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Anupam Chakrabarti

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE

ROORKEE, INDIA

1

LIMIT ANALYSIS

2

The assumption generally made in limit analysis is that the moment-

curvature relation is an idealised bilinear elasto-plastic relation

This has validity only if the section is adequately under-reinforced and the

reinforcing steel has a well-defined yield plateau.

Formation of Plastic hinge

With the idealised M – ϕ relation, the ultimate moment of resistance (MuR) is assumed to

have been reached at a ‘critical’ section in a flexural member with the yielding of the tension

steel

On further straining (increase in curvature: ϕ > ϕy), the moment at the section cannot

increase. However, the section ‘yields’, and the curvature continues to increase under a

constant moment (M = MuR)

In general (with bending moment varying along the length of the member), the zone of

‘yielding’ spreads over a small region in the immediate neighbourhood of the section under

consideration, permitting continued rotation, as though a ‘hinge’ is present at the section, but

one that continues to resist a fixed moment MuR. A plastic hinge is said to have formed at the

section

If the structure is statically indeterminate, it is still stable after the formation of a plastic

hinge, and for further loading, it behaves as a modified structure with a hinge at the plastic

hinge location (and one less degree of indeterminacy)

It can continue to carry additional loading (with formation of additional plastic hinges) until

the limit state of collapse is reached on account of one of the following reasons:

formation of sufficient number of plastic hinges, to convert the structure (or a part of it) into a

‘mechanism’

limitation in ductile behaviour (i.e., curvature ϕ reaching the ultimate value ϕmax, or, in other

words a plastic hinge reaching its ultimate rotation capacity) at any one plastic hinge location,

resulting in local crushing of concrete at that section

Example: Limit analysis

reached at a load w = w1 and corresponding

maximum bending moment MuR

Loading on beam

𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙2

⇒ 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = − = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝒘𝒘𝟏𝟏 𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐 = 𝑴𝑴𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖

8

𝟖𝟖𝑴𝑴

i.e., 𝒘𝒘𝟏𝟏 = 𝟐𝟐𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖

𝒍𝒍

Moment at any section in span ‘AB’

From known moments at supports

Find reaction force RA: ∑ 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = 0

𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 × 𝑙𝑙 − + =0

2 8

𝑹𝑹𝑨𝑨 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝒘𝒘𝟏𝟏 𝒍𝒍

Bending moment at any section in span AB

𝑤𝑤1 𝑥𝑥 2

𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑥𝑥 − −−− −(2)

2

Bending moment up to limit of elastic phase

Maximum bending moment in the span AB will be where the shear force is zero, i.e.

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥

= 0 ⇒ 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤1 𝑥𝑥 = 0

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

0.375𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙

𝑥𝑥 = = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑

𝑤𝑤1

Substitute ‘x-value’ in equation (2)

2

𝑤𝑤1 × 0.375𝑙𝑙

𝑀𝑀(𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴)𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 0.375𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙 × 0.375𝑙𝑙 − = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒘𝒘𝟏𝟏 𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝑴𝑴𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖

2

(if 0.125𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙 2 = 1𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 then 0.0703𝑤𝑤1 𝑙𝑙2 = 0.5624𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 )

Plastic hinge at continuous support

• Now, increase the load on the beam to 𝑤𝑤2 = 𝑤𝑤 > 𝑤𝑤1 , the beam behaves as a two-span beam with a

hinge at support B and the span moment alone increases while the support moment remains constant

at MuR

• Assuming that the support section is sufficiently under-reinforced such that it will not break down prior

to the formation of the next plastic hinge, this phase of behaviour will continue until the peak moment in

the span reaches MuR

𝑤𝑤2 × 𝑥𝑥 2 𝑤𝑤2 𝑙𝑙 − 𝑥𝑥 2

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 = 2𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 = −− −(3)

2 2 A B

2

𝑤𝑤2 𝑙𝑙 − 𝑥𝑥 2 𝑙𝑙 − 𝑥𝑥 2

𝑤𝑤2 𝑥𝑥 = ⇒ 𝑥𝑥 =

2 2

𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒

Substitute x value in equation (3)

Limit analysis

𝒘𝒘𝟐𝟐 𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

𝑴𝑴𝒖𝒖𝒖𝒖 =

𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏. 𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟔𝟔

11.656𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢

𝒘𝒘𝟐𝟐 = = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟏𝟏

𝑙𝑙2

Moment redistribution

• It is generally referred to the transfer of moments from

peak stressed sections to the less stressed sections as

sections of peak moments being reached

• Design viewpoint, the redistributed bending moment

diagram allows to reduce the maximum bending moment

level and a corresponding increase in the lower Two span continuous beam with uniform loading

moments at other location

• It leads to design of a more economical structure and

less congestion of reinforcement at critical sections

• Considering the two-span continuous beam, as a design

problem (rather than an analysis problem), it may be

seen that the designer has several alternative factored

moment diagrams to choose from, depending on the Design moments of resistance

amount of redistribution to be considered

• If the design is to be based on a purely elastic moment

distribution (without considering any redistribution) then

the bending moment diagram to be considered is as

shown in elastic bending moment diagram

(A)

Reduction in peak negative moments

−

High support moment 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) demands large section beam or limited cross-section with large amount of

reinforcement

−

In such situations, it is desirable to reduce the design moment at the support to the value C1𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) and

correspondingly increase span (positive) moments which are otherwise low

The % reduction in the support moment given by:

𝛿𝛿𝑀𝑀 = 1 − 𝐶𝐶1 × 100

− −

Consequent to a reduction in the support moment from 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) to 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) , there is an increase in the design

+ +

(‘positive’) moment in the span region from 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) to 𝐶𝐶2 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) , where the factor 𝐶𝐶2 obviously is greater than

unity. Accordingly, as indicated in Figure

−

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢(𝐿𝐿) = 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀_𝐸𝐸 C1< 1 --------------(1)

+ +

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢(𝐿𝐿) = 𝐶𝐶2 𝑀𝑀(𝐸𝐸) C2> 1---------------(2)

where the subscript (L) represents limit analysis. The factor C2 (indicating the increase in the elastic

span moment 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸+ ) depends on the factor C1. The factor C1is fixed (based on the percentage

reduction desired), and the factor C2 has to be determined for design by considering ‘limit analysis’

x

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− = 0

2

𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− X

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 −

𝑙𝑙

Moment about section X-X in span AB:

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥 2 l

𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑥𝑥 −

2

Max. bending moment

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥

=0

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥 = 0 ⟹ 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 − = 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥

𝑙𝑙

Limit analysis (reduced support moment C1M-(E))

𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−

𝑥𝑥 = 0.5𝑙𝑙 −

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙

Maximum span moment corresponding to reduced support moment of 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−

2

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸− 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 𝐶𝐶1 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸−

𝐶𝐶2 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸+ = − − − −

2 𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 2 2 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙

𝐶𝐶2 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸+ = − − − +

2 𝑙𝑙 2 𝑙𝑙 4 2𝑙𝑙

= − −

2 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙 4 2𝑙𝑙

𝟐𝟐

𝒘𝒘𝒖𝒖 𝒍𝒍 𝟏𝟏 𝑪𝑪𝟏𝟏 𝑴𝑴−

𝑬𝑬 𝟏𝟏

∴ 𝑪𝑪𝟐𝟐 𝑀𝑀𝐸𝐸+ = + − 𝑪𝑪𝟏𝟏 𝑴𝑴𝑬𝑬−

𝟖𝟖 𝟐𝟐𝒘𝒘𝒖𝒖 𝑳𝑳 𝟐𝟐

2

64 1 𝐶𝐶1

𝐶𝐶2 = −

9 2 8

This equation is represented graphically in the figure

support moment (positive) moment

25 17.3

50 36.1

moment with increase in span moment

For the desired moment redistribution to take place, the plastic hinges that

develop must have the required rotation capacities to hold on without inducing

premature failure

Reduction in peak positive moments

• Moment redistribution may also be applied to situation

where positive moments are relatively high and need to

be reduced for economy and less congestion of

reinforcement

• In a two span continuous beam, if the loading

arrangement is like shown in figure then the span AB

experiences the max. bending moment Loading diagram for max. +ve span

• The max. span moment from elastic analysis can be moment in AB

redistributed by allowing the first hinge to form in the

span region.

• The reduction in span moment is accompanied by a

corresponding increase in support moment

Redistributed moment

Recommendations of IS Code (IS 456) for Moment Redistribution

Section 37.1.1

Limit Equilibrium

The redistributed moments must be in a state of static equilibrium with the factored loads at the limit

state

Serviceability

The ultimate moment of resistance (𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢) at any section should not be less than 70 percent of the

factored moment (𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢, max) at that section, as obtained from the elastic moment envelope (considering

all loading combinations).

In other words, the flexural strength at any section should not be less than that given by the elastic

factored moment envelope, scaled by a factor of 0.7

(Section 37.1.1.b)

This restriction is aimed at ensuring that plastic hinge formation does not take place under normal

service loads, and even if it does take place, the yielding of the steel will not be so significant as to

result in excessive crack-widths and deflections

value of 70% is arrived at as the ratio of service loads to ultimate loads with respect to load

combinations involving a uniform load factor of 1.5, as 1/1.5 = 0.67 ≅ 0.7

Low Demand for High Plastic Hinge Rotation Capacities

The reduction in the elastic factored moment (‘negative’ or ‘positive’) at any section due to a particular

combination of factored loads should not exceed 30 percent of the absolute maximum factored

moment (𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢, max), as obtained from the envelope of factored elastic moments (considering all loading

combinations).

Although the basis for this clause in the Code (Cl. 37.1.1.c) is different from the previous clause, which

is based on the idea of preventing the formation of plastic hinges at service loads, for the case of

gravity loading, in effect, this clause is no different.

However, in the design of lateral load resisting frames (with number of storeys exceeding four), the

Code (Cl. 37.1.1.e) imposes an additional overriding restriction. The reduction in the elastic factored

moment is restricted to 10 percent of 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢, max. Thus

𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔𝑔

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 − 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 ≤ �

0.1 𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢,𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒

𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙

This restriction is intended to ensure that the ductility requirements at the plastic hinge locations are

not excessive

Adequate Plastic Hinge Rotation Capacity

The design of the critical section (plastic hinge location) should be such that it is sufficiently under-

reinforced, with a low neutral axis depth factor (xu/d), satisfying

(Section 37.1.1.d)

• where δM denotes the percentage reduction in the maximum factored elastic moment (Mu,max)

elastic at the section

For singly reinforced rectangular beam sections, the expression for xu/d is given below, which is

repeated here for convenience, with MuR = Mu

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢

, 𝑅𝑅 =

𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 2

Moment Redistribution in Beams

Low values of xu/d (and, thus large values of δΜ) are generally not possible in beams without resorting

to very large sections, which may be uneconomical. However, even with the extreme case of a

balanced section (with xu = xu,max), it can be shown, by applying

and

• Thus, it is seen that a limited moment distribution (for example, up to 12.1 percent in the case of Fe 415

steel) is possible, even with the limiting neutral axis depth permitted for design.

Example 1

Analyse a three-span continuous beam (with equal spans l ), subjected to a uniformly

distributed load w per unit length, to determine the critical ‘positive’ moments M1 or MAB and

MCD (in the end span) and M2 or MBC (in the interior span), as well as the ‘negative’ moment

M3 or MB and MC at the continuous support. Assume that the dead load (wD) and live load

(wL) components of the total load (w) are equal (wD= wL= 0.5w and wD+wL= w). Also assume

all spans to have the same cross-section. Compare the moment coefficients obtained by

a) Elastic analysis considering total load w on all spans

b) Elastic analysis considering ‘pattern loading’

c) Code recommendations for moment coefficients

Solution

Find out elastic moments for above beam using theorem of Three Moment:

𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 = 𝑀𝑀𝐷𝐷 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 (𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)

For span AB and BC:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 + 2 × 2𝑙𝑙𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −

4 4

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

4𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −−−− −(1)

2

Similarly for span BC and CD:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 4𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −−− −(2)

2

Solve equations (1) and (2),

𝑴𝑴𝟑𝟑 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩 = 𝑴𝑴𝑪𝑪 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Bending moment about any section in span AB: Max. bending moment in span BC:

Moment about ‘B’: Moment about ‘C’:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.1𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − − 0.1𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 + 0.1𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0

2 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.4𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2 𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2

𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.4𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − −−−− −(3) 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − − 0.1𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2

2 2

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

Maximum bending moment occurs where =0 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

From equation (3) 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝒍𝒍

𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒 𝑴𝑴𝟐𝟐 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Substitute x value in equation (3)

b) Elastic analysis considering ‘pattern loading’

Find out elastic moments for above beam using theorem of three moment:

𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 = 𝑀𝑀𝐷𝐷 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 (𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)

For span AB and BC:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 + 2 × 2𝑙𝑙𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −

8 4

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

4𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−−− −(4)

4 8

Similarly for span BC and CD:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 4𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−−− −(5)

8 4

Solve equations (4) and (5),

𝑴𝑴𝟑𝟑 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩 = 𝑴𝑴𝑪𝑪 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Bending moment about any section in span AB: Max. bending moment in span BC:

Moment about ‘B’: Moment about ‘C’:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2 = 0 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − − 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 + 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0

2 4

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.425𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.25𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2 𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2

𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.425𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − −−−− −(6) 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.25𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − − 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2

2 4

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

Maximum bending moment occurs where =0 =0

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

From equation (6) 0.25𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 − 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝒍𝒍

𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟒 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Substitute x value in equation (6)

w on mid spans and wD on end span

Find out elastic moments for above beam using theorem of three moment:

𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 = 𝑀𝑀𝐷𝐷 = 0 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 = 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 (𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)

For span AB and BC:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 + 2 × 2𝑙𝑙𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −

8 4

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

4𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−−− −(7)

8 4

Similarly for span BC and CD:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 4𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−−− −(8)

4 8

Solve equations (7) and (8),

𝑴𝑴𝟑𝟑 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩 = 𝑴𝑴𝑪𝑪 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Max. bending moment in span BC:

Bending moment about any section in span AB:

Moment about ‘B’: Moment about ‘C’:

2

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2 = 0 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − − 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 + 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0

4 2

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − − 0.075𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2

𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.175𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − −−−− −(9) 2

4 𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 =0

Maximum bending moment occurs where =0 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0

From equation (9)

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝒍𝒍

Substitute x value in equation (9)

𝑴𝑴𝟏𝟏 = 𝑴𝑴𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

w on span AB, and BC and Dead load wD on CD span

Find out elastic moments for above beam using theorem of three moment:

𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 = 𝑀𝑀𝐷𝐷 = 0

For span AB and BC:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 + 2 × 2𝑙𝑙𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −

4 4

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

4𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − −−−− −(10)

2

Similarly for span BC and CD:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙3 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 3

𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 + 4𝑀𝑀𝐶𝐶 𝑙𝑙 = − − −−− −(11)

4 8

Solve equations (1) and (2),

𝑴𝑴𝟑𝟑 = 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟖𝟖𝟖𝟖𝒘𝒘𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐 𝑴𝑴𝑪𝑪 = −𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Bending moment about any section in span AB: Max. bending moment in span BC:

Moment about ‘B’: Moment about ‘C’:

𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.1082𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2 = 0 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.0667𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2 − 0.1082𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙 2 = 0

2 2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.3918𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 = 0.5412𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2 𝑤𝑤𝑥𝑥 2

𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.3918𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − −−−− −(12) 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.5412𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑥𝑥 − − 0.1082𝑤𝑤𝑙𝑙2

2 2

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

Maximum bending moment occurs where =0 =0

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

From equation (12) 0.5412𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 − 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = 0 𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝟓𝒍𝒍

𝒙𝒙 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑𝟑 𝑴𝑴𝑩𝑩𝑩𝑩 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

Substitute x value in equation (12)

𝑴𝑴𝟏𝟏 = 𝑴𝑴𝑨𝑨𝑨𝑨 = 𝟎𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝒍𝒍𝟐𝟐

c) Code recommendations for moment coefficients

𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷 𝑊𝑊

𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 + , + 𝑢𝑢,𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑙𝑙2

12 10

Positive Moments: � 𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷 𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿

𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 + , + , 𝑙𝑙2

16 12

1𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 − , + , 𝑙𝑙

10 9

Negative Moments: � 𝑊𝑊𝑢𝑢 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷 𝑊𝑊

𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜 𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 − 12 , + 9𝑢𝑢,𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑙𝑙2

1 1

𝑀𝑀1 = + 0.5𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 + = +0.0917𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2

12 10

Span moments� 1 1

𝑀𝑀2 = + 0.5𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 + = +0.0729𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2

16 12

1 1

Support moments 𝑀𝑀3 = − 0.5𝑤𝑤 𝑙𝑙2 + = −0.1056𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2

10 9

Comparison of results

Span moments Support moment

Method M3

M1 M2

(a) Total load on all spans +0.0800 +0.0250 -0.1000

(b) Pattern loading +0.0903 -0.01250 -0.1082

+0.0500

(c) Code coefficients +0.0917 +0.0729 -0.1056

Comments

• The simplified consideration of total loading on all spans [case (a)] results in a 50 percent

under-estimation in the ‘positive’ mid-span moment (M2) in the interior span; M1 and M3

are also under-estimated, but marginally

• The Code coefficient method over-estimates the mid-span ‘positive’ moment M2 in the

interior span by as much as 45.8 percent and the moment M1 in the end span by 1.5%

• in general, the relatively crude method of considering total loads on all spans

results in an non-conservative design, whereas the use of Code moment coefficients

results in a relatively conservative design.

Example 2

(a) Based on the elastic factored moment envelope obtainable from Example 1, design

the flexural reinforcement in the three-span continuous beam of Example 1, given the

following data:

w = 30 kN/m (wD = 15 kN/m, wL = 15 kN/m); l = 8.0 m

Assume a partial load factor of 1.5 for both dead loads and live loads (as per IS Code).

Use M 20 concrete and Fe 415 steel.

(b) Redesign the three-span continuous beam by applying moment redistribution (to the

extent permitted by the Code)

Solution:

a)

Factored load w = 1.5 × 30 = 45 kN/m, wu l2 = 45 × (8.0)2 = 2880 kNm

The elastic factored moment envelope, based on the results of Example 1, is shown fig

continuous support exp 1

Min./max. moments in

span AB/BC exp 1

Max./min. moments in

span AB/BC exp 1

Span moments �

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢𝑢 = 0.050𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2 = +144 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 (𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠)

Proportioning of beam section:

Assume a beam width b = 300 mm. Considering the maximum design moment of 311.7 kN/m,

for an under-reinforced section

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢

effective depth 𝑑𝑑 =

𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅

311.7 × 106

𝑑𝑑𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = = 611.6

2.778 × 300

Assume overall depth D = 700 mm and d ≈ 655 mm (for an economical design)

Design of flexural reinforcement:

≡ = 1− 1− ∴ 𝑅𝑅 ≡

100 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 2𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦 𝑓𝑓𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑏𝑏𝑑𝑑2

Considering fck = 20 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, b = 300 mm, d = 655 mm, the following results are

obtained

1. For Mu1 = + 260.1 kNm, R = 2.021 MPa ⇒ pt = 0.647 ⇒ (Ast)reqd = 1271 mm2 Provide 2–25φ

+ 1–20φ at bottom in the end span [Ast = 1296 mm2 > 1271]

2. For Mu2 = + 144.0 kNm, R = 1.119 MPa ⇒ pt = 0.333 ⇒ (Ast)reqd = 655 mm2 Provide 2–16φ +

1–20φ at bottom in the central span [Ast = 716 mm2 > 654] Mu2 = – 0.0125 wul2 = 36 kNm

is accommodated by the nominal top steel (2–16φ bars) provided

3. For Mu3 = – 311.7 kNm, R = 2.422 MPa ⇒ pt = 0.805 ⇒ (Ast)reqd = 1583 mm2 Provide

2–28 φ + 2–16 φ at top [Ast = 1634 mm2 > 1583] up to, say 0.3l on the end span side,

and 0.4l on the central span side of the continuous support; beyond this, the 2–16 φ bars

may be extended over the span regions as nominal top steel

(b) Moment Redistribution

The maximum reduction in moment permitted by the Code is 30 percent, corresponding to which, the

design moment at the continuous support is given by

� u3 = 0.7 Mu3 = 0.7 × – 0.1082 wul2

𝑀𝑀

= – 0.07574 wul2= – 218.2 kNm

Assuming b = 300 mm and d = 655 mm (as before)

= 1.202 1 − 1 − = 0.263

𝑑𝑑 20 × 300 × 6552

which satisfies the Code requirement xu/d ≤ 0.6 – 30/100 = 0.30 (for 30% reduction in Mu3). Hence, the

desired plastic rotation capacity is ensured.

Now, the increase of AB span moment corresponding to decreased support moment:

Find out moment about B:

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 × 𝑙𝑙2

𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 × 𝑙𝑙 − + 0.07574𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2 = 0 ⟹ 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.424𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙

2

Moment at any section of AB:

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥 2

𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.424𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙𝑥𝑥 −

2

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

Maximum bending moment occurs where =0

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑥𝑥 = 0.424𝑙𝑙

Max. AB span bending moment (Substitute x value in 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 ) 𝑀𝑀𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 = 0.09𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2

Determine max. BC span moment:

Take moment about C:

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2

𝑅𝑅𝐵𝐵 𝑙𝑙 − − 0.07574𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2 + 0.0748𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2 = 0 ⟹ 𝑅𝑅𝐴𝐴 = 0.5𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙

2

Moment at any section of BC:

𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑥𝑥 2

𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 = 0.5 𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 − − 0.07574𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2

2

𝑑𝑑𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥

Maximum bending moment occurs where =0

𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑥𝑥 = 0.5𝑙𝑙

Max. BC span bending moment (Substitute x value in 𝑀𝑀𝑥𝑥 ) 𝑀𝑀𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵 = 0.049𝑤𝑤𝑢𝑢 𝑙𝑙2

Bending moment envelope after redistribution:

• For the loading pattern shown in example1(b), the possibility of redistribution has been recognised by

reducing the design flexural strength at the continuous support from the elastic solution value of –0.1082

� u3= –0.07574 wul2.

wul2to 𝑀𝑀

• By performing an analysis of the continuous beam with a plastic hinge at the continuous support the

maximum +ve moments in end span and centre span are

𝑀𝑀

Central span: 𝑀𝑀

end span moment: � u1 = +0.0903 wul2 = 260.1 kNm

𝑀𝑀

central span moment: � u2= + 0.0500 wul2= 144 kNm

𝑀𝑀

Considering fck = 20 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, b = 300 mm, d = 655 mm (as before), for

� u1= + 260.1 kNm, (which is identical to Part(a) of this Example).

𝑀𝑀

Provide 2–25 φ + 1–20 φ at bottom in the end span (Ast = 1296 mm2>1256).

� u2 = +144.0 kNm, (which is identical to Part(a) of this Example) Provide 2 16 φ +

1) for 𝑀𝑀

1–20 φ at bottom in the central span (exactly as before).

𝑀𝑀𝑢𝑢

� 𝑢𝑢3 = +218.2𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘, 𝑅𝑅 ≡

2) for 𝑀𝑀 = 1.695 𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 ⇒ pt= 0.527 ⇒ (Ast)reqd = 1036 mm2.

𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏2

Provide 2–22 φ + 2–16 φ at top (Ast = 1162 mm2 >1036), with the 2–22 φ bars curtailed

exactly as before.

Note: This results in some savings, compared to the earlier design which required 2–28 φ

+ 2–16 φ.

THANKS

40

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