Collegiate a Cappella: Emulation and Originality Author(s): Joshua S. Duchan Source: American Music, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Winter, 2007), pp.

477-506 Published by: University of Illinois Press Stable URL: Accessed: 29/04/2010 19:05
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Emulation and


Cappella: Originality

A cappellagroupsthriveon college and universitycampusesthroughout the nation (andbeyond).The genreof amateurvocal music these groups representhas grown prodigiouslyin numbersand prominenceover the past twenty-fiveyearsor so. Therearenow abouta thousandcollegiatea cappellagroupsin the United States,many of whom in recentyearshave seen flatteringpress coveragein majormedia outlets.1Typicallyconsisting of up to sixteen singers who come in all-male,all-female,and mixed varieties,these groups draw most of theirrepertoryfrompopularmusic recordingsof the late twentiethand early twenty-firstcenturies. Collegiate a cappella balances emulation- a desire to sound like its recordedmodels- with an aspirationfor originality.The Oxford English defines "emulation"as "the endeavour to equal or surpass Dictionary This nicely captures how the others in any achievement or quality."2 term applies to a musical practicethat uses certaintechniques in order for the vocal-only presentationof a song to "equal"the commercialrecording (which usually includes instruments).These techniquesmight or be describedas "imitation" "mimicry," especially if the instrumental function of the vocal parts is clear.Other techniques, however, aim to "surpass"the commercial recording. By offering new musical ideas, those techniques add originality to the song and/or its presentation. Althoughemulationand originalityhave an inherenttension and sometimes contradicteach other,both pervade the practiceof a cappella.
Joshua S. Duchan received his Ph.D. in musicology from the University of Michigan in 2007. The present article is adapted from a portion of his dissertation, "Powerful Voices: Performance and Interaction in Contemporary Collegiate A Cappella." He is currently a postdoctoral fellow in the Music Department at Kalamazoo College, Kalamazoo, Mich., where he teaches courses in American music, world music and cultures, and popular music.
AmericanMusic Winter 2007 © 2008 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois



Certainmusical characteristics distinguish collegiate a cappella from other American popular and secular vocal ensembles, such as barbershop quartets,doo-wop groups, and glee clubs. First,a cappella takes recordingsof rocksongs as its raw materialand maintainsrock'smusical distinction between the lead solo and its accompaniment,whereas barbershopdraws its repertoryfromthe late nineteenthand early twentieth centuries and features primarily equal-voice settings.3 Second, the vocal percussion and degree of instrumentalimitation found in a cappella (bothdescribedbelow) separateit fromdoo-wop, which relied on pitched voices and, in some cases, actual instrumentsfor its rhythmic drive.4Third,the limited size and student leadership of a cappella groups sets them apart from most modern glee clubs.5 Becausecollegiatea cappellatakespopularrecordingsas its raw material, it provides an excellent case study of intertextualityand recontextualizationin popular music. At its core lies the practiceof "covering." Although terminologicalagreementseems elusive, scholarstend to distinguish between at least two types of covering. David Horn draws a distinction between covering, which "generallyrequiressome kind of close approximationto an original," and "interpreting," which "may involve that,but does not have to."6Deena Weinsteinpairs the possibly idea of a cover with that of a "version,"and differentiatesthe two by their referenceto preexistingmaterial: A cover song iterates (with more or fewer differences)a prior recorded performance of a song by a particular artist, rather than simply the song itself as an entity separate from any performer or performance. When the song itself (as opposed to the performance) is taken as the referencefor iteration,each performerdoes a version or a rendition of the song, and none of these versions is a necessary reference.7 On the other hand, Serge Lacasseassociates "the idea of interpretation or reading"directlywith the process of covering,which he defines as "a renderingof a previously recordedsong that displays the usual stylistic Note Lacasse's and Weinstein's configurationof the covering artist."8 referencesto previously recorded material,which is not found specific in Horn's distinction but which is particularlyrelevant to collegiate a cappella. I takeWeinstein'sdefinitionsas a point of departure becausethey offer the most useful and specific distinctionwithin the realmof mimetic,intertextualpractices.Despite the theoreticaldistinctionsin the discourse of popular music scholarship,however, genres also exist in which such distinctionsas "covers"and "versions"necessarilyblur.The techniques discussed here,and the social motivationsfor them,illustratehow a cappella draws on both ideas simultaneously.9

which for several decades operated without the direct leadership of university personnel.1834.16 Throughout the 1840s and 1850s. The Whiffenat 1909.14The YaleMusical Society. including colonial and early nineteenth-century choral groups at universities such as Dartmouth.12 The In 1807. and in instrumentalclub following year at Harvardwhose meetings also included singing. Harvard.19 including Collegiatea cappellahas also been influencedin the twentiethcentury . WilliamCrowninwith the firstfounded in 1858at Harvardby Benjamin shield afterearlierattemptsin 1833.the Handel Society was founded at DartmouthCollege. regardedas the firstcollegiatea cappellagroupbecausethey arethe oldest continuously existing group (still active today) and have remained distinctfromthe university'sofficialchoralensembles.13 saw the startof the PierianSodality.beginning in 1912.the school's Beethoven Society added secular songs to its Groupslike these performedat commencementceremonies repertory. professorof choral music at Harvard. Survivingtunebooksand songsters. the University of MichiganMen's Glee Club. was an ensemble of twelve chapel singers. administratively the Glee Club. Davison.and 1841failed to take root.A Collegiate Cappella 479 Theclaimsin this articledo not necessarilyapply to all collegiatea cappella elite subset of the YaleGlee Club. Yale students formed vocal ensembles with other members of their class. They are generally TempleBar.18 Collegiatea cappellais oftensaid to start with the Whiffenpoofs.Glee clubs were (and largely continue to be) single-sex ensembles. For example. They arebased primarilyon ethnographicresearchwith a handfulof groups and my own experiencewith a cappellain variouscaThe pacities.a seven-man group that emerged from the VarsityQuartet.with regularweekly performances Mory's poofs beganin January a popular student pub in New Haven.and the HarvardGlee Club was led by ArchibaldT. and sometimes traveledto instructional"conventions"and academicfestivals across New England.containingboth sacredand secular songs. offerevidence of organizedcollege singing in colonialAmerica.11 Historical Background Collegiate a cappella emerged from earliervocal genres on college and university campuses.Thereafter hope to lay a foundationon which future a cappella researchcan build. Collegiateglee clubsappearedin the middle of the nineteenthcentury. founded in 1812. and Yale. the YaleGlee Club coalesced in 1861out of this tradition.firstcame under faculty leadershipin 1908.founded in 1859.15 and proms.10 historicalbackgroundwith which I begin merelysketches I a cappella'shistory in orderto provide context.17 Smallvocal ensemblesformedwithin and alongside college glee clubs and werepopularas earlyas the 1840s.

1977). of the most popularvocalgroupsof the swing a cappella hits such as Billy Joel's "TheLongestTime"(1983).23 These songs appearedduring the very period when collegiatea cappellaproliferated rapidlyon Americancollege and likely contributedto this expansion (see figure I).made remarkably convincing vocal imitationsof instruments. and the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology (Logarhythms. Withinthe next decade. Toronto(Wibijazz'n.480 Duchan by otheramateurand commercialvocal genres. followed suit.can be found in a cappellapractice.1949).and the Clef Hangers(University of North Carolinaat Chapel Hill. 1980). BobbyMcFerrin's"Don'tWorry. 1942).which providedcollegeage singers with of collegiatea cappella'skey features.Spizzwinks(?)26 well as groupslike the Smiffenpoofs(SmithCollege.VassarCollege (Night Owls. These included the (1914).TTiese includedthe Ivy Leagueschools. with groups establishedat institutionssuch as the Universityof Vermont(TopCats. 1988).22 the 1950s urbanstreet-corner In doorecordedand made popularby many vocal quartetsand quintets. The first five years of the new century show approximatelythe same growth rate as the previous decade.and Boyz II Men's "It'sSo Hardto Say Goodbye to Yesterday" (1991)topped the chartsand earned criticalrecognition. 1926).20 Musically.25 But the number grew dramaticallyin the late 1980s through the 1990s.21 tory Instrumental imitation.much of the Whiffenpoofs'early reperdraws heavily on the barbershopstyle.1940). wop.Williams College (WilliamsOctet.which scholars Manyof barbershop's such as Gage Averilland Liz Garnetthave investigated. Louis (Pikers. socialeffects. Commercialvocal harmonycontinuedinto the 1980sand 1990s. but in other. was a prominentand popular genre of close-harmonysinging beginning around the turn of the twentiethcentury.the Friars(Universityof Michigan. . The geographicscope began to widen.By the end of the 1980s.including AmherstCollege (DQ.and Alley Cats (1943)at Yaleas Whiffenpoofs.24 campuses Most early collegiate a cappella took place at elite institutionsin the northeastern UnitedStates.The most new groups were establishedin 1996.more commerone cially oriented.1955).Be Happy" (1988).1962).WashingtonUniversity.which claimed twenty-six groups (with Yale'seleven more than double any other of the elite eight).1949).more in the 1989). the Beelzebubs(TuftsUniversity. 313 newgroups had begun.the Kingsmen (ColumbiaUniversity. Barbershopquartetsinging. originated not in barbershoppractice. as well as numerousotheresteemed institutions in that part of the country. In 1980therewere approximately110active least 226 groups existed.YorkUniversity.when forty-sixwere founded in a single year.1936).1985). for example.models to follow.vocal genres. and vocal innovationsto adopt. Forexample.and the Universityof Georgia(Noteworthy.however. the Mills Brothers. period 1990-99than in the prioreighty-oneyears.

Growthof CollegiateA Cappella.29 Two years later. enabled school choral ensembles to participate in organized competitions. The contest movement that began in Kansas in 1914. The 1928 meeting of the Music Supervisors National Conference (MSNC) was dubbed a "singing conference" and featured numerous high school a cappella choir performances and a quartet contest. stimulating the forming of glee clubs and granting them respectability. But that boom also depended on the integration of male and female students in American colleges and universities.27 By the end of the "a cappella craze" of the 1930s and '40s. such as the Yale Whiffenpoofs and the Smith Smiffenpoofs.30 Such events helped lay the foundations for the collegiate a cappella boom in the '80s and '90s. Changes in high school music education in the United States had nurtured the growth of collegiate a cappella. when music educators increasingly embraced popular music. music publishers realized the potential of the high school choir market and began advertising in music education journals. This continued into the second half of the century.CollegiateA Cappella 481 Figure1.28Following the Tanglewood Symposium of 1967. Early single-sex a cappella groups.1909-2005. Between 1928 and 1934 the MSNC hosted the National High School Chorus. for example. in the summer of 1969. the Youth Music Institute was convened at the University of Wisconsin so that high school students could teach popular music styles to teachers. the Music Educators National Conference endorsed popular music in music education. unaccompanied choral singing was firmly established in the curriculum. Finally. .

SpikeLee. ing the Ivy League.were coeducationalfrom the start.several institutions emerged over the course of the 1990s that organized and institutionalized collegiate a cappella practice and provided spaces.CASA. engineers. a A Newsletter.31 early 2007.the Bobs (1982).includingthe Manhattan Transfer (founded 1972).33 Coincidingwith the a cappella boom of the 1990swas the rise of the Internet.and RARB.In 1994 the RecordedA Cappella Review Board (RARB)began as an on-line archive of a cappella recordingreviews. Spike Co. and the World Wide Web becameincreasinglyaccessible. Usenet discussion boards. sixty-fivemen's.:Do It A Cappella and others. tips.The website continues to host a discussion forum to which professionaland collegiate called the International ChampionA).724coed colleges in its database.E-mail. and discussions of recordingsand performanceson the Usenet board rec.the Nylons (1979).many more became so during the twentieth century.Forexample. a criticalapparatusfor the a cappella community.34 In 1995Deke Sharonand Adam Farb.Dartmouthand Harvardin 1972.where music and musical ideas could be shared. Whilecollegiatea cappellabegan to grow morerapidly.Rockapella Take6 (1988). and Columbia in 1983. and other enthusiasts regularlycontribute.a cappellaenthusiastsshared messages containingquestions.and Five O'ClockShadow (1986). since 2006. . both physical and virtual. mixed groups lagged significantlyin popularity until the early 1980s. as figure 1 shows (above). Although some schools with strong a cappella scenes. between these two competitions.which was founded in 1991by formerTufts UniversityBeelzebubsmemberDeke Sharon. and 3. Thesegroupsprovidedsounds thatservedas models forthe grow(1991).by the mid-1990sthey actuallysurpassed in number the single-sex groups. publicationof the nascent Contemporary porary Cappella A CappellaSociety (CASA). A popular PBStelevision documentarydirectedby Take & (1990).especiallyon college and universitycampuses where connections were usually fast and efficient.the House Jacks(1991). such as StanfordUniversity (founded in 1891).music. started the annual Best of CollegeA Cappella (BOCA)compilation albums. ship of CollegiateA Cappella(ICC which draws college groups from all regions of the United States and.featuredRockapella.a-cappella. In the early '90s. the College Board listed fiftyBy one women's. It was influentialenough to garnerpraise in the Contem6.Brownin 1971. Continuing to this day.35 1996 Sharon and Farb establisheda live competition.a 1994BrownUniversitygraduate.482 Duchan were founded at single-sex schools.Princetonand Yalebegan to admit women in 1969.a new generation of professionala cappellagroupsemerged. the BOCAseries highlights the "best" In collegiate a cappella recordings each year.32 Not surprisinglythen.

A successfularrangement must preserveimportantharmonic. does much to determine an arrangement'ssuccess and.CollegiateA Cappella 483 Emulation in A Cappella In collegiatea cappella. and othermodificationsof the original. author of the only arranging manual specificallyfor collegiate a cappella."Her language seems to place the greatestvalue on the latter: the [Transcribing:] actof listeningto somethingand writingdown what you hear.and they really like the way it's just how they heard it on the radio. it sounds like the song. difficult.An audience's abilityto recognizea song. Transanging simplification. Anna Callahan.Massachusetts. ll: . [Truearranging:]This is the type of arrangingthat I call "true" is obvious thatthe "song"is the recordand it needs to be reproducedaccuratelyto satisfy audiences.but because this type of arrangingallows you the freedom to really express yourself. Wewant our arrangement bethesong. Two members of CompanyB. style. restructuring.]38 . exactly to [Transanging:] convert a song originally played with instrumentationinto an a cappella song without substantiallychanging often involves or the melody. them." (3) "truearranging.not because transcribingand transangingaren'tuseful. we don't want to change it [from]the way just the artistintended it to be.Youknow.rangeadjustments.a group's as well.emulationis necessary. by extension. a mixed group at BrandeisUniversityin Waltham.agreedthatarrangements closely mimickingthe commercial determinea song's success in performance: recordingshelp jb:The reasonthat we try to stay so true to the song is so that when we to sing it. mood.harmonicstructure. [Includesdramaticchanges of style. despitethe shiftfroma vocal and instrumental pop recordto the voices-only medium." what (2) and she calls "transanging.form.37 ing.syllableassigning.though rarelysufficient. a cappella.simply notating for voices what is played by instruments. and dynamic growth. proposes a continuum on which she locates three types of arranging:(1) "transcribing.36 Theirlanguagerevealsthatthey aretalkingaboutthe soundof an artist's To commercial recording.but is always replicatingthe originalversion.rhythmic. A starting point is transcription. and melodic aspects of a song's commercialrecording. meter. Soll: And then the audience really catchesonto itjb:Yeah.or creative.

sing. arrangers download MIDI arrangements of songs from the Internet to use as models. they listen closely and repeatedly to a song's original recording and determine the necessary instrumental parts. ."39 Still. calling for more vocal lines and a more complex texture. SSAA. Collegiate a cappella arrangers typically begin the process of arranging by listening to the song's commercial recording. Most arrangers learn by observation.41 . While many collegiate a cappella arrangements reflect the standard SATB.40 Mostly. While some a cappella groups sing commercially available arrangements. a male group at Brandeis University. some groups take a more active role in training arrangers. "I agree with those . a cappella is about originality achieved through some form of emulation. Some singers bring considerable musical experience to their group. Weinstein would consider that a cover. whether through observation or more explicit pedagogy. rendering them fluent in music notation and/or composition. who are tired of literal transcriptions of pop tunes. albeit with voices only . most also create their own. arrangers learn how to be both emulative and original. "Itdoesn't take sixteen people to sing a four-note chord. Only rarely did I hear of arrangers using commercially published piano and vocal arrangements as starting points. or to allow arrangers and singers "to really express" themselves. I don't want to go to math concerts. Members of VoiceMale take pride in the fact that each sings his own part. features six background singers. or TTBB configurations of the traditional Western choral repertory. However. and the lead soloist. In Company B.484 Duchan Callahan's terminology suggests that emulation alone fails to produce "true" a cappella. An adequate a cappella arrangement (and performance) sounds like the song's commercial recording. one arranger criticized "strictly imitative charts. they see. chord structures. and other important distinctive aspects to incorporate into their arrangement. One emulative technique involves expanding the number and function of vocal parts. however." He wrote. and experience the arrangements already in their group's repertory and discern their basic components and effective aspects. at its core. it's math. so some additional instruction is necessary before these individuals can effectively arrange for their group. An arrangement of Michael Jackson's "Human Nature" by VoiceMale. That's not art. But an excellent arrangement will present the song in a new way that pays homage to the original while adding something unexpected. Thus. For example. echoing a motto taught to him by a predecessor.a significant caveat. all first-time arrangers must partner with an experienced arranger in order to learn the process. many others go beyond this. . But a cappella arrangements are different from other choral arrangements (see below). Other practicing a cappella musicians agree. in 2004." the group's music director told me. Occasionally. one vocal percussionist.

.Arranged DrewCohen "HumanNature. 1). *3 ^. which itself is based on a 2004 Boyz II Men recording. such as imitating instrumental riffs from the commercial recording. 2004. .." (Other a cappella groups use this technique as well. .. recordingsfromNovember9.i • • ii. i'r €7^ « linj'ZJ* y .while another sings the muted guitar's melodic interjections ("Muted Gtr"). ^ . J/v. abbreviated "Ac Gtr").5 jfc-H* |J^~.. .*P ' ' u -p4^> verse. i i§*H-{tii&QifQQ^ r^ihlOipjO^ *?*}$* GQ^OQ^ 0{fOG(fO0^ ' iH GG^GG^jUj ^GtS^GGG^O ^GG^uiftfd} -'"I^^GG^vGvUj 2«. . once singers are assigned to each necessary chord tone. the VoiceMale arrangement more effectively mimics the commercial recordings of "Human Nature.Author's transcription for BrandeisUniveristyVoiceMale. JkS.. . .... ^ ' . pj~'J~r „ . Michael based on field 2004.:. „. \l 1 si. In VoiceMale's arrangement of "Human Nature" (see ex.J>^. four voices provide the basic chordal backing and rhythmic texture (the "acoustic guitar" staves. even if more than one voice sings each part.) Thus.j^ . the others are better used to serve other functions. y • ^J: & i..h." Jackson's by Example1. By using more than four parts. rather than reducing or adapting a piece to the standard choral medium as many traditional choral arrangements do. the goal here is to create a vocal original by expanding the medium itself. rff»ti" ' > 7*j i- "" " "' '? iq i- r * (£ i- " -) sp. • so " ' ^.CollegiateA Cappella 485 That is.

as the mainstays of syllable choice. timbre.""jin.a cappellarecordings separatedthe from the soloist. however. but "jun"or one of its variants first appears on the Bestof College Cappella A compilationalbum'ssecond installment on tracksrecordedin 1994 (the University of MichiganAmazin' (1996) Blue'srecordingof Mr.""sjun.42 "Doo" and "ba"continued. doo-wop."in order to more effectively emulate the sound of a guitar strum.the of "jun" not immediate as some groupsbeganusing the new was spread syllables. with the exception of one track(a cover of MackGordonand HarryWarren's Choo"Chattanooga on the University of North CarolinaClef Hangers' Choo"). a mimetic "beep-beep"of automobilehorns.""pyramids.""wah. groups When syllables are used to map an instrument's acoustical attack.""bum. with fewer and shorterinstancesof backgroundparts voices backgroundvoices harmonizingthe melody."or "ah"were common. For example.Mister's"Kyrie") 1995(the Universityof Virand Gentlemen'srecordingof BillyPilgrim's"Insomniac"). VoiceMale's ginia "HumanNature. the result is some- . 1 above).") the increasingly Throughout 1980s. "Doo.Of course. Beforethe 1990s. sound with its syllables"jig-ga (see jig-ga"and "jen" ex. the ensemble would sing together as a homophonic unit. For example. however. most of the twenty-two tracks on the Whiffenpoofs'LP. If the song's lyrics suggested such opportunities."and open vowels such as "ooo.inor cluding brokenchords called "bellchords. harmonizing the song's melody. one might occasionally hear a walking bass.The purely homorhythmic texture of earlier recordsalso gave way to more complex rhythms.featurehomophonicensemble groupsbegan using syllables with a j sound. At times when soloists do stand out arrangements fromthe ensemble.""oh.the backgroundsingers most often sing the syllables "doo.barbershop.""bum. and decay onto a vocally produced sound.a cappella groups drew on the familiarpalette of syllables from the glee and club.""bop. (Brassband mimicrycan be heardin the Whiffenpoofs'recordingof Rodgers and Hart's"JohnnyOne Note. Much of the time. It is unclearwho used such syllables first.Instead.486 Duchan Syllables One of the most distinctiveaspectsof collegiatea cappellaarrangements is their vocables (called "syllables"by the singers).every song album Safari (1992)featuresat least one soloist while backgroundsconuse the syllables "doo"and "ba. many others continued with the older syllables and today's have not abandonedthe more traditionalsyllable options."or open vowels." tinually An importantstylisticshiftoccurredin the mid-1990s. even on of that include a soloist. TheWhiffenpoofs 1958." "cascades" in barbershopparlance.makes extensive use of this.background more often functioned as accompaniment."arrangedin 2004. or a momentaryimpersonationof brass. such as "jun.

A Collegiate Cappella 487 Quick attacks." locatesthe singerwithin a particular parts. might call for a less percussive consonant. percussive quality of the Boyz II Men version. emulation. indirect emulation implies a greateremphasis on versioning than on covering. which directlyemulate the synthesizer sounds of the MichaelJacksonrecording. the increasinguse of /-based syllables.Averillnotes its completebanishmentfrombarbershop: for "Onerequirement ringingchordswas the avoidanceof vibrato(which .suggests a move away from versioning and closer to covering." Slower attacks.preferring sing with a "straighttone" (sometimescalled a "flattone")while on background socio-musicalfield. which directly emulate a guitar."or "den. Thus. such as "dun. Rocksingers use it as a "cultivatedeffect because John of its associationwith classicalsinging. like those of some guitars or synthesizers.or they might simply begin with a vowel. On the other. VoiceMale's arrangement of "HumanNature"maintains the sparse. singers(likeBingCrosbyand Frank whose cultivated crooning style now sounds old-fashioned to Sinatra) manyyoungeraudiences. such as /. areoften accomplishedwith a d sound. syllables are sometimes selected to capture or evoke a "mood" or "feeling" rather than to emulate particular instruments.And while Potterallows forsome use of vibrato by pop singers. thing I call directemulation. choicesthatcanrevealhow groupsconceiveand construct to ThesingersI workedwith generallyavoid vibrato. However. using unusual syllables. With its "hard/'" (affricative) syllables."Vibrato Pottersuggests.""dum. The timbre of the syllable is determined by the vowel choice and its placement in the singers' mouths. An arrangement of the same song by the all-male Cornell University Hangovers creates a smoother texture through the use of sustained chords in the background parts." and "singersof more middleof-the-roadpop music will use a greateror lesser amount of vibratoaccordingto which end of the socio-musicalspectrumthey wish to identify with.with pre-rock tion. Vocal Style Collegiatea cappellasingersmake distinctchoicesregardingvocal style. which relies heavily on plucked and strummed acoustic guitars with short decays. the use of syllables in collegiate a cappella practiceshows aspects of both types of musical recontextualization.43 On one hand." They may also eschew vibrato because of its associain popularmusic.particularlythose of pianos. theiridentities. indiThis is what I call indirect By rectemulation maintainsan instrumentalfunction without mimicking a specific instrumentalsound. a "soft/" (fricative)."44 Many singers I encountereduse a lack of vibratoto distinguish themselvesand theirgroups fromchoirsand glee clubs they perceiveas more "classical.

46 edents for a cappella's emphasis on blend can be found in the glee club tradition (vis-a-vis the straight-tone technique of the early St. intensetimbre."48 that they want to sound as loud.barbershop. Not all groups shareVoiceMale's vocal style or intent.An untrainedfalsettois typicallyquieterthan a male voice in the belt range."During the song's . with their seven explained idealof GivenVoiceMale's membersas othergroupsdo with seventeen. No one else is covering his note. masculinity. This structuraluse of belting (and volume) emphasizes passages during which the group. or louder.In songs like "HumanNature. we Anothermemberof VoiceMale want it powerful.morechoral sound. prefera moremuted. "SheWill Be Loved.As Simon avoiding falsetto makes sense."the singers "belt"(in chest voice) during the briefintroduction and the chorus but not during the verse.'"45 For a cappella becomes clearthat in orderto achieve the desired loud and intense sound while maintaininga balancebetween the parts."the singersavoid not only vibratobut also falsetto. It also fits into the ethos of VoiceMale's identity as projectedby their manner of vocal delivery. "Power"is the key word.the AfricanAmerican quartet tradition. it stands for the person more directlythan any other musicaldevice. Blended voices are indistinguishable from one another. and doo-wop.488 Duchan would of course vary the pitch and derail any effort to lock the chord). there is no safety in numbers.In October20041taughtthem my arrangement of Maroon5's 2002 pop ballad. Olaf's LutheranChoir). "As memberexplainedthe group'sstylisticpreference: One VoiceMale of the power of the sound that we try to put out.we want it out there.47 VoiceMaleseeks a particularvocal style that hinges on a strong. even domination..The Treblemaka mixedgroupat BostonUniversity. should be the centerof attention. "Evenwhen treatingthe voice as an instrument.In my field recordingsof VoiceMale's"Human Nature. applying both to the singer's physical effortand to the identity he projects. when the listener's attention focuses on the soloist. the singers I consulted avoid vibrato because it inhibits a group's ability to match tone quality and pitch. unless it's supposed to be quiet.strength.49 one singer per part.they habitually switch out of their chest voices and into falsettowhenever they have to sing in theirupperrange. Like barbershoppers.."50 VoiceMale wants to project Throughits performances. ers. the most important vocal concept is blend.not the soloist. An articleon barbershopstyle once called vibrato'poison.loud. each individual must sing confidently and loudly enough by himself. I was often told of the value of a singer's ability to blend. we very rarelyput part anythingin falsetto. It is unusualfor the group'stenorsto belt.Instead. and the use of vibrato was heavHistorical precily criticized in deliberations about new members.If you can hit it.

This suggests that it was theirpreference.ended up followvocal sounds within a particular pitch range produce ing a habitualpatternthat helped define the group's sound. Vocal Percussion refersto singersemulatingthe sounds of a drumset.Theyplacedthe sound forwardin theirvocal cavities. and is intendedto indirectlyemulatea distortedelectricguitarwailing farin the background. with sustainednotes on G4 and a momentaryA-flat4.but only as soloists.professionalvocal percussionistWes Carrollexplained. The firsttenor partis not convincingly imitatethose of actualdrums." Thereis some question and other terms are often used interchangeably.a "streetperforhip-hop.not a necessity.Evenif the sounds of vocalpercussion.and "ksh"or "psh"for crash cymbals. Singers usually emulate the kick drum with the syllables "doo"or "doom.when isolated. One might surmise that the pitches were simply out of the singers'range.yet in othersongs these same singerscould hit those pitcheswith the timbreI sought.A Collegiate Cappella 489 climacticfinal chorus. along with "ts"for hi-hatsand ride cymbals.In orderto blend properly.51 "Vocal percussion" The most basic vocal percussion mimics kick and snare drums.54 called a cappella's vocal percussion the "imitationof .they can still assume the functionof the drums when they are performedin the right rhythmicpatterns.52 "Vocalpercussion"(sometimes abbreviatedas "VP"). the effectI wanted. one respondentcontrasteda cappellasinging with rap.Theycommonlymakea snaredrumsound with a "kh"or a "pf.a practicewithin which vocalized percussivesounds have been a featuresince at least the He early 1970s." use the falsetto'slighter vocal the avoided singing too quality. yet I wanted to hear the strainin a tenor's sing the passagein falsetto.such as "mouthdrumming" "multivocalism. Treblemakers or in a mannerthat would vary significantlyin timbrefrom that loudly of the rest of the group.the tenorpart splits into two lines." be an integralpart of a cipher.beatboxingmay mative"in which a group of MCs.producing a focused."These sounds. within the a cappella community about the relationship of vocal percussion to beatboxingand other vocal techniquesthat aim to provide a In and nonpitchedrhythm.usually standingin a circle. can be combined with those played on a rock into breathing patternsthatapproximate rhythmic kit. pointed timbrethat came close to. Whatwas essentially a musical choice how to . a sort of soaringgesture that would expand the emotionalscope of the song as it enteredthe finalchorus.It could have been sung by an alto.53 When the question was posed on the RARB'sdiscussion forum. but did not quite achieve.take turns improvisingrhymeswhile accompaniedby beatboxingor a prerecorded beat." placedlow in the vocal range.Butthe tenorsin the Treblemakers preferred and ultimatelychose.

while initiallyaccompanying This stands in contrast rap. 2005. March 26. ing some sonic reflections to be picked up in addition to the primary source sound). During performances. SUNY-Binghamton Crosbys performing at Yale University. and beatboxing "darker"because practitionershold a microphoneagainst their lips and cover the capsule with their hands. Photo by the author."regardlessof whether the sounds mimic extantdrums Another contributordrew the distinctionin (acousticor synthesized). New York University APC Rhythm at Yale University.56 A thirdcontributor noted thatbeatboxing.490 Duchan existing drum sounds" and rap's beatboxing the "artof creatingbeats with one's voice.)Some performersbelieve that such bodily gestures actually improve the sound and make for more convincing performances and recordings. Figure 3.55 termsof timbre. has evolved into a solo or group art form."It is especially common to see vocal percussionists make drumming gestures. March 26.when amplithe microphoneis usually a short distance from the mouth (allowfied. Vocal percussion gestures (L). from "air-drums"to "air-guitars. bodily gestures make clear the instruments being imitated vocally. Photo by the author.with vocal percussion"brighter" because.which always accompaniesa groupof singers.58 Figure 2.Thus. . Miming guitars. 2005. the differencesbetween these relatedtermsdepend both on the differing sounds of the two practicesand their functionin the musical texture.57 to vocal percussion. (See figures 2 and 3 for examples of instrumentalgestures in a cappella performances.

above).Afterall. and happily engaged with the music. 1.most songs have only one soloist.59 a cappellapractice. (Rehearsingthese bells often took the betterpart of a two."the backgroundostinato comprisesrhythmicallyidentical."Certainarranging or to importantstructuralor harmonicmoments.challenged. They also proparts vide varietyfor the singers themselves. and challengebecause these passages requireprecise rhythmic coordinationand close most singersspend much of their time singing (often repetitive)backgroundparts.CollegiateA Cappella 491 Texture When a cappellaarrangersadapt a pop recordin an arrangement.They also providea texturalchangefromoverlappinghomorhythmsto arpeggiated chords. many groups also strive to injectoriginalityinto their music. 9-10) and mimic the guitar figures in the Boyz II Men recording. "Ac Gtr"staves. change the song throughthe introductionof new musical material.The . The rhythmicand melodic shift from an ostinato to a transitionalfigure createsa moment of interestas well as a challenge:interestbecausethereis somethingnew to sing.backgroundpartsuse texturaland gestural devices to ensure that they remain simply "backtechniquesdraw attentionto the background ground. texturalvariation.they texture. 7-8.These nearly identical two-measurepassages functionas transitionsbetween the harmonicpatternsof the verse m. who welcome such moments of change.or three-hourrehearsal. But there are other techniquesthat achieve the same objective:musical quotation.signalinga formaltransitionand hinting at the upcoming repeat of the verse (or the downbeat of the chorus).however. Bells occur in the first and second endings of the verse (ex. That technique kept singers (and listeners)interested.the sharing of melodic of materialacross voice parts.duets (see ex. One criticalbackgroundtechniqueis what VoiceMalecalls a "bell." 11). instead "surpassing" VoiceMale's of bells in the backgroundparts of "HumanNature"is one example."a thatdescribesthe effectof voices entering termderivedfrombarbershop in successionto forma chord. beginningat "Why. 1.In "HumanNature. and a soloist's reinterpretation a song's to name only the most common.) Originality in A Cappella While emulation is an importantstylistic goal in collegiate a cappella. and (IV-V-I6) the chorus(IV-V-I-V6-vi-V.The firsttwo techniquesexplicitly lead.but offset and overlapping. mm.formalexpansion.Thishelps to distinusuallymaintaina lead-and-accompaniment a cappellafrombarbershop glee clubswhile aligning and guish collegiate In it with doo-wop. taking the a cappella song beyond just "equal"to the commercialrecordingand use it.

The result is not a if announcing not only its presence but also its independence from the other parts. At othertimes he or she may quote an entirely different musical source.Thenthe Williams song's refrain("let me entertainyou") returnsin the primarysoloist's voice while the Steppenwolf lyrics continue more quietly as a featured harmony line."recorded by British rocker Robbie Williams in 1997. "MagicCarpetRide. A related technique is the changing of a song's form by adding new."a feat of musical fusion of which the singers. allowing the listener to focus entirely on the Steppenwolf interpolationwith a backingof blockchords. Each backgroundpart enters separately. all of these techniquescan have social implications. but a brief referenceto the second song that folds into the fabricof the first. So doing. by basing this new section on the cyclic iii-i progressionof the song's coda and by avoiding the introduction of new lyrics. with arrangementand source having only a common harmonicframework. Also. ratherthan borrowed. themselves. The prevalenceof musical allusions in collegiate a cappella suggests not only the playfulnessof the genrebut also an appreciation intertexof Whetheror not the audience recognizesthe quotatuality' arrangermight use lyrics fromone song as background syllables to anothersong. this techniquefeaturesthe backgroundsingers for a musicalmomentbefore returningto the song's original form and focus on the soloist.all backgroundrhythmic activity ceases. VoiceMale quotes Steppenwolf's 1968classic. an arrangerfrom Amazin' Blue added a new.In their recordingof "LetMe Entertain You.musical material.60 is borrowed. tion and appreciatesits significancedepends partly on how apparentit is. look inside girl. . Musicalquotationis a techniquefor referencing othersongs within an Sometimes other materialby the same recordingartist arrangement. this technique allows the formal expansion to emerge from the song organicallyratherthan seem imposed from the outside. Unexpected textural variations reveal flashes of originality because they disrupt the relationshipbetween the lead and its accompaniment. quasi-scat section to the Sting song "If I Ever Lose My Faith in You"that features the group without a soloist.492 Duchan other three can be used in the pursuit of a cappella's overall emulative goal or as ways to bring a new interpretationto a song. are proud but that remains mostly hidden to listeners). In addition."A second soloist sings the Steppenwolf lyrics ("close your eyes girl. on whether it is executed by a soloist (makinga direct and apparent association with the secondary song) or only within the background parts (remaining"insiderknowledge. At the quotation'sintroduction. let the sound take you away")while impersonatingthe raspy quality of that song's lead.

the a cappella style has drawn a fundamental distinction between the role of lead soloist and background singer through the articulationof words: the former may do so. createa single melodic line.the personal prerogativeof the soloist offers a prime vehicle for originality.") which is answered a measure later with an arpeggio articulatedby the tenors.though duringwhich the basses drop out (leadingto a distinctchange in texture and the opportunity to make a musical event out of the bass section's return)and othermomentsof markedcontrastbetween polyphonic and homophonic passages. the harmony changes (from I-V-IVto the double-plagal I-flat Ill-flatVII6-I)and the tenors seize the melody before the soVH-IV-flat finish the phrase. Smallmelodic or timbral or even visual.or structure. in effect. enhances the nuances of its melody."63 . some fidelity to the commercial recordingis fundamentalto a cappella'semulative goal). Considersuch a melodic exchangeduring the "instrumental" section of the Treblemakers' arrangementof Rufus Wainwright's "Instant Pleasure"(see ex. fortissimo. Instead." one singer fromCompany B put it. . which he describesas an "adaptation.After spending most of a song singing instrumentallyfunctioning backgroundsyllables.61 effect weakens the The lead/accompaniment dichotomy and affectsthe song's narrativeforce. with dense harmoniesalong with the soloist. One potent technique used to create textural variation is the sparing but striking use of the whole group as a homophonic choir.variationsallow soloists to give their peras formance"itsown personality. The altos begin with the guitar-emulating melody ("bairner ner ." this recontextualization. enhances the performance's social dimension. . Singersvalue passages in which two or more parts sing parallelmeto lodic lines or when they coordinate. rhythm. having the entire group explode. while the latter usually does not. This "momentary choir"techniqueis prevalentin the a cappella related variation techniques also abound: passages repertory.altos.After this figure repeats. in part. lies in how well the artist uncovers and conveys the spirit of the original. Creating a single melodic line fosters visual pranos and aural communicationand.A Collegiate Cappella 493 Since the I have said. creates a dramaticstatement.He or she need not simply imitate the recordingartist's performance(although. of course. "Measuring the interpreter'sskill.often which much of the value In lies in the artists'interpretation. Finally. to name two examples. singing the same lyrics at the same time.62 This idea aligns with GeorgePlaskete'swriting on the process of covering. sense maybe adding a new arrangement. of occasion or threadof irony. 2). his or her voice is now. and sopranos. as powerful as the group's combined voices. No longer does the lead singer carrythe lyrical content alone.

_ J bj?**:-. Arranged for the Boston University Treblemakers by Dave Ransom. tZT T < StMHn " -' K*H>m • HiMini j hnniiii y "i tiixxn n*K»m ] l^iMtfii Ixmrn hnntni l#». Beyond Emulationand Originality: Social Motivationsfor Stylistic Goals Whatmotivatescollegiatea cappella'sstylisticgoals?Partof the answer lies in the socialimplications the musical choices arrangersand singers of make." instrumental section.H.494 Duchan j4-*.>i .ni ba dix.^^^--* J-j^A% _ .4_______y__ ! >kh> = bah bjh i ".' -"" jr t>tnnTi : ^~ T~~l txMnn -" f Hitom : : h^ \T Him tin " -" -. Note: the top staff contains additional harmonies. l nor #*f »pfa r . ' „ -. Kth b.> bjir iv n.-r " rT " 1 ner iwir a. "T t.^__! ixh> u bah j K>h ^f r^T" jJj ik««» ii. f J J r~l 1^'"^^" f ^~f» . ._ m - t-^. Rufus Wainwright's "Instant Pleasure. - I tl<n>m ___ ^ . -1 Example 2.ih bah bah ikhi «U oh. the ways in which singers and audiences experience those techniques. nt-r nrr ikt - . *ah .. :: . " 3' " Ai4%''" "*-• r^. and quoting one song within another Emulatingpopular recordings give audiences something familiar. .r «. coveringand versioning._ . d«»>m L Aiflja*** |§ i j: buir T * nvr ikt | ' - .Whileemulationand originality.«>.- __ : -.«> lw>iii Vh^mii tHK»rrv HiH>m bH^ofii t^H>mVh^hm tx^im hnn^ni tn^irn Ih^tti Wn*rntv>oni tux^m H<h>iii Iwm tvnirrtHt^on^ " JlTT""" ~~~~~ZZZ-:-.ih T: V 8^ • ^ 2 j ^.in d«v _ I" Jfn..But how each a cappella group de- .m J<*mi J..enand tailparticular much of the music'smeaningalso derivesfrom techniques.^ ".

concert programs only rarelylisted the titles of the songs to be performed. Moreover. In some groups. an importantfactorin this auditionprocessis whetherany of the candidates sing solos on other songs in the group's repertory(or if any do notsing of othersolos).As one singer told me.g. a cappella groups enable a pleasurable sense of discovery as audiences identify familiarsongs. also createsan opportunityfor connectionwith potential members. Witha shareof the spotlight comes the . admittedly.64 Although some groups collect dues from their members. a solo). "you can sing When a doo's and da's only so long before it stops feeling fulfilling.travelexpenses. or quotes another song in but it an arrangement.a song performed by an a cappella group is often not immediately recognizable based on the first few measures of its introduction(as. perhaps.Recognitionis thereforebased entirely on aural perception.A group must ensureits continued survival and success by attractingand trainingshow-stopping soloists.) In performance. feel valued in orderto participate. ticket and albumsales make up the bulk of most groups' revenues (in my research. Especiallyon campuses where a cappella thrives. so the thrill comes from how the group will do it in a new.and membershave to multiplesingers. (In my research. SimonFrith'smetonymictreatment the voice/instrument as the person is instructivehere.and recordingprojects.then. skilled arrangers. In the crowded arenaof student activities. not only shows off the skills of its arrangers. vocalonly medium. A repertory of covers also constrains and conventionalizes expression: the audience already knows how the song goes. Sales thus become the main enablersof the group's music duplication. the other singers begroup "gives" lieve that that memberhas the best voice for that song or part and have confidencein his or her ability to execute it successfully on theirbehalf."65 a memberthe spotlight (e. judged by those membersnot auditioning.a cappella groups must compete with each other (and with other student clubs) for resources..the song's sung before recognizing which song is actually being performed. harmonic.Typicallyaudience members may have to wait a few seconds until a recognizablemelodic.both financial and human. Most groups determineeach song's lead soloist by holding internalauditions. the perception of a diluted talent pool as well as a heightened intergroupcompetition intensifiesthe searchfor new singers.and future leaders through its performances.or rhythmic snippet.may also be the case with the original commercialrecording).Every time it performsa popular or familiarsong. most groups rarely found their school administrationsto be sufficient sourcesof funding). Many of the techniques a cappella groups use to add originality to to theirmusic also function"democratically" sharethe spotlight among A cappellais a voluntaryactivity.A Collegiate Cappella 495 ploys familiarmaterialhelps to determine its success in performance. futureconcerts.

doo-wop. and the identity implied by that voice.dislikeof groupleadership. religiouspractice.These activitiesmay conflictwith needs. But each singer has many otherobligations academicand social commitments. after the creationof community. RobertA.Formany. also speaks to the sociability of the musicalpractice.the weights of the various costs and rewardsdiffer. those related to a cappella.a cappellais simply fun. Theeconomicsof time also play an importantrole.Likeearlierstudent vocal ensembles. funding sources. The value that a cappella singers place on the individual voice.Perhaps more than other factors. a cappella groups are active components of campus musicallife. and the college administration. But sharing the spotlight also allows singers to tap into the powerful culturalarchetypeof the "rockstar" a figure with considerablesocial in youth culture).but as an explanatorytool this calculationmust be more nuanced. the audience gets to feel like they've met everybody. They sing at many of the same officialfunctionsas did their predecessors. in and so forth.and frustration with varying levels of commitmentamong othersingers. Thatmakes them feel closer to you than if two people aresinging all the solos and the rest of the guys arejust faceless.and that's a betterperformance. implying determinewhether they are sufficientlysatisfied with their experience. such as arranging. capital (especially there is a certain pleasure in the creation of a virtuosic or spectacular . One might thinkof a cappellaparticipation a cost-and-rewards as phea sort of psychologicalledger by which individuals nomenon.nameless guys in the back And while featuringeach memberin a singing 'doo-wop. the sharing of the spotlight (and the implied value of individual voices) strongly affectsa cappellasingers'decisions to remainwith a group.As VoiceMale's music directorexplained:"Ifeverybody has a solo.and the maintenanceof proper relationships with other campus groups.By presentingseveral individuals as soloists. an a cappella group can access a largersocial network in its audience.rehearsing. For each individual.was better time-managementskills. business correspondence.67 Theseconclusionsapply to a cappella. it also enables the accumulationand display of social capitalby singers.496 Duchan social implicationthat the individual's voice is important not only as a singing voice but as a person.'"66 accesseseach individual'ssocial networkand thus group'sperformance betterssales of ticketsand albums.whether he or she stays with the group or leaves it. Stebbinstakes this approachto barbershopsinging and finds the prominentrewardsto be personalenrichment.performing. most common costs are disappointments the ing.When I asked singers what they gained from their experience in an a cappella group. the most common answer.fostering a broadersense of school spirit. enjoymentof singthe and self-actualization.

Yet when an a cappella group strives to recreate aspects of a particular recording . Many of a cappella's stylistic goals build on this foundation. undermine the case for a cappella as version. Warren Zanes call "identification. seem to distinguish an a cappella song from a cover. it may be simple to say that a cappella consists more of versions than of covers. and have so much energy. They enable the singer to assume a rock star's persona or to act like the rock star playing his or her instrument. Collegiate a cappella is founded on the act of recontextualizing commercial recordings in a vocal medium. I will be. But beneath the pleasure of performance may lie the process Simon Frith and R. While popular recordings certainly underlie the a cappella repertory.CollegiateA Cappella 497 vocal-only rendition of a familiar musical icon. On the other hand."69 The vocal techniques and bodily gestures that singers perform facilitate identification. At the same time. and you're just like. J." whose guitar lines appear in the Boyz II Men version of the Michael Jackson song but not in Jackson's recording . syllables and gestures enable the singer to be the rock star's instrument. or other schemes that separate the act of musical recontextualization by reference or intention." And. such . Yet because they alter basic building blocks of the piece. More important." This occurs when a fan (or fanatic) either desires the popular artist or desires to be the popular artist and then enacts that desire through mimicry.and I'm not saying risque .a Weinsteinian view would describe the group as aspiring to a cover. Clearly the categories break down in this relatively recent and so far little-discussed genre. the cover/version dichotomy. some techniques of originality. "I want to be like that. through direct emulation.such as VoiceMale's arrangement of "Human Nature.68As one a cappella singer told me: Every girl secretly wants to be like Britney Spears. cannot adequately describe the a cappella approach to making music. other common techniques of originality.but you see someone be so confident and dance like that and sing and really belt it out. A cappella thus steers a narrow path between two forms of musical mimicry that Weinstein describes: "covers" (iterations of particular performances) and "versions" (iterations of the underlying composition). such as interplay between background parts or ^interpretations of the lead melody. "if I join that group. You see someone dance . Moreover. On one hand. such as musical quotation and formal expansion. Both emulation and originality (combined with social needs and opportunities) shape collegiate a cappella's distinctive sound. a cappella challenges that dichotomy because it emulates particular performances of songs (recordings) while simultaneously denying the very instruments used in those performances.

"Ethics and Aesthetics: The Social Theory of Barbershop Harmony. In my field research. 3 (1992):289-325. thoughts. critique. sec. TheBarbershop Singer:Insidethe Social Worldof a Musical Hobby (Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 11. The estimate of a thousand groups comes from the CBS News story. 1996).fosteringa sense of musical community and self-worth. Of course.I have highlighted severalof these. I must also thank the musicians with whom I worked." Ph. 2004. and music with me. p. Jan." AmericanMusic 10. founded in 1990. for their guidance. Max Kaplan. Gage Averill. Barbershop quartet singing does have a presence on college campuses. 2002. diss. Mark Clague. Four Parts." PopularMusic 18.v. and Albin Zak. 4. James Wierzbicki.498 Duchan theoreticaldistinctions fail to account for the social aspects of musical practice. s." Boston Magazine. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Earlier drafts of this article were presented at the annual meeting of the Society for American Music in March 2005. University of Pennsylvania. 2002. "The Sounds of Liberty: Nostalgia. "'Doo-Wop-a-Doo' Will No Longer Do. 1997.. Richard Crawford. 2004. I am grateful to Judith Becker.and presentingopportunitiesto accumulateand display socialcapital. and is supported by the Barbershop Harmony Society (formerly SPEBSQSA) through its national competition. 1993). and TheBritishBarbershopper: A Study in Socio-MusicalValues(Burlington. and in my dissertation.J. 32. ultimately. the MBNA America Collegiate Barbershop Quartet Contest. 1996)." New YorkTimes. each with musicalramifications:featuringfamiliarrepertoryand multiplesoloists.D. see Lynn Abbott. Philadelphia. "Songsters Off on a Spree: Campuses Echo with the Sound of Enthusiastic A Cappella Groups. Vt: Ashgate. the Boston University Treblemakers. 1 (1999):41-61. no. "These Are the Biggest Studs On Campus?. ." CBS News SundayMorning. 1900-2003. For example: Kurt Eichewald. 2. On barbershop. the University of Michigan Amazin' Blue. February 2007. No Waiting:A Social History of AmericanBarbershop Harmony(New York:Oxford University Press. Karen W.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. (New York: Oxford University Press. "A Cappella Frenzy. "Profile: Yale's A Cappella Groups Rush Current Crop of Freshmen. June 22.however. and suggestions during the writing process. Masculinity." 3. including the members of Brandeis University Company B and VoiceMale. Barbershopping: Musical and Social Harmony (Rutherford. no. and Whiteness in Philadelphia Barbershop. 9. I retain full responsibility for any inaccuracy of representation.demonstratessome of the ways social considerationsaffectmusical choices and. ed. 2nd ed. 2005). Stebbins. Oxford English Dictionary.determine the music's meaning.Thecaseof collegiatea cappella a to which more criticalattentionwill need to be paid as time goes genre on. Rachel Baker. the Harvard University Fallen Angels. I found barbershop quartets largely absent from the music scenes of the colleges at which I worked. 2003). and Robert A. Richard Mook. "Tlay That Barber Shop Chord': A Case for the African-American Origin of Barbershop Harmony. N. Arenson." New York Times.Sept. El. "emulation.. NOTES 1. along with the anonymous reviewers. 2." NPR RadioMorning Edition.April 25. Liz Garnett. and the University of Pennsylvania Counterparts for sharing their lives. at the Midwest chapter meeting of the American Musicological Society in October 2005.

Hawley Ades." Musical Times110. and competition adjudicator. 7. Gribin and Matthew M.. see Bruce Montgomery. and jazz. 11. no. Norman Carrell. "Intertextuality and Hypertextuality in Recorded Popular Music. 1890 to the 1930s. "Arrangement For or Against?. Glenn Miller's Methodfor OrchestralArranging (New York:Mutual Music Society. 119-22. "Some Thoughts on the Work in Popular Music. Wis. Arranging and Composingfor the Small Ensemble:Jazz. David Horn. 1 (1994): 58-75. TheyAll Sang on the Corner:New YorkCity's Rhythmand Blues VocalGroupsof the 1950s (Setauket. 3 (2003): 260-90. 8. director.Y. Inc. I then conducted ethnographic fieldwork during the 2004-5 academic year with groups in the Boston area (primarily with Brandeis University VoiceMale. 2005).: Shawnee Press. a process in which both emulation and originality play a key role. 1 (1990): 141^19. Goosman. For a recent first-person account of the college glee club. Talbot. "Powerful Voices: Performance and Interaction in Contemporary Collegiate A Cappella. 1966). Hans Keller.D. no. no. consisting of observations and interviews. Brothers. it has been well covered by undergraduate and graduate students in term papers and theses. Serge Lacasse. 2007). see Joshua S. Michael Talbot (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.: Krause. 1511 (1969): 22-25. of "hypertextuality.. Doowop: The ChicagoScene (Urbana: University of Illinois Press. no. For more on a cappella recording practice. "Black Concert Music in Chicago. 243-301. performer. Although the topic of collegiate a cappella remains off the musicological map. Pa. My introduction to collegiate a cappella came in high school. Those capacities include arranger. Little scholarly work has been done on the history of college glee clubs or their contemporary manifestations." The Music Review 55. On doo-wop. Duchan. 1943). although the topic receives some attention in Christopher Bruhn. Ann Arbor. producer. and Values in Group Harmony/' BlackMusic Research Journal17. 138. "'Beautiful Stories. Some forms of covering would fall into Lacasse's category ed. Bach the Borrower(London: Allen and Unwin." in The Musical Work: Realityor Invention?." in TheMusical Work." (Ph. for example. Doo-Wop: ForgottenThirdof Rock'n Roll (Iola. This article deals with arranging and performance practice from the perspective of collegiate a cappella practitioners. 30. Mass. 1988). and Millan Sachania. 1967)." in Mapping the Beat:PopularMusic and Contemporary Theory. 5. The Philip Groia. many of which draw heavily on the Western classical tradition for their principles and examples." Music & Letters 16 (1935): 305-11. Those that I have been able to locate include: Judah Cohen. R&B. Music at Harvard: HistoricalReviewof Men and Events(New York:Coward-McCann.ed. Style. diss. "'Improving the Classics': Some Thoughts on the 'Ethics' and Aesthetics of Musical Arrangement. I joined a mixed group as a sophomore in college and another during my graduate studies." BlackMusic Research Journal10. when a group visiting from Northwestern University conducted a clinic with the school choir and gave a brief after-school concert. It does not address recording. Jazz-Rock(Chicago: Maher. and the Harvard University Fallen Angels). and David Baker. John Sloop. see Stuart L. for example. no. Sing On!: My Half-CenturyAround the Worldwith the Venn Glee Club (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. The subject of arranging has borne a sizable library of instructional texts.: Edmond Publishing Co. 6. as well as some participation and coaching. Scholarly perspectives on arranging can be found. Ellistine Perkins Holly. Anthony J. Glenn Miller. Thomas Swiss. particularly from the perspectives of orchestration. "Arrangements and Transcriptions. 2000). Schiff. 1935).Collegiate A Cappella 499 4. 46. 1992). 1 (1997): 81-99. 1996). 10. "The History of Rock's Pasts through Rock Covers.. choral arranging. 1974). A and Walter Raymond Spalding. N.ed. ." which is defined as "practices which aim at producing a new text out of a previous one" (37). See. ChoralArranging (Delaware Gap. "The Black Atlantic: Structure. in Evelyn Howard-Jones.: Blackwell. 9. "Taking the Private Public: Amateur Music-Making and the Musical Audience in 1860s New York/' AmericanMusic 21. 1970). and Robert Pruter. Deena Weinstein. the Boston University Treblemakers. University of Michigan. and Andrew Herman (Maiden.

Folder 1. quoted in Spalding. Waltham. Cambridge. see Richard Nash Gould. 1861-1961: A Short History of the Yale Glee Club." (bachelor's thesis. Harvard University. Ann Arbor. Teachers College." For more on the Twentieth Whiffenpoofs. Cambridge. 2. The Whiffenpoofs: Century (New York: The Twentieth Century Project. Box 4. 2005). Its petition for recognition states that the Society sought "to improve and cultivate the taste and promote true and genuine music" through a European repertory (quoted in ibid. "In Harmony: A Look at the Growth of Collegiate A Cappella Groups and the Future of the Movement. the Beethoven Bummers (a play on the more serious Beethoven Society). vol. 130. Harvard University. "Music of the Highest Class": Elitism and Populism in Antebellum Boston (New Haven: Yale University Press. Rebecca Reiman. Harvard University. for its "admirable blending. 1858. LLC. "Davison. University of Michigan. 1858. Jason Chua. Ben Jackson. and the Theologians. Boston critic John Sullivan Dwight praised its first performance. 1760-1800 (Boston: Boston University Scholarly Publications. Columbia University. Spalding. 2005). Irving S. 131. 19. The Black Sheep (also known as the Six Little Lambs) sang briefly at Yale around the turn the twentieth century. 2003). 2001). Music at Harvard. Richard Kegerreis. Function. 2004). Ann Arbor. available on the UMMGC website (http://www. 1997). 18." (undergraduate musicology paper. 39-109. "Singing for the Fun of It. Bowdoin College. University of Michigan. (untitled undergraduate anthropology paper. Gilmore Music Library.500 Duchan Told in Some Very Melodic Ways': An Ethnography of Under Construction. (untitled music thesis. and Jack Wilkinson. 120. Mass. Yankee Singing Schoolsand the GoldenAge of ChoralMusic in New England. Robinson. and Racial Homogeneity of A Cappella Groups in the University of Michigan. 13. bachelor's thesis. the Owls. 2003). The Handel Society was formed after visit to the college by psalmody reformer Andrew Law." (bachelor's thesis. Music at Harvard. "Wolverine Vocals: Detailing the History. a group whose membership included singers who would later found the Whiffenpoofs. 2002). 2005.. Spalding. Marshall Bartholomew. 2 (1986): 177-93. light and shade. 14. 1990). Groups at Yale from the 1840s and later in the nineteenth century included the Cecilias. "The Handel Society of Dartmouth. etc. "University of Michigan A Cappella Group Pre-Concert Traditions. and to American college choral societies more generally. Spalding. HarvardRadcliffe's Christian A Cappella Singing Group/' (graduate ethnomusicology paper. Michael Broyles. 2005). 12.v. "The First 100 Years. Marshall Bartholomew Papers. The group's name refers to comedian Joseph Cawthorne's performance in the Broadway production of Victor Herbert's Little Nemo (1908). during which he mused about catching a "whiffenpoof fish. the Midnight Caterwaulers."unpublished manuscript." unpublished manuscript. S. "A .edu/~ummgc) (n. Charlottesville. 1992). MSS 24. "Vocal Percussion: A Phonetic Description. The History of the University of Michigan Men's Glee Club. Howard.. accessed Nov. Cambridge." (master's thesis." American Music 4. University of Virginia. and James M." printed in the booklet. Alan Clark Buechner. Stacey Street. Music at Harvard. Gilmore Music Library. Veronica L. Yale1900-2001. Jane Alexander Mclntosh.Yale University. New York. 16. 54. credits Davison with introducing "serious music" to the Harvard Glee Club. 15." (undergraduate folklore paper. followed by the Growlers.umich. the Four Sharps. no. A." ("College Music. 17. 108-9. 11." (bachelor's thesis. on June 9. 1999). June 19. Spalding. "ROOM ZERO: The Dialectical Worlds of Live Performance and the Recording Studio in Collegiate A Cappella. Music at Harvard. Brandeis University. 1." Dwight's Journalof Music. Irving S. "An Authentic Account of the Founding of the Whiffenpoofs. Marshall Bartholomew Papers. 2005). Yale University. MSS 24.. along with Jon Newsom's article on Davison in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (s. Marshall Bartholomew. 76-77). "Voices of Womanhood: Gender Ideology and Musical Practice in American Women's Vocal Groups. 178). Mark Manley.p. Box 3. 163A. T"). Folder 1.

" which they recorded multiple times in October 1931 and again in 1932 for the soundtrack to the film The Big Broadcast(1932). As proof of just how convincing their instrumental imitations were. (1911-35). see Lutz Koepnick. for analyses of the film. 1 (London: JSP Records. from Piqua." New GermanCritique87 (2002): 47-82. Yale University. 21. female. Active in the late 1920s and early 1930s. and harmonies and rhythms were of rather TwentiethCentury. 23. see Peter erobertdie Welt (Berlin: Czada and Giinter Grosse. It was decidedly unscientific and I make no claim to its statistical validity. A Capella(WarnerBros. Manuscripts and Archives. Gould calls the Whiffenpoofs' style from 1909-49 the "barbershop style. Memory. JSPCD 301. or mixed ensembles. simple and straightforward construction. Ohio. the melody line was most often in the second tenor part. 2003)." and in The British Barbershopper explores the social effects of barbershop competitions and behavioral codes (pages 43. ed. the label of their early recordings read: "no musical instruments or mechanical devices used on this recording other than one guitar" (Geoff Milne. 59-62. 1997). For more information on the ensemble. ComedianHarmonists:Ein Vokalensemble Edition Hentrich. and whether they were male. and "'Honor Your German Masters': History. 178). and Eileen Southern. the group inspired a feature film. (New York: W. In "Ethics and Aesthetics: The Social Theory of Barbershop Harmony.CollegiateA Cappella 501 History of the Whiffenpoofs of Yale University and a Roster of Membership: Prepared for the 85th Anniversary Celebration. "Tiger Rag" features a tuba-like bass tone and a remarkably convincing vocalized muted trumpet. and the she performance of "maximum inclusiveness. No Waiting. April 29-May 1. 75-78). 397. ComedianHarmonists(1997). Also notable is Todd Rundgren's 1985 album. consisted of brothers Herbert (1912-89)." in RU 156. Donald (b. 1994. Among their early successes was a version of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band's "Tiger Rag. 349-75. 20. CBS. 50. liner notes to The Mills Brothers:Chronological. and spirituals. in Four Parts. For example. 1993).: Scarecrow Press. Norton. The Mills Brothers. As with barbershop practice. and Boyz II Men's recordings. Harry (1913-1982). their style drew on a longstanding tradition of black religious vocal music stretching at least as far back as the jubilee choruses of the mid-nineteenth century and later popular gospel quartets (such as the Golden Gate Quartet). like McFerrin's work. relatively few solos. burlesque. 1988). the recordings appear on The Mills Brothers:Chronological. Another early example of vocal imitations of instrumental sounds is the German sextet the Comedian Harmonists.vol. The Whiffenpoofs: 22. 1915). Both scholars also consider the social implications of the concept of blend. 24. Jr. and John Mills. Gould. They began singing together about 1922 and in 1929 became the first black ensemble to receive official commercial sponsorship by a major network. which. Box 1." in Light Motives: New Directions in GermanFilm Studies. The album reached number 128 on the Billboard Top 200. far below the spots reached by Joel's. Although secularized. The Music of BlackAmericans:A History. 3rd ed. New Haven. college songs. Encyclopediaof Rhythm and Blues and Doo-Wop VocalGroups (Lanham. W. For more on the Mills Brothers. 65. McFerrin's. Md. their schools and founding dates. 1). an egalitarian ideal. 51. 2000)." Garnett examines barbershoppers' concept of harmony as a metaphor for social cohesion. and National Identity in Joseph Vilsmaier's ComedianHarmonists (1997). was recorded entirely a cappella using extensive multitracking." It was marked by four-part arrangements. The survey included groups mostly in the United States as well as a few in Canada and the United Kingdom. 9251281). Ascension 2000-A-044. Connecticut.Vol. "Refraining the Past: Heritage Cinema and the Holocaust in the 1990s. I began with an old directory supplied by Don Goodine (of the . see Mitch Rosalsky. Averill discusses barbershop's practice of "collective audition/' in which bodily and social relationships intersect (p. The chart in figure 1 is based on survey data I collected between January 2006 and January 2007 in an attempt to determine the number of collegiate a cappella groups in existence. Margaret McCarthy and Randall Halle (Detroit: Wayne State University Press. and musical sources such as vaudeville.

1953). http://www. The Recorded A Cappella Review Board's website can be found at: http://www.'" Music EducatorsJournal67. no. For a detailed report on the Institute. Mark and Charles L. the group decided to retain it. Don [Gooding]. The parenthetical question mark in "Spizzwinks(?)" is in fact part of the group's name. no. Sarig.353-63. and myself were doing pioneering things independently of each other. N. Housewright.Selected issues are available on the Contemporary A Cappella Society website: http://www. 319-28. 1982). 28. When links were provided. I followed them to groups' websites." the editor wrote. 29. and in 1990 the newsletter was renamed the Contemporary A Cappella Newsletter. see Wiley L. which often contained relevant data. Contemporary Cappella Newsletter2. http://www. history page. A 33. The Society quickly expanded its purview to include semiprofessional and professional a cappella groups.collegeacappella. 30. org) to verify as much information as possible. while the University of history/.casa." Music EducatorsJournal54. which was founded in 1740. "The Tanglewood Declaration. (Spizzwinks(?) website. History of Music Education. See also Michael L.: University Press of New England. accessed Sept.) 27. Gary.H.502 Duchan Mainely A Cappella company). 3 (1967): 51. Keene. See also Leonard Van Camp. I cannot stress enough the role that the invention and use of the Internet had during this time. A History of Music Education in the United States (Hanover. CASA served mostly college groups and adopted Sharon's CollegeA CappellaNewsletter. comprised the primary method of data collection. "The Rise of American Choral Music and the A Cappella 'Bandwagon.yale. 1962) demonstrate. The College Board administers the SAT and other college entrance exams. and the Mendicants (Stanford University. 32. 3 (1969): 43-74. rarb. the parenthetical mistakenly accompanied the name the first time it appeared in print in the Yale Banner in 1914. "this would be the 1948). no. 2007. James A. 6.first published in October 1990. became coed in 1876. and my own recollections of names and anecdotes from my field research. as its organ. Thomas MacCluskey. 3 (1980): 36^0." Music Educators Journal56. 364-65. 34. several years after our independent .org. 2007). As the Men's Octet (University of California at Berkeley. 4 (April 1992): 13. The two remaining Ivy League schools were coeducational much earlier: Cornell University was coed from its founding in 1865 (although female students did not enroll until 1872). In cases where I could not verify a group's existence. The documentary's soundtrack was inducted into the Contemporary A Cappella Society's Contemporary A Cappella Recording Awards "hall of fame" for its demonstration of "the richness of a cappella's If we had to pick one past and the vitality of its future to a completely new audience album to represent contemporary a cappella to someone who's never heard a note.collegeboard. The College Board website. This process of information-gathering. it would have been impractical to contact each group directly to verify the data. I then consulted one of and the "Acapedia" the largest on-line directories (http://www. A History of AmericanMusic Education(New administered by the Contemporary A Cappella Society on its website (http://www. and Allan Hughes. Emmett R. and provides high school students with information regarding colleges and universities. 26. "YouthMusic: A Special Report. which itself was based on contact lists compiled by Deke Sharon and the Tufts University Beelzebubs in the early 1990s." When it was founded. 25. 31. 1992). (accessed March 2. Amused. According to the group's history. a cappella groups did exist elsewhere. I did not add it to Gooding's and Sharon's original lists. but not with the same geographic concentration as in the northeast. Recording engineer Bill Hare emphasized the importance of the Internet in a cappella's growth: "While people like Deke [Sharon]. the Virginia Gentlemen (University of Virginia.

Related terms include "cascade" (all voices begin in unison and while the highest voice maintains its pitch. kin-doh-dohdiddle-rai" as an example." he said. Eli Schneider. Vt: Ashgate. Brandeis University Company B. only once in my field work did an a cappella participant use it. See. 35. No Waiting. Brandeis University VoiceMale. 40. Julia Barnathan and Lianna Levine. 39. 39. 1. the term's prevalence in the scholarly literature on popular music testifies to its utility when examining the ideologies behind musical practices.rarb. Drew Cohen. 2004. Oct. MIDI stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface.I was really impressed when I got a letter from this kid Deke Sharon in Boston who had heard my work with the Mendicants from all the way over in California" (personal communication. http://www. the others descend in succession to their chord tones) and "pyramid" (a bell chord that builds from the lowest voice/pitch)." PopularMusic 11. 2007). Definitions for many barbershop terms (such as "bell chord") can be found in the glossary for Averill. and Aaron Fox. Martin Stokes (Oxford: Oxford University Press. no. 42. 38. 2004). Feb. Moore.and Music: TheMusical Constructionof Place. for example. A former VoiceMale member credits the group's uncommon and inventive syllables to the ethnic and linguistic diversity of its arrangers: one was from Israel.a-cappella. 36. Identity. Simon Frith. "Have I the Right?: Legitimacy. 1995).I know the Stanford groups for the most part didn't know there were any other groups out there before this time. 2004 (hereafter Barnathan and Levine interview). 205-10. "Israeli Rock.. 1 (1992): 1-14. Four Parts. Here. MIDI files contain instructions for computers to synthesize a song and can be imported into most music notation software. 20. Authenticity and Community in Folk's Politics.2nd ed. 5. Maine: Contemporary A Cappella James Harrington. personal (topic: "a theory about imitative arrangements"). Allan F. no. "Identity. In a way. 117-34. He offered the syllabic combination "kin-diddle-ray-doh. (Burlington. 27." PopularMusic 8. Place. Anna Callahan. Motti Regev. a standardized format in which computers and other digital instruments can share musical information. or a Study in the Politics of 'Local Authenticity'. Deke invented the original intergroup net by trying to put together a database of the other groups out there. syllable choice is motivated by a desire to distinguish the group's sound from that of other vocal and choral ensembles. most groups would have remained islands unto themselves . "Transanging" is Callahan's term. A "bell chord" is an arranging technique whereby four voices enter in succession to create a chord. The BOCA albums are available for purchase online through A-Cappella. David Brackett. 75-107. including other campus groups. /y/TheMagic That Can Set You Free':The Ideology of Folk and the Myth of the Rock Community. Real Country:Music and Language in WorkingClass Culture (Durham: Duke University Press. each voice ringing like a bell. 37. It is worth noting that.Interpreting PopularMusic (Berkeley: University of California Press. Anna's Amazing A Cappella ArrangingAdvice:TheCollegiateA Cappella ArrangingManual (Southwest Harbor. 1994). using telephone and written correspondence . personal interview. and the 'Liverpool Sound. 2. However. Rock:The Primary Text:Developing a Musicology of Rock. 43. If it weren't for this new form of instant information gathering. 2 (1989): 177-84. 2001). "Nobody thinks of that kind of stuff. Sept. Sara Cohen. I never observed a cappella musicians discussing their music in terms of authenticity. throughout my research. while another was from India.ed. Oct." Such syllabic combinations are valuable and creative because they do not directly mimic any particular instrument and because they are unfamiliar to listeners' ears.'" in Ethnicity. posted in the discussion forum of the Recorded A Cappella Review Board (RARB) (http://www. "if you're thinking in English. Steve Redhead and John Street. 1995). 2004 (hereafter Cohen interview). 41.Collegiate A Cappella 503 groundwork." PopularMusic 1 (1981): 159-68. .

2004).308-14). 46.g. Moreover. Personal observation. 2006. but in this case 'beatbox' means rhyming out loud over a human beatbox. 50.: Wesleyan University Press. 49. Sept. vocal percussion workshop held at the Michigan A Cappella Conference. Northfield. or mouth percussion accompaniment . 2004. 2004 (hereafter Schneider interview). Jon Weinstein. Simon Frith. 53. so a comprehensive survey of recordings is difficult. most discussions of rap emphasize creative uses of technologies such as turntables. One instance when singers actively sought vibrato was when trying to effect a gospel style. e. 48. and samplers rather than percussive or nonsensical sounds. 44. Averill. posted on the RARB forum (topic: "vocal percussion vs beatboxing"). through its cassette and DVD (Southwest Harbor. 2005. 1988). Wes Carroll was one of the founding members of Five O'Clock Shadow and later joined the House Jacks. Tricia Rose. 52. PerformingRites: On the Value of Popular Music (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. for which some tracks were recorded in 1991. 1998). 55.504 Duchan Brandeis University VoiceMale. There is little scholarship on beatboxing. we cannot assume that recorded vocal percussion indicates its frequent use in live performance. 28. VocalAuthority: Singing Style and Ideology(New York:Cambridge University Press. A notable exception is David Toop. Michael Feldman. mixers. Jan. Garnett. beatboxes and mics. personal communication. It was noted for its straight-tone singing. 1. 2005. May 30. 23. 13. inspired legions of high school choir directors to adopt a similar practice of avoiding vibrato while also drawing criticism (see Keene. "The Black Atlantic. although anecdotal evidence suggest that it was new to the University of Pennsylvania Counterparts when they observed the Beelzebubs at a joint performance in Boston in 1991. The Rap Attack:African Jive to New YorkHip Hop (London: Pluto Press. Most collegiate a cappella recordings are produced in limited quantities and not widely distributed. Wong's analysis stresses the role of technology in hip-hop compositional practice: "hip-hoppers refer constantly to the technologies employed in their compositional process. soloists do not necessarily need to avoid vibrato when singing a song's lead because it could function as a marker of emotional intensity. 45. Minn.. 47. Four Parts. No Waiting. 1996)." 54. Conn. 1994). SpeakIt Louder: Asian AmericansMakingMusic (New York:Routledge. Sept. A History of Music Education. Olaf 's College. Goosman. Sept. Moreover. Schneider interview. 1984). Although the Beelzebubs. 191. Melius Christiansen. which. He has produced an instructional video that some a cappella groups use: Mouthdrumming. was founded in 1907 by F. Brandeis University VoiceMale.g. Recording engineer Bill Hare also recalls the Stanford University Mendicants recording vocal percussion around 1989 (personal communication). . Deborah Wong. 250. 9.. Introductionto VocalPercussion. Maine: Mainely A Cappella." The Lutheran Choir of St. also includes vocal percussion. John Potter. they were not alone in recording vocal percussion: the University of North Carolina Clef Hangers' Safari (1992). Sangho Byun. personal interview. personal interview.. Jane Mclntosh credits the Tufts University Beelzebubs with bringing vocal percussion to collegiate a cappella on their 1991 album. The definition of "cipher" is drawn from Wong's correspondence with Asian American hip-hop artist Peril-L of the Mountain Brothers. led by Deke Sharon. 165. e.» electronic beatbox process back into oral performance. "Ethics and Aesthetics". were pioneers in collegiate a cappella in the early 1990s. 51. BlackNoise: RapMusic and BlackCulturein ContemporaryAmerica(Middletown. Foster Street (Mclntosh.vol. a group's recordings may sound quite different from their live performances. 169. Thus. "In Harmony").a performative history that reabsorbs the acoustic percussion .

297." posted on the Contemporary A Cappella Society forum (http://www. 59. J. 1987) 140. the Stanford University Fleet Street Singers' 2004 album." 69. "eksingpuccusser. 2005. see J. 2005. during which disparate motives from earlier in the song weave in and out of the texture while the overall dynamic relaxes in the approach to the final chord. which. in recent years original compositions have become more common (e. genres. Fleet Street. Ariel Horn. "A Fan's Notes: Identification. and styles. Reception. "borrowing"). Cohen interview.Collegiate A Cappella 505 56. originally performed by the Gabriel Mann Situation. 2 (2005): 150.. no. June 10. The A sections would be sung using call-and-response techniques. Sara Samimi. the texture would often shift to "concerted harmony" (Goosman. 2005.ed. leads directly into the final chorus. Stebbins. 64. The Barbershop Singer. 26. Sept. 60. 61. ed. with a lead singer calling and the background singers responding and supporting harmonically. There is a considerable musicological literature on musical quotation and borrowing. In the B section. 67. 66. personal interview. Denise Fulbrook. "The Uses of Existing Music: Musical Borrowing as a Field. powerful because for the first and only time in the song all voices sing the most important lyrics together. 15.: Duke University Press." 86). involves a 'wanting to be/ an imitation o/that with which one identifies. Peter Burkholder. "Towards an Aesthetic of Popular Music."in RockOver the Edge:Transformations in PopularMusic Culture. 10. the driving percussion stops (with a dramatic reverse cymbal effect) just as all the voices join the soloist in singing the song's refrain. and Ben Saunders (Durham. This climactic moment. The expansion of research is making it possible for the first time to see all the uses of existing music. April 19. jazz contrafacts and digital sampling. 62. Roger Beebe. Personal observation at Bill Hare's studio (Bill Hare Productions). A powerful example would be "Slumber. Barnathan and Levine interview. 62-72. George Plasketes. 142. Goosman calls the practice of creating vocal accompaniments "basing. borrowing." Notes 50. Feb. as aspects of a single field that crosses historical periods and research specializations" ( (topic: "Vocal Percussion"-"Na'ive Question").v. allusion and intertextuality in the parallel fields of art history and literary criticism are bringing fresh insights to the study of borrowing in music and to the relationships between the arts. personal interview. Zanes calls identification "grounded in psychoanalytic thought. casa. Although most a cappella groups perform a repertory based on preexisting recordings. University of Pennsylvania Counterparts. 2005. "LilVPboy. 2002). in Music and Society: The and Politics of Composition. 68. 3 (1994): 851-70.C. 2001. Warren Zanes. AABA form." posted on the RARB forum (topic: "vocal percussion vs beatboxing").Performance. Peter Burkholder writes in his article on the subject in The New GroveDictionaryof Music and Musicians:"Approaches to influence. 58. following Freud." It was usually applied to songs in typical Tin Pan Alley. J." by Gabriel Mann. no. that ranges from medieval music to the present. too vast to be mentioned here. organum and cantus firmus to collage. which consists entirely of original compositions). Harvard University Fallen Angels. "Re-flections on the Cover Age: A Collage of Continuous Coverage in Popular Music/' PopularMusic and Society 28. At approximately 4:07 into the recording. "The Black Atlantic. 65. Desire. 57. arranged by Stacey Burcham for the co-ed USC SoCal VoCals and recorded on TheSoCal VoCals(2004) (also featured on the Best of CollegeA Cappella 2004). and R. . N.g. from contrafactum. and the Haunted Sound Barrier. For an overview of borrowing from a perspective that seeks to include all historical periods. including art music and popular music." and observes that singers in postwar black harmony groups called the practice "'backgrounding' a lead. Simon Frith. Richard Leppert and Susan McClary (New York:Cambridge University Press. 63. Aug.

John Lang. and Martin Paige. 1997).Series of compact discs. "Kyrie. Yale University Whiffenpoofs. "Don't Worry. 9251281." From <SelfTitled>. "If I Ever Lose My Faith in You. . annual. 1992. 1958)." From A Little Crazy." From Throwback. Jackson. Boyz II Men. "Human Nature. 1993). Joel. Stanford University Fleet Street Singers. "Magic Carpet Ride. 1968)." Author's field recordings. Originally by Steve George. 1991). Originally recorded by Michael Jackson. 1983). recorded by Robbie Williams on Life Thru a Lens (Chrysalis 6127. University of North Carolina Clef Hangers. recorded by Rufus Wainwright on the Big Daddy film soundtrack (Sony 69946." Author's field recordings. 1982). Mister on Welcometo the Real World(RCA 89647. 2002). Also featured on the Best of College A Cappella 1996. 1995. Steppenwolf. Also featured on the Best of College A Cappella 1996. Cornell University Hangovers. 1999). Originally by A. Rundgren. Levine and J. Originally by Kristian Bush. Koch/MSM Music Group 5735. 2004. 1985). The Whiffenpoofs of 1958 (privately pressed. "Human Nature. recorded by Billy Pilgrim on Billy Pilgrim (Atlantic 82515-2. From Steppenwolfthe Second (Dunhill DS-50037. Fleet Street." From An Innocent Man (Columbia CK 38837. .2003. Safari. Boston University Treblemakers. Originally by Guy Chambers and Robbie Williams. "It's So Hard to Say Goodbye to Yesterday. recorded by Maroon 5 on Songs about Jane (Octone 50001." From Sevenand Seven. McFerrin." From SimplePleasures(EMIE2-48059. Billy. Also featured on the Best of College A Cappella2004. Brandeis University VoiceMale. 1985). Originally recorded by Michael Jackson. "The Longest Time. 2005. Originally by Gabriel Mann. 1988). "Insomniac. University of Michigan Amazin' Blue." From The SoCal VoCals. "Human Nature. 2004. Michael." From Blackout. "Instant Pleasure. "She Will Be Loved. Originally by Seth Swirsky. recorded by Mr. "Human Nature. 2004-5.Bobby.Be Happy. Varsity Vocals. University of Southern California SoCal VoCals." By John Kay and Rush ton Moreve. . 2004-5. 1995-." By Steven Porcaro and John Bettis. 1994." Author's field recordings. Originally recorded by Sting on TenSummoner'sTales(A&M 89567. University of Virginia Gentlemen. A Capella(Warner Bros. From Thriller(Epic QE-38112.2004. 2004. . 1994). . Todd. 2004-5." From Cooleyhighharmony (Motown 6320. "Let Me Entertain You. Originally recorded by Michael Jackson. Valentine. recorded by the Gabriel Mann Situation (not commercially released)." Propeller.506 Duchan RECORDINGS CITED Best of CollegeA Cappella. "Slumber. Also featured on the Best of College A Cappella2004.

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