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What is Torque?
Torque is any force or system of forces that tends to cause rotation about an axis.

Measurement of Torque
Imagine someone tightening a bolt using a socket attached to a meter long bar. If they apply 10 kg of force (kgf) perpendicular to the bar they will produce a torque of 10 kgf.m at the axis (the centre of the bolt). However, under the S.I. system of measurement, force is expressed in Newtons (N) rather than kgf. The conversion between kgf and N is x 9.807 so the person is applying 98.07 N.m of torque.

2m 1m

100 N

100 N

Torque = Force x Distance Example 1: Distance = 1 m, Force = 100 N,Torque = 100 N.m. Example 2: Distance = 2 m, Force = 100 N,Torque = 200 N.m. Example 3: Distance = 1 ft, Force = 100 lbf,Torque = 100 lbf.ft (or 100 ft.lb)

The Importance of Torque Control
Although many methods exist to join two or more parts together, the ease of assembly and disassembly provided by threaded fasteners make them the ideal choice for many applications. The object of a threaded fastener is to clamp parts together with a tension greater than the external forces tending to separate them. The bolt then remains under constant stress and is immune from fatigue. However, if the initial tension is too low, varying loads act on the bolt and it will quickly fail. If the initial tension is too high, the tightening process may cause bolt failure. Reliability therefore depends upon correct initial tension. The most practical way of ensuring this is by specifying and controlling the tightening torque.

Bolt Tension
When an assembly is clamped by tightening a nut and bolt, the induced tension causes the bolt to stretch. An equal force acts to compress the parts which are thus clamped. The proof load of a bolt, normally established by test, is the load which just starts to induce permanent set – also known as the yield point. Typically bolts are tightened to between 75% and 90% of yield.

Torque

Force

Clamping Force Clamping Force

Tension in bolt

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Take Pride - Torque Norbar

Degreasing fasteners of the film of oil usually present on them as supplied will decrease the tension for a given torque and may result in shear of the fastener before the desired tension is achieved. hard washers with a good fit to the shank of the bolt give lower and more consistent friction and are generally to be preferred.20 1. Devices Zinc 1.15 such as lock-nuts must be taken into account when establishing the correct tightening torque.This has the effect of changing the friction radius and hence affects the torque-tension relationship. the calculated tightening torque should be multiplied by the factor from the table opposite according to surface treatment and lubrication.85 0.00 1. Some general points can be made: ● ● ● ● ● Surface condition of nut Most torque tightened joints do not use washers because their use can result in relative motion between the nut and washer or the washer and joint surface during tightening.90 1.00 0. For reasons of appearance or corrosion resistance. used in a controlled manner.65 0. Unless allowance is made in the specified tightening torque. Cadmium 0.80 0. it follows that any changes in the coefficient of friction resulting from differences in surface finish.70 0. As little as 10% of the applied torque results in useful work to tension the bolt. It is generally accepted that as much as 50% of the applied torque is expended in overcoming friction between the bolt head and the abutting surface and another 30% to 40% is lost to friction in the threads.65 0. If washers are to be used. surface condition and lubrication can have a dramatic effect on the torque versus tension relationship. the induced tension may be excessive causing the bolt to yield and fail.55 0.60 0. However.00 Phosphate and oil Zinc with wax 0.35 1. 7 .Introduction Friction in the Bolted Joint When a threaded fastener is tightened. these lubricants serve a useful purpose in reducing the torque to produce the desired tension meaning that a lower capacity tightening tool can be used.20 1. Super lubricants formulated from graphite.90 Friction is often deliberately introduced into the fastener to reduce the possibility of loosening due to vibration. fasteners Surface condition of bolt may be plated. molybdenum disulphide and waxes result in minimal friction. Untreated 1. Where a larger bearing face is required then flange nuts or bolts can be used. Friction under the bolt head Friction in the threads Useful work to tension bolt Given that up to 90% of the applied torque will be lost to friction. the induced tension results in friction under the head of the bolt and in the threads. These treatments affect the coefficient of Untreated Zinc Cadmium Phosphate friction and therefore the torque versus tension relationship.15 1.55 As a rough guide.70 0.75 0.

it is the tension in a fastener rather than the torque that is the critical factor.com. www.Torque Norbar . 8 Take Pride .com. However. cylinder heads and connecting rods. a bolt tightened to its yield point will provide the strongest and most fatigue-resistant joint possible. a more direct means of establishing tension is needed. Various methods exist including several types of load indicating bolt or washer. e. in joints that are highly critical due to safety or the cost and implications of machine down-time.norbar. Torque Tension Calculator For further information and guidance on establishing the correct tightening torque for a fastener.norbar. When Torque Doesn’t Equal Tight As we have established. see Norbar’s web site. However. within the physical limitations of the bolt material and manufacturing process.norbar. it is a satisfactory method under the majority of circumstances. one of the most versatile methods is to measure the extension of the bolt due to the tightening process using ultrasound and this is exactly what Norbar’s USM-3 does.com Tightening to Yield Bolts tightened to yield provide consistently higher preloads from smaller diameter bolts. In theory. Down side of this method is the cost of the sophisticated equipment necessary to determine when the bolt goes into yield. in a correctly engineered joint and with a controlled tightening process. Torque is an indirect means of establishing tension but. For full details of this instrument see Norbar’s web site: www.www.The reduced fastener stiffness reduces the fatigue loading to which the bolt is subjected under repeated external load reversals.g.

85 4.7 65 99.7 42.63 1. Alternatively.6 133 183 260 352 449 663 900 1223 1573 2043 2530 3167 3813 4912 6083 7564 9110 11029 6.8 54.52 2.07 0.9 mm 0.42 0.63 1.6 M 4.59 3.56 7.28 3.71 2. d.38 0.57 8.11 14.09 10.6 0.28 0.11 0.54 15.92 9.94 7.18 0. The load will be 90% of the bolt yield strength.14 0.31 0. multiply the recommended torque by the appropriate factor shown in the table on page 7.1 65.09 1.3 50.56 14.4 39 59.9 0.05 0.3 86.2 97. Bolt Grade 3. b.19 2.14. The coefficient of friction is 0. use the Torque/Tension Calculator on the Norbar website which enables fastener and friction conditions to be modified with ease.8 40.8 0.7 35.27 4.58 1.6 52 79.54 6.8 0.85 19 38.9 3.78 1.8 147 234 359 495 702 950 1213 1789 2430 3301 4248 5517 6832 8551 10296 13263 16425 20422 24597 29777 3.85 11. c.m 0.9 82. If lubrication is to be applied to the nut/bolt.8 0.5 M3 M4 M5 M6 M8 M 10 M 12 M 14 M 16 M 18 M 20 M 22 M 24 M 27 M 30 M 33 M 36 M 39 M 42 M 45 M 48 M 52 M 56 M 60 M 64 M 68 0.51 0.4 57.53 1.48 19.95 2.8 31.7 156 240 330 468 634 809 1193 1620 2201 2832 3678 4555 5701 6864 8842 10950 13614 16398 19851 10.91 4.38 0.2 4 5 5.1 32.24 0.8 86.29 0.48 0.86 6.71 1.6 0. For critical applications.35 2.8 6.8 28.1 104 160 220 312 422 539 795 1080 1467 1888 2452 3036 3800 4576 5895 7300 9076 10932 13234 8.36 0.3 17.8 Torque in N.09 0.91 11.14 0.5 122 195 299 413 585 792 1011 1491 2025 2751 3540 4597 5693 7126 8580 11052 13687 17018 20498 24814 12. further information and research will be necessary.5 7 8 10 13 17 19 22 24 27 30 32 36 41 46 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 M 1.5 25. standard finish.3 24.21 0.22 0.29 10.6 M2 M 2.The following basic assumptions have been made: a. uncoated and not lubricated (other than the normal protective oil film).8 138 195 264 337 497 675 917 1180 1532 1898 2375 2860 3684 4562 5673 6833 8271 5.5 117 158 202 298 405 550 708 919 1139 1425 1716 2210 2737 3404 4100 4963 9 .31 2.84 1.9 139 213 293 416 563 719 1060 1440 1956 2517 3269 4049 5067 6101 7859 9733 12102 14576 17646 9.18 0.9 23. Bolts are new.26 0.Recommended Maximum Torque Values The information supplied here is intended to be an acceptable guide for normal conditions.9 110 156 211 270 398 540 734 944 1226 1518 1900 2288 2947 3650 4538 5466 6617 5. The final tightening sequence is achieved smoothly and slowly.87 1.7 85.5 71.11 0.01 1.

356 0.233 Metric Units kgf.007 0.416 141.m M=PxD P = bolt tension Newtons 5000 D = bolt dia.norbar.in 0.6 1 16 192 13.138 0.20 0.m 0.0007 0.472 = l/s Power hp x 0.m = S.Torque Norbar .www.ft = 1 kgf.807 980.746 =kW kW = N.89 1389 lbf. Units cN. Example L2 extended length L1 normal length Torque setting 100 N.in = 1 lbf.102 10.01 1 0.cm 0.098 9.083 1 0.005 0.504 = lbf/in2 Flow l/s x 2.ins or for metric sizes:M = torque N. mm M=PxD 60 These formulae may be used for bolts outside the range of the tables. based on many tests are:M = torque lbf.706 11.152 13.119 = cu.807 Imperial Units ozf.com Torque Conversion Factors Units to be converted 1 cN.m Centre of handle 10 Take Pride .007 0. this is a ratio) M2 = 100 x 650/500 = 130 N.851 0.01 1 Force lbf x 4.m = 1 ozf.m 0.072 1.ft/min x 0.45 = N N x 0.I.069 = bar bar x 14.in 1.225 = lbf Pressure lbf/in2 x 0.0115 0.072 7.088 8.ft/min cu.0625 1 12 0.868 86.83 1 100 kgf.113 1.6 9.m = 1 N.ft P = bolt tension lbf D = bolt dia.8 lbf.m x rev/min 9546 Formulae Accepted formulae relating torque and tension. Formula for Calculating the Effect of Torque Wrench Extensions M2 = M1 x L2/L1 Where L1 is the normal length and L2 is the extended length.738 0.in = 1 lbf.001 0.cm = 1 kgf. M1 is the set torque and M2 the actual torque applied to the nut.m L1 = 500 L2 = 650 (units of length not important.102 0.7 N.m 1 100 0.3 135.ft 0.

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