stage to
supply signals to the system Kilovoltmeter Meter, Arc Detector, Phase synchronizer, and Partial
Discharge Detector.

As more capacitive load is added to the output, more attenuation will result. This is particularly
advantageous when testing HV power cables. As the load increases, the gain of the PD detector must
also be increased to maintain the same level of measurement sensitivity. Without a HV filter, more
care in noise elimination is necessary. With a HV filter, the noise will be attenuated by a larger factor
(see graph). Please note that attenuation specifications given on the next page are for no load
conditions.

Electrical Specifications for 1L Series HV filters

At higher voltages (ò 300 kV) it becomes cumbersome to mount three HV coupling capacitors on a
common base. For current requirements above 20A, it also becomes necessary to provide a more
robust supporting structure. Single stage filters are sold to meet these test ratings. 1L filters are often
connected in cascade to provide more attenuation. The quotation provided with this offer will
indicate the recommended number of 1L filters. The following specifications apply to the 1L series
of multistage designs:

• Better than 15 dB attenuation (per section) over the frequency range from 15 kHz to 500 kHz.
• Insertion loss less than 2%.
• Less than 2 pC generated by the HV filter components at rated voltage.
• Capacitors with a low loss paper/polypropylene dielectric system impregnated with mineral based
dielectric fluid.
• All capacitor sections use a multi-tab design for minimum self inductance and high self- resonant
frequency.
• Internal spark gaps to protect the filter inductors during flashover.
• Mobile base on soft rubber, pneumatic tires .
• All units designed for repeated flashover service as found in factory test environments.
• Operating duty cycles are designed to match the series resonant test set for which the filter is to
be connected.

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Specifications for 1L-Series Designs

Catalog Voltage Attn* Cap. Ind. Width Height Depth Weight Figure
Number kV dB nF mH in. / mm in. / mm in. / mm lb. / kg Number
1L-250-X 250 40 10 25 66/1665 90/2286 90/2286 1000/45 13
5
1L-350-X 350 40 10 25 66/1665 94/2388 94/2388 1150/52 13
3

Current Rating:X = A - 10A C - 30 A


B - 20A D - 50 A
* 3 stage filter with > 10 nF load.
10
All components used in the high voltage filter
assemblies are designed and manufactured by 0
Hipotronics. This allows for direct attention

Response (db)
-10
and continuous improvement in such areas as PD
quality control and production efficiency. - 20 Detector
Ban dwidth
- 30
1L-Series filters are used in a cascade
- 40
arrangement of several stages. Figure 12 shows
the typical frequency response of a three stage -50
1L-Series filter, that is, three stages in cascade.
- 60
Figure 13 illustrates the construction of these 0.001 0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0
filter stages. Freq. (MHz)

Figure 12 - Response of 1L-Series Filters

Figure 13 - 1L-Series Filter

Revised February 1999 21 Client Storage:Hipotronics Website: Things to change:Tank Type:4CHV_NEW.DOC


MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLE TERMINATION - MODEL FET-75

Model FET-75 Cable Termination is used for AC testing on medium-voltage cables.


This device is designed to be a fail-safe, practical termination for tests up to100 kV
withstand and 75 kV rms. for PD testing. These oil-insulated terminations facilitate
routine testing by allowing quick and easy cable preparation and change-over. The unit
includes 2 cable plugs for ease in testing cables with a variety of conductor sizes. The
cables can be prepared in advance of the tests and installed at any time prior to the test. A 7 gal.
(26.5 liter) drip tank is included to contain waste oil.

Figure 14 - Model FET-75 Medium Voltage Cable Termination

Features

Angled termination tube for easy insertion of cable ends


Cable plugs for quick and easy changeover
Drip tank for overflow of oil
Heavy duty casters for mobility

Specifications

Voltage 100 kV Withstand


Partial Discharge < 2 pC at 75 kV, < 1 pC at 60 kV
Insulation Oil
Oil Capacity 7 gal. (26.5 liters)
Drip Tank Capacity 7 gal. (26.5 liters)
Maximum Cable Size 4" (101.6 mm) Outside Dia.
Cable Conductor Diameter _" - _" (6.35mm - 19.05mm)
Weight 72 lb. (32.7 kg)

Revised February 1999 22 Client Storage:Hipotronics Website: Things to change:Tank Type:5AFE_NEW.DOC


HIGH VOLTAGE CABLE TERMINATION - CTS SERIES

Description

This specification describes HIPOTRONICS CTS Series high voltage cable termination
systems. These systems are commonly called Òwater terminationsÓ since they use the
very high dielectric constant and insulation resistance of de-ionized water to grade the
voltage in the termination.

Features

HIPOTRONICS CTS Series HV Cable Termination Systems are designed to be used for testing power
cables for voltages above 75 kV. The systems consist of two cable terminals or ÒgunsÓ, a water
conditioner/control unit, a reusable mold and dies for casting urethane sealing glands, two gland
mounting plates, and interconnecting hoses. The use of de-ionized water allows corona-free testing of
cables. Tap water is substituted for impulse testing.

Each HV terminal consists of two concentric tubes constructed of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP)
sealed to machined cast aluminum housings at each end. Hose fittings at the low voltage end allow
water to circulate through the inner tube and around the cable, and to return between the inner and
outer tubes. Each terminal is installed on swivel bearings on a mobile cart to permit the terminal to
be maneuvered into a convenient position for installation of the cable to be tested. A hydraulic
cylinder on each cart is used to pivot the terminal to a 45 degree test position for HV testing.

The water conditioner/control unit includes the components necessary to circulate, de-ionize, cool
(with external water), and store water for use in the terminals. Two modes (TEST/FILL and DRAIN)
can be selected. Electrically activated ball valves allow control of pressure, flow rate, de-ionizer flow
rate, and mode of operation. Sensors and transmitters in the conditioner section send signals to the
control section, which provide the electrical information necessary to control and monitor system
operation. The control panel includes a process scanner, warning, overload and status lights, and
control push-buttons and toggle switches. A flow diagram with pilot lights allows the user to follow
the path of the water. A safety interlock for the high voltage supply is also included. Specifications
for the CTS Series Cable Termination Systems are listed in Table 1.

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23
Table 1

SPECIFICATIONS

Electrical Catalog # CTS-150 Catalog # CTS-400

Rated AC Voltage 150 kV rms. 400 kV rms.

Partial Discharge Level <1 pC @ 120 kV <1 pC @ 320 kV

Rated Impulse Voltage1 -550 kV -1200 kV

Cable Dia. (Min./Max.) 0.6" / 5" (15 / 133 mm) 0.6" / 5" (15 / 133 mm)

Overall Dimensions

Terminal (lowered) 72" x 28" x 60" 107 x 28 x 60"


(L x W x H) 1829 x 711 x 1530 mm 2718 x 711 x 1530 mm
Terminal (raised) 107_" x 28" x 72" 132_" x 28" x 90"
(L x W x H) 2734 x 711 x 1829 mm 3362 x 711 x 2286 mm
Conditioner/Controls 34" x 72" x 72" 34" x 72" x 72"
(L x W x H) 864 x 1829 x 1829 mm 864 x 1829 x 1829 mm
Terminal (w/o water) 550 lb. (250 kg) 600 lb. (272 kg)

Conditioner/Controls 1000 lb. (454 kg) 1000 lb. (454 kg)


(without water)
Input Requirements

Control Power Either 110-120V, 60 Hz, 30A or 220-240V, 50/60 Hz, 15A

Cooling Water 15 US gals/min. (58 liters/min.)


@ 70°F (21°C)
De-ionized Water

Maximum Capacity 60 US gals. (227 liters) 60 US gals. (340 liters)

Max. Temperature 140°F (60°C) 140°F (60°C)

Maximum Pressure 60 psi (4.1 Bar) 60 psi (4.1 Bar)

Minimum Resistivity 2 MΩ-cm for AC 2 MΩ-cm for AC

Nominal Flow Rate 5 US gals/min. 5 US gals/min.


per terminal (19 liters/min.) (19 liters/min.)
Heat Transfer 216,000 BTU/hr 216,000 BTU/hr
(nominal flow, max. (63.3 kW) (63.3 kW)
temperature)

1
When using these terminations for impulse testing, the de-ionized water is replaced with tap water.

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24
Controls and Indicators

A diagram of the front panel for the water conditioning system is shown in Figure 15. Each of the
controls on this panel are described in the following pages.

Figure 15 - Control Panel for CTS-Series Water Terminations

Protection

Three circuit breakers are provided to protect the components of the system. The MAIN POWER
circuit breaker (not shown above) is located below the Control Panel. This circuit breaker provides
protection by limiting the current that enters the water conditioning unit. The CONTROL POWER
and PUMP POWER circuit breakers protect the control circuitry and the pump circuitry,
respectively.

Revised February 1999 Client Storage:Hipotronics Website: Things to change:Tank Type:5ASR_NEW.DOC


25
Process Scanner

The programmable PROCESS SCANNER receives signals sent by six sensors in the water conditioner.
These signals are displayed in user-specified units for pressure, resistivity, volumetric flow rate and
temperature.

A pressure sensor measures the pressure on the exhaust side of the pump. This is the maximum
pressure of the system. A resistivity sensor measures the resistivity of the water after leaving the de-
ionizer and before entering the terminals. Two flow sensors measure the volumetric flow rate through
each terminal. Two thermocouples measure the temperature of the water after leaving the terminals
and before entering the heat exchanger. This is the maximum temperature of the system. An
additional in-line flowmeter measures the volumetric flow rate through the de-ionizer.

Warning and Shutdown Indicator Lights

The warning and shutdown indicator lights indicate when preset overload limits have been reached.
The LOW RESISTIVITY indicator lights when the resistivity reaches 4 MΩ-cm. The LOW LEVEL
indicator lights when the level of de-ionized water in the storage tank is too low. The LOW FLOW
RATE indicator lights when the flow rate through one or both of the terminals is too low (below 3.0
GPM or 11.3 liters per minute), and the PROCESS SCANNER will indicate the terminal with the low
flow rate. The HIGH PRESSURE indicator lights when the pressure reaches 60 psi (4.1 Bar). The
HIGH TEMP indicator lights when the temperature reaches 140° F (60° C). Higher pressure or
temperatures will cause the high voltage interlocks to shut down. High pressure will also cause the
pump to shut down, however the pump will continue to circulate water if excessive temperatures are
reached in order to cool the system.

EMERGENCY OFF Push-button

The EMERGENCY OFF push-button is used to deactivate the controls and the pump. This push-
button also shuts down the high voltage power source, assuming that the proper interconnection of
the high voltage unit controls and the CTS controls has been made.

Flow Switches

Three flow switches are provided, a PRESSURE FLOW switch, a DEIONIZER FLOW switch and a
FLOW EQUALIZER switch. The FLOW EQUALIZER switch equalizes the flow rate in each
terminal. The DEIONIZER FLOW switch increases or decreases the flow of water through the de-
ionizer. The PRESSURE/FLOW switch increases or decreases the flow and pressure.

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26
Pump Push-buttons

Two PUMP START push-buttons (TEST-FILL and DRAIN) select the mode of operation. The
TEST-FILL push-button is used when filling the terminals with de-ionized water or when testing
cable. The DRAIN push-button drains the terminals of de-ionized water. The PUMP STOP push-
button turns the pump off.

HIGH VOLTAGE ON Indicator Light and HV ENABLE Controls

The HV ENABLE control allows the operator to turn on high voltage when all interlocks are closed.
The HIGH VOLTAGE ON indicator is illuminated when high voltage power is on.

Flow Diagram

A FLOW DIAGRAM (not shown) is located above the Control Panel and allows the operator to see
where the de-ionized water is flowing. Pilot lights indicate when the flow of water is passing through a
particular section of pipe.

Pump

The pump motor is equipped with double shielded ball bearings which are pre-lubricated and require no
additional lubrication or maintenance.

Gland Sizes

A reusable mold is supplied with each Cable Termination System which enables the user to cast
sealing glands for various size cables. The material used is a two-part elastomer compound. A typical
mold center is supplied with the mold. The mold supplied with the two systems covered in this
specification, when used with an appropriate mold center, will produce the sealing glands listed below.
Compression plates are supplied with the system for each of these gland sizes. The compression
plates supplied with the system are also identified in the tables below. Additional compression plates
and mold centers may be ordered from Hipotronics or machined by the customer as the need arises.

Cable Termination CTS-150


Insulation Insulation Compression Shield Shield Compression
Gland ID* Gland Plate Gland ID* Gland Plate
in/mm Catalog Number Catalog Number in/mm Catalog Number Catalog Number
2.63/66.7 CD14-3682-17 CD14-3683-17 3.00/76.2 CD14-3682-20 CD14-3683-20
2.50/63.5 CD14-3682-16 CD14-3683-16 2.88/73.0 CD14-3682-19 CD14-3683-19
2.38/60.3 CD14-3682-15 CD14-3683-15 2.75/69.9 CD14-3682-18 CD14-3683-18
2.25/57.2 CD14-3682-14 CD14-3683-14 2.63/66.7 CD14-3682-17 CD14-3683-17
2.13/54.0 CD14-3682-13 CD14-3683-13 2.50/63.5 CD14-3682-16 CD14-3683-16
2.00/50.8 CD14-3682-12 CD14-3683-12 2.38/60.3 CD14-3682-15 CD14-3683-15
1.88/47.6 CD14-3682-11 CD14-3683-11 2.25/57.2 CD14-3682-14 CD14-3683-14

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27
Cable Termination CTS-400
Insulation Insulation Compression Shield Shield Compression
Gland ID* Gland Plate Gland ID* Gland Plate
in/mm Catalog Number Catalog Number in/mm Catalog Number Catalog Number
3.38/85.7 CD14-3682-23 CD14-3683-23 3.63/92.1 CD14-3682-25 CD14-3683-25
3.25/82.6 CD14-3682-22 CD14-3683-22 3.50/88.9 CD14-3682-24 CD14-3683-24
3.13/79.4 CD14-3682-21 CD14-3683-21 3.38/85.7 CD14-3682-23 CD14-3683-23
3.00/76.2 CD14-3682-20 CD14-3683-20 3.25/82.6 CD14-3682-22 CD14-3683-22
2.88/73.0 CD14-3682-19 CD14-3683-19 3.13/79.4 CD14-3682-21 CD14-3683-21
2.75/69.9 CD14-3682-18 CD14-3683-18 3.00/76.2 CD14-3682-20 CD14-3683-20
2.63/66.7 CD14-3682-17 CD14-3683-17 2.88/73.0 CD14-3682-19 CD14-3683-19

* Clearance hole in center of gland. This is also the diameter of the mold center.

A suitable mold center is shown above. One example of this component is supplied with the system.
Others should be machined as needed. The dimension "A" is the desired clearance hole diameter for
the gland.

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28
CONTROL SECTION

Two standard control systems are available. The basic system has push-button
electromechanical controls and is fitted with digital meters for output voltage and
current and exciter voltage. The more advanced microprocessor based 970 control
system can manually or automatically control a test sequence plus it can be connected
to the DDX discharge detector series for full computer control. Both systems include
the Safety, Protection, Control and Indicator Features listed below.

Control Cabinet

Control units for standard tank type resonant systems are mounted in slope front cabinets with
writing desks. Pictured below are the standard units with digital instrumentation and the 970
microprocessor unit mounted in the same cabinet with the DDX PD detector and Computer for
automated control and measurement

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Safety Features

¥ EMERGENCY OFF mushroom type push-button


¥ EXTERNAL INTERLOCK provision
¥ ZERO START interlocks; disables HV ON control unless the voltage regulator is at zero

Equipment Protection Features

¥ MAIN POWER circuit breaker


¥ CONTROL POWER circuit breaker
¥ REACTOR POWER circuit breaker
¥ ARC DETECTOR overload circuit
¥ PRIMARY OVERLOAD overcurrent relay in series with the primary of the exciter supply
¥ Adjustable OVERVOLTAGE relay
¥ Surge devices on all meters and relays

Control Features For Electromechanical Control System

¥ High voltage ON and OFF push-buttons with pilot light.


¥ DWELL TIMER with manual START/RESET switch
¥ TAP SELECTOR switch for motorized tap switch on exciter and HV reactor
¥ RAISE and LOWER push-buttons.
¥ Continuously adjustable motorized output voltage control with adjustable speed control.
¥ INCREASE and DECREASE push-buttons for varying the inductance.
¥ AUTOMATIC and MANUAL mode for tuning to resonance.
¥ Opening of adjustable reactor gap indicated by front panel meter.
¥ 10 to 1 range speed adjustment on drive assembly for changing the HV reactor inductance
The above control features are available on the touch pad of the 970 Microprocessor Control

Indicators

• MAIN POWER ON
• INTLK CLOSED indicates external safety interlocks are closed
• HV TAP READY indicates tap switches on exciter and HV reactor are in position
• HV READY indicates all interlocks and switches are properly set
• HV ON indicates high voltage ON contactor has closed
• AT MAX indicates regulator is at its maximum position
• AT MIN indicates regulator is at its minimum position
• MAN/AUTO indicates manual or automatic tuning of the HV reactor has been selected
• ARC DET. indicates an arc or fault in the HV test circuit
• OVERVOLTAGE indicates set point on meter relay has been readied or extended.
The functions listed above are available on the LCD display of the 970 Microprocessor Control

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Instrumentation According to Uncertainty Requirements of IEC-60060 Part II

• 3_ digit digital HV OUTPUT meter with meter relay displays a measure of the output voltage
obtained from the reactor bushing capacitive tap and provides overvoltage protection
3_ digit digital EXCITER VOLTAGE meter driven from a voltage divider connected to the

exciter output bushing
3_ digit digital OUTPUT CURRENT meter connected to a current transformer in the output

for maximum accuracy.
% RATE OF RISE meter for voltage regulator rate of rise

REACTOR GAP/TUNING SPEED meter indicates air gap in HV reactor core in percent of

maximum or speed of reactor core drive in percent of full speed
The LCD display on the 970 Microprocessor Control system displays the above quantities

Description of Control Functions

1. KEY SWITCH
Prevents control power from being energized unless the key is in the lock and rotated. The same
key can be used as part of the external interlock system, i.e., the interlock system can be
designed to require the key to open a test area gate and the key cannot be removed until the
gate is closed.
2. INTERLOCK CLOSED (External Interlock Status Lamp)
The INTERLOCK CLOSED Lamp indicates that all external interlocks are secure and the test
system may be energized providing all other interlocks, such as tap switches, are in proper
orientation.
3. CONTROL POWER Circuit Breaker and Indicator
The CONTROL POWER circuit breaker connects the power to, and provides overcurrent
protection for, all the control circuitry other than that associated with changing the reactor
core gap position. The corresponding lamp will indicate when the power is applied to the
control circuitry.
4. REACTOR POWER Circuit Breaker
The REACTOR POWER circuit breaker connects power to, and provides overcurrent
protection for, the circuitry associated with changing the reactor core gap position. Both the
Control Power circuit breaker and the Reactor Power circuit breaker must be closed before the
associated push-button controls will energize the drive motor.
5. ARC DETECTOR Status Lamp and Reset Push-button
The ARC DETECTOR circuitry will de-activate the test system if a failure (arc-over) signal is
detected in the test circuit. This circuitry is activated when a preset level of dv/dt is exceeded.
This signal, which is derived from an inductor located in the HV divider base, is coupled to a
thyratron circuit which closes a relay and opens the HV interlock chain, de-energizing the
system.
In order to re-energize the system, the operator must acknowledge the failure by depressing the
RESET push-button. The corresponding indicating lamp will go out when the circuit has been
reset.
6. HIGH VOLTAGE ON/OFF Push-buttons and Indicating Lamp
The high voltage ON push-button energizes the input contactors which, in turn, connect the
power to the voltage regulator and the rest of the system components. The high voltage OFF
push-button de-energizes the main contactor which, in turn, removes the power from the test
system.

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7. RAISE/LOWER Voltage Control Push-buttons
The RAISE and LOWER voltage control push-buttons allow the operator to vary the output of
the exciter transformer by raising or lowering the voltage regulator output at the pre-selected
rate-of-rise. The test system output voltage will vary with the exciter output depending on
whether or not the system is resonance.
8. INCREASE/DECREASE INDUCTANCE Push-buttons
The INCREASE push-button drives the reactor core gap towards its closed (0% on the meter),
or minimum position. The decrease in gap spacing causes the inductance of the high voltage
reactors to increase. The DECREASE push-button drives the reactor core gap towards its fully
open (100% on the meter), or maximum position. The increase in gap spacing causes the
reactor inductance to decrease.
These two push-buttons are used to "tune" the system. When the gap spacing is adjusted so that
the inductive reactance of the high voltage reactors matches the capacitive reactance of the test
load, the system will be in resonance.
9. AUTOMATIC TUNING
The AUTOMATIC TUNING Mode, in addition to the standard manual tuning, permits resonant
conditions to be achieved automatically. It also maintains the system in tune by reacting to
changes in external capacitance.
10. HIGH VOLTAGE READY
This status lamp indicates that all interlocks are secure, all overloads are reset, and the exciter
tap switch is in its selected position. When this lamp is on, high voltage may be energized.
11. MAXIMUM and MINIMUM Output Indicating Lamps
These lamps indicate that the voltage regulator and, in turn, the exciter transformer are at the
respective output limits for the exciter tap selected. Note that this does not mean that the
system output is at a limit because the output voltage may be changed by varying the reactor
gap position, thereby bringing the system into and out of tune.

Meters

1. EXCITER VOLTAGE
This meter displays the output voltage of the exciter transformer directly, regardless of the output
tap or primary configuration selected. No multipliers of the output tap or scale factors need be
used. This indication is quite useful in allowing the operator to tune the test system to resonance
at voltage levels well below the test level by simply exciting with low exciter voltages.
2. OUTPUT CURRENT
This meter displays the current flowing in the test loop and includes both the load current and high
voltage filter current (if applicable). A current transformer inserted between the low end of the
exciter transformer secondary and ground is used to sense the current level.
3. HV OUTPUT
The high voltage output meter senses the voltage level at the output of the high voltage reactors.
A sample of the output voltage is sensed at the bushing capacitive tap and this signal is coupled to
the metering circuitry. Three ranges are included on the analog version of this meter. An
adjustable set point is provided for overvoltage protection of the test object.
4. GAP SETTING/TUNING SPEED
Either the reactor core gap setting or the reactor tuning drive speed is displayed on this meter as a
percent of maximum. The meter function is switch selectable. A fully open gap is used to set the
minimum inductance thereby tuning to the maximum capacitance load.

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5. RESONANCE DISPLAY
This is a center zero null meter which provides a measure of the state of the system. This meter
receives its signal from a phase detector which compares the relative phase of the out put voltage
and current. When these quantities are in phase, the system is tuned to resonance and the meter
displays a null (zero) reading.
6. % RATE OF RISE
This meter displays the rate of rise of the motor driven voltage regulator as a percentage of
maximum speed. The variable speed rate of rise feature has a 10:1 range of adjustment with the
fastest speed being 30 seconds from zero maximum.

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Digital Metering System with Electromechanical Controls

Meter Type Accuracy

Exciter Voltmeter 3_ Digit ±1% ± 1 count


Digital Meter 10-100 %Range
Output Current 3_ Digit ±3% ± 1 count
Meter Digital Meter 10-100 %Range
Output 3_ Digit ±1% ± 1 count
Kilovoltmeter Digital Meter 10-100% Range
Core Gap Meter 4_" Analog N/A
Meter
Resonance 2_" Edgewise N/A
Meter
% Rate of Rise 2_" Edgewise N/A
Meter

Figure 19 - Control Panel with Digital Meters

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PARTIAL DISCHARGE DETECTOR

Two partial discharge detection systems are available, The Hipotronics/Robinson DDX
7000 Digital Discharge Detector series for normal discharge measurements using shielded
rooms and the Hipotronics/Robinson DDX 8000/906 Series with noise discrimination
technology for use in open test areas are offered for complete PD test systems. The
technical details of each system is described in a separate enclosure if they are applicable
to this proposal.
The DDX series of partial discharge detectors are computer based using the latest
microprocessors available with the MS Windows (reg) operating system. The computer that powers
the DDX for PD measurements can also be used to control the test system by linking it to the
optional 970 series controller.

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COMPUTER CONTROL Option for Systems with 970 Controllers
Computer control software is available to run the system via the PC imbedded in the
Hipotronics-Robinson DDX Partial Discharge Detector. This eliminates the need for an additional
stand alone computer and seamlessly integrates HV test control and PD measurements. The DDX
Series Resonant Control Software runs through a window on top of the normal DDX PD display. It is
a simple matter to toggle between the control screen in the foreground or the PD display. The
software supplied allows the following:
• Full Manual Control
• Automatic Test Control from user defined test profile; e.g. rate of rise, time at target voltage,
rate of collapse etc. Test profiles may be stored for recall.
Input signals to the DDX are optically coupled to reduce the possibility of damage due to
transients in the test circuit. The signals for the DDX are derived from the HV system voltage
divider, current transformer, and other transducers as required. Software provided with the system
permits a complete test sequence to be automatically run under computer control. The desired test
sequence is set up by the software and stored on the computer hard drive for archival book keeping.
Many different tests can be pre-defined and recalled as needed.
The software provided with the system permits test results to be stored and subsequently
incorporated into a test report. The test report fields and format can be customized by the user in the
software. Several examples of test setups are shown on the next two pages. The screen used to
customize the report header is also displayed.
The parameters listed below are controlled by the computer system or provided by the HV test
system for computer monitoring and/or data logging. It is possible to optimize the software program
to either minimize overshoot on a step or to maximize the linearity of the rate of rise of voltage4 .
In the minimum overshoot mode the overshoot is < ñ1 but the accuracy of the rate of rise is not
specified. In the linear rate of rise mode the rate of rise tolerance is specified but a possible trade off
occurs in overshoot. In either case safety is guaranteed by the incorporation of overvoltage limits to
prevent any possible damage to the test object

Programmable Control Parameters Test Results Monitored or Logged

¥ HV ON/ OFF ¥ Output voltage


¥ Voltage RAISE/LOWER ¥ Output current
¥ Voltage rate-of-rise ¥ Exciter voltage
¥ Number of voltage steps (50 steps max.) ¥ Test specimen failure
¥ Dwell time per step ¥ Interlock open
¥ Tune to resonance or an adequate Q for ¥ Emergency off (where applicable)
max. resolution of the voltage regulation ¥ PD level (where applicable)
¥ PD level for acceptance or rejection ¥ Heating Current (where applicable)
¥ Tap selection ¥ Temperature from load cycle test set
¥ Tolerance/regulation for 10%-100% Urated: (where applicable)
Overshoot < 1% (min. overshoot mode) ¥ Total elapsed time
Voltage regulation during dwell ñ1% ¥ Elapsed time on step for a voltage step
Voltage rate of rise ñ5% (linear rate of ¥ Control mode selection (Auto or Manual)
rise mode)

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ENGINEERING SERVICES FOR HV POWER CABLE TYPE TEST
SYSTEMS WITH SHIELDED ROOM INSTALLATIONS

Hipotronics can provide the following engineering services and assistance as it relates to
our line of HV test equipment:

• Site survey visit and HV power cable test area design 1 Day
• Construction monitoring visits 2-One Day Visits
• Factory demonstration tests 1 Day
• Installation assistance 3 Days
• On-site commissioning tests 1 Day
• Operator training 1 Day
• Class room / technical training 1 Day

The purpose of this section is to describe, in detail, the services provided and the responsibilities of
the buyer and of the seller.

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SITE SURVEYS AND HV TEST AREA DESIGN
FOR TYPE TESTING OF HV POWER CABLE Catalog #TSR-MDESIGN
1 Day

The purpose of a site survey (1 Day) is for us to review the test requirements with the user and make
formalized recommendations about the new test installation. A HV test installation often involves
civil and electrical work that will be performed by local contractors. Only by following a detailed plan
can the installation be assured of success. The following responsibilities are defined:

Hipotronics Buyer
Prior to the visit, prepare preliminary Prior to the visit, provide full details of the
drawings showing the proposed location of the products to be tested in the new test area.
test equipment. Information includes all cable classes, reel
diameters, and maximum reel capacitanceÕs,
maximum reel length
Prior to the visit, submit recommended Prior to the visit provide complete
grounding and conduit drawings for the test architectural drawings of the proposed test
area. area. Drawings must include all utilities as well
as details of surrounding electrical machinery
Visit to review the drawings with the customer Describe any restrictions for transporting the
proposed equipment to the test area
Revise the drawings based on the customer site Sign off acceptance of the final proposal
visit. Submit the drawings to the customer for drawings by the customer.
acceptance and approval

After the drawings have been approved, the customer is responsible for carrying out the construction
as agreed. The customer is responsible for constructing the test area according to the approved plans.
Failure to construct the test area according to approved plans or modification of the approved plans
without written approval from Hipotronics, will void the system performance specification
guarantee.

TIME CONSIDERATIONS

Once the proper information is received from the customer, the preliminary layout drawings are
provided and the site visit is scheduled within 2 months. Final drawings are submitted for approval
within one month of the site visit. Signed approval of the revised and final test area drawings is
required within one month of receipt.

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CONSTRUCTION MONITORING VISITS Catalog #TSR-MCONST
2 Days

The construction of a successful test areas for testing HV Power Cable requires that great care be
taken in installing the ground system, the conduit runs, and the preparation for the installation of the
shielded test area. In order to assure that the construction is done properly, Hipotronics can provide
site inspections during the construction phase to assure that the work is done according to the
installation plans. To avoid construction deviations from the approved plan, two visits are provided.
The first visit takes place prior to pouring the concrete over the grounding system. The second visit
takes place after the construction is completed. The customer is responsible for all corrective action
resulting from the inspection visits.

The following responsibilities are defined for the visit prior to pouring the floor: 1 Day

Hipotronics Customer
Measure ground isolation. Inspect all steel Correct deficiencies as found.
reinforcement and ground provisions prior to
pouring the concrete.
Inspect conduit installation. Correct deficiencies as found.
Inspect other test area construction. Correct deficiencies as found.

The following responsibilities are defined for the visit prior to installation of the HV equipment: 1
Day

Hipotronics Customer
Inspect ground system for isolation level. Correct deficiencies as found.
Inspect mains power provision. Correct deficiencies as found.
Inspect conduit installation. Correct deficiencies as found.
Inspect HV test room and test attenuation. Correct deficiencies as found.
Inspect control room. Correct deficiencies as found.
Inspect lighting system. Correct deficiencies as found.

The customer is responsible for correcting all deficiencies and to notify Hipotronics of all corrective
actions in writing prior to installation and commissioning. Failure to correct all deficiencies in a
timely fashion will result in delays in subsequent activities.

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FACTORY DEMONSTRATION TESTS Catalog #TSR-MFACTORY
1 Day

Each complete system is fully tested prior to shipment according to the factory test procedure
contained elsewhere in this document. It is often helpful for the customer's operating personnel to
observe the factory testing prior to shipment. In order to provide this service, the equipment is
subjected to the factory tests twice.

When quoted, factory witness testing is scheduled with a two week notification period. Notification
of pending factory witness tests is done in writing and a confirmation of the visit is requested in
writing within 1 week of notification. Cancellation of factory witness visits is at no additional charge.
Rescheduling of factory witness visits is billable at the quoted rate unless agreed to by Hipotronics in
writing.

Informal factory visits to observe construction or testing of customerÕs order is at no cost.

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INSTALLATION ASSISTANCE Catalog #TSR-MINSTALL
3 Days

Installation assistance can be provided to assure that the equipment will meet the system
specifications. The responsibilities of the customer and Hipotronics are defined below.

Customer

1. Completion of the test facilities - Completion of the test facilities according to the test area
design recommendations of Hipotronics provided under TSR-DESIGN. In the case of test
facilities designed by the customer, Hipotronics takes no responsibility for system performance.
2. Inspection of the goods upon arrival - The customer is responsible for unpacking all goods,
cleaning and inspecting all parts for any signs of damage due to transit. All components shall be
checked against the packing list for completeness. Damage claims are to be reported to the
shipping company immediately. Damaged or missing components not reported prior to the
arrival of our Installation Engineer will result in delays in installation and the cost of the delay or
visit will be billed at the per diem rate plus expenses.
3. Storage - Prior to installation, the customer is responsible for storage of the equipment in a
protected, clean and dry environment. All electronic control and measurement equipment is to be
stored in a clean, air conditioned environment with no condensing humidity.
4. Removal of packing material and cleanliness of the test area - The customer is responsible for
removing all packing material and shall keep the test area clean at all times.
5. Handling equipment - The customer is responsible for placing all equipment in the proper
location according to the direction of our Installation Engineer. All rigging, lifting and moving
equipment shall be available at all times and at the direction of our Installation Engineer to avoid
delays. The customer is responsible for the suitability of this equipment.
6. Tools - The customer is to provide common hand tool to be used during installation.
7. Interwiring - The customer is responsible for supplying skilled labor to run all control cables,
measurement cables and to connect the power wiring according to local safety standards. The
customer is also responsible for wiring all safety interlock devices. All ground connections are to
be provided and connected by the customer. All HV connections are to be provided and
connected by the customer. All wiring described above is to be done prior to the arrival of the
Hipotronics Installation Engineer.
8. Utilities - The customer shall provide mains power and water and drainage (if required) at the
time of installation. All mains service to the test area shall be protected by an appropriate
disconnecting device within easy access to the test area. During installation, the facilities shall be
maintained at temperature of 10 to 40 degrees Celsius, less than 95% non-condensing humidity,
and the facility shall be free of construction dust or debris. Adequate work lighting is to be
provided.
9. Communication - The customer is to provide an interpreter at all times and at least one technical
person with a command of the English language. The customer shall provide telephone and
telefax service for the Installation Engineer.
10. Access - The customer is to provide free and unlimited access to the test area.

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Hipotronics

1. Review technical specifications


2. Inspect the test site for conformance to the approved Test Area Design drawings.
3. Inspect the goods.
4. Supervise the positioning of all equipment.
5. Supervise the assembly of items that were disassembled for shipment.
6. Supervise the installation of all control, measurement and power cables.
7. Supervise the connection of the grounding system.
8. Supervise the connection of the HV apparatus.
9. Functional check of all control system without HV being energized.
10. Functional checks of all safety circuits and protective circuits.
11. LV checks of the HV apparatus.
12. HV operation and calibration check.
13. Measurement of background noise level under no load conditions.
14. Measurement of system Partial Discharge level under no load conditions.
15. Operation of Auxiliary equipment. (e.g. Water Terminations)
16. Review electrical schematics and parts lists.

All work items that are to be supervised by Hipotronics Installation Engineer are not to be done prior
to the arrival of Hipotronics personnel. Improper installation, without the supervision of
Hipotronics Installation Engineer may result in delays in installation. Delays caused by the customers
action will be billed at the standard daily rate plus expenses.

Upon completion of the installation, the Installation Engineer shall prepare an acceptance report
which is signed by both parties. This document shall include the following:

¥ Description of tests performed


¥ Results of the tests performed
¥ List of corrective action for any defects

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ON-SITE COMMISSIONING TESTS Catalog # TSR-MCOMM
1 Day

After the installation is complete, the on-site commissioning may be performed. The on site
commissioning quoted is done immediately following the installation. In order for the commissioning
to be done after installation, it is necessary for the customer to have a partial discharge free load
suitable for the maximum voltage and current of the test system. If such a load is not available, full
system performance cannot be tested. If the on-site commissioning cannot be performed in
conjunction with the installation portion of the contract, a separate, billable visit will be required.

Commissioning Test Procedure


1. Review system performance requirements
2. Perform on site tests according to the tests described elsewhere
3. Prepare Commissioning Test Report
Upon completion of the On-Site Commissioning, the Commissioning Engineer shall prepare an
acceptance report which is signed by both parties. This document shall include the following:
¥ Site survey visit and HV power cable test area design
¥ Description of tests performed
¥ Results of the tests performed
¥ List of corrective action for any deficiencies. If the deficiencies are a result of Hipotronics
action, steps will be taken to correct the problem areas. If the deficiencies are a result of
customer action, a quotation will be prepared for the corrective action. Additional work will
be quoted at the standard, per diem rate.

System Partial Discharge Performance


The system partial discharge performance is specified in the Technical Summary found elsewhere.
Certain transient events may cause sporadic high level partial discharge pulses to appear on the
discharge detector. The following transient and steady state noise sources are outside the scope of the
contract:
¥ Failure to follow the construction specifications.
¥ Loss of Mains Power.
¥ Loss of Mains Power Phase.
¥ Overvoltage transients on the mains.
¥ Undervoltage (dips or sags) transients on the mains.
¥ Harmonics from local broadcasting transmitters.
¥ Induced electromagnetic transients caused by lightning impulses or switching impulses.
¥ Disturbances caused by switching loads connected to the same branch or feeder circuit as
supplies the test equipment. Examples of these sources are thyristor drives, arc lighting
circuits, rotating machines or RF induction heaters.
¥ Capacitive coupled ground noise from uncontrolled earth currents. Examples of these sources
are ground return systems from electric railroads or DC power transmission systems.
Assistance in determination of and elimination of the above noise sources can be provided at
additional cost based on the time and materials required.

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OPERATOR TRAINING Catalog # TSR-MTRAIN
1 Day

Operator training is provided following acceptance testing. If a separate visit is required for operator
training, a separate, billable visit will be required. The operator training includes the following:
¥ Review of the equipment specifications
¥ Review of the instruction manuals
¥ Review of the electrical schematics and drawings
¥ Hands on operation of the equipment
¥ Review of Calibration procedures
¥ Review of maintenance procedures

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CLASS ROOM / TECHNICAL TRAINING Catalog # TSR-MTHEORY
1 Day

Class Room training on the theory of operation of the equipment is provided following acceptance
testing. If a separate visit is required for Class Room training, a separate, billable visit will be required.
The operator training includes the following:
¥ Electrical Principles of the system
¥ Resonant Systems
¥ Partial Discharge Measurements
¥ Grounding Practices
¥ HV Practices
¥ Shielding Practices
¥ HV Test Technique
¥ Review of the relevant testing Standards

Revised February 1999 45 Client Storage:Hipotronics Website: Things to change:Tank Type:8COM_NEW.DOC


PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

Practical Series Resonant Test Systems were pioneered by Hipotronics and consist of a
voltage regulator, exciter transformer, HV variable reactor and the capacitive test object.
An elementary schematic is shown in Figure 1. The voltage regulator is connected to the
mains through a main power circuit breaker. This component supplies a variable voltage
to the exciter transformer which permits the output voltage to be adjusted to the proper value for
the test.

The exciter transformer supplies the necessary


power to the high voltage circuit consisting of the
HV variable reactor and the test object. The
exciter transformer also provides galvanic
isolation between the mains connected primary
and the high voltage circuit in the secondary.
These transformers are designed with shielding to
further isolate line conducted electrical noise from
the output circuit.

The HV variable reactor is the heart of the


resonant circuit. This device is designed with
means to adjust its inductance to precisely Figure 1 - Simplified Series Resonant Circuit
compensate for the capacitance in the high
voltage circuit thereby tuning the system to resonance. This variation in inductance is accomplished
by building an air gap into the core of the reactor. The length of the air gap is adjusted by a patented1
motor driven mechanism controlled from the control panel.

The capacitive load represents the combined effects of the test object, voltage divider, filter
capacitors (if used) and stray capacitance due to the test setup. A capacitive load is required for
proper operation of the system in the series resonant mode.

Grounded tank type systems are generally supplied with one or more taps on the high voltage reactor
to provide the capability of tuning to resonance with larger capacitive loads at lower voltage.

TYPICAL SYSTEMS FOR HIGH VOLTAGE TEST APPLICATIONS

Resonant systems are supplied in either a grounded steel tank or in a modular cascade
configuration depending on the voltage rating of the system. This specification describes
the tank type designs. Systems of this type are recommended for power cable, power
factor correction capacitors, hydro generators, switchgear and other applications
requiring test voltages up to 350 kV.

1 U.S. Patents 3,515,986, 3,703,692, 3,609,614, 3,761,853, 3,872,414 and various foreign patents.

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Modern systems use HV reactors instead of low voltage reactors in the primary of a test transformer.
This reduces costs and also reduces losses since it eliminates the need for the HV test transformer.
The variable reactor allows the system to generate high voltage by alternately storing energy in the
reactor as the system voltage swings toward zero and supplying this energy to the capacitive test
object as the voltage rises again on the next half cycle. (Note that the capacitive reactance of the
test object is not "canceled". Its reactive energy is just stored temporarily in the inductance of the
variable reactor so it doesn't have to be alternately supplied and absorbed by the system power
source.) In practice, operation of a series resonant system starts by adjusting the inductive reactance
(X L) of the variable reactor to match the capacitive reactance (XC) of the load. This tunes the
system to resonance and is normally done at low voltage. The test voltage can then be increased to
the desired value by means of the system voltage regulator and testing proceeds as in a conventional
test transformer system.

THEORY

In the simple equivalent circuit


shown in FigureÊ2 the voltage,
V exc, represents the output of the
exciter transformer which is rated
at only a small fraction of the system output
voltage (and therefore need only handle a
small fraction of the output kVA). Losses and
leakage reactance due to the exciter are
assumed to be combined with the series L and
R in this equivalent circuit. The test object is
represented by the capacitor, C. In the series Figure 2 - Simplified Equivalent Circuit
resonant circuit the reactance of the series
inductance, L, is adjusted to be equal in magnitude to the reactance of the capacitive load, C. This is
done under control of the operator of the equipment and therefore controlled resonance is
achieved as opposed to the uncontrolled resonance which can occur in conventional test
transformers.

The expression for the output voltage for such a circuit is the same as the expression for a test
transformer, i.e.
1
| Vo ut | =
Vexc (ωRC) + (ω LC − 1)
2 2 2

In the series resonant case though ωL = 1/ωC or ω 2LC = 1 so this expression reduces to:

1 ωL
| Vo ut | = = = Q
Vexc ω RC R

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Therefore the magnitude of the output voltage is related to the input voltage by:

Vout = Q x Vexc

where Q is the Quality Factor of the circuit and is proportional to the ratio of the energy stored to
the energy dissipated per half cycle.

Since the inductive and capacitive reactances are equal in magnitude at resonance, the current that
flows in the series circuit is, referring to FigureÊ2:

Vexc
I=
R
Note that this current is in phase with the input voltage. The power drawn from the mains is at unity
power factor. The output kVAR is related to the input power by:
kVARout = I x Vout = Q x I x Vexc = Q x kWi nput

These simple formulas are very important. A properly designed resonant circuit should exhibit a Q of
40 or more (assuming the test object exhibits a small loss angle) so it is quite practical to provide
very high test voltages to a test object having very high capacitance from a low voltage, low kVA
source. Furthermore, the power drawn from the source is at unity power factor. This results in
reduced unbalance in the power source when testing large single phase loads (high voltage tests are
almost always single phase) and frequently in reduced cost for the test equipment as well.

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SYSTEM Q

It is apparent from the analysis above that the quality factor of the circuit is a very
important parameter in describing resonant system operation. If the Q of the test object
is low (large amount of loss) the system must be designed to supply the relatively high
(real) power. However many types of test objects are almost purely capacitive with only
a very small resistive component. In this case, the Q of the system is dominated by the losses in the
variable reactor, exciter transformer, etc. But these components are designed for high efficiency so a
Q > 40 is easily obtained. Representative loss characteristics of typical loads are shown on the
following table:

Test Object Typical Tan δ Load "Q"

SF6 Insulated Switchgear < .0001 > 10,000


XLPE Cable < .001 > 1,000
EPR Cable ~ 0.005 ~ 200
PVC Cable ~ 0.05 ~ 20
PF Correction Capacitors < .01 > 100
Water Terminations 0.1 10
Generators 0.1 10

The discussion above assumes that all losses are due to losses in the variable reactor and, to a lesser
degree, to the exciter transformer and voltage regulator. There will be a reduction in the system Q,
Q system, due to losses in the test object unless the quality factor of the test object, Q load, is much
greater than that of the variable reactor, Qreactor. This effect can be expressed as:

Variation of Qsystem with Qload is shown in the curve in


Qr eacto r 60
Qsy stem = Qreactor = 80
Q
1 + reactor 50
Qreactor = 60
Ql oad
40
Qreactor =
Q

FigureÊ3. It is evident from this curve that load 30 40


losses have an important effect on system
operation so these losses must be controlled or 20
at least known in advance. It is also important
to prevent loss which may be caused by the test 10
setup such as corona loss due to inadequate HV 0
bus diameter or unshielded electrodes. 0 50 1 00 150 2 00
Q load

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DESIGN Q

The Design Q is an important parameter in resonant system specifications. This is the


worst case quality factor for the system to permit it to achieve full output in the series
resonant mode of operation. This parameter sets the minimum level for the power
rating of the input source, voltage regulator and exciter transformer plus associated
components. The lower the Design Q, the more conservative the design since this accommodates
higher loss in the test object. However there is a cost penalty for too low a value of Design Q.

The cost impact can be minimized by providing a low Design Q only where it is required while
maintaining a higher Design Q for general use. This is done by introducing the concept of a Power Q
and a Voltage Q. This design concept is used for systems provided for use with water terminals for
power cable. The system is designed for a Power Q of 20 so that full voltage can be obtained with
typical cable shipping lengths terminated with water terminals. A Q of 20 will allow the losses in the
terminals to be provided and also supply the full rated kVAR of the test system. When short lengths
of cable are to be tested, for example in sample or type testing, the power loss is proportionately
higher but the overall kVA required by the test object is quite low. For this situation a high voltage
tap is provided on the exciter transformer to effectively provide a Q of 7. Since the total output
kVA is relatively low, the power rating of the voltage regulator, exciter, etc. will be more than
enough for the load.

So by using the concept of a Power Q and a Voltage Q relatively high losses can be accommodated in
fairly light capacitive test objects and the incremental cost increase for the system is extremely
small.

TUNING CHARACTERISTIC

FigureÊ4 shows the response of a series resonant circuit as a function of the ratio of ∆C
to Co and ∆f to f0, where Co and fo are the capacitance and frequency to which the circuit
is tuned and ∆C and ∆f are the deviations from that value. For a high Q circuit these
response curves are very sharp as can be seen.
Relative Response
This sharp response is responsible for several 40
of the unique characteristics of the series Q = 40
resonant circuit, among them the voltage
gain of the circuit and the attenuation of 30
harmonics which is discussed below. It should
also be noted, however, that an inherent limit DC/Co
20
is indicated by these curves. If a particular
Df/f
system will not tune to a capacitance larger o

than Co, then any load above this value will 10


substantially reduce the possible output
voltage. For example, in the case shown in
FigureÊ4 a load 10% higher than the rated 0
tuning range will reduce the available output -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00
DC/C , Df/f
o o
voltage to less than 20% of rated voltage.
Figure 4 - Response of a Resonant Circuit

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LOAD CHARACTERISTICS

Since a series resonant set will not tune to a capacitive load higher than its maximum
rating, it is imperative that the system be designed with due regard to the highest
anticipated load capacitance value at the voltages of interest. There are two aspects to
consider here. First, the HV reactor must be able to tune to the highest capacitance to
be tested on a particular output tap, regardless of the actual test voltage. For example, it
may be necessary to test a 120 nF load at 200 kV and a 90 nF load at 240 kV, both on a 250 kV tap.
This requires the HV reactor kVAR rating to be designed for at least 120 nF at the full tap voltage,
250 kV. Secondly, the current rating of this reactor need only be about 9 amps (at 60 Hz) since the
120 nF load will not be tested at the full tap voltage.

The load range can be extended at reduced voltage very economically by paralleling the modules in a
multiple module cascade system. The input power train, the circuit breakers, contactors, voltage
regulator, exciter transformer, etc. must be designed for the full input power of the system.
Therefore, by connecting the reactor modules in parallel, the full system kVAR can be obtained at
integral multiples of the reactor rated voltage. This is a nice feature because lower voltage insulation
systems have higher capacitance per unit length which results in higher test object capacitance. In
addition, lower voltage power cable is generally produced in longer shipping lengths compared to
higher voltage cable.

Figures 5 and 6 illustrate a typical set of load curves for a typical resonant set with three taps. Note
that the load characteristic can be presented in terms of either output current or load capacitance.
The two are equivalent.

Figure 5 - Current Load Curve for a Figure 6 - Capacitive Load Curve for a
30 1.0

25
Tap 1 - 0.8 mF
Tap 1
Capacitance (uF)
Current (A)

20

15 Tap 2
Tap 2 - 0.26 mF
Tap 3
10

Tap 3 - 0.13 mF
0 0.1
0 50 100 150 200 250 0 50 100 150 200 250
Vo lta g e (kV) Vo ltage (k V)

Tapped HV Reactor Tapped HV Reactor

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The following guidelines may be used for rough estimates for some typical types of loads:

Switchgear 1-5 nF
SF6 Insulated Bus 10-50 nF
HV Insulated Conductors up to 2 µF (See below)

The capacitance of solid dielectric cable can be calculated according to the following formula:

7.36 ε r 24.16 εr
C = pF / ft = pF / meter
log10 (b / a) log10 (b / a)

where (see Figure 7):


b = outer radius of the insulation,
a = radius of the inner conductor plus shield
ε r = relative dielectric constant of the dielectric Figure 7 - Cable Cross
(2 - 6 depending on the material). Section

52
Worst Case Cable Load Values for Normal Production Lengths (IEC)
15/17 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100 150 2000
0 0
Capacitance nF 125 250 375 500 625 750 875 100 112 125 187 2500
0 5 0 5
Test Power @ 30 kV 35 71 106 141 177 212 247 283 318 353 530 707

Test kVA @ 50 kV 98 196 294 393 491 589 687 785 883 981 147 1963
Tap 2

20/24 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100 150 2000
0 0
Capacitance nF 80 160 240 320 400 480 560 640 720 800 120 1600
0
Test Power @ 30 kV 23 45 68 9 0 113 136 158 181 203 226 339 452

Test kVA @ 50 kV 63 126 188 251 314 377 440 502 565 628 942 1256
Tap

30/36 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100 150 2000
0 0
Capacitance nF 70 140 210 280 350 420 490 560 630 700 105 1400
0
Test Power @ 45 kV 45 89 134 178 223 267 312 356 401 445 668 890

Test kVA @ 50 kV 55 110 165 220 275 330 385 440 495 550 824 1099
Tap

45/52 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100 150 2000
0 0
Capacitance nF 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 900 1200
Test Power @ 65 kV 80 159 239 318 398 478 557 637 716 796 119 1592
4

Test kVA @ 75 kV 106 212 318 424 530 636 742 848 954 106 159 2120
Tap 0 0

60/72 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100 150 2000
0 0
Capacitance nF 46 92 138 184 230 276 322 368 414 460 690 920
Test Power @ 90 kV 117 234 351 468 585 702 819 936 105 117 175 2340
3 0 5

Test kVA @ 100 kV 144 289 433 578 722 867 101 115 130 144 216 2889
Tap 1 6 0 4 7
Test kVA @ 175 kV 442 885 1327 1769 221 265 309 353 398 442 663 8847
Tap 2 4 6 9 1 3 5

110/123 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100 150 2000
0 0
Capacitance nF 34 68 102 136 170 204 238 272 306 340 510 680
Test kVA @ 160 kV 273 547 820 1093 136 164 191 218 246 273 410 5466
7 0 3 6 0 3 0

53
Test kVA @ 175 kV 327 654 981 1308 163 196 228 261 294 327 490 6539
Tap 5 2 9 6 3 0 4

54
Worst Case Cable Load Values for Normal Production Lengths (IEC)

132/145 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000
Capacitance nF 31 62 9 3 124 155 186 217 248 279 310 465 620
Test kVA @ 190 kV 351 703 1054 1406 175 210 246 281 3163 3514 5271 7028
7 8 0 1

Test kVA @ 200 kV 389 779 1168 1557 194 233 272 311 3504 3894 5840 7787
Tap 7 6 6 5
Test kVA @ 250 kV 608 1217 1825 2434 304 365 425 486 5475 6084 9126 12168
Tap 2 0 9 7

150/170 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000
Capacitance nF 26 52 7 8 104 130 156 182 208 234 260 390 520
Test kVA @ 218 kV 388 776 1164 1552 194 232 271 310 3492 3880 5820 7760
0 8 6 4

Test kVA @ 250 kV 510 1021 1531 2041 255 306 357 408 4592 5103 7654 10205
Tap 1 2 2 2

220/245 kV /2500mm2
Length m 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000
Capacitance nF 23 46 69 9 2 115 138 161 184 207 230 345 460
Test kVA @ 315 kV 717 1433 2150 2866 358 430 501 573 6449 7166 10749 14332
3 0 6 3

Test kVA @ 350 kV 885 1769 2654 3539 442 530 619 707 7962 8847 13270 17694
Tap 3 8 3 8

55
Worst Case Cable Load Values for Normal Production Lengths (AEIC/ICEA)
69 kV /3000kcmil
Length ft 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Capacitance nF 35 69 104 138 173 207 242 276 311 345
Test Power @ 120 kV 187 375 562 749 936 1124 1311 1498 1686 1873

Test kVA @ 150 kV Tap 244 487 731 975 1219 1462 1706 1950 2194 2437

115 kV /3000kcmil
Length ft 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Capacitance nF 32 64 96 128 160 192 224 256 288 320
Test Power @ 200 kV 483 965 1448 1930 2413 2895 3378 3860 4343 4826

Test Power @ 200 kV Tap 483 965 1448 1930 2413 2895 3378 3860 4343 4826

138 kV /3000kcmil
Length ft 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Capacitance nF 30 59 89 118 148 177 207 236 266 295
Test Power @ 240 kV 641 1281 1922 2562 3203 3844 4484 5125 5765 6406

Test kVA @ 250 kV Tap 579 1158 1737 2316 2895 3474 4053 4632 5210 5789

56
Test Voltages and Taps for IEC Standards

Cable Tap 30 min. 10 sec BIL


Class Rating kV AC Test PD Test kV
kV kV
3/3.6 10 7.2 - 40
6/7.2 25 12.5 6 60
10/12 35 21 10 75
15/17.5 35 30 15 95
20/24 50 30 20 125
30/36 50 45 30 170
45/52 75 65 39 250
60/72.5 100 90 54 325
110/123 175 160 96 550
132/145 200 190 114 650
150/170 250 218 131 750
220/245 350 315 190 1050

Cable Module 1 hour BIL kV


Class Rating kV AC Test
kV

275 400-500 365 1050


345 400-500 458 1175
400 500-600 438 1425
500 600-800 548 -

Test Voltages and Tap Ratings for AEIC/ICEA Standards


Class Tap Rating 5 min. 15 min. 30 min. PD Test 2.5 hr Impulse BIL
kV kV AC Test AC Test AC Test kV Type Test kV kV
kV kV kV Test kV
5 20-30 18-28 - - 18-28 - - 60
8 30-40 23-35 - - 23-35 - - 95
15 40-50 35-44 - - 35-44 108.5 210 110
25 75 52-62 - - 52-62 - - 150
28 75 56-69 - - 56-69 - - 150
35 75-100 69-84 - - 69-84 - - 200
46 100-125 89-116 - - 89-116 - - 250
69 150 - 120 100 100 100 440 350
115 200 - 200 160 160 160 690 550
138 250 - 240 200 200 200 815 650

57
ATTENUATION OF HARMONICS

T he series resonant circuit is a low pass filter with a pole at its resonant frequency. In the
case of interest here, this frequency is 50 or 60 Hz. In order to evaluate the effect on the
output of a distorted input voltage waveform, the transfer function of the circuit can be
written as:

VC = 1
= A(ω )
V (1- ω LC) + jωRC
2

where ω = 2πf, and f is the operating frequency.

T he response to an input voltage of frequency ω k would then be:

Vck = V( ω k ) x A( ω k )

But

1 ω ω 1
ω o RC = ∴ x ω o RC = ωRC = x
Qsystem ωo ω o Qsystem

where ω O is the power frequency fundamental and Qsystem is the system Q at the power frequency. With
these substitutions, the transfer function becomes:

1
A(ω ) =
ω
2
ω 1
(1- 2 ) + j( )( )
ωo ω o Q system

So, for the fundamental (ω = ω o ),


| A|= Qsystem

and for the n th harmonic (for Qsystem > 10)


1
| An | ∪ 2
n -1

T herefore the ratio of the n th harmonic to the fundamental is:

1
| An | ∪ 2
A (n - 1)Q system

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For a circuit with Qsystem = 40, and 5% third harmonic distortion on the input, the distortion on the
1
output would be 5 x 1 or approximately 0.02%.
8 x 40

T his is not an exact analysis since the simple equivalent circuit in FigureÊ2 (page 2) can represent the
system accurately only at a single frequency. Also, high frequency noise can couple through the stray
capacitance of the coils to the output. However this analysis does show the high attenuation of the
system to low order harmonics, which are of concern, and actual systems exhibit total harmonic
distortion below 0.5%. Because of the low input kVA requirements of these systems, any high
frequency noise at the input can easily be filtered with economical low voltage mains filters. T his low
distortion level exceeds all standards for HV testing and eliminates the need for peak voltmeters in
resonant test systems.

TRANSIENT RESPONSE

When flashover of the test object occurs, the energy in the resonant circuit is dissipated
and the voltage tends to build again up slowly. T he output voltage of the system after a
flashover can be expressed as:
ωt
V(t) = Vpeak [1 - ε (- 2Qsystem ) ] cos( ωt)

Voltage buildup is smooth and slow (Qsystem cycles to return to full


voltage) as shown in FigureÊ8 with no possibility of the power
follow fault current or overvoltage transients which can occur with
conventional test transformers. In a practical application, the
protective devices in the test set would cause the system to shut
down in the first few cycles following flashover so this waveform
is not normally observed. Figure 8 - Transient Voltage

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