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Methodology for manufacturing a specific piece

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, to improve the profitability of new product designs you can count on two basic
strategies:
Product innovation (functions and benefits), or the DFMA (Design for Manufacturing and
Assembly).

Innovation is characterized by providing very large returns under significant risks, contrary
to what happens with the DFMA, which provides lower returns with low risk, quickly
returning the money invested in the project. By applying DFMA techniques and
methodologies to the design of a product, it is possible to cut your manufacturing costs up
to 30 or 40%. The DFMA whose meaning is: "De sign for Manufacturing and Assembly"
"Design for Manufacturing and Assembly", consists of a set of techniques and
methodologies for the improvement of the design, or redesign, of a product and have as
main objective to improve the aspects of manufacturability, montability and costs,
respecting the essential functions of the product.

The DFMA is included within the Concurrent Engineering (also called in the literature
specialized simultaneous engineering, total design or integrated design) as a specific
approach oriented to manufacturing and assembly. Through the DFMA, the design and
development of products and services is conceived in a global and integrated manner
where the following points of view concur: Product: takes into account both the range that
is manufactured and the requirements of the different stages of the life cycle, the
associated costs or resources (function, manufacturing, assembly, quality, ...).
Human resources: we work in multidisciplinary teams where professionals collaborate that
act collectively in advisory and decision tasks or individually in tasks of impulsion and
management, both belonging to the company and external to it (other companies,
universities, centers technological).

Material resources: New tools are based on information and communication technologies,
increasingly integrated (3D modeling, simulation and calculation tools, prototypes and
quick tools, internal communication, Internet).

Recapitulation and state of the art of design.

The research group of the Industrial Equipment Design Center of the Polytechnic
University of Catalonia has carried out redesign projects based on DFMA techniques on
several products and has proven the capacity to reduce costs with this methodology. In the
latest applications, the redesign of the products has been combined using DFMA
techniques with the reconsideration of the architecture of a family of products
manufactured by the same company. The results obtained point to much greater benefits
than with the application of each of these technologies separately.

One of the first activities carried out by a researcher is the elaboration of the STATE OF
ART. What is it done for? What is the intention? Basically I think of the first instance that
can be useful for three things:
1) It is the first formal approach of the subject that investigates the intellectual productions
in the subject that interests him. If the researcher will become an expert on the subject,
then this activity is a way to start the journey.

2) Knowing other researches allows the researcher to clarify their ideas about their topic of
interest, and thus be able to define it better, refine it, delimit it, and approach it from the
perspective that interests him.

3) Know what is the latest that has occurred on the subject and know the authors who are
doing research on the subject. In this way, you will initiate an exchange of information, and
you can establish an academic relationship with other researchers. If you are a daring
researcher, you will be able in the future to generate research networks on the field that
are of interest to several that, due to the state of the art, you have discovered.

The STATE OF ART describes the most recent and current research that has been carried
out on a specific topic. In English, the Estate of Art refers to cutting-edge knowledge or
technology; And the most recent characteristic refers to the last 10 years from the date on
which it starts its backward elaboration. In the specific case in which these lines are
written, for example, year 2011 and in the assumption that we began the elaboration of the
State of the Art of some investigation, our period of inquiry would be delimited from 2000
to 2011. But, as it is January , then until 2010.

The description is an academic text that systematically exposes the existing advances on
a subject and is of a more qualitative nature, in which the results and approaches of the
investigations are detailed around the topic that each research has paid to the subject of
study of interest. of the researcher who elaborates the state of the art. The description
revolves around four elements:

To who? The researcher who developed the study.

b) When? The year in which the results of the study were published. Although we know in
advance that the study should have been developed at least a year before.

c) What? The object of study. This is where emphasis is placed on the description. Not
only the object of study is said, but the focus, the results of the investigation.

from where? The place where the investigation was conducted. This is a reference data
with several purposes: one is to organize the information from macro to micro
(international, national or local); Another purpose is to know the way to establish contact
with the author of the investigation if this is the wish of the researcher who realizes the
state of the art; for example, if it is from the locality, you can contact it directly and face-to-
face, if you do not have to establish contact by other means, we now have the electronic
means available for it, which reduces the time of the feedback of a message.

MAIN IMPLICATIONS IN THE DESIGN

The decisions taken in the design phase commit 70% of the cost of the product. If you
want to reduce the costs of a product, a possible line of action would be through the DFMA
through an optimization of the product design.

The companies, traditionally, design a product assuming that the manufacturing and
assembly costs are the same as those of similar products. Sometimes, the designers
themselves lack the necessary information that allows them to quantify the costs of each
set or alternative solutions.

Conclusion The application of DFMA techniques in the design stage allows:

• Facilitate manufacturing and assembly operations

• Reduce manufacturing and assembly costs

• Reduce investment and tooling costs

• Optimize the use of manufacturing and assembly tools and equipment


• Reduce management costs

• Increase manufacturing flexibility

• Increase product configurability

• Decrease the time of introduction in the market

• Reduce intermediate warehousing, dispatch and occupation of spaces in general

• Unify components with the consequent decrease in purchase costs and fewer references
to manage.

The first decision that must be taken when designing a new production system is the
design of the product or service that will be manufactured.

The development of new products has become a key factor to achieve business success:
if in the eighties all efforts were focused on reducing the manufacturing cycle and
implementing flexible production systems, the 1990s have been accompanied by a change
of perspective and a concern for the process of design and development of new products.
And more specifically by reducing the time spent designing and developing new products.

A new way of competing in the market arises in this way, which has been called time-
based competition. The speed in responding to market needs demands to be a master in
the use of time. This is what Kotler calls "turbomarketing".

The strategic implications of this reduction of time are very significant:

1. Increases in productivity: As time decreases, productivity increases.

2. Increases in prices: Customers of companies that compete in time are willing to pay
more for their products and services for both subjective and economic reasons.

3. Risk reduction: By compressing time, forecasts become more reliable, reducing the risk
of failure.

4. Increases in market share: When customers trust the ability of the company to meet the
deadlines, their market share increases considerably.

Therefore, developing new products in a short time, so that they are available as
soon as possible in the market, becomes one of the main concerns of today's companies.
The importance given to the time of development of new products, as a factor of
competitive advantage, has motivated that one of the main concerns of those in charge of
managing this process is to find a series of tools that help reduce this time.

MAIN IMPLICATIONS IN THE DESIGN The decisions taken in the design phase commit
70% of the cost of the product. If you want to reduce the costs of a product, a possible line
of action would be through the DFMA through an optimization of the product design. The
companies, traditionally, design a product assuming that the manufacturing and assembly
costs are the same as those of similar products. Sometimes, the designers themselves
lack the necessary information that allows them to quantify the costs of each set or
alternative solutions.

Conclusion The application of DFMA techniques in the design stage allows:

• Facilitate manufacturing and assembly operations

• Reduce manufacturing and assembly costs

• Reduce investment and tooling costs

• Optimize the use of manufacturing and assembly tools and equipment

• Reduce management costs

• Increase manufacturing flexibility

• Increase product configurability

• Decrease the time of introduction in the market

• Reduce intermediate warehousing, dispatch and occupation of spaces in general

• Unify components with the consequent decrease in purchase costs and fewer references
to manage.

The first decision that must be taken when designing a new production system is the
design of the product or service that will be manufactured.

The development of new products has become a key factor to achieve business success:
if in the eighties all efforts were focused on reducing the manufacturing cycle and
implementing flexible production systems, the 1990s have been accompanied by a change
of perspective and a concern for the process of design and development of new products.
And more specifically by reducing the time spent designing and developing new products.
A new way of competing in the market arises in this way, which has been called time-
based competition. The speed in responding to market needs demands to be a master in
the use of time. This is what Kotler calls "turbomarketing".

The strategic implications of this reduction of time are very significant:

1. Increases in productivity: As time decreases, productivity increases.

2. Increases in prices: Customers of companies that compete in time are willing to pay
more for their products and services for both subjective and economic reasons.

3. Risk reduction: By compressing time, forecasts become more reliable, reducing the risk
of failure.

4. Increases in market share: When customers trust the ability of the company to meet the
deadlines, their market share increases considerably.

Therefore, developing new products in a short time, so that they are available as
soon as possible in the market, becomes one of the main concerns of today's companies.

The importance given to the time of development of new products, as a factor of


competitive advantage, has motivated that one of the main concerns of those in charge of
managing this process is to find a series of tools that help reduce this time.