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Global Hospitality and Tourism Research:

Innovations and Best Practices


(An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference)
th th
15 - 16 February, 2019

Editors

Dr. Sarah Hussain,


Principal, BCIHMCT, New Delhi

Dr. Arvind Kumar Saraswati


Assistant Professor, BCIHMCT, New Delhi

Alok Aswal
Assistant Professor, BCIHMCT, New Delhi

Prem Ram
Assistant Professor, BCIHMCT, New Delhi

Mohan Jain
Assistant Professor, BCIHMCT, New Delhi

Rachna Chandan
Assistant Professor, BCIHMCT, New Delhi

Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Hotel Management & Catering Technology


New Delhi, India
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices
th
(An outcome of 9 India International Hotel, Travel& Tourism Research Conference)
15th - 16th February, 2019

Published by:

Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Hotel Management & Catering Technology


Chandiwala Estate, Maa Anandmai Marg,
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Email: director@bcihmct.ac.in Website: www.bcihmct.ac.in

ISBN: 978-81-920850-8-1
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Preface

This Book cum Conference Proceedings titled “Global Hospitality & Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices”
contains the written versions of most of the contributions presented during the Ninth India International Hotel, Travel and
Tourism Research Conference presented by IQAC of Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Hotel Management and Catering
Technology. The Conference provides a setting for discussing recent developments in a wide variety of topics including
Hospitality & Tourism Education and Training; Quality Enhancement and Sustenance; Emerging Trends in Tourism,
Travel and Hospitality; Ecotourism, Green Practices & Sustaining Environment in Hospitality & Tourism; Managing
Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism; Tourism & Hospitality Marketing Strategies and Consumer Behaviour;
Food Safety, Quality and Innovations; Food, Hospitality and Tourism Marketing; Hospitality & Tourism Education and
Training; Managing Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism; Sustainability in Hospitality and Tourism.

Tourism and Handicrafts can be interlinked with mutual benefit for development and promotion of both sectors with
support from each other, stated the study incorporated in this book. Tourism provides an opportunity to preserve traditional
arts and crafts whereas the cultural heritage on the other hand has proved to be a great motivation for boosting tourism.

The air pollution in Delhi is not just devastating the environment but harmful amount of gases, dust, fumes and odour are
causing breathing problems to people according to the research included in the book. Delhi's tourism could be severely hit
owing to the increase of pollution in the capital city, especially in the month of November and December which are the peak
months for foreign travelers visiting India. It is important to sensitize people about the environment, preserve its natural
and manmade attraction and offer visitors pollution free destination to enhance the experience of visitors from India and
abroad.

Sustainability is a burning problem in current scenario. Many Indian constituencies depend heavily on tourism for
economic strategies but are equally affected by the side-effects of tourism. The study incorporated in this book analyses the
different strategies for tourism to improve sustainability. The study shows that planned implementation of tourism
strategies can improve the economic and environmental sustainability.

Potentialities of hospitality and tourism entrepreneurship development, for sustainable economic growth in Nigeria, has
been addressed in the book. Entrepreneurship has been instrumental in economic growth, balanced regional development
and job creation in most dynamic economies, where technology is changing at a faster rate and the product life cycle is
shrinking. It was concluded that the government should focus on capacity building, improving infrastructure, judicious
utilization of the oil wealth and enabling environment thereby leading to sustainable economic growth.

We thank all Indian and International participants of IIHTTRC, NAAC, faculty members, staff, students of BCIHMCT and
most of all Patrons of Banarsidas Chandiwala Seva Smarak Trust Society, Mr. Aditya Krishna, Chairman, SBCSST, Dr.
Bhuwan Mohan, Secretary, SBCSSTS, Mr. Vijay Narain, Treasurer, SBCSSTS, who supported us at every stage of the
project. We thank our Media Partners - Hotels & Restaurants Network, Hospitality Biz India, The Chef's Arena, The Hotel
Times, Processed Food Industry, Spiritz and Hospibuzz.com

We invite all participants and contributors to carry the legacy of India International Hotel, Travel and Tourism Research
Conference to its 10th edition which will be held in 2020 at BCIHMCT.

Dr. Sarah Hussain


Editor
Team
th
9 India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference- 2019

Organizing Committee The Scientific Committee Conference Sponsors


Dr. Asad Mohsin, National Accreditation and
Dr. Sarah Hussain The University of Waikato Assessment Council (NAAC)
Chairperson- IIHTTRC- 2019 New Zealand
Media Partners
Alok Aswal Dr. Nigel Hemmington,
Convener – IIHTTRC 2019 AUT, New Zealand Hotels & Restaurants Network
New Delhi, India
Dr. Arvind Kumar Saraswati Dr. Fevzi Okumus,
Co-Convener – IIHTTRC 2019 University of Central Florida, USA Hospitality Biz India
Saffron Media Pvt. Ltd.
Review Committee Mumbai, India
Dr. Paolo Mura,
Prem Ram Taylor's University, Malaysia
Mohan Jain The Chef's Arena
Rachna Chandan Dr. Manohar Sajnani,
Amity University, Noida, India The Hotel Times
Conference Committee Members Corporate Communication India
Dr. ParamitaSuklabaidya, Bangalore, India
Dr. Ashish Kr. Ranga
IGNOU, New Delhi, India
Divya Thakur Dr. Piyush Sharma, Spiritz
Gagan Soni Amity University, Noida, India
Processed Food Industry
Indrajit Chaudhury
Dr. Parikshat Singh Manhas, Magazine
Manish Malhotra New Delhi, India
University of Jammu, India
Mohinder Pal Singh
Neha Sahni Dr. Sandeep Kulshreshtha, Hospibuzz.com

Peeyush Srivastav IITTM, India

Ranojit Kundu
Dr. Sanjiv Mittal,
Reshma Kamboj GGSIPU, New Delhi, India
Shakesh Kumar
Dr. Vinay Rana,
Shubhangi Garg
IMS UNISON University, Dehradun,
Sumit Pant India
Suprabhat Banerjee
Uttam Kr. Singh
Vaibhav Verma
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research:
Innovations and Best Practices

CONTENTS

Chapter Title Pages


Potentialities of Hospitality and Tourism Entrepreneurship Development for
1 Sustainable Economic Growth in Nigeria 01-04
Thomas D. Tambari & Isiya Salihu Shinkafi

Contributions of Tourism Towards Sustainability 05-09


2 Dr. Poonam Mishra & Shama Baa

An Empirical Research on the Impact of Air Pollution on Tourism in Delhi.A 10-15


3 Case Study
Dr. Brijesh Kumar & Dr. Manohar Sajnani

Food Safety, Quality and its Implicatio n on Meat Processing –A Case Study 16-25
4 D. Ranjith Meconroe, S. Sam Nirmal & Arpan Roy

Promotion of Handicrafts through Shopping Tourism with Special Reference to 26-33


5 Patiala, Punjab
Anuradha Chakravarty

34
6 Authors’ Details of Published Papers

Abstracts of papers: Presented during 9th India International Hotel, Travel & 35-46
7 Tourism Research Conference 2019

Conference Report: 8th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research 47-57
8 Conference, February 16th – 17th, 2018
Dr. Sarah Hussain
1 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

1. POTENTIALITIES OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM ENTREPRENEURSHIP


DEVELOPMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA
1 2
Thomas D. Tambari & Isiya Salihu Shinkafi
Abstract
This paper underscores the importance of Hospitality and Tourism entrepreneurship development as a realistic mechanism
for sustainable economic growth in Nigeria considering the experiences of developed nations like the United States and
vibrant economies like China and India. The paper discusses that entrepreneurship has been instrumental in economic
growth, balanced regional development and job creation in most dynamic economies, where technology is changing at a
faster rate and the product lifetime cycle is shrinking. The methodology adopted in this paper is the narrative-textual case
study (NTCS); it is a social science research method that relies on the information and data from several sources for
problem-solving or problem-identification. The paper reveals that the right business environment for entrepreneurship is
lacking in Nigeria on account of the challenges of frequent power outages, bad roads, multiple taxes extortion of money
from SMEs by government officials, lack of genuine support service for SMEs and expensive
transportation/telecommunications costs have all combined to inhibit entrepreneurship and economic growth. The paper
therefore concludes that government should focus on capacity building, improving infrastructure, judicious utilization of
the oil wealth and enabling environment thereby leading to sustainable economic growth.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, sustainable development, right environment, technological innovation, industrialization,


capacity building.

Introduction
Tourism is a booming industry in Nigeria. With the number of domestic and international tourists
risingeveryyear,thisisonehotsectorentrepreneursmustfocus.Nigeria has significant potential to become a preferred tourist
destination globally. Nigeria with its diverse culture and rich heritage has a lot to offer to foreign tourists. Its abundant
natural resources and bio-diversity provides numerous tourist attractions e.g. mountains, desert, forest and wildlife, sea,
folk life, cuisines, customs, costumes, languages, dance, music, historical monuments sites, handicrafts, etc. Nigeria has
everything tourists are looking for. Thus, Nigeria holds a special place in the international world of hospitality culturally
and naturally. Culturally the country is the most diverse place in the world. It is amirroroflandscapes, magnificent historical
sites and royal traditional cities, colorful people, rich cultures, and festivities, Luxurious and destitute, hot and cold, chaotic
and tranquil, ancient and modern. The hospitality industry is defined as"hosts offering services to guests",which includes
reception, entertainment, and other services for travelers and tourists.

Hospitality is a long running tradition in Nigeria from the traditions and culture of the people over time. Nigeria offers
unique opportunities for every individual preference. However, until recently this was evident when looking at Nigeria's
hospitality industry. By now, accommodation options throughout Nigeria have become extremely diverse, from home stays
and tribal huts to stunning heritage mansions and palaces, there are different cultures, languages, life styles, and cuisines.
This variety is increasingly reflected by the many forms of accommodation available in Nigeria, ranging from the
simplicity of local guesthouses and government bungalows to the new generation luxury star hotels. The hospitality
industry in Nigeria sells "great experiences". As the experiences sought by travelers around the world diversify, the global
hospitality industry is adjusting accordingly in order to satisfy these complex demands. Nigeria is no exception here
coming from a rather old-fashioned understanding of hospitality services, Nigeria is rapidly catching up and turning into an
innovation leader in Africa.

In economics and commerce, an entrepreneur is an economic leader who possesses the ability to recognize opportunities for
the successful introduction of new commodities, new techniques, and new sources of supply, and to assemble the necessary
plant and equipment, management and labor force, and organize them into a running concern. Whatever the economic and
political setup of a country, entrepreneurship is essential for economic development. There is certainly no fix formula to
become a successful entrepreneur. Some may succeed and make good profits, others sink along the way.

Lucrative sectors for entrepreneurs? -Tourism is one of them where prospective entrepreneurial opportunities entrepreneur
scan findoute.g. travel and tour, hotels. Although this sector is not well organized in Nigeria hence need attention. Nigeria
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 2

lacks trained professionals in the tourism and hospitality sector. Any business in this sector will thrive in the long run as the
demand continues to grow every year.

As at 2016, direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP was NGN1.861bn (1.7% of GDP) but this was forecast to rise
by 1.1% to NGN 1.881bn in 2017. But the figures presented in the WTTC 2017 report are proof that not so much
contribution from the sector has reflected on the economy. In the last 10 months, no significant direct contribution from
Travel and Tourism to the country's GDP. For instance, its contribution to the whole economy GDP still remains at 1.7%,
same as it was in 2016. A review of tourism's impact on the country's GDP in the last 10 years (2007 – 2017) shows that its
impact was at all-time high in 2008, having contributed 2.4% to the GDP. Since 2008, its impact has been fluctuating
between 1.8% and 1.5%.

Travel & Tourism directly generated 649,500 jobs directly in 2016 (1.6% of total employment) and this was forecast to
grow to 671,500 jobs in 2017 (3.4% of total employment). Whereas total contribution to employment (including wider
effects from investment, the supply chain and induced income impacts) was 1,793,000 jobs in 2016 (4.5% of total
employment) and was forecast to generate 1,818,500 jobs in 2017 (4.3% of total employment). But what percentage of
employment has been generated so far in 2017? The recent report shows that only 1.7 million jobs have been generated.
This although falls short of the forecast but not far-fetch.

Visitor exports are a key component of the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism. In 2016, Nigeria generated
NGN211.3bn in visitor exports. In 2017, this was expected to fall by 2.8%, and the country was expected to attract 733,000
international tourist arrivals. Travel & Tourism was expected to attracted capital investment of NGN1.129bn in 2016. This
was expected to fall by 5.0% in 2017, and rise by 5.4% pa over the next ten years to NGN1.821bn in 2027.​

Leisure travel spending (inbound and domestic) generated 54.1% of direct Travel & Tourism GDP in 2016 (NGN1. 668bn)
compared with 45.9% for business travel spending (NGN1.417bn). Leisure travel spending was expected to grow by 0.4%
in 2017 to NGN1.675bn. Domestic travel spending generated 93.2% of direct Travel & Tourism GDP in 2016 compared
with 6.8% for visitor exports (i.e. foreign visitor spending or international tourism receipts). Domestic travel spending was
expected to grow by 1.4% in 2017 to NGN2. 913.9bn. Visitor exports were expected to fall by 2.8% in 2017 to
NGN205.4bn.

In Nigeria, tourism is still a nascent sector. In 2015, there were 1.3 million international tourist arrivals into Nigeria, a figure
that puts the country at the 11thhighest destination in Africa that year. This accounted for just 3.1% of total international
tourism receipts for Africa, behind South Africa, Mauritius, Uganda, Tunisia, and Morocco.

In 2017, contribution of travel and tourism to GDP (% of GDP) for Nigeria was 5.1 %. Though Nigeria contribution of
travel and tourism to GDP (% of GDP) fluctuated substantially in recent years, it tended to increase through 1998 - 2017
period ending at 5.1 % in 2017.

The total contribution of travel and tourism to the global economy was estimated at over $7.6 trillion in 2016, around 10
percent of the global GDP of $75.6 trillion. In Nigeria, the contribution of the tourism industry is estimated at around $1.5
billion, figures that are not only a tiny fraction of the global industry but also demonstrate the gulf between the present
reality and the potential of tourism for Nigeria.

Tourism in Nigeria has significant potential considering the rich cultural and historical heritage, variety in ecology, terrains
and places of natural beauty spread across the country.
Going through these fact and figures report let's see the prospective entrepreneurial opportunities in hospitality sector.

First we need to understand the concept of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship is the process of
designing a new business, i.e. a startup company offering a product, process or service. This refers to those who “undertake”
the risk of new enterprises.
3 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

An enterprise is created by an entrepreneur. The process of creation is called “entrepreneurship”. Entrepreneurship is a


process of actions of an entrepreneur who is a person always in search of something new and exploits such ideas into gainful
opportunities by accepting the risk and uncertainty with the enterprise. The word “entrepreneur” is derived from the
Frenchverb entreprendre, which means “to under take”i.e. the person who under takes to organize, manage and assume the
risk so far business.

The entrepreneur perceives a new business opportunity and often exhibits biases in their perception and subsequent
decision to exploit the opportunity. He is an innovator or developer who recognizes and seizes opportunities; converts those
opportunities into workable and marketable ideas; adding value through time, effort, money, or skills, assumes the risks of
the competitive market place to implement those ideas; and realizes the rewards from those efforts. Thus we have a clear
idea about entrepreneur and entrepreneurship. Free enterprise is the economic basis for all entrepreneurial activity. It means
that any individual is free to transform an idea into a business.

The opportunities for potential entrepreneurs are unlimited. The constantly changing environment provides a continuous
flow of potential opportunities if an individual can recognize a profitable idea amid the chaos that also permeates such an
environment. Thousands of alternative exist since every individual creates and develops ideas with a unique frame of
reference. In practice, one entrepreneur is termed as an opportunity seeker who is interested to involve in only those
business processes which are viable and have a demand in the market. At the same time individual required selecting a
particular option out of different options available. So he is supposed to explore, identify and select a viable business
opportunity. It is an attractive project in term of profit which motivates the entrepreneur to invest in particular.

What are the possible chances in hospitality sector for an entrepreneur's entrepreneurship are based on the fact and figure of
tourism industry:
1. Opening hotel/restaurants in a place and design of product services according to client needs in market, using
innovative techniques, maintaining quality standards.
2. Developmobileapplications,softwarerelatedtotoursandtravel,hotelsandrestaurants information, advertisement,
packages, price, services offers, membership, reservations, etc.
3. Event management, planer, logistics services.
4. Hospitality consultancy and market research.
5. Hospitality education
6. Aviation–airline,charteredflights,ticketing,fuel,landandwatertransportation,goodssuppliers , retailers
7. Museum, art galleries, literature, language, library, performing arts and culture center
8. Banking and finance, law and legal services assistance
9. Sales and marketing, advertisement, publicity, brand image related to tourism organizations
10. Mediacommunication,journalism,reports,contentwriteinprint,electronicanddigital segment related to
hospitality.
11. Health care (traditional and spiritual healing)
12. Agriculture (Agro-tourism, trade fares)
13. Environment (Eco-tourism)
14. Science and technologies
15. Sports
16. Textile, fashion, interior décor and design
17. Engineering and architecture
18. Human Resources development
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 4

The above mentioned points are linked to each other directly or indirectly as we know tourism is an umbrella industry and is
multi-dimensional .There are plenty of things to do in these mention points area as tourism is the largest and fastest growing
industry of the world.

New trends and concepts are emerging as well as changing time to time making hospitality sector interesting in a constant
competition market economy of a destination.

The fact remains that there are opportunities available everywhere in and around us. One can work individual or in
collaboration with private and government assistance. What is actually required is to have the lenses to see and recognize
the same taking account of individual's strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats analysis. (SWOT)

Keeping in mind the overall perspective for tourism and hospitality there exist innumerable business opportunities in the
environment for economic growth in Nigeria.

Reference
Aliqah, K .M. A. & Al-rfou, N. A. (2010). The Role of Tourism on Economic Development of Jordan during the Period 1990-2008.
European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 18,173-180. Ashikodi, T.I. (2010).
Tourism Development in the coastal region of Nigeria: Economics of Tourism development ashiftfromoildependence. Retrieved August 30, 2012
from
http://www.worldculturelink.org/FileUploads/Tourism%20development%20in%20the%2coastal%20region%20of%20Niger_1300917459_2.pdf
Balaguer, L.,&Cantavella- Jorda, M.(2002).
Tourism as a Long- Run Economic Growth Factor: The Spanish Case.Applied Economics, 34, 877-884. Bello, Y.O., Bello, M.B. & Raja, N.R.Y.
(2014).
Travel and Tourism Business Confidence Index in Nigeria: Issues and challenges. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 3(2), 1-15.
Caglayan,E.,Sak,N., &Karymshakov,K.(2010).
Relationship between Tourism and EconomicGrowth: A Panel Granger Causality Approach. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2(5), 591-
602.
Central Bank of Nigeria (2013). Statistical Bulletin. Fayissa, B., Nsiah, C., & Tadasse, B. (2007).
The Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth and Development in Africa. Middle Tennessee State University. Department of Economics and
Finance, Working Papers, 16, 1-22. Havi, E.D.K., & Enu, P.(2013).

Entrepreneurship Development Programme, for B.com V semester of Bangalore University, Author – K. Venkataramana.
5 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

2. CONTRIBUTIONS OF TOURISM TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY


Dr. Poonam Mishra & Shama Baa
Abstract
Sustainability is a burning problem in current scenario. Many Indian constituencies depend heavily on tourism for
economic strategies but are equally affected by the side-effects of tourism. New studies had been focused on designs of
tourism to support sustainability in the localities. This study analyses the different strategies for tourism to improve
sustainability. The study had analyzed global and Indian scenarios to support its hypothesis. The study shows that planned
implementation of tourism strategies can improve the economic and environmental sustainability. Construction and regular
involvement of local governing and regulatory bodies are required for implementation of responsible tourism.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, Sustainability, Responsible Tourism, Environment.

Introduction
Tourism is a service based industry emerged as a revolutionizing sector in present situation. Depending upon various
factors, tourism is smokeless industry performing all the essential functions of manufacturing and extractive industry like
source of generation income employment opportunity infrastructural changes and generation multiplier effects like
encouraging innovation and satisfying human wants. In other words, we can say that tourism can bring potential changes in
the economic social cultural and ecological effects in a country.

"Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing
the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities"

Sustainable tourism development and management practices are easily applicable to all types of tourism including mass
tourism and various tourism segments. The principle of sustainable tourism refers to all the environmental socio cultural
and economic aspects of tourism development.

Thus sustainable tourism principle should be based upon:


Ÿ Optimal uses of environmental and ecological resource. It should constitute a key element in maintaining essential
ecological resources and helping to conserve natural heritage and bio diversity.
Ÿ Conservation and preservation of natural cultural heritage and traditional values should be in hand of host
communities and contribute in inter-cultural understanding and tolerance.
Ÿ Stability in long term economic operations fairly distribution of socio economic benefit to all stakeholders, including
stability in employment increasing in earning sources opportunities and social services to host communities should
contribute in poverty alleviation.

Sustainable tourism development can contribute in environment protection required participation of all relevant
stakeholders as well as strong political leaders. Sustainable tourism should maintain high level of tourist satisfaction but
also ensure the stability and growth of host community ensure a meaningful experience to the tourist, also contributing in
creating the awareness about sustainability issues, difficulties and promoting sustainable tourism practices.

In this paper the researcher has tried to establish the relationship between tourism, sustainability and environment. We shall
have a first look on background and reason behind the development of concepts of sustainable tourism. The sustainable
tourism deals with the protection of tourist resources not for the present but also for the upcoming generations. The
emergence of sustainable tourism is because of many things in the world were going terribly wrong, like a noticeable
greenhouse effects, negative effects on wildlife, biodiversity thinning ozone layer. Eventually all these problems have
appeared as a serious disease. The principles of sustainable tourism originally developed as a response of all these
problems.

The relationship between sustainable development and tourism is the subject of this article. We shall first have a look at the
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 6

backgrounds and the reasons behind the concept of sustainability. The debate on sustainable development started because
many things in the world were going terribly wrong: diminishing biodiversity, a thinning ozone layer, noticeable
greenhouse effects, discrimination against large populations. Eventually there were so many symptoms it appeared to be a
serious disease. The principles of sustainability were originally developed as a response to these problems. In order to
examine how deeply rooted these destructive elements are in our Western societies and why there is a need to take a look at
our environment with different eyes, we shall put things in a historical perspective and give a brief overview of the
development of the relationship between people and their environment.

Objective
Ÿ To understand the concept of sustainable tourism in Indian perspective
Ÿ To establish the role of sustainable tourism with available resources i.e. social, natural and cultural by understanding
different aspects of tourism.

Methodology
This paper based on the descriptive analysis of available facts and concepts on which the growth of sustainable tourism is
depending. Basically the researcher had tried explain the facts about sustainable tourism and its relation with the other
elements that affects the environment by analysis different research papers, books and websites.

Review of Literature
Chandan R, Badhwar S (2016) in a research paper entitled “Green Hotels- An Eco-friendly Transmission in Tourism
Industry” has tried to identify the emerging role of eco-friendly hotels in tourism industry. The word Green Tourism has
emerged as a feasible option for conserving natural and cultural heritage and helps to contribute sustainable development.
Hospitality industry plays a significant role in the sustainable development of a country. As accommodation is the
necessary pre-condition for any tourism activity and is the face of further booming expansion, its impact on society is
becoming increasingly visible and this implementation makes the property more marketable and profitable. Moreover,
today's hotel guests have become more conscious of environmental problems and have started considering the environment
in their accommodation choice. The development of eco-labels is thus helping tourists with their choices. Without cutting
on clients, efforts can be made in the backstage by the hotel management industry through the application of best available
practices and technology innovations.

Kulshreshtha S. K, Kumar A. (2016) in a research paper entitled “Rural Tourism and Sustainability: An Explorative Study
in Garo Hills of Meghalaya” has tried to explain the concept of rural tourism specially in backward area .Rural tourism is a
pure form of rural settings multiple rural phenomenon like wide and lush green agricultural land, orchids, colorful muddy
houses, wall paintings, herds of cattle, chaupal is center and meeting point of rural societies where they share and exchange
useful information about all most every day. It is a develop way to attract urban settlers to showcasing the real hardship of
rural life, leisure, creative, ethnic, cultural, fair & festivals, local craftsmanship with changing seasons of the rural area.

The model of rural tourism has design to support local economy to make alternate livelihood for communities and various
stake holders and create image through branding rural destination. India has agrarian economy where more than 70 per cent
people attached with agricultural and allied activities for their livelihood. In India there is a big prospect for the growth of
rural tourism, which will be able to increase the country's inclusive economic growth. Rural tourism creates huge
opportunities for youths and women as rural entrepreneurs and generates employment opportunities. In India every one
million invested in tourism sector creates 47.5 jobs directly and 85 jobs indirectly. The government, belatedly, has realized
what the rural India can offer to the world. According to Tenth Five Year Plan, tourism is one of the major sources for
generating employment and promoting sustainable livelihoods.

Castellanos M, Verdugo (2015) in a research paper entitled “The Mediating Roles of the Overall Perceived Value of the
Ecotourism Site and Attitudes towards Ecotourism in Sustainability through the Key Relationship Ecotourism Knowledge-
Eco tourist Satisfaction” has tried to explain tourist satisfaction as a key factor in tourism sustainability. A multiple
mediation model is proposed to analyze the relationship between ecotourism knowledge and eco-tourist satisfaction,
7 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

assisting our understanding of the generative mechanism by which ecotourism knowledge influences Eco tourist
satisfaction. Eco tourists at the Natural Park Saltos de la Damajagua (Dominican Republic) were administered a
questionnaire. The results showed that ecotourism site perceived value and attitudes towards ecotourism fully mediate the
influence of ecotourism knowledge on Eco tourist satisfaction. Ecotourism knowledge will therefore only have positive
effects on Eco tourist satisfaction when the ecotourism site is of high perceived value and there are positive attitudes
towards ecotourism.

Covington G (2010) in the book “Sustainable Tourism” was mainly focused on sustainable tourism and environmental
impact of tourism development. In assessing the environmental impact of tourism, with its economic evaluation, account
must be taken of the composite nature of tourism. Particular impacts need to be related to specific aspects of this
multifaceted activity but at the same time some broader synthesis must be retained.

Where does Sustainable Tourism fit in?


Sustainable Tourism can apply in all segments of the tourism industry with condition and criteria that seek to reduce
environmental impacts, particularly the use of non-renewable resources, using measurable benchmarks and to improve
tourism's contribution to sustainable development and environmental conservation.

Table1: The travel& Tourism Competiveness Index 2017)


(Travel and Tourism as an enabler of inclusive and sustainable growth)

Countries Environment and Tourist infrastructure Natural Cultural


sustainability services resources resources
India 3.1 2.7 4.4 5.3
Bhutan 4.6 2.7 3.5 1.3
Nepal 3.4 2.3 4.2 1.3
Pakistan 3.1 2.3 2.2 1.9
Bangladesh 3.4 1.9 2.4 1.6
Average 3.5 2.4 3.3 2.3

the travel and tourism competitiveness Index of South Asia 2017


6

0
India Bhutan Nepal Pakistan Bangladesh Averagw

environment and sustainibility tourist infrastructure services natural Resources Cultural resources
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 8

Description
India is one of the nation that marking its steps on the growth of travel and tourism. India is rapidly growing and managed to
reach on top 50 positions globally. India continues to charm international tourists with its vast cultural and natural
resources. India is so enriched and contributing more in protection of cultural sites and intangible expressions through
UNESCO world heritage sites via presence of greater digital facilities. The travel and tourism sector benefited with the
improvement of infrastructure at tourist site, focusing on growth of environment and sustainability. India is taking small but
important steps in right directions

Sustainable Ecotourism -
Ÿ Minimizes negative externality on environment
Ÿ Contributesin improvement of local sustainable development
Ÿ Needs to reduce the possible consumption of non-renewable resources
Ÿ Improves the well-being of local people
Ÿ Focuses local ownership
Ÿ Encourages the efforts to conserve the environment
Ÿ Protects the biodiversity

Sustainable tourism in India: Policies and Practices


The concept of sustainable tourism can be easily found on other types of tourism like rural tourism, responsible tourism,
eco-tourism, agriculture or rural tourism and pro-poor tourism. Indian tourist destinations offer all these types of tourism so
there is big opportunity for the growth of sustainable tourism in India. As per the report of World Bank (2016) the numbers
of international tourists have increased by 33% in past five year. Tourism sector is the largest service industry contributing
7% in the GDP and 9% in jobs (Lalnunmawla, 2016).

To promote sustainable tourism, the Union Minister(Tourism), Shri Shipad Naik Launched the Comprehensive sustainable
tourism criteria for India(STCI) in August 2014 from Accommodation, Beaches, backwaters, lakes and river sector, tour
operators. Speaking on the occasion he stated
Ÿ When we are talking about sustainability we should not only focused on natural resources but also on cultural and
heritage resources.
Ÿ The implementation of sustainable tourism criteria for India (STCI) is incentive based and voluntary,
government intent and future policy is for the preservation and proper utilization of resources.
Ÿ The stakeholder in the tourism industry should be exploiting the natural and other resources for the short term
gain.
Ÿ There are some early bird stage decisions already taken through innovation and political decision that not only
protects the local cultural and eco resources but also boost the locals' income through generating income and
employment sources.

Leading the way: Responsible Tourism


The responsible tourism is the next steps of sustainable tourism that establish the relationship between host or local
community with the hospitality industry and government by giving the responsibility of preserving and protection of
resources in the hand of host community. Kerala is the first state successfully applied the path-breaking responsible tourism
project in Kumarakom. This project was successfully achieved through three strategies including economic, social and
environmental responsibility distribution.

Social Responsibility: as a part of the initiative the local culture and art was studied and promoted involving local people to
form groups to perform in tourist places. This also adds to the economic support to the local communities.

Environmental Responsibility: multiple waste management initiatives were taken such as the 'Zero Waste Kumarakom'
9 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

with collaboration of the rural tourism cells and the gram panchayat.

Economic Responsibility: Most of these activities were backed with secondary target of gaining profits for stake holders
for sustainability. Contacts were built between hotels and other tourism based commercial units with the farmers. This helps
in sustained income for the agricultural community for the locality

Conclusion
This paper projects the importance of tourism for overall development of the society. Different aspects of society such as
economic, socio-cultural and environmental have been well discussed in this paper projecting the contributions of tourism.
It has been discussed that well organized tourism can positively impact the sustainability of the local communities the
responsibility must be taken by the government as well as private organizations to sincerely implement the clauses of
sustainable development. Responsible tourism seems to be a promising step to achieve sustainable tourism. There should
be more implementation of responsible tourism in different aspects of tourism if the goal is to achieve sustainable tourism
development.

Reference
Harikumar. V. Dileep A.S, Rajesh T. Tourism Trends and strategy (2011) Sonali Publication, New Delhi
Roday. S, Biwal.A , Joshi.V Tourism operation and Management (2017) Oxford University Press, New Delhi,
Sloan.P, Legrand.W & S. Chen Joseph Sustainability in the hospitality industry (2014) Routledge, Taylor & FrancisGroup USA
Sharma.K introduction to tourism management (2014) Tata Mcgraw hill education New Delhi,
Chandan R, Badhwar S (2016) AVAHAN: A Journal on Hospitality and Tourism (http://www.publishingindia.com/avahan/)
Kulshreshtha S. K., Kumar A. (2016) “Avahan”: A Journal on Hospitality and Tourism”(2016) (http://www.publishingindia.com/avahan/)
Castellanos M, Verdugo (2015) International Journal of Tourism Research
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal
Covington G (2010) Sustainable Tourism
https://www.gaiadiscovery.com
Lalnunmawla, H, 2016, Development and Impact of Tourism Industry in India:http://www.trcollege.net/articles/74-development-and-impact-of-
tourism-industry-in-india
http://incredibleindia.org/index.php/trade-nav/latest-news/1728-shripad-naik-launches-comprehensive-sustainable-tourism-criteria-for-india
www.theguardian.com/sustainable.../sustainable-tourism-travel-industry-duty
www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/theme_c/mod16.html
http://sdt.unwto.org/content/about-us-
http://www.tourismtheories.org/?p=700
http://dtxtq4w60xqpw.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/docpdf/sustainability.
http://www.sustainabletourism.net/
http://www.gdrc.org/uem/eco-tour/wttc.pdf
www.cumbriatourism.org/sustainable-tourism/
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 10

3. AN EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ON THE IMPACT OF AIR POLLUTION ON TOURISM IN


DELHI- A CASE STUDY
Dr. Brijesh Kumar & Prof. (Dr.)ManoharSajnani

Abstract
The air pollution in Delhi is not just devastating the environment but harmful amount of gases, dust, fumes and odor
are causing breathing problems to people. Delhi's ongoing tourism season which is yet to pick up completely, could be
severely hit owing to the increase of pollution in the capital city, especially in the month of November and December
which are the peak months for foreign travelers to visit India, as majority of them opt for the Golden Triangle tourist
circuit - Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur.

Increasing air pollution in Delhi reduces its appeal for International tourists because tourists won't compromise on
their health and safety while on tours. Such negative developments in Delhi are bound to drop off from the map of
international tourists who will pick 'cleaner' South Asian destinations.

According to World Health Organization (WHO), Delhi is the sixth most populated city in the world in terms of
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). Toxic fumes from vehicles and dust from construction sites in Delhi today is one
of the most critical problem and threat to the well-being of the cities and areas inhabitants as well as to the flora and
fauna which are the base and foundation of tourism.

Excess pollution is also damaging our heritage monuments and turning the white marbles yellowish. The number of
migratory birds has reduced in the last few years due to global warming. If we continue fail to improve the quality of air
it will affect on our tourism industry. So the main objective of the present paper, is to sensitize people about the
environment, preserve its Natural and Manmade attraction and offer visitors pollution free destination which will
enhance the experience of visitors from India and abroad.

Keywords: Pollution, Environment, Tourist, Attractions, Destination, Natural.

Environment Concerns
In Delhi today, pollution is one of the most critical problems and is a threat to the well- being of the cities and areas
inhabitants as well as the flora and fauna. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Delhi is the sixth most
populated city in the world in terms of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). Delhi faces grave air pollution particular
in winter season and levels of pollutions like Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 & PM 10) goes much beyond the prescribed
standards for Ambient Air Quality. Air Quality Index is an index for reporting daily air quality.(Sharangi, 2018)

Table 1: Air Quality Index


Good 0-50
Satisfactory 51-100
Moderate 101-200
Poor 201-300
Very Poor 301-400
Severe 401-500
11 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

PM1 is particulate matter in the air which measures less than 1 micron (PM). It is, according to scientists and doctors,
among the tiniest and most harmful of all air pollutants. Unlike PM10, which can reach only up to the upper air passage or
the human body and PM2.5, which can reach the lungs, PM1 can enter much further reaches of organs and the blood stream.
Scientists say these particles are highly toxic and they are formed because of complex chemical reactions between
pollutants in the air, and are at least 50-70 times finer than human hair.

In comparison, PM10 is around 5-7 times finer than hair and PM2.5 is around 20-30 times finer. PM10 can reach up to the
upper air passage of the human body and PM2.5 can reach the lungs. The concentration of PM1 is peaked in the city during
festivals and, when smokes from stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana pushed levels of particulate matter in the air up to
the emergency zone. (Thakur, 2018)

Current Tourism Scenario of Delhi


There has been a substantial increase in foreign tourist traffic in the last few years in Delhi, visit of foreign tourist in Delhi in
the year 2010 was 1893650 in the year 2014 it went up to 2319046 in the year 2016 it was 2520083 and in the year 2017 it
went up to 2740502 (Indian Tourism Statistics, 2018). The aim of Incredible India is to double the arrival of foreign tourist.
India does not even figure in the top 20 destinations of the world (Sharma, 2012) 2011 reports by the World Travel and
Tourism Council predicted that with an annual growth of 8.8 per cent, foreign tourist arrivals in India will cross 11 million
by 2021 and promote India as an emerging tourist destination (Pandey, 2012)

According to the ministry records, the National Capital, for the eighth consecutive year, has received less number of
tourists than Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The trend is disturbing as Delhi till 2008 was the most favorite
destination for International tourists. It slipped to third position in 2009 and fourth position in the year 2017. (Indian
Tourism Statistics, 2018)

Changing Scenario of Delhi Tourism


Earlier our tourism products for visitors were restricted only to a few like monuments, temples; mosques etc. and no other
activities offered to visitors hence India received a low volume of tourist every year. In order to be a successful tourist
destination apart from manmade, focus should be more on natural and cultural activities oriented tourism, because for some
tourist, monument are bore, dead and dull. Tourist once visited the monument don't want to visit again as a result further
business cannot be created. If we plant Natural activities with man-made activities it will definitely make the destination
100 per cent successful and popular. So the main study of the research paper is to preserve our natural & man-made
resources and to provide, pollution free destination for tourists. If we do not take into the changing considerations of
visitors, we may out of business very soon. Delhi will crawl below from its current position and soon Delhi will not be a
favorite destination for International Tourist. (Annual Report, 2017)

Research Methodology
The primary data for this work was gathered from primary and secondary sources. The questionnaires were given to
domestic and foreign tourists, who visited Delhi for sightseeing in the month of October, 2018. The research involved 240
respondents altogether, using random sampling. The survey consisted of 'two opinion statements' identified to gauge the
overall perception of the tourists, regarding level of air pollution in Delhi.
Secondary Data was collected from the websites of the Delhi Govt. and tourism department. Apart from this, information's
been collected through electronic and print media and latest information from the civic agencies located in Delhi.

Findings
The primary aim of this research paper is to project and promote Delhi, as an emerging eco-tourism destination, so that
Delhi can become a favorite destination for International Tourists.
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 12

Table 2: Domestic Respondents (120)


Questions Number Percentage
Is this your first visit in Delhi-NCR?
Yes 72 60
No 48 40
Total 120 100

Are you satisfied with the Environment and


cleanliness of Delhi/NCR? 53 44
Yes 67 56
No 120 100
Total

Will you like to visit again in Delhi/NCR? 54 45


Yes 66 55
No 120 100
Total
Source:Primary Data through Questionnaires

Table 3: Foreign Respondents (120)


Questions Number Percentage
Is this your first visit in Delhi-NCR?
Yes 84 70
No 36 30
Total 120 100

Are you satisfied with the Environment and


cleanliness of Delhi/NCR? 42 35
Yes 78 65
No 120 100
Total

Will you like to visit again in Delhi/NCR? 42 35


Yes 78 65
No 120 100
Total
Source:Primary Data through Questionnaires

Results and Discussions


For tourists, Delhi always is a great tourist destination for its historical and cultural importance. A destination having healthy
environment like clean air, clean water, clean earth always attracts and inspires travellers to visit at that destination because
visitors won't compromise with their health while on tours. More over good environment conditions enhances the
experience of visitors.

So, the maintenance and standard of environment and cleanliness should be improved by civic agencies in order to make
Delhi clean and green. Civic agencies should plant maximum trees and plants on road side and in parks. So that Delhi could
be projected pollution free destination among visitors.

Given below are the problems which effects the Environment of Delhi
Ÿ The Economic Survey of Delhi 2014-2015 said the city had a tree cover of 297.81 sq km in 2013 or 20.08% of the
total area of the capital which is not sufficient in order to make Delhi a pollution free tourist destination for tourists.
For ecological sustainability one-third of total geographical area needs to be under green foliage cover in plains
that applies to Delhi also. (Haider. 2015)
13 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Ÿ Delhi has population of about 2 crore people, excluding those who enter or cross the city on a daily basis from the
neighbouring cities. According to the transport department there are 1.12 crore registered vehicles in Delhi, in
which 1.04 crore alone are private cars and motorcycles, which are the main contributors of air pollution. Data
with the transport department suggests that only 4.5 lakh run on CNG. Diesel emissions are a major contributor to
concentration of fine particulate matter, the prominent pollutant in Delhi-NCR. (Goswami, 2018)
Ÿ The construction and demolitions activities are one of the second biggest violators of air pollution in Delhi-NCR
after road dust, pushing up dust pollution levels (PM 10) in the region despite a ban on construction. According to
“The Energy and Resources Institutes and Automotive Research Association of India”, road dust pushes up dust
pollution by 35%. Dust from construction sites adds another 21%. Dust from roads and construction sites, which
is primarily PM10, is a major problem in Delhi. (Thakur, 2018)
Ÿ Private and commercial farm houses, banquets halls, hotels, motels and restaurants operating in Mahipalpur and
Rajokri near the Delhi airport along NH8 and Jaipur highway have come under the National Green Tribunal
scanner because these establishments are found drawing illegal ground water, unauthorized construction, noise
pollution caused by music and firecrackers and air pollution caused by diesel generator sets. (Nandi, 2018)
Ÿ Large-scale crop residue burning cause serious health hazard in entire northern India. Burning of paddy straw in
Punjab and Haryana from mid-October to November is a major contributor to air pollution in the capital. During
this time of the year, the wind pattern changes and it start blowing from northwest, bringing along dust and smoke
pollutants from the farm fires. This drastically affects air quality in the NCR which causes serious health hazard in
entire northern India.(Sharangi, 2018)

Below given are some suitable remedial measures in order to make Delhi a Pollution free destination for visitors. Efforts by
Delhi Pollution Control Committee in order to improve quality of air
Ÿ Delhi is facing severe ambient air pollution levels of pollutants like Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 to PM 10) has
gone up. Keeping in view curbing of high air pollution in Delhi. Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) has
given directions to ban the operations of Electricity Generator Set run on Diesel/ Petrol/ Kerosene of all capacities
in the National Capital.
Ÿ Delhi Pollution Control Committee has directed that prohibition of burning of dry leaves/ garbage/plastics etc. to
be strictly restricted.
Ÿ Delhi Pollution Control Committee has also issued ban on Civil Engineering Constructions and Demolition
activities in Delhi in order to stop Air pollution.
Ÿ Hon'ble National Green Tribunal has prohibited the use of disposable plastics glasses in entire Delhi, hotels,
restaurants and public as well as private functions w.e.f 01 Jan 2017. (Delhi Pollution Control Committee,
delhi.gov.in)
Ÿ In order to give Delhi a new look and to reduce air pollution, forest department of Delhi has planned to increase
the green cover of the city to 25% in the span of 5 years through plantation and forestation drives along with all
greening agencies working in the city. Under City Plants a Million Tree Campaign, conducted during monsoon, a
total of 14.5 lakh saplings have been planted by various departments / agencies / organizations. Delhi has nearly
20000 small/medium/big parks and gardens, 40 city forests, 5 ridge areas, 2 bio-diversity parks and other green
belts. (Haider, 2015)
Ÿ An online campaign featuring Campaign Clean India and public awareness advertisements on major websites in
the country by the government (Annual Report 2017)
Ÿ In order to solve the problem of pollution, Delhi Govt., has started to work on “Cycling Promotion Formula”. In
this scheme Delhi Govt. will announce subsidy on the purchase of each cycle. The aim of this scheme is to
promote cycle in Delhi. For this govt. will soon construct a cycle track.
Ÿ Delhi Govt. will launch Bio-gas buses to control pollution. Currently, CNG buses ply in Delhi. Countries like
Sweden, China and many other countries are using Bio-gas buses. (Delhi Government, delhi.gov.in)
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 14

Ÿ The opening of Western Peripheral Expressway (Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway), 84 km stretch of the e-


way which is built at a cost of over Rs. 9000 crore, will reduce the air pollution, in the city by around 30%. The air
quality has been deteriorating in Delhi with vehicular emissions being among the reason for it. Similarly, 135 km
Eastern Peripheral Expressway (Kundli-Ghaziabad-Palwal), built at a cost of Rs. 11000 crore. Together, the two
expressways are expected to divert more than 50,000 heavy vehicles away from Delhi as vehicles going from
north India to the western and southern parts of the country would be able to do so without passing through the
national capital. (Bhel, 2018)
Ÿ In order to reduce air pollution supreme court appointed pollution watchdog and came down heavily on diesel
cabs operating illegally in the national capital and asked the Delhi government to submit a fuel-wise
categorization of cars registered with them. Similarly, to control air pollution in the city, the Environment
Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) also asked online taxi aggregators to submit a list of diesel
cabs they have engaged in the city. The Supreme Court appointed panel will also write to the National Association
of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), asking it to ensure all call centres and private firms do not use
diesel cabs to ferry their staff. The Supreme Court orders banned new registration of such diesel taxis that provide
pick-up and drop facilities in the capital. It directed authorities to register only those new city taxis that operate on
petrol or CNG. (Shrangi, 2018)
Ÿ The NGT has directed the Ministry of Agricultural and the Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi chief
secretaries to stop crop burning incidents in order to reduce air pollution. (Rabbani, 2018)

Conclusion
The rising pollution levels will keep foreigners away, as they are too particular about weather and climate, including their
safety. But during the peak tourist season, foreigners who are still in the planning stage will become skeptical about visiting
Delhi. Even domestic tourists are avoiding Delhi.
The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city
during last five years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution. The already existing
measures need to be executed to a large level. The governmental efforts are not enough, participation of people is
compulsory in order to reduce pollution.

Excess pollution is also damaging monuments, flora and fauna as well as environment of the city. Pollution is turning the
white marbles yellowish. Monuments must be protected at all cost. Illegal parking's, dust from constructions sites are
hurting the monuments. Monuments, a secular, architectural marvel, are victim of Environmental Degradation. For this we
have to sensitize people about the environment and government has to increase Green cover of Delhi. Efforts have been
sustained to plant more and more trees on vacant lands through active involvement of greening agencies and community
participation. This also includes free distribution of saplings to schools, Resident Welfare Associations, NGOs and other
citizen groups through Forest Department's nurseries, petrol pumps, CNG Stations, mother dairy booths etc. and financial
assistance to Residents Welfare Associations for the maintenance of parks and gardens. People of Delhi should keep in mind
they do not hand over a legacy of polluted Delhi to future generations.

References
Annual Report on Tourism (2017),Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India

Delhi Pollution Control Board, www.delhi.gov.in

Delhi Govt, www.delhi.gov.in

Bhel, A, (2018, November 20), “Ring Road to rid Delhi of polluting trucks complete”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp.04

Goswami, S, (2018, November 15).“Why banning private vehicles is a bad idea”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp.02

Haider, R, (2015, August), “Delhi awaits it's first-ever tree census”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp. 04

Indian Tourism Statistics (2015), Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India.


15 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Nandi, J, (2018, November 13), “Motels, banquets near airport ticked off for noise, air pollution”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp. 03

Pandey, M (2012, November 2) “Low Hotel Tariffs Top Chiranjeevi's must” in Mail Today, New Delhi, pp.02

Rabbani, V, (2018, November 17), “Punjab reports 13% fall in paddy stubble burning”,Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp. 03

Sharangi, V, (2018, November 15), “Air quality 'very poor', it may get worse over next few days”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp. 04

Shrangi, V, (2018, November 23), “Pollution watchdog wants diesel cabs taken off roads”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp. 04

Thakur, J, (2018, November 16), “Poison in Delhi's Air PM1 level shot up due to crop burning, crackers”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp. 03

Thakur, J, (2018, November 10), “Agencies struggle to stop green violations”, Hindustan Times, New Delhi, pp. 02
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 16

4. FOOD SAFETY, QUALITY AND ITS IMPLICATION ON MEAT PROCESSING –A STUDY


Mr. D. Ranjith Meconroe, Mr. S. Sam Nirmal & Mr. Arpan Roy

Abstract
Food safety and quality is currently considered to be an important issue for all humans from home to food business
operations and consumers. Now a days due to the rapid growth in technology and Media people are aware of BSE (Bovine
Spongiform encephalopathy) DIOXIN, MPA (medroxyprogesterone acetate),Foot and Mouth Disease, Nitro fen and
others contaminants that were found wide spread in food due to the wrong production process and with the use of
contaminated raw materials. Furthermore the concentrated sewage and poultry droppings used as a fertilizer for the
cultivation of spinach and coriander develops the growth of salmonella, antibiotics such as tetracycline in honey, Calcium
carbide to ripe mangoes, shellfish poisoning (ciguatera), the presence of tetrodotoxin in puffer fish and mushroom, natural
toxin occurring in cured and processed food and(cadmium) heavy metal contamination in fish and the latest news about
formaldehyde used as a preservative in fish are serious concerns in food safety and quality systems. Also the contamination
occurs in broad categories they are chemical (additives, preservatives).Pesticide residues, fertilizer, sanitizers, biological
(bacteria, fungus, virus) and physical hazards.

It is evident that food safety should begin with field to fork, farm to plate and boat to throat. Hence it is necessary to pen
down at least the single food product in line with the principles, hygienic slaughter and fabrication of carcass with factors
affecting the quality attributes of meat.

Keywords: Food Hygiene, Hazard, Food Safety, Food Handlers, Contaminant, Contamination, Disinfection, Primary
Production.

Introduction
Quality is defined as the specific set of characteristics features which are required for a particular thing. In slaughtering
hygiene and sanitation relates very much to quality. Slaughter is process whereby healthy live animals are stunned, bled, de-
hided, de-hairedand eviscerated. During this process inedible waste products and edible offal are produced. Inedible
products must be kept away from edible products. All the employees working in this establishment should be aware of good
personal hygiene habits and regulations of the country keeping in mind the objective is to assure food safety and quality.

Significance
The rapidly growing world population will be consuming two-thirds more animal protein by 2050 than it does today,
according to a new food and agriculture organization of United Nations (FAO) study. Fueling an ongoing trends toward
greater per capita consumption of animal protein in developing countries are population and income growth. Meat
production has expanded rapidly in east and Southeast Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean countries. India has also
witnessed a sharp increase in meat production in last few years and rank 5th in the world with an annual production of
6.8MT. However, per capita meat consumption in India still remained below 5 kg per annum compared to more than 40 kg
world average. Enormous growth in meat sector and significance increase in consumption of meat and meat products in
further fueling the need for value added meat products. At the same time more and more unemployed youths, housewives
and meat processors are planning to start small scale business both for their livelihood and as an interesting enterprise.

The proposed training is an attempt to meet the needs of aspiring chefs and catering students from catering colleges and
industrial trainees India to give hands-on training and detailed presentation about meat quality, how to enhance the
preserve the quality of meat? What are different types of processed meat products? How to utilize low value cuts, by-
products and tough meats in products preparation? How to evaluate their shelf-life/ storage quality?
I hope that this innovative hands-on training will be useful to the participants and help them to further disseminate these
meat products processing technologies to large number of students, chefs and restaurant owners to promote organized
processed meat sector in the country. This manual is being brought out to provide ready made information to the
participants on meat products processing.
17 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Literature Review
Meat industry in India is developing at the rate of 5% while the poultry industry is among the faster growing sector rising at
a rate of 8% per year. Total meat production in India is about 6.2 million metric tons (about 3% of the world's meat
production of 220 MMT) while poultry meat contributes about 1.72 million metric tons (2010). About 70% people in India
are non-vegetarian and per capita meat consumption is about 4-5kg per annum. About 90% of the families in north India are
non-vegetarian. Interestingly % of women eating non vegetarian is slightly more than men. Meat is nutrient dense and is a
part of balance diet and as per ICMR recommendation the diet should have animal protein as a source of essential amino
acids and iron. Animal proteins like meat eggs are cheap source of valuable proteins for alleviating protein hunger. Meat
processing also includes new products to suits the palate of the consumer. Meat processing also includes new products
development in an attempt to give variety to the consumer and increase the scope of marketing. Processed meat patties,
slices, grilled products are either snacks or gravy based products that are preferred in India.

Objective
Ÿ To examine the right quality and attributes of meat products.
Ÿ To analyse the recent trends in meat processing.
Ÿ To explore the awareness about health education in terms of quality meat processing amongst food handlers.

Research Methodology
The Research is based on primary and secondary data, in order to validate and substantiate the primary data a structured
questionaire was circulated among food handlers.

Secondary data was based on relevant published information documentary, on food safety and hygiene, meat processing
books were referred.

Meat Processing
The common meat animals slaughtered in India are cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pigs and poultry. The following are brief
description about various steps involved in slaughter and dressing of food animals.

Rest and fasting: Animals are rested for a period of 12 to 24 hours. Sufficient drinking water during rest should be provided.
It lowers the bacterial load in intestines and improves the appearance of the carcass and helps in dressing.

Ante Mortem Inspection: Carried out by a qualified veterinarian to decide their fitness for slaughter and consumption. The
live animal's examination is to detect communicable disease like Anthrax, Food and mouth disease, sheep pox, swine fever,
mad cow disease etc.

Stunning: Electrical, mechanical stunning are the common methods. The electrodes are positioned on the sides of head
with a minimum of 1 and 1.25 amperes in proportion to the average weight of animal. Captive bolt pistol metal is an
important mechanical method. It is operated with blank cartridge positioned on the correct place on the animal's head.

Sticking and Bleeding: A slaughtering method followed according Jewish and Muslim. (Halal) laws in order to eliminate
the blood by keeping the animal's heart and respiratory systems. Still functioning besides this, Jhatka method is also
followed in some parts of India. In the slaughter of animals bleeding is usually carried out by an incision in the jugular
furrow close to the head.

Dressing of Meat Animals: After bleeding, carcasses are dressed and excess fat and are separated from the bones and the
edible tissue.

De-heading: After completion of bleeding, the head as well as front and rear felt are removed from the carcass. Prior to hide
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 18

removal, care is taken to tie the oesophagus, bung and reproductive tract to prevent faecal contamination in the process.

De-hiding: The hide/skin/plumage is removed by down pullers, side pullers and fishing off the pelt (sheep and goats). In
case of pigs and poultry skin is edible and is retained with carcasses are scalded in tanks with hot water at 65 degree C to
remove the hairs.

Evisceration: Carcasses are washed with high pressure water spraying to eliminate external contamination. Evisceration
involves opening of pelvic, abdominal and thoracic cavities and removing the internal organs. Precaution should be taken
to segregate inedible parts of the carcass in such a way that it is not contaminating the edible parts.

Post-mortem Inspection: The carcass should be inspected for safety, any signs of diseases, parasites and systemic disease it
should be condemned and destructed.

Carcass Washing and Decontamination: It is washed with pasteurized potable water, chlorinated water, lactic acid etc. to
minimize the microbial load.

Chilling: Most fabrication is generally carried out after the carcass has been cooled for 18 hours or more in chilling rooms at
the temperature of 0-5 degrees and the relative humidity to achieve the pH value 6 to prevent the growth of micro-
organisms. Chilled meat has the shelf life of 2-3 days.

Fabrication: The chilled carcass is further deboned and cut into various parts according to the market requirement.

Ageing of Meat: Holding of unprocessed meat above the freezing point is known as the conditioning or ageing. It is
achieved for the tenderness and flavours with the onset of rigormort is the muscles becomes inextensible and is tough when
cooked. As ageing precede the muscles is converted into meats. So it will become pliable and increases tenderness in
cooking.

Storage: If the meats are desired to be stored for longer time quick freezing is always desirable process to retain the natural
quality of meat and commercially used methods are plate freezing and blast freezing. Freeze the meat generally plate
freezing is applied to thin pieces of meat products such as steaks, chops, fillets etc.

Quality Attributes of Meat: Quality is the specific set of characteristics features required for a product. The required quality
depends upon the producer for instance a sausage producer needs good binding and low drip and not concern about
tenderness and colour , whereas the retailer who makes A La Cart preparation needs bright colour and tenderness . The meat
varies from animal to animal. Also the biochemical process and structural changes that occur during the post-mortem and
urgency of meat play a vital role in attaining a good quality meat. Meat quality is determined by its characteristics especially
its colour, flavour, tenderness/texture, juiciness and fat composition etc.

The Structural Colour of Various Meat Foods

BEEF Bright cherry red


VEAL Brownish pink
FISH Grey white to dark red
LAMB Light red
MUTTON Brick red
PORK Greyish pink
CHICKEN Grey white to dull red
19 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Some Factors Affecting the Quality Attributes of Meat


1. Colour is determined by the pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin and it is based on the animal age, species, and
fibre type along with the external factors such as oxidation, packaging and storage conditions.
2. Flavour is determined by the presence of volatile substances, lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, carbohydrates and
it is based on species, muscle type along with external factors such as feeding, cooking methods and temperature,
Maillard reaction.
3. Tenderness is determined by the muscle fibres and connective tissues. Also based on the amount and type of
collagen, actomyosin crosses links, endogenous proteases along with post-mortem glycolysis ageing of meat.
4. Juiciness is determined by proteins and their matrix, water binding agents and water holding power etc.
5. Texture is determined by proteins, lipids, fibre diameter, fat protein functionality, protein lipid and protein – water
interactions, along with cooking rate and end temperature.

Meat Quality Testing


Meat quality is normally defined by the compositional quality (lean to fat ratio) and the palatability factors such as visual
appearance, smell, firmness, juiciness, tenderness, and flavor. The nutritional quality of meat is objective yet “eating”
quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective.

Why Quality Testing of Meat is Important?


Ÿ To improve the quality of the products
Ÿ Market shift from quantity oriented to quality oriented
Ÿ Consumer consciousness about health
Ÿ Safety of meat
Ÿ Competitiveness of food production more dependent on the reliability of the safety and the quality of the food
Ÿ Acceptability of the production procedures than on quantity and price

Methods
Ÿ Sensory evaluation
Ÿ Physical testing
Ÿ Chemical testing
Ÿ Micro-biological testing

Sensory Evaluation
It makes use of senses to evaluate the general acceptability and quality attributes of the products.
Ÿ Sense of sight is used to evaluate the general appearance of the products such as colour, size, shape, etc.
Ÿ Sense of smell for the odour
Ÿ Sense of taste for the flavour which includes the four basic taste sour, sweet, salty, bitter.
Ÿ Sense of touch for the texture either by mouth feel or finger feel
Ÿ In the simplest way of sensory testing it is useful to have an appropriate testing room available with lights,
temperature and sitting arrangements with individual testing compartments so as not to distract the members of the
panel.
Ÿ Panel is composed of well-trainedpanellist.

Common test methods used in sensory evaluations are as follows:


Ÿ Paired comparison test
Ÿ Triangular test
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 20

Ÿ Hedonic scale
Ÿ Colour of meat
Ÿ Smell
Ÿ Firmness
Ÿ Juiciness
Ÿ Tenderness
Ÿ Flavour

Physical Test Methods


Ÿ Temperature
Ÿ Acidity (pH)
Ÿ Water activity (aw)
Ÿ Water binding capacity
Ÿ Light intensity
Ÿ Texture.
All routine physical testing can be carried out with portable instruments.

Temperature
Important temperature control points are;
Ÿ Refrigerated rooms (-18°c to -30°c)
Ÿ Chilled meat (+4 to +7°c)
Ÿ Cutting rooms (+10°c to +15°c )
Ÿ Water temperature in cooking vats (+75°c to +78°c)
Ÿ Sterilisation temperature in autoclaves (above +100°c)

Relative Humidity
It is measured by hygrometer. Hygrometers measure the relative humidity and are used in production and storage rooms of
the meat industry.

Water Activity Measurement


It is the amount of free water available for the growth of micro-organisms. Bacteria usually require at least aw of 0.91 and
fungi of 0.71.

Water Holding Capacity


Ÿ Role in meat processing
Ÿ Low WHC results in separation of jelly and or fat during heat treatment

Glass Compressorium
The WHC can be measured using a glass compressorium, where the sample of meat or batter is compressed on to water
absorbing sheet of paper. The large the water infiltrated area on the paper, the poorer is the WHC of the meat or batter.

Texture
Sensory testing (chewing is sufficient). But for accurate results we use instruments to test tenderness or toughness or
homogenous or fibrous structure of meat and meat products.
21 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Simple Method Of Chemical Analysis ; ( Protein, Fat, Water, Ashes)


Ÿ PROTEIN CONTENT: Nitrogen compounds and then distilled and titrated to determine nitrogen quantitatively,
with which the protein components can be calculated. In this simplified approach protein is not chemically
determined, but can be calculated (approx.) as the remaining component, after water, fat and ashes content has
been determined and subtract % only for meat
% Protein = 100 %-( % Water + % Ash + % Fat)

Fat Content
Ether extraction using sox let extraction tube connected to the sox let flask. Or in a ether into the extraction tube. Extract for
10 hours at three to four drops per second.

Ash Determination
Sample is placed in a constant weight porcelain crucible with cover
Ÿ Muffle furnace, and at a temperature of 600°C the sample is ignited for 2 hours.
Ÿ After ignition the crucible is placed in the oven to bring down the temperature for about 30 minutes, and then cool
in a dissector for another 30 minutes. Difference in weight is mineral content.

Micro Biological Sampling and Testing


Ÿ CONTACT METHOD: The microbiological culture medium is put in direct contact with the surface of
equipment or tools to be tested. The culture medium containing the microbes from the test surface incubated. Ex-
30°C for two days.
Ÿ SWAB METHOD: Microorganisms collected by the swab technique are rinsed of with sterile water.
Ÿ DESTRUCTIVE METHOD: For use on meat and meat products are standardized sample is cut out from the
surface of meat or meat products, for ex- by using a sterile knife and metal frame.

Trends in Bio Technology


Global environmental regulations are changing the leather processing industry in pre-tanning and tanning process
contributes 80-90% of the total pollution in the industry and generates noxious gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, as well as
solid waste, such as lime and chrome sludge. The use of enzyme based products is currently begun explored for many areas
of leather making. Furthermore enzymes are gaining increasing importance in the de-haring process, eliminating the need
for sodium sulfide. This review discusses emerging novel biotechnological methods used in leather processing. One
significant achievement is the development of a bioprocess based de-haring and fiber opening methodology to reduce
toxics waste.

Natural Anti-Oxidants for Meat and Meat Products


Anti-oxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of
off-flavors, and improve color stability. In the food industry, they can be divided into NATURAL and SYNTHETIC anti-
oxidants. Synthetic anti-oxidants have been confirmed for their toxicological and carcinogenic (having the potential to
cause cancer) effects. Thus, the food industry chooses natural products over synthetic ones.

In response to recent claims that synthetic anti-oxidants having the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers
increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural anti-
oxidants. Due to their higher phenolic compound content, fruit and other plant materials provide a good alternative to
conventional anti-oxidants. Plum, grape seeds extract, cranberry, pomegranate, beer berry, pine bark extract, rosemary,
oregano and other spices function as anti-oxidants in meat and poultry products.

Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and clove have exhibited stronger anti-oxidant properties than some synthetic
options. Plum products, grape seed extracts, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the
colors of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meat, an increase in
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 22

red color maybe desired. When selecting a natural anti-oxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be
considered to achieve desired traits.

Personal Hygiene
Food handlers shall maintain high standards of personal cleanliness at all times. They should avoid habits that are
potentially hazardous or associated with handling food products, and might lead to food contamination through the transfer
of bacteria from the employee to product during its preparation the following are some of the important personal hygiene
measures to be implemented mandatorily in meat and meat products processing units.
Ÿ Person suffering from infectious diseases shall not be permitted to work
Ÿ Food handlers shall maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness
Ÿ All food handlers shall keep their finger nails trimmed, clean and wash their hands with soap, or detergents and
water before commencing work immediately after handling raw food or any contaminated materials and every
time after using toilets
Ÿ Food handlers shall refrain from eating smoking spitting chewing sneezing or coughing over any food meeting in
food preparation and food servicing areas.
Ÿ All food handlers should avoid wearing, false nails or other items.
Ÿ The food handlers should trim their nails and hair periodically
Ÿ Generally visitors should be discouraged from entering the food handling areas.

General Precautions in Avoiding Food Poisoning


Ÿ Animals should be purchased from registered suppliers
Ÿ Food should be handled in a hygienic manner by all food handlers '
Ÿ Cross contamination from raw to cooked food can be prevented by washing hands and all equipment or surfaces
in contact with raw foods.
Ÿ The time gap between preparation and service of food should be reduced to avoid long storage in warm
environment
Ÿ Large masses of food, which has to re-heated after should be cooled quickly to 15°C and refrigerated immediately

Frozen foods should be thawed carefully at temperatures between 10-15°C and frozen food should not be cooked till it has
thawed
The skin goat carcass
Weighing

Washing

Chilling (-2˚c)

Blast freezing (-40˚c)

Packing (polythene)

Packing (woven jute cloth)

Weighing

Deep freeze storage (-18˚c)

Pespatched (-18˚c)

Deep frezzing storage (-18˚c)

Dispatch (-18˚c)
23 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Halal Deboned, Frozen Meat


Receiving

Weighing

Washing (ISO Propyl Alcohol)

Chilling (-2˚c)

Deboning

Cuts

Weighing

Packing heat sealing

Chilling (-2˚c) for 1 hour

Plate freezing (-48˚c) for 2 hours

Blast freezing (-40˚c) or 18 hours

Cartooning

Strapping

Shrink wrapping

Metal detector
1. Who according to you is a food handler?

ANSWERS

COOK
FARMER
BUTCHER
ALL THE ABOVE

As a food handler are you aware of the term food safety?


2.
ANSWERS

YES
NO
MAYBE
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 24

3. What is contamination?
ANSWERS
MICROBES

CHEMICALS

FOREIGN
MATERIALS

4. The first step in the slaughtering process is?

ANSWERS

A.M INSPECTION
EVISERATION
STUNNING
BLEEDING

5. Ideal refrigeration temperature for meat and poultry is:

ANSWERS

minus 1 deg to 1 deg


0 deg to 2 deg
3 deg to 4 deg
4 deg to 7 deg

6. A meat is a
ANSWERS

FIBRE
TISSUE
MUSCLE
ALL THE ABOVE
25 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

7. Botulism affects the following

ANSWERS

CANNED FOOD

CANNED MEAT
FOOD
VEGETABLES

Conclusion
The meat borne illnesses are the infections which are caused by consumption or ill-handling or contaminated meat. Most of
the food poisoning is caused by salmonella, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus cereus, perfringens, campylobacter jejuni or
Cl. Botulinum and transmission of diseases like cysticersces cellulose and trichinellaspisalis etc. Food Safety Standard
Authority of India has been established and food safety law is being implemented all over the country in various food
establishments. Due to the urbanization and busy schedule of life made people look for packaged food, ready to eat food and
heat and eat food are high on demand but on the other hand many people are turning into vegetarians because of the health
hazards associated with meat products because of the; lack of control measures at each and every stage of food chain that is
from production to processing till it reaches the consumer as it is evident that many are looking for organic meat products
and it is concluded that it is not only important to have control measures hygienic meat processing but also to have a control
over the live animal supply with their farming techniques.

References
Food Hygiene and Sanitation by S. Roday Third Print ISBN: 0-07-463178-02003
Meat science by RA. Lawrie Third Edition ISBN: 0-08-023173-x Flexi Cover
Meat Hygiene by James .A. Libby Fourth Edition ISBN: 0-8121-0466-8
Text book of meat hygiene by Horace Thornton & J.F. Gracey. ISBN: 0702005266
Hygienic Meat Processing, Preservation & Quality control a workshop organized by NRC, Hyderabad
Refreshers Course on Food Safety for College Teachers organized by QCI.
http://www.bohatala.com
http://www.sciencedirect.com
http://www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 26

5. PROMOTION OF HANDICRAFTS THROUGH SHOPPING TOURISM, WITH SPECIAL


REFERENCE TO PATIALA, PUNJAB
Anuradha Chakravarty

Abstract
This study studies aims to understand the role of shopping in destination choice and total destination experience with
special focus on Patiala city. Patiala has great potential in this area as it is a culturally rich city, famous for 3ps - Patiala shahi
salwar, Patiala peg (drink) , and Patiala jutti (a type of shoe). People from all over come specially for shopping for phulkari
during weddings and festivals. Although sadly a neglected and a sidelined area of tourism which can be a big foreign
exchange earner although our rich diaspora of Punjab settled all over the world. The study is exploratory and descriptive in
nature where data is both secondary and primary, gathered from shopkeepers, emporiums and Tourists. An attempt has been
made to revive and boost Patiala tourism through shopping tourism and analyze the motivation factors that attract the
tourists for shopping and plan destination marketing accordingly. Findings suggest that Tourism and Handicrafts can be
interlinked with mutual benefit in development and promotion of both sectors with support from each other. Tourism
provides an opportunity to preserve traditional arts and crafts and this cultural heritage on the other hand has proved to be an
great motivation for boosting tourism.

Keywords: Shopping, Patiala, Destination, Tourism Products.

Introduction
Shopping is a major tourist activity with a high percentage of participation. According to the statistical data of the U.S.
Office of Travel and Tourism Industries on tourism performance, shopping ranks as the top participation activity for Asian
(90%) and Eastern European tourists (85%), and the second participation activity for Western Europeans (86%). The
statistics indicate that the demand for shopping is high for European and Asian tourists. Detailed profiles for countries of
origin show that shopping is on the top among all other tourist activities for the European countries of Ireland (93%), Spain
(82%), and Italy (79%). Asian shopping participation percentages are the highest among all Asian countries with a 93% for
Taiwan and 92% for Japan. After the turbulence of 1980s and early 90s, Punjab gradually and steadily started to open up to
peace, stability and growth.

Tourism industry is world's fastest growing industry, has ample scope of opportunities for the youth .Tourism in India is a
booming Industry. Tourism contributes 6.23% to the national GDP and 8.78% with estimated foreign earnings at US$ 14.19
billion, ''Ministry of Tourism, Govt of India''.2010. India is 42nd in the world rankings as per foreign tourist's arrival in the
country, however despite many favourable factors; the country's ranking has not increased much

Tourism has been experiencing immense proposition adding values towards the skills and heritage of local people ,
therefore benefiting local economies Tourists 'expenditure , particularly on items like souvenir, purchase , shopping etc , are
seen as positive spin off in the local economy. There is a growing interest of researchers in exploring tourists spending
patterns, and the amount incurred on various heads by tourists while travelling (Keown 1989, Jansen -Verbeke 1990, Suh&
Mc Avoy, 2005)

Shopping
A. Can be part of the travel experience or the primary focus of travel. It is a major motivation for a leisurely travel trip.
B. Tourists look for exciting opportunities to shop while travelling.
C. Some destinations provide special tourist shopping activities for tourists to shop for goods.
D. For many tourists, shopping is one priority when they travel to distant lands.
E. The exchange rate has a big impact on tourists' shopping behaviour
27 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Patiala has great potential in this area as it is a culturally rich city, famous for 3ps -- Patiala shahi salwar, Patiala peg (drink)
and Patiala jutti (a type of shoe).

People from all over come specially for shopping for Phulkari during weddings and festivals. Although sadly a neglected
and a sidelined area of tourism which can be a big foreign exchange earner although our rich Punjab'sdiaspora settled all
over the world.

It started to open its vistas for tourism sector internationally as well as domestically.
Patiala too is trying to develop its tourism through many government sponsored programmes like ''Heritage Walk'' which
goes through Sahi Samadha and ends in Qila Mubarak

Objectives of the Study


1. To analyze shopping as a factor in destination choice.
2. To understand the role of shopping in the total shopping experience
3. To have insight into various tourism products in Patiala city
4. To highlight economic significance of shopping tourism in Patiala

Methodology of the Study


Research Design: The study is exploratory and descriptive in nature pursuing into the assessment of the role of Shopping in
destination choice and experience.
Database: The data for this study have been collected both from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was
collected from the sample respondents through a structured schedule specially designed for the purpose. Personal interview
method was used to get the required information with the aid of schedules. Secondary data was collected from various
sources like government survey reports, various literature, shopkeepers, emporiums, etc
Sample Design: The sampling frame for this study includes 107 domestic and NRI tourists in Patiala. A sample of 60
tourists were selected based on simple random sampling method. In the present study, to study the role of shopping in
destination choice.

However a great and interesting area of tourism which has immense potential is “SHOPPING”
The rich traditional patterns, motifs and needlework products-Fulkari, Punjabi jutti, are much sought after in the domestic
as well as foreign tourists. A sample of 60 domestic and NRI Tourists were taken to evaluate their shopping preferences and
experience in Patiala

Tapping the Untapped Potential of NRI’s


According to latest statistics, Indians are the largest diaspora population in the world. A little more than 20 million Indians
live abroad in almost all the continents. The largest Indian non- Middle Eastern, non-South African and non-African
population is in the United States of America (3,183,063), followed by the United Kingdom (1,451,862), Canada
(1,200,000), Australia (390,000), Italy (160,000), Germany (112,000) and France (85,000).

While most of the Indian diaspora living in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia are second or third
generation Indians, those living in Italy, Germany and France are still the first generation but gradually moving on to the
second generation. Many Indians in the USA, UK and Canada fall into the category of billionaires and millionaires, a
majority of them are professionals (doctors, engineers, IT specialists, scientists, lawyers and academics) while others run
medium and small scale businesses (Punjab state Tourism Policy, 2018).

A quick review of the profile of Indians living in selected aforementioned countries would reveal that they have double-
income households, own real estate, have more than one vehicle, their children go to private schools and universities and,
have substantial savings. They generally take two holidays (many combine business with pleasure), a short holiday of 7-10
days which is closer to their place of residence, and another one which is long-haul and may last up to 3-4 weeks. This trend
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 28

is a clear indicator that they have disposable time and income and invest in Tourism.
This segment needs to be motivated for investing in tourism.

Literature Review
Fabeil, Noor & Mizal, Kamarul & Pazim, Khairul & Langgat, Juliana. (2015). In their paper titled “Handicrafts as Tourism
product”, the writers say that Tourism contributes as the second largest income to the economy of Sabah, after agriculture
sector, in which cultural-based good segment like handicrafts, food and village stays are now the key contributors of the
tourism-related product (Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2010). Based on the data on tourist expenditure on tourism products in
Sabah, shopping for handicraft is the most demanded product by domestic and international tourists.

Benson (2014) in paper titled “The benefits of tourism handicraft sales at Mwenge handicrafts centre in Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania”,points out that, In developing countries there is a need to promote and grow tourism industry parallel with
informal handicraft industry as they both make a logical and powerful combination towards attaining some of the
millennium development goals. Informal handicraft industry alone has been promoted to foster economic development,
reduce unemployment and it has become a means of livelihood to many disadvantaged communities.

Saji & Narayanaswamy (2011) discussed the repercussion that tourism development has on developing economy. It was
further analyzed by evaluating its linkage with other sectors of the economy as well as with the socio-cultural life of the
destination. The economic implications of tourism-craft linkage depends on the effectiveness of the sub-sectors of tourism
such as retailing, leisure services etc., to effectively harness the locally produced crafts and artefacts into the tourism
market.

The International Conference on Tourism and Handicrafts, held in Tehran from May 13th to 15th 2006, was a first for
UNWTO, and in all probability also the first international conference ever held with specific focus on the linkage between
tourism and handcrafts. The key finding was that the linkage between tourism and handcrafts has not yet been fully
explored, understood or developed, with a resultant loss of valuable revenue and job creation opportunities. In response to
this, UNWTO decided that, although there have been many conferences on tourism and many on handcrafts, there was now
a pressing need for a conference to develop the synergy between the two and to raise awareness about the importance of
handcrafts for tourism and vice-versaUNWTO (2008).

Focus was on the Karnataka handicrafts and its development over the years. It was also noticed that the artisans were
adapting to the changing trends and were able to cater to the markets demands for such products(Belgaumkar and Sastry
2006).

According to Shariff, A. (2005) Channapatna, the toy town of Karnataka famous for its wooden toys for ages was reeling
under severe financial crunch for more than a decade and the craftsmen community involved in the manufacturing of the
same reached near starvation a few years back. Even today, it is the major source of livelihood for the majority of people of
this town. For the setbacks in the past, it is not just the lack of marketing skills that were responsible, but the core issue was
that the entire industry did not keep pace with the rapid changing scenario that the world was demanding. Today, the
craftsmen involved in the manufacture have braced themselves by opening new vistas into the current trend with drastic
changes in their thinking and attitude by producing products according to present market demands.

Ngo (2005) in his paper presented at workshop on promotion of craft village-based tourism along West-East corridor, Co-
organised by Vietnam National Administration for Tourism; ASIA Seed Institute and JODC (Japan) May, 2005) explained
the strength of handicraft and tourism development in the scheme of the socio economic approach, and discusses the overall
strategy of implementing the tourism and handicraft development project in Vietnam. Approaching from both the macro
perspectives as political level and micro perspective as village activities

The Ministry of Tourism & Culture, Government of India assigned National Productivity Council (NPC) to carry out a
Survey of Foreign Tourists‟ Expenses on Handicrafts in India. The main objective of the survey was to find out how much
29 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

the visiting foreign tourists spend on handicrafts (total & item-wise) while they stayed in India. The ultimate aim of this task
was to construct the Craft/ Tourism Index (defined as per tourist per day expenditure on handicrafts) for India as suggested
by the UNESCO. The field level survey was launched by NPC during Sept. – Oct., 2002 in six major cities of India viz. New
Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore and Hyderabad. These cities act as the major arrival and exit points for an
overwhelming majority of the foreign tourists visiting India. The foreign tourists leaving India through these six cities were
approached with a structured questionnaire to gather information on their spending on handicraft items Government of
India (2002).

PATIALA, a city of gardens and palaces, has a rich architectural and cultural heritage. Patiala, the princely city of Punjab,
having a rich architectural and cultural heritage has thousands of families who have been engaged in hand embroidery for
generations. A business that extends employment to over 2 lakh persons (including traders, artisans, wholesalers and
retailers) and registers transactions of over Rs. 100 crore per year, has been flourishing on its own, without state government
intervention. There are over 300 wholesale and retail shops selling handicrafts(intricately embroidered dress materials,
dupattas and furnishings) at two locations, Adalat Bazar and Tripari in Patiala

Government Efforts and Revival Schemes


Migration of Phulkari artisans to the urban centre gave them an opportunity to learn new techniques, enhance the quality of
their work leading to significant improvement not only in their economic condition, greater degree of social acceptance and
above all recognition of their skills and talents taking advantage of the marketing facilities. This has been made possible
mainly due to the combined efforts of Government agencies
1. The Planning Commission
2. SIDBI,
3. NABARD,
4. KVIC,
5. The AIHB,
6. UNDP,
7. The World Bank,
8. The Export Promotion Councils,
9. The Directorate of Tourism)
10. The NGOs seriously working for the revival of the handicrafts and the economic resurgence of the artists and the
artisans recognizing the importance and potential of this vital part of the rural and non-formal sector. Ministry of
Textiles under the direction of office of the Development Commissioner Handicrafts has set up Regional Design
&Technical Development Centres in various states to seek new directions for Indian crafts and craftspeople.
Handicrafts being a State subject, its development and promotion are the primary responsibility of every State
Government. However, the Central Government is supplementing their efforts by implementing Heritage Festival
organized every year at Patiala, Kapurthala and Amritsar to promote the Punjabi Culture where embroidery
artisans form a self-help group to market their craft in coordination with non-government agencies and two-day
skill up-gradation workshops.

Sources of Data
Primary data collected through survey, Different shops, emporiums, Domestic and International tourists, secondary data
from Punjab Tourism Board, World Tourism Organization, etc

What Motivates Tourists To Become Shoppers?


When shopping becomes an activity for the sake of shopping it is somewhat different, and three main motives for shopping
is identified: utilitarian, family or social interaction and shopping as a pleasure activity in its own right with social and
relaxation dimensions. Four types of tourist are described and the link between the tourist activity and their shopping
patterns is demonstrated
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 30

Shopping Motivation Table 1


TOURIST INTEREST SHOPPING PREFERENCES
1. Culture Local arts and crafts
2.Natural & built heritage Local arts and crafts and printed material
3.Urban Entertainment Souvenirs to display at home
4.Active outdoor pursuits Souvenirs associated with outdoor activities

Factor attracting retail shoppers?


1. Price of goods is one of the key attractions
2. Quality and attractiveness of the environment involved,
3. Clothing and shoes rank amongst the most important items for purchase by retail tourists, and destinations selling
quality, branded items in this category will often fare better than others in terms of increased inbound visitor
numbers for the purpose of shopping.

SWOT Analysis of Handicraft industry in Patiala

Strengths:
1. Cheap labour
2. Need low
capital income
3. High potential
in domestic and
international
market aid

Opportunities:
1.Emerging demand Threats:
of handicraft goods abroad 1.Competition
2. Developing of domestic from Brands
Handicrafts &
and international tourism 2. Competition from low
Local Arts
sector cost machine
3. Development of retail made goods
sector

Weaknesses:
1. No promotional
support
2. Lack of
skilled labour
3. Unorganised craft
4. Lack of infrastructure
31 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Insights into different Tourism products for shopping, in Patiala


1. Phulkari
It's fine needlework done on scarves, dupattas, suits, bed sheets, saris, bedcovers, pillows, etc Origin of Phulkari. It
is an embroidery technique from the Punjab region, which literally means "flower work”. The origin of of Phulkari
th
can be traced back to the 15 century AD (The Tribune). This word first appeared in Punjabi literature in the 18th
century, Waris Shah's ''Heer Ranjha'', describes the trousseau of Heer and lists Various articles of clothing and
Phulkari. Flora Anne Steel(1847-1927), lived in India for 22 years as Inspector of girls schools in Punjab. She was
perhaps the first one to study Phulkari. Modern Phulkari technique is used on cotton, chiffon, georgette and silk as
well. Patiala is one of the main hubs of Phulkari embroidery now. NRI'S constitute major buyers these days;
Phulkari has also become popular in European and American markets.

2. Punjabi jutti
Is a type of footwear common in north India and neighboring regions, they are traditionally made up of leather and
with extensive embroidery in real gold and silver thread as inspired by Indian royalty over 400 years ago. Today
Amritsar and Patiala(tilla jutti) are important trade centres for handicraft juttis from where they are exported all
over the world to Punjabi diaspora. Many Punjabi folk songs mention “Juttis” like_”jutti kasoori na pari na poori,
Hai rabba sanu turna paya”, Even in changing times, juttis have remained a part of ceremonial attire especially at
weddings songs evolved around the art of phulkari, which as time passed became part of folk singing. Looking at
the demand for phulkari, it doesn't seem a distant dream when the stitch-craft will be singing a new song.
Wood Carving & Laquer Work
Reputed for their excellence in woodcraft and brilliant laquer work, Kartarpur, Hoshiyarpur and Jalandhar have been
producing items of utility and decoration. You can buy laquer 'pidhis' (4 legged stools), lamps, tables and wooden toys.
Royal patronage saw the development of excellent wood carving and ivory inlay work. And though use of ivory has been
banned, the wood carving continues to enjoy an excellent reputation as can be seen from the proliferation of mirror frames,
tables, sofas etc. Bahadurgarh, outskirts of Patiala,is renowned for its carved sandalwood items.

Handlooms
Hand woven coverings for both floor and beds, in the form of cotton rugs or 'durries', are a speciality in the villages of
Punjab. The best known centres are Hoshiyarpur, Patiala, Jalandhar, Anandpur Sahib and Nakodar. Carpet weaving may
not be as popular but one of the oldest carpet weaving centres in the country is Amritsar.
The colourful “Parandis” adds to the vibrant and dynamic character of the state of Punjab. One of the traditional handicraft
industry, the Parandi craftsmen displays the rich artistic skills of the people of the state and the area. Theattractive and
beautiful Parandis bear relics of the rich creative imagination of the people of Patiala. The Parandi craftsmen eloquently
decorate the Parandis with fine silk threads of various colours to make them look beautiful.
Age of the respondents
Age-Wise classification of the Sample Respondents of Domestic and NRI's visiting Patiala – A Study of Patiala.
Age of the respondents: Table-2:

Age (Years) Number Percentage


Below 20 1 1.7
21-30 9 15.0
31-40 37 61.7
41-50 8 13.3
Above 51 5 8.3
Total 60 100
Source: Field Survey
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 32

The above table reveals that out of 60 sample respondents, a majority 37(61.7%) of sample respondents are found in the age
group of 31-40. It is observed that 9(15.0%) sample respondents are found in the age group of 21-30, 8(13.3%) sample
respondents are found in the age group of 41-50, 5(8.3%) are found in the age group of above 51 and the remaining 1(1.7%)
sample respondent is in the age group of below 20.

Motivating Factors for Shopping

Factors that prompt a tourist to shop. Table-3


Motivating Factors Number Percentage
Something Unique 22 36.7
Momento 4 6.7
Colour and design 14 23.3
Price 8 13.3
Availability 2 3.3
Promote artisans 2 3.3
Gifting purpose 4 6.7
Acquire social status 2 3.3
Use spare time 1 1.7
As a part of Cultural exchange 1 1.7
Total 60 100
Source: Field Survey

The factors that motivated the respondents to take up shopping have been identified and presented in the above table. A
majority 22(36.7%) of sample respondents took up shopping for the novelty and uniqueness of the product. While 4(6.7%)
tourists did shopping to take away momentos to home While 14(23.3%) sample respondents took up shopping because
they were attracted to the colour and design of the product – A Study Of Patiala, Punjab. Modest Prices of the products,
8(13.3%) pursued tourists to overcome the budget hurdle. While 2(3.3%) sample respondents enjoyed shopping because of
its availability and utility, speciality products like Phulkari crafts are available specially in and around Patiala, another
2(3.3%)did so to promote artisans and arts and crafts of the area, 4(6.7%) indulged in shopping for gifting to their friends
and relatives, still another 2(3.3%) took up shopping activity to acquire social status and to show off their unique and
colourful shopping products. While 1(1.7%) sample respondents did shopping to utilise their spare time, another 1(1.7%)
enjoyed shopping as a part of cultural exchange.

Conclusion
As per the survey , tourists are most attracted to something unique while shopping, and handicrafts in Patiala provides them
the opportunity to shop for unique and exotic handicrafts like Phulkari and Punjabi jutti hence Patiala can be a mojor
shopping destination if promotion of handicrafts is encouraged for developing tourism as well as preservation of arts and
crafts.

Tourism and Handicraft, are inextricably connected with mutual advantage in building and promoting one sector to support
the other. The fundamental connection between handicrafts and tourism resonate particularly well in this ancient birthplace
of trade, human settlement and abundantly rich culture that is the Royal city of Patiala.
Without market, and promotion, traditional crafts can face many challenges and eventually fade due to lack of demand.
Tourism provides an opportunity to preserve the traditions that comprise the fabric of cultural heritage; their revival also
creates jobs and the market is needed to preserve them. We particularly need to tap the vast buying potential of the Punjabi
dispora, NRI's and the international tourists.
33 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

The international conference on Tourism and handicrafts , held in Tehran from May 13 to 15 , 2006 , was a first for UNWTO
, and in all probability also the 1st International Conference ever held with specific focus on the linkages between Tourism
and handicrafts

References
Annual Plan 2009-2010 by Department of planning, Government of Punjab.Vol-1
Ahmad A. (2005), Tourism Village: A Conceptual Approach. Asia-Europe Seminaron Cultural Heritage, Man and Tourism in Hanoi - Vietnam.
May 2001.
Belgaumkar, G.D. and Sastry A.K., (2006). Unique Symbols of Karnataka, The Hindu. Published on 2006, December 27.
Benson, W. (2014). The Benefits of Tourism Handicraft Sales At Mwenge Handicrafts Centre In Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
Fabeil, Noor & Mizal, Kamarul & Pazim, Khairul & Langgat, Juliana. (2015). Handicraft as Tourism Product: Tourism & Service Management
2015, 15 - 17 April 2015, Promenade Hotel, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Paper titile ISBN: 978-983-2408-25-3. 10.13140/RG.2.2.30353.22882.
Gillow J and-bernard N. Traditional Indian Textiles.Thames and Hudson Ltd ,London.1993. pp.113,116-118
Government of India (2002).Survey of Foreign Tourists‟ Expenses on Handicrafts. Economic Services Group, National Productivity Council,
New Delhi. Israr M. et al (2010).
Hainsworth D. (2009), Community tourism and broad-based local development:The case of Doi village, Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. [in:]
J. Bao (Ed.), Tourism andcommunity development – Asian practices (2nd ed., pp. 113–126).Madrid, Spain: World Tourism Organization (WTO)
Naik S.Traditional Embroideries of India. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation ,N.Delhi. 1996.pp.103
Ngo, D. A. (2005). Blending handicrafts and tourism development the good way of preservation of tradition and poverty alleviation in rural area.
presented at workshop on promotion of craft village-based tourism along West- East corridor, Co-organised by Vietnam National Administration
for Tourism; ASIA Seed Institute and JODC (Japan)
Israr M. et al (2010). Role of local food and handicrafts in raising eco-tourism in the northern areas of Pakistan, Sarhad J. Agric. 26(1)
Karthik, S. (2009).Channapatna‟s toy story..., Deccan Herald.Published on 2009, January 6
Saji, M. P. &Narayanaswamy, N. (2011). Local Craft Heritage in Contemporary Tourism: The Indian Scenario, Tourism Development Journal
9(1).
Soubert, S. & Hay, S. L. (1995).Case study on the effects of tourism on culture and the environment: Cambodia. RACAP Series on Culture and
Tourism in Asia 3. UNESCO Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
UNWTO, (2008). Tourism and Handicrafts: A Report on the International Conference on Tourism and Handicrafts. World Tourism Organization,
Madrid, Spain.
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 34

Authors Details
1. Mr. Thomas D. Tambari, federal polytechnic Kaura Namoda – Zamfara state – Nigeria, Department
of hospitality and tourism management. Email:tambari247@yahoo.com

2. Ms. Isiya Salihu Shinkafi, Federal Polytechnic Kaura Namoda – Zamfara State – Nigeria, Department
Of Hospitality and Tourism Management

3. Dr. Poonam Mishra, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Hotel Management, Manipal University Jaipur

4. Ms. Shama Baa, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Economics, Manipal University Jaipur

5. Dr. Brijesh Kumar, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Tourism Management, Govt. P.G College, Gurugram,
Haryana (India) Email: brijeshkumar8787@gmail.com

6. Dr. Manohar Sajnani, Dean, Institute of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Amity University,
Noida, U.P, (India)

7. Mr. D. Ranjith Meconroe, Asst. Lecturer, Institute of Hotel management, Hyderabad. Email:
ranjithmecon@gmail.com

8. Mr. S.Sam Nirmal, Lecturer, Institute of Hotel management, Hyderabad. Samnirmal.s@gmail.com

9. Mr. Arpan Roy, Asst. Lecturer, Institute of Hotel management, Hyderabad. Email:
arpan.roy1988@gmail.com

10. Ms. Anuradha Chakravarty Research Scholar, University School of Applied Management, Punjabi
University, Patiala
35 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Abstracts of papers:
th
Presented during 9 India
International Hotel, Travel &
Tourism Research Conference 2019
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 36

Wine Tourism and the Civilization In Reference To the Drinking Style Within
Aman Kumar Hamilton, School of Hospitality & Tourism, Jagran Lakecity University, Bhopal.

Paper emphasizes to uncover essential theoretical issues educating the tremendousness concerning wine usage as
social practice and, inside this, the centrality of the Tourism and Travel industry to wine use. Drawing on the
ordinary encounters of certified decent variety, the paper battles that ability is joined to huge practices as opposed
to social practices that individuals gets 'expects to end up by doing', instead of 'doing to change into'. In case of
Wine, the 'intention' refers to a sector of a 'social world', which is populated only by those who are expert about
wine. While others have to access to the few components of this very social world like visiting vineyards and
consuming wine. This study offers to persuade them about how little they know, hence making acceptable and the
notability of the full individuals from this social world. The study helps in the enrichment of theory that shows the
developed work on pro skills and social uniqueness for the development of new understandings so that
individuals can develop their understandings and good opinions about wines not only from their homes but also
from their societal circle. In the conclusion re-examination with the agenda is required so that a deeper
understanding is created, contributed and encouraged.

Keywords: Wine, Diversity, Leisure Practices, Pro Skills, Culture, Learning.

Virtual Reality: The Revolutionary Future of Tourism and Service Industry


Aruditya Jasrotia, School of Business Studies, Department of Tourism and Travel Management, Central
University of Jammu, Rahya Suchani, Samba District, Bagla, Jammu and Kashmir,
Email: arudityajasrotia@gmail.com

Tourism is the highest foreign exchange earning sector and it places sustainability as one of the achievement
measurements for indicating the industry's overall development. There are various tourist destinations which are
either not accessible or tourists are not aware about them. Virtual Reality also known as computer-simulated
reality is a computer technology which has the capability to increase the destination accessibility and to increase
the popularity of the lesser known destinations. This revolutionary technology has led to the phenomenon of
Virtual Tourism which gives people a preview and understanding of what they will experience, if they visit a place
physically. Virtual reality is becoming an excellent way to showcase information and to gain the respective
feedback from the tourists in order to improve the services and overall tourism experience in the destination. The
objectives of this paper are to understand the current trends in virtual reality and to explore the future scope of
application of virtual reality in tourism industry in India and also across the globe. This study is based upon
available secondary data and in-depth analysis of articles published in magazines, journals, and tourism and
Information technology related publications.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Virtual Tourism, Information Technology, Tourism Industry


37 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Career as Hotel Managers: Scope of Post-Graduation in Hotel Management


Pratik Ghosh, Senior Lecturer, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Hotel Management, Chandigarh. E-mail:
callpratikghosh@yahoo.co.in

The main thrust of this research is to explore whether post-graduation in hotel management provides any
competitive advantage with respect to a graduate in hotel management in selection process of different
management positions in hotel industry , to provide a perspective from hotel industry point of view in identifying
the gaps in learning and development of the Institutes providing post-graduation and how best to place these
Institutions of higher learning in a position of competitive advantage over Institutions providing only graduation
as far as career path and growth prospects of the hotel management students are concerned. Twelve leading hotels
/ hotel chains of the country have been selected for the research on the basis of judgement sampling; The Oberoi
Cecil, J.W. Marriott Chandigarh ,The Leela Gurgaon, The Park Hotel, New Delhi, Taj Mahal Hotel, New Delhi
and so on, wherein HRD Managers / Training managers were the source of information. The research also
included 83 samples of students from premier post-graduation Institutions/ Universities offering Post Graduation
in Hotel Management. The Institutions were selected on the basis of convenience sampling which included
National Council for Hotel Management, Noida, Kurukshetra University, Lovely Professional University, and
Chandigarh University, Gharuan. The samples within these institutions were selected randomly to provide
neutrality. Also 21 ex-students of these Institutions were also included in the sample for research.

The data was collected through both primary and secondary sources including Surveys, Questionnaires from
HRD/Training Managers and students either pursuing post-graduation programs in hotel management or have
passed out , Internet, references from brochures, past collection of data from placement records and was tabulated
through flow charts, pie charts, bar graphs . Objectives of the research were; To list the reasons for pursuing a
post-graduation degree in hotel management, To compare growth potential in hotels between a post graduate and
a graduate in hotel management, To provide feedback of gaps in learning and development to the Institutions
offering post-graduation in hotel management. Some of the findings were that most hotels have hotel
management students with graduation as their prime work force in the management level ,almost all the hotels
cite performance as the indicator than higher qualification as far as promotional avenues are concerned, almost
none of them give any sort of monetary incentives to pursue post-graduation, though, some of them have tie ups
with overseas institutions for providing certificate program, also majority of the students indicate joining as
faculty in hotel management institutions is their first preference for pursuing post-graduation rather than taking
up management positions in hotels. Having said that, post-graduation in hotel management has emerged as a
crucial qualification for taking up career as trainer /faculty in hotel management institutions in today's
competitive market place.

Keywords: CTC, NCHMCT, HRD, MBA.


Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 38

Measuring the Service Quality of the Luxury Train 'Palace on Wheels': A Qualitative Study
Shweta Kumar, Research Scholar, IHM Faridabad. E-mail Id:shwetaihm2011@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to measure the service quality of the luxury train 'Palace on wheels'. The luxury train
'Palace on wheels' was started in year 1982and is still operational completing more than three decades in the
system. It being the oldest luxury train in India has retained its heritage charm and manages to draw attention of
global media. The objective of the paper is to find the quality of service in the identified eight categories (1)
Registration (2) On board service (3) Food and beverage service (4) Ambience (5) Off –board services (6) Other
facilities like spa, gym etc. (7) Departure (8) Overall experience. The study used both primary and secondary
sources for collection of data which was first used to form themes and later coded for systematic analysis,
triangulation method was used to ensure unbiased collection. To present the result narrative qualitative style was
applied, to examine the uniqueness of individual's lived situation where each person has its own perception and
experiences, when people give meaning to what they experience in an event qualitative method proves to be very
useful. The tourists boarding the luxury train encounters and experiences multiple events and qualitative study
gives a holistic outcome allowing a worthy in-depth understanding of tourists overall experience. The selling
point of luxury train 'Palace on Wheels' (POW) lies in the hospitality of the staff and that it comes closest to
recreating the “ghulam” setting of the raj giving tourists an experience of maharaja style which was evident in the
early 20th century with touch of providing modern essentials for the comfort of the tourists today. This Luxury
train has always been a golden coin in the pocket of nation. It is a lifeline to attract tourist from other country.

Keywords: Palace on Wheels (PoW), Luxury Train, Qualitative Style, Service Quality

Hospitality Education and its Future Prospects: A Study of Hospitality Colleges in Punjab
Aman Kumar, Research Scholar, Chandigarh College of Hospitality, Landran, Mohali, Punjab.
E-mail: aman_anu27@yahoo.co.in

The main purpose of the study is to identify the student's preferences and perceptions for the hospitality industry.
This paper also focused upon the student's choice and preferences to select the interest area in hotel industry for
work and career growth after completion of their graduation in hospitality discipline after 6 to 8 years. For this
study the questionnaire is used for collecting data from two private colleges of the Punjab that are imparting
hospitality and tourism education and trainings. The outcome shows that the students show their preferences
towards the specific group of hotel chains and departments. However, it is also found that most of the students
want to be in higher managerial positions in the hotel after 10-12 years of their graduation in hospitality
discipline. But finding indicates that as the graduation precedes the preference of perceptions towards the
hospitality sector of the students get down. This study will also focus upon the hospitality education and training
academia.

Keywords: Student's Perception, Hospitality Education, Industry Image.


39 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Ecotourism and its Prospects in Madhya Pradesh: Analytical study towards community involvement
and Sustainable Approach
Pragati Kelkar, Assistant Professor, Jagran Lakecity University, School of Hospitality and Tourism, Bhopal.
Email- pragati.kelkar@jlu.edu.in

Madhya Pradesh is a dynamic and competitive state for the tourist both in domestic and international. As situated
at the central part of India, the destination is acclaimed for its natural landscape, green valleys and high hills and
mosaic of a rich cultural heritage. Madhya Pradesh is gifted with a variety of natural ecotourism sites and has a
massive potential of the state. The resources constitute natural sites, wildlife & garden sites, cultural and
historical sites, lake sites, archeological sites, dam & project sites, adventure sites and waterfall sites. As a
responsibility to sustain such natural areas that safeguard the integrity of the ecosystem and produces economic
benefits of local community and to encourage conservation, this study proposes to analyze the tourist potential of
the state of Madhya Pradesh and the scope for improvement and sustaining the natural environment for long
term. A precise outline analysis of Madhya Pradesh Draft Ecotourism Policy shows that while the Policy
acknowledges that communities should be involved in ecotourism projects, there has been very little thought
given to the modalities of making this happen. This paper also proposes future recommendation which focus on
the challenges that ecotourism places on communities' social structures as well as those working towards the
inclusion of them.

Keywords: Ecotourism, Communities, Sustainability, Madhya Pradesh.

Factors Affecting Women Attrition in Tourism and Hospitality Industry: A Study of Ahmedabad
Aniket Trivedi, Faculty, State Institute of Hotel Management, Siddhpur Dist. Patan, Gujarat.
Email:anikettrivedi.5@gmail.com
Soniya Thakkar, Research Scholar, State Institute of Hotel Management, Siddhpur Dist. Patan, Gujarat.
Email:sthakkar.rbsm15@gmail.com

The Indian hospitality industry has emerged as one of the key industries driving the growth of the services sector
and, thereby, the Indian economy. The tourism & hospitality sector's direct contribution to GDP in 2016 was US$
47 billion. Also, tourism in India accounts for 7.5% of the GDP & is the 3rd largest foreign exchange earner for
the country. Attrition hits Indian hospitality industry!! Hotel industry grapples with high attrition, rising staff
cost. These and many such other news articles emerge as we try to read about attrition rate in the Hotel and
tourism industry in India. A study conducted by an industry chamber located in New Delhi reveals that the
attrition rate in the hospitality industry in India is set to double to nearly 50 per cent by 2010, up from the earlier
25 per cent growing at an alarming rate of 10 per cent per annum. If this is a problem do we, the people directly or
indirectly part of the same industry try to bring solutions to this problem? This study will focus on what is the
attrition rate in Ahmedabad a city in Gujarat, currently in the hotel industry. Later we study the factors that
influence female attrition in Ahmedabad. The current study explores and discusses the implication and
challenges related to women attrition in Tourism & Hospitality Industry and provide suggestions and
recommendation to curb the attrition rate of females in India in Tourism & Hospitality Industry.

Keywords: Attrition, GDP, Hospitality, Tourism, Women.


Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 40

Tourism in Jammu- An Amalgamation of Cultural and Heritage Attractions


Rajesh Singh, Research Scholar, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Jammu,
Email: rschib813@gmail.com
Rajinder Singh, Lecturer, in Food and Craft Institute, Nagrota, Jammu , Jammu & Kashmir

India has significant potential to become a preferred tourist destination globally due to its rich and diverse cultural
heritage as heritage tourism is identified as a major and growing market locally and internationally. Cultural and
heritage tourism has a special place in India because of its past civilization as India has been considered the land
of ancient history, heritage, and cultural. Tourism is the one of the world largest and the fastest growing industry,
tourism is progressively offering a wide range of cultural heritage products, from visiting heritage monuments to
discovering new unique ways of life. Indeed cultural heritage tourism is gaining importance in different states of
India but still this special niche of tourism has not yet identified in Jammu region of J&K state. Thus, the aim of
this research study is to identify the actual position of cultural heritage tourism in Jammu region. The current
study reveals that there are numerous tangible and intangible cultural heritage resources that are present in
Jammu region. Further this study aimed is to bring the significance of cultural tourism in Jammu Region. Now a
day, Tourism is the one of the major social and economic phenomenon. Tourism has reside in both the develop
industries and less developed countries of the world and became an important and basic element of their
development plan, which need proper planning and policy management for their sustainable growth. In the
presence of these resources it is clear that Jammu region has a huge potential to be developed and promoted as a
cultural heritage tourism destination. Whenever tourism activities fosters at any destination it leads to several
economic and socio- economic impacts. This has been noticed in this work that tourism has both positive and
negative economic and socio-economic impacts as far as study area is concerned. Further, potential of Jammu as
cultural tourism destination and analyzing the socio-economic impacts of tourism in Jammu region this study
also entails different suggestions regarding the promotion, development, and conservation of cultural heritage
resources in Jammu region.

Keywords: Tourism, Culture, Heritage, Tourism impacts, Destination.

Role of Festival in the Promotion of Tourism: A case study of Mewar Festival of Udaipur
Abhishek Kumar, Assistant Professor, Amity School of Hospitality, Amity University, Jaipur, Rajasthan,
India. Email: akumar.ihm@gmail.com
Festival plays a number of distinct roles for the promotion of tourism. It is found to be cultural industry, involving
large numbers of people working in organization, administration, marketing and creative & performing arts.
The case study of Mewar festival shows that the festival can act as tourism promoter's .However the magnitude of
this effect needs to be kept in proportion. Despite the modest local growth impacts, festival continue to attract
generous assistance from central government and are viewed as central element in regional tourism strategy by
local officials.
This case study has found that the number of domestic tourists and foreign tourists has significantly increased
year by year during time of Mewar festival and that festival plays a role complementary to generating income,
change in the local economy, social development and also development of tourism.

Keywords: Mewar Festival, Promotion, Indian Tourism, Job opportunity and development.
41 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Relevance of Ayurveda as a marketing strategy for promoting Tourism in Kerala


T. N. Narendra Varma, Research Scholar, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi
Dr. Paramita Suklabaidya, Research Guide, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi

Ayurveda literally means the science of life. It adopts a holistic approach and aims to restoring and constantly
maintaining the body's natural equilibrium through judicious application of herbal massages, special diets, body
therapies etc. Unlike the other Indian States, the status of Ayurveda in Kerala is not alternative, but mainstream.
In fact, today, Kerala is the only state which practices the system of Ashtangahridayam, the practical, user-
friendly interpretation of Ayurveda compiled by the great sage Vagabhatta. This is where Kerala outshines any
other Indian states in Ayurvedic treatment and carved out a niche in promotion of tourism. Tourism is Kerala's
second biggest source of income, after remittances from non-resident Keralites. The promotion of Ayurveda in
health tourism started in 1994 and Kerala Tourism Development Corporation (KTDC) started Ayurvedic health
centres in its premium properties. The “Kerala Vision -2025” envisages Ayurveda as a thrust area in tourism
promotion. The marketing strategies have resulted in substantial increase of visitor arrivals into the state. As of
now, Kerala generates approximately Rs 6400/ Crores through Ayurvedic tourism and expects to make five-fold
increase by 2020. Like the slogan that tags Kerala as “God's own Country”, now the state tourism department has
started promoting Ayurveda by calling Kerala as “the land of Ayurveda”. The need for stress busting vacations
through-out the world has been identified by Kerala and it has been able to tap the leisure cum medical tourism
market by establishing Ayurvedic resorts approved by the government. In order to regulate and to maintain a
uniformity of practice, the Department of Tourism, Government of Kerala classified Ayurveda Health centers in
Kerala under two categories – Green Leaf and Olive Leaf. It is understood that nearly 35 percent of foreign
tourists especially from the UK, USA and Germany are repeat visitors seeking Ayurveda treatments. A senior
official from the Department of Tourism, Govt. of Kerala has indicated that Ayurveda has resulted in the average
stay back period of tourists in Kerala going up from 14. 1 to 18 days now, the highest in the country. Marketing
Ayurveda has also helped to bring in new definition to vacationing in the picturesque Kerala landscape adjoining
the long stretch of Western Ghats. To summarize, Ayurveda has emerged as an important USP in the promotion of
Tourism in Kerala.

Keywords: Ayurveda, Ayurveda Tourism, KTDC.

A Study on a Variety of Foodstuffs and Its Relation to Preserve Positive Health-A Review
Anuradha Mukherjee

Let thy food be thy medicines. Food is the ultimate source of all nutrients which constantly interact and offers
manifold functions in protecting our body from several undesirable microorganisms. Several antioxidant rich
food s are the key elements in terms of prevention of deadly diseases like cancers. Moreover, a judicious intake of
proper food not only helps us to strengthen ourselves but also helps us to lead a disease free uninterrupted life
.Foods naturally available, commercially prepared like probiotics, prebiotics, xenobioticts are amongst the most
trolled foods of these days. The present study deals with the reviewing of medicinal and health connectivity of
different foods in lieu of health and wellness. Some of the most unknown facts about commonly used foodstuffs
are also being highlighted in the present review work. The discussions also revealed that it's not always such that
commercially available food supplements are of utmost need in day-to-day life provided the use of naturally
available foods are done scientifically. Thus the present study is the review paper which discusses in detail the
importance of food in prevention of diseases and focuses on the need of establishment of a healthy life with good
foods leaving medicines in all forms.

Keywords: Food, Medicines, Health, Antioxidant, Supplements.


Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 42

Utilization of Beetroot and Raw Papaya as a Healthy Alternative for Commercial Food Spreads and
Pizza Sauce
Sonam, Student, Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Applied Science, Manav Rachna
International Institute of Research & Studies, Faridabad, Haryana-121004.
Email: saurabhchandila28@gmail.com
Varsha Srivastava, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Applied Science,
Manav Rachna International Institute of Research & Studies, Faridabad, Haryana-121004

The changing lifestyle and dietary habits of the youngsters now a days has brought about selection of
inappropriate nutrients in their diet. In this purview, a spread using beetroot and papaya along with tomatoes, has
been prepared that can serve as an alternative to commercial spreads and pizza sauce. The nutritive value of this
spread (per 100g) is 82.7kcal of energy, 2.64g of protein, 0.38g of fat, 14.63g of carbohydrate, 1.88g of fibre,
39.06mg of vitamin C. There are many benefits of this spread such as; beet roots are low in calories and high in
vitamins and minerals. Beets also contain a high concentration of nitrates, which helps in lowering blood
pressure, reducing risk of heart diseases and strokealong with improvement in the cognitive function. Beets
contain pigments called betalains, which have numerous anti-inflammatory properties. Beets are a good source
of fibres which help in maintaining digestive health. Papaya contains antioxidant including carotenoids which
can neutralize free radicals and reduced cancer risk. Papaya contains vitamin C which helps to prevent heart
disease. Tomatoes, present in this spread, area good source of vitamin C, potassium, folate and vitamin K.
Tomato also contains antioxidant lycopene, which helps in reducing cancer risk.

This product is developed in two different variants. The first variant is a regular spread which can be used for all
the age groups. It can be consumed with bread, toast, paratha and other such cereal bases. The second variant is
pizza spread which contains special ingredients such as oregano, black pepper, red chilli paste, spring onion and
green chillies. This product is being evaluated and tested by 100 subjects for assessing the sensory properties.

This product can be consumed by individual of all the age groups in the form of a nutritious sauce.

Keywords: Beetroot, Raw Papaya, Tomato.

Molecular Cookery: New Era of Indian Cuisine in Fine Dining Restaurants


Aravind Kumar Rai, Assistant professor, School of Hotel Management, Manipal University, INDIA
Email: aravindkumar.r@jaipur.manipal.edu

Many modern chefs do not accept the term molecular gastronomy to describe their style of cooking and prefer
other terms like "modern cuisine", "modernist cuisine", "experimental cuisine" or "avant-garde cuisine".
Molecular gastronomy or molecular cuisine - or whatever you want to call this cooking style - refers to
experimental restaurant cooking driven by the desire of modern cooks to explore the world's wide variety of
ingredients, tools and techniques. Molecular gastronomy research starts in the kitchen where chefs study how
food tastes and behaves under different temperatures, pressures and other scientific conditions.

For centuries, cooks have been applied recipes without looking for the mechanisms of the culinary
transformations. A scientific discipline that explores these changes from raw ingredients to eating the final dish,
is developing into its own field, termed molecular gastronomy. Although molecular gastronomy itself may not
provide a foundation for a genuine and lasting development of cuisine. It is generating fascination with the
fundamental science and techniques of cuisine and showy culinary alchemy. As with the nouvelle cuisine
development of lasting cuisine movements and trends to the reputation and practices of those who are at the
vanguard of culinary and restaurant innovation

Key word: Molecular Gastronomy, Modern Cuisine, Fundamental Science and Techniques.
43 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Development of Multi-Fruit Candy


Dimpy Khurana, Student, Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Applied Science, Manav Rachna
International Institute of Research & Studies, Faridabad, Haryana-121004
Email: dimpykhurana027@gmail.com
Varsha Srivastava, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Applied Science,
Manav Rachna International Institute of Research & Studies, Faridabad, Haryana-121004

Multi-fruit candy is prepared by using different fruits. Two variants were prepared viz. Apple-Fig Candy and
Apple-Pear-Fig Candy. The nutritive value of Apple-Fig Candy per 100g is 406.75kcal, 0.52g of protein, 60g of
carbohydrates, 0.43g of fat, 0.33mg of iron and 1.24g of fibre whereas, Apple-Pear Fig Candy contains
349.97kcal of energy, 0.397g of protein, 57.274g of carbohydrates, 0.30g of fat, 0.29mg of iron and 1.82 g of
fibre. There are many health benefits of this candy as the basic ingredients possess multiple health benefits, like
prevention from cardiovascular diseases and various types of cancers. The calcium content of apples and figs is
helpful in maintaining our bone health. The prebiotic effects of the fruits used, contain multi-vitamins and multi-
minerals, which promote good gut bacteria like Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides etc. These candies
will be helpful in dealing with problems associated to various lifestyle disorders like constipation, hypertension
and stress. Pears contain high levels of antioxidants, vitamin C and K, and copper. These chemicals eradicate free
radicals thereby protecting our cells from the cellular damage. Fennel seeds help to regulate blood pressure,
reduce asthma, purify blood and inhibit acne formation. For sensory evaluation, the product is being tested by 100
subjects. This product can be consumed by individuals of all the age groups in the form of a nutritious snack.

Keywords: Apples, Figs, Pear, Fennel Seeds, Lifestyle Related Disorders.

Changing scenario in Hospitality education: An insight into the present and future of Hospitality
education
Narender Suhag, Research Scholar, Faculty of Management Studies, Department of Hotel Management,
Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies, Faridabad, India.
Email: kuksuhag01@gmail.com

There is a substantial change in the higher educational environment impacting the change in curricula, teaching
methods, institutional practices and education process as a whole. Industry has an ever growing demand for
flexible and skilled workforce to quickly adapt the hotel industry and its day to day challenges. Now to up bring
the students with a mind set where they can quickly adapt and improvise needs training at the institute level itself.
This paper shall be highlighting the new trends in the hospitality education to create the future thinkers and
entrepreneurs of the hospitality sector. Satisfaction with the job is still an issue in the hotel sector which needs to
be addressed. Entrepreneurship or becoming your own boss deals with the job satisfaction and turns the
hospitality graduates from job seekers to job providers. This study is based on a running model at Manav Rachna
International Institute of Research and Studies where an adjoining HM Café enabling the hotel management
students to learn the required skills of entrepreneurship. Paper will highlight the arising need of this kind of model
to be incorporated in the education system and how it is going benefit the student as well as industry in the long
run. Major areas covered in this study are entrepreneurial skills, innovation and incubation center, student centric
learning, experiential learning and scope of research in the field of hospitality at institute level.

Keywords: Hospitality, Education, Entrepreneurship.


Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 44

Preparation of Mixed Fruit and Vegetable Jam and Squash Using Ripe Papaya, Carrot and
Strawberry
Meenakshi Atwa1, Student, Department of Nutrition & Dietetics of Applied Science, Manav Rachna
International Institute of Research and Studies, Faridabad, Haryana-121004.
Email: meenakshiatwal05@gmail.com
Varsha Srivastava, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Applied Science,
Manav Rachna International Institute of Research & Studies, Faridabad, Haryana -121004

Ripe papaya, carrot and strawberry are used to prepare two different healthy products (jam and squash) with the
purpose of providing nutritious products with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These products are
rich in energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, fibre and vitamin C & A. The nutritive value of this squash and jam (per
100kg) is 93kcal of energy, 1.65g of protein, 0.5g of fat, 20.7g of carbohydrate, 2.325g of fibre, 1930.5µg of
vitamin A, 84mg of vitamin C. There are many benefits of this product: strawberry (a rich source of antioxidants)
boosts immune system and regulates blood sugar levels in the body. Papaya (rich in the enzyme papain),
facilitates digestion by breaking down complex dietary proteins into simpler peptides and also act against
inflammation. The antioxidants and phytonutrients of papaya possess antioxidative properties. Carrot is rich in
carotenes that have a protective effect against several types of cancer including prostate cancer, colon cancer and
stomach cancer.

This product is developed in two different variants. The first variant is fruit-vegetable mixed jam which can be
consumed in the breakfast or as a school lunch by the kids. The second variant is the squash which is prepared
with same ingredients in different proportions. The poster intended to be submitted will contain the complete
information about the ingredients, nutritive value, shelf life, acceptability of the product.

Keywords: Ripe Papaya, Carrot, Strawberry, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory

Vocational Education in Hotel Management: Need, Challenges and Strategies


Priya Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism and Hospitality, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.
E-mail: psingh1@jmi.ac.in

The changing demands of the hospitality industry enforce changes in the process of curriculum development for
the hotel management courses. The present hotel management syllabi have a huge scope for the incorporation of
inputs from the industry. There's currently much debate within the hospitality industry concerning the best way to
impart skill training to people for attaining careers in hotel industry. Hospitality management higher education's
historic origins have resulted in a strong vocational ethos permeating the curriculum .Vocational Education has
emerged as an innovative tool for reforming the ways and means of imparting training in the hospitality domain.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the role of vocational education in hospitality and identify the
challenges of restructuring the curriculum meeting the vocational needs of the sector. The study indicates the
prevalence of vocational education as an ideal approach of taking the skills march forward in India .The
vocational education in hotel management is governed by skill council of hospitality and follows the structured
guidelines provided by the council within the NSQF framework. On one hand the vocational approach gains
appreciation for evolving as the competitive model of imparting skill training as per the competencies required
for designated job roles within the industry, while on the other hand the purpose of vocational training is
misunderstood and the development of curriculum for vocational courses faces substantial challenges in number
of key paper gives an airing to some of the likely issues and proposes possible outcomes. It is important to state
that contribution this paper makes to the training debate is by no means conclusive, rather the intention is to raise
the profile of this important issue as a stimulus for further discussion.

Keywords: Curriculum Development, Training, Skills, Vocational Education, Job Roles.


45 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Emerging Trends in Tourism & Hospitality Industry


Rahul Bharadwaj Research scholar, B.H.U. Email: rbharadwajbhu@gmail.com

India is top five growing economy in the world. Tourism& hospitality is one of the fastest growing industries in
India as well as major contributor to economic growth of India. The hospitality industry is growing day by day in
the last few years. Hospitality industry has now come to possess diversified facets &hoteliers are looking to
personalize the customer experience as much as possible. Technology has played a vital role in the modern time.
Technology played a crucial role in shaping hotel & resort experience in the changing time. Today in hospitality
industry hotelier are adopting mobile technology, embracing Google, amazon& trip advisor. Targeting tech
savvy guest on social media, integration of cloud solution, Focus on health &well-being, attracting clients to
book directly through hotels website, promoting self-service concentrating on more add –on facilities due to the
advancement of technology maintaining customer relation is now easier than never. The past few years trend
show that hospitality industry in India has seem the emergence of business. It has made its mark in the hospitality
sector. The purpose of the study is to identify analyse the emerging & future trends related to tourism &
hospitality industry. At last but not least hospitality & tourism industry is a big contributor to the economy's
growth of our country.

Keywords: Economy, Customer, Hospitality, Technology.

Work and Family Issues in the Indian Hospitality Industry


Vaibhav Verma, Assistant Professor, Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Hotel Management and Catering
Technology, New Delhi. Email:vaibhav@bcihmct.ac.in
Manish Malhotra, Assistant Professor, Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Hotel Management and Catering
Technology, New Delhi.

The Indian hospitality industry has emerged as one of the key industries driving growth of the services sector in
India The increase in business opportunities and flourished economy has boosted the level of growth in hotel
industry. Hotel organizations are competing to retain highly valued managers. Work stress and burnout are often
cited as precursors to work and family stress, and together these factors influence employee intentions to leave an
organization. However, work and family issues have received little attention in the hospitality and tourism
literature. Using focus groups interviews with three groups of participants (new entrants into the hotel industry,
hotel managers, and their spouses), the research paper explores the connections among work characteristics,
work stress, and the work–family interface. Results of the multisource qualitative research suggest that long,
unpredictable hours create individual and family-related stress.

Keywords: Family; Hotel; Stress; Work; Work Characteristics.


Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 46

Promotion of Culinary Tourism - As a Tourist Fascination for Seven Sisters of India:


With Special Highlight on (Guwahati) Metropolitan City
Trina Deka, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Tourism and Travel Management, Jagiroad College, Morigaon,
Assam, India. Email-trinadeka16@gmail.com

Food is assumed to be a key part in pulling in travelers to a specific goal in view of its appearance of an area's way
of life. Cooking styles greatly affect voyager's choices while picking their goal. A various scope of organizations
including branches, eateries, or claims to fame nourishment stores, cooking school, visit administrators, bottling
works, wineries, recorded attractions and numerous different organizations. The nation over has gained by their
areas socially novel foods to draw in guests.

Culinary of a goal are additionally classified as a piece of social tourism. It isn't just a fundamental need for
vacationer yet, in addition, a social component that can decidedly show a goal. Nourishment utilization can be
utilized in the advancement of a goal picture. What's more culinary tourism isn't just speaking to a traveler, yet in
addition adds to the social, financial and natural advancement of a goal.

The paper goes for the significance of the association amongst nourishment and tourism which can't be
disregarded. Every goal of upper east India has distinctive levels of allure that can draw traveller from diverse
nations and along these lines, the tasty nourishment of upper east can be utilized as the primary fascination and
limited time instrument for the improvement of tourism in upper east India.

Keywords: Food, tourism, culinary tourism.

A study on impact of Performance Appraisal on Employee Performance at Workplace


Mr. Indrajit Chaudhury, Dr. Ashish Ranga & Ms. Reshma Kamboj
Assistant Professors, B.C.I.H.M.C.T, New Delhi
A performance appraisal (PA), also referred to as a performance review, performance evaluation, (career) development
discussion, or employee appraisal is a method by which the job performance of an employee is documented and evaluated.
The Performance appraisal has been viewed by academics and human resource practitioners as an important human
resource management practices as it yields decisions that are critical and integral to various human resource actions and
outcomes. Yet, an effective Performance appraisal system remains a practical challenge for managers and employees
because of cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors associated with it. Employee outcomes in the form of work
performance, effective organizational commitment and turnover intention are undeniably some of the major issues in an
organization. The management should pay attention to the level of satisfaction in performance appraisal to ensure that
employees are satisfied and contribute positively to their organization throughout the tenure of their employment with the
organization. This is very crucial to support the overall growth of an organization.

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the impact of performance appraisal on employee's performance and also trace
impact of motivation factor, as it affects the relationship of performance appraisal and employee's performance.

The paper reviews the


Ÿ Relationship between perceptions of performance appraisal fairness and employee engagement in the context of
business organization.
Ÿ The reaction of employees to these performance assessments.

Keywords: Performance Appraisal, Work Performance.


47 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

th
A Report on 8 India
International Hotel Travel &
Tourism Research Conference
th th
February 16 – 17 , 2018
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 48

A Report on 8th India International Hotel Travel & Tourism Research Conference
th th
February 16 – 17 , 2018

Dr. Sarah Hussain, Principal, BCIHMCT

India International Hotel Travel and Tourism Research Conference, organized by Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of
th th
Hotel Management & Catering Technology from 16 to 17 February, 2018 was inaugurated with lamp lighting by Chief
Guest, Chef Manjit Gill, President – Indian Federation of Culinary Associations (IFCA), the Guest of Honour, Mr.
Abhishek Biswas, Founder, Sattvik India Council, Prof. Azilah Kasim, Director, Langkawi International Tourism and
Hospitality, Utara University, Malaysia, Dr. Bhupesh Kumar, President IIHTTRC & Director, BCIHMCT, Mr. Pradeep
Gupta, Dy. Director Administration, BCIHMCT and Mr. Alok Aswal, Convenor, IIHTTRC. The annual Hospitality &
Tourism Research Journal – “Indian Journal of Applied Hospitality & Tourism Research”, Vol. 10, (ISSN 0975-4954),
indexed with ISRA and ISBN Book – “Indian Travel, Tourism &Hospitality Research: A Global Insight” were
released during the inauguration ceremony.

Chef Manjit Gill in his speech informed the immense scope of developing Culinary Heritage to promote tourism in the
country. He mentioned need for researching on Millennial's travel preferences and attitudes, scope of development in
context of single woman traveler, responsible tourism, energy conservation and role of mobile phone in tourism promotion.
Chef mentioned the importance of promoting role of food in attracting the tourists, how to make the food healthy so that the
industry can grow and attract tourists.

Mr. Abhishek Biswas exuberated his enthusiasm for educating the delegates about the vision and mission of the Council
said, “Seeing the future of food retail in India which is promising but totally unorganized, specially the Vegetarian food
certification levels, we have put up a research team and collaborated with agencies and hospitality educational institutes and
universities (BCIHMCT being one of them) and launched the World's First Vegetarian Food Certification program -
"SATTVIK INDIA COUNCIL" in early 2017. It was high time that India had to have it's their own certification, as we have
our own challenges like street food, therefore a certification designed in India will fulfill the gap in the food business”. He
encouraged the youth to undergo six months training and become a certified Sattvik Counselor after their Hotel
Management degree making them a very sought after industry professional having the knowledge of food certification.

Prof. Azilah Kasim delivered a Keynote speech on “Water Management in Hotels: What leadership quality is
required?”. She discussed about how to uncover the influence of firm characteristics to hotels' environmental
responsiveness, the influence of environmental knowledge level on environmental responsiveness, and the influence of
financial resources to environmental commitment. Prof Kazim said, “An important parameter for innovative water
management responses is 'willingness' of the managers– the willingness to change, to adopt environmentally friendly
behavior and to allocate resources towards an innovative environmental management.

Dr. Bhupesh Kumar, Director, BCIHMCT, thanking all dignitaries, delegates, paper presenters and sponsors said, “A
Conference is an occasion to discuss issues of mutual interest and concern during the Keynote and Technical Sessions. Such
initiatives have immense potential to generate ideas and concepts that can create a momentum for Travel, Tourism and
Hospitality Sector. One of the unique and valuable dimensions to the IIHTTRC conference series is the way the series
brings Industry Managers, Tourism and Hospitality Researchers together from around the world to deliberate on the issues
related to the Travel, Tourism and Hospitality research to meet the needs of future while profiling the current and emerging
trends, challenges and issues that are being faced by Hospitality and Tourism Operators in a high-growth business
environment.

A vote of thanks was given by Mr. Alok Aswal, Convener IIHTTRC 2018 at the end of the inauguration ceremony.
The themes of the four technical sessions during the two day conference were Sustainability in Tourism & Hospitality;
Contemporary Issues & Trends in Hospitality & Tourism; Cultural Impact on Hospitality & Tourism and Human Behaviour
and HR practices in Hospitality & Tourism. There were about 54 papers submitted for the conference out of which 43 papers
were accepted and 38 papers were presented during the conference. Best Aspiring Researcher Award was given to Ms. Trina
49 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

Deka; Best Paper Award was given to Ms. Shweta Chandra and Best Research Paper Award was given to Dr. Shelly Duggal.

Keynote on “Strategizing Growth: Increasing FTA and Domestic Tourism” was given by Prof (Dr.) Nimit
Chowdhary, Professor and HOD, Department of Tourism, Hotel, Hospitality and Heritage Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia
University, New Delhi on the morning of February 17. He explained how FTA, FEE, Global ranking of the country have
increased since last one year. Quoting Amitabh Kant, CEO, Niti Ayog, Dr. Chowdhary mentioned, “We should use our
culture as a soft power to make our country a super power. We should find our roots, traditional techniques, and traditional
art forms. We should identify traditional products and change them to tourism products”. He explained that tourists come to
see what different experience India has to offer, Being Indian is our strength and only we can sell it best. He emphasized on
making destinations market ready, incorporating “Destination Incubation” and understanding the requirements of local
tourists and domestic tourists.

'Kathputli' the Rajasthani themed dinner was organized by the students of Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Hotel
Management and Catering Technology for the conference delegates on 16th February, 2018. A cultural performance
comprising of Rajasthani Song, Rajasthani Dance, and live music and song performance was organized for the conference
delegates.

The event was supported by Sattvik India Council.

TECHNICAL SESSIONS
DAY 1
TECHNICAL SESSIONS
Technical Session I: Sustainability in Tourism & Hospitality
(Chairperson: Dr. Sonia Malik)
Green Marketing: A tool towards sustainable development in hotels
Singh, P. & Nigam, D.
Green marketing is grabbing attention these days at a global level. This fact gave an insight to the organizations that they
must attain environmental objectives and goals as well as profitable objectives. So far the negative environmental impacts
of tourism industry, has threatened both cultural and natural resources in the destination areas and this has led to the
evolution of a new perspectives of tourism. While this behavior has a competitive advantage, the organization was set
specifically and scientifically to offer customers environmentally responsible and safe alternatives or options to
conventional cosmetic products. This paper presentation was all about the successful implementation of Green marketing
and utilization of eco-friendly products in hotels or any tourism allied industry.

Trends in Certification for Sustainable Eco Hotels


Chandra, M.
Green hotels and eco resorts are the most sought after among tourists. The 3 R concepts is employed by hotels which
Reduce, Reuse and Recycle pollutants .Green certification is the most important green feature a hotel can have. It just
makes good sense; hotels can even take advantage of various tax incentives for their good eco- citizenship. Yet as many
green certification programs have emerged in recent years, the question becomes which one is genuine. For certifying any
hotel involves paying of a fee, or letting businesses rate themselves without any independent verification. This study
identified which certification facilitates regular re-certification and continuous improvement. Environment Impact
Assessment (EIA) is future oriented assessment before any decision is taken.

A Study on Environmental Orientation among Tourists Visiting Kashmir Valley


Bhat, A. I.
For the promotion and development of sustainable tourism in destination areas, it is imperative to have responsible visitors
with pro-environmental orientation. Tourists visit Kashmir Valley for its natural and scenic beauty which has bountiful
natural resources and rich biodiversity. Most of the tourist places in Kashmir Valley are ecologically sensitive and
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 50

vulnerable to impacts of un-controlled tourist movement. Under such circumstances, it becomes important to understand
the critical minimum knowledge of tourists about the environment for the sustainable tourism development. The findings
of the study revealed that tourists in general showed their endorsement to the pro-ecological world view. But differences in
opinion were found while measuring the endorsement on the basis of socio-demographic variables.

Progress in Indigenous Tourism: An Empirical Study into the Perception of Gujjar - Bakarwal Tribal Community
Ahsan-Ul-Haq
The tourism industry has faced an accelerated growth with holistic support from local communities who are involved
directly and indirectly in this industry. The study provided an insight about the historical background of Gujjar- Bakarwal
tribe and their perception regarding tourism. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to explore the factors
influencing the perception of community residents towards the impact of tourism development in tribal destinations;
descriptive statistics was used to study the perception of community residents. The result of the study revealed that the
economic impact as the most imperative factor followed by social impact and environmental impact.

Ramifications of Green Vogues and Sustainable Responsiveness – A Case Study of ITC Grand Chola
Karunya, L. S. &Abraham, S.
The study analyzed whether service providers like ITC Grand Chola influence their customers to adopt environment-
friendly practices. The study also revealed ITC Grand Chola operates to recognize the need for environmental protection
and sustainable responsiveness. The study further indicated major directions to be followed by introducing environmental
sustainability into the hotel industry. By incorporating responsible attitude and behavioral practices and initiating greater
demand for “green” practices amongst the customers.

Contribution of Beach Shacks to the Government Exchequer in Goa: An Empirical Study


Antthony, S. & Barretto, H. M.
In this research, an attempt was made to find out the contribution of shacks to the State government exchequer as well as to
other tourism-related departments in Goa over the last five years from 2012-13 to 2016-17. The results suggested that
shacks located in government properties have not made any significant contribution to the State government exchequer
over the last five years. However, shacks located in private properties have made a significant contribution to the State
government exchequer in Goa. Also, shacks have made a significant contribution to the revenue generation efforts of
various other tourism-related departments in the State.

A Study of History of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of the Hospitality Sector in India
Padampriya, B. & Alok, A.
The study discussed CSR practices followed by hospitality sector in the country. Three legends of the successful
implementation of the work-life balance practices demonstrate that if a management wants the well-being of the employees
keeping an eye of its productivity though, then there are certain programs enlightened in this report that have been
creatively and attentively followed in such a way that discriminate the company from its competitors. The implementers
are: Fairmont Hotels & Resorts, who have developed a staff-acknowledgement program named “Service Plus” by
awarding constant rewards and bonus that really hold importance for the employees.; McDonald's has introduced sales –
promotion incentivesthat both boost the product sale and improves the in hand income of the staff hence helping them to
balance their work life;and Sodexo, which makes use of the social media platform as much as they can so as to attract and
employ the best employees so as to brand themselves as an attractive employer.

Madras Crocodile Bank


Saxena, S.
The presentation comprised of information on The Madras Crocodile Bank Trust and Centre for Herpetology that the brain-
child of the legendary Romulus Whitaker and a handful of conservation visionaries who began work on the facility in a
desperate effort to save India's dwindling crocodilian populations. It was informed that the Centre attracts close to half a
million visitors every year making it one of the most popular tourist attractions along the famous East Coast Road.As the
need for the conservation of reptiles grew, the Croc Bank increased its repertoire to include turtles, lizards and snakes and
51 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

changed its title to Madras Crocodile Bank Trust/Centre for Herpetology in 2003. It is a recognized centre for
environmental education and public awareness with a wide audience across Asia.
Critical Success Factor Analyses for Effective Online Presence of Hotels in India
Duggal, S.
The study analyzed the critical success factors present on the hotels' websites to evaluate the effectiveness of the online
presence of the Hotels on seventy eight features so that the weakness of the websites could be identified and rectified. The
results indicated that the sample websites lack in critical success factors representing marketing effectiveness perspective
and suggestions are given on including various factors like multilinguity, destination information, addressing market
segmentation etc. to tap the full potential of the websites as marketing tool and sound online presence. It is also suggested to
have technically sound and interactive websites for maximizing online performance that leads to turning potential
customers into real ones.

DAY 2
TECHNICAL SESSIONS
Technical Sessions II Contemporary Issues & Trends in Hospitality & Tourism
(Chairperson: Dr. Paramita Suklabaidya)

Border Tourism as a Tool to Bring Peace for Border Residents: A Case of Suchetgarh Border of Jammu.
Samnotra, S. & Gupta, B.
Many peace processes have been undertaken by both government and private agencies to combat with the issues of
conflicts and disturbances in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. But lasting peace is yet in offing. There is an urgent need for
effective border related peace initiatives which should have a lasting positive impact on the bilateral relationships between
India and Pakistan for benefitting the communities on both sides of the border. The research paper took into consideration
the case of Suchetgarh border to explore the potential of border tourism in Suchetgarh. The study also focused on finding
the determinants that ensure peace probabilities due to the border tourism.

Social Media: A Tool in Travel Decision Making By The Millennials


Deka, T., & Sharma, P.
The presentation explained that it is practically difficult to envision the world without online networking in today's
scenario. Not just do they impact the everyday life of people, additionally affect different enterprises, especially tourism
and neighborliness, in components like advancement, business administration, and research capacities. In April of 2016,
Millennials outperformed Baby Boomers similar to the biggest living era keeping in mind they are more loaded by
budgetary hardships; eight-out-of-10 say they have enough cash to lead the lives they need or expect later on. The study
examined the use social media by the travelers and its influence on their decision making in regard to travel related
decisions.

The Influence of Event Image on the Destination Image and Behavioral Intentions of Event Participants - A Case
Study of International Film Festival of India
Patil, V.
The study was undertaken to provide a theoretical understanding and empirical examination of influence of Event Image on
Event Behavioral Intention, Destination Image and Destination Behavioral Intention of event participants, as well as to
investigate whether Event participants relate Dimensions of Event Image with Destination Image. The Data was collected
from 383 event participants of International Film Festival of India 2015 held in Goa from 20th November 2015 to 30th
November 2015. Analysis of the data revealed that Image of the International Film Festival of India plays an important Role
in influencing the image of Goa. It also has an ability to influence Participants' Destination Behavioral Intentions as well as
event Behavioral Intention.
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 52

Comparative Study of Foreign Values and Indian Spiritual Values – A Case Study of International Tourists Visiting
Rishikesh
Jasrotia, P. & Gupta, B.
Foreigners prefer to travel to India and practice spirituality here rather than their own country because India is known for
preserving its age old tradition of spirituality for providing the authentic learning in the field of spirituality whereas their
respective countries are too materialistic and there is low quality of life in terms of inner peace. The values found out in the
study show that the spiritual people are more compassionate and delightful which contribute to improve not only their
personal well-being but also their conduct to others and this will mark a positive impact on the overall civilization. The
study was qualitative in nature and the data was gathered through personal interviews of the spiritual seekers who were
practicing spirituality and staying in the Ashrams. The spiritual values explored in the study give testimony to the richness
of Indian culture. The study had both economic as well as social attributes which can positively influence people all over
the world to visit India.

Implementing Work life balance practices: Three triumphant legends from the hospitality Industry
Padampriya, B. & Verma, A. K.
The paper presentation comprised of discussion of three legends from hospitality Industry of that have successfully
implemented work-life balance. The implementers were: Fairmont Hotels & Resorts, which has developed a staff
acknowledgement program named “Service Plus” by awarding constant rewards and bonus that really hold importance for
the employees.; McDonald's has introduced sales – promotion incentives that both boost the product sale and improves the
in hand income of the staff hence helping them to balance their work life; and Sodexo, which makes use of the social media
platform as much as they can so as to attract and employ the best employees so as to brand themselves as an attractive
employer.

With Love from the Heart of India: A Review of the State Tourism Policy
Kelkar, P. & Kamble, Z.
Madhya Pradesh (MP) is a central Indian state positioned as the heart of India owing to its location. The natural beauty and
cultural heritage provides tourists a platform to explore the diverse tourist products of the state. The Madhya Pradesh
tourism board undertakes the responsibility of developing and governing tourism in the state. The main aim of paper was to
review the M.P tourism policy with regards to wildlife tourism product and goes on to examine the involvement and
impacts of the indigenous local community. Findings highlight three areas of concern; firstly there is a lack of clear
information on how wild life tourism would be developed and governed; secondly the tourism policy does not mention the
involvement of the local indigenous community and finally it does not mention how the indigenous community would be
impacted to subsist to a sustainable tourism form.

A study of service recovery strategies adopted by I.R.D. departments of hotels in Surat


Manaktola, K. & Shukla, V. A.
The aim of the research was to study the causes of service failure and the recovery styles dinning (IRD) department in
Surat hotels and their effectson customers' satisfaction. The objective of this study was to examine the cause of service
failure in IRD department in hotels; to study the recovery methods for various service failure in an In-room dinning
department and to examine if any common methods used for service recovery and then come out with some common
strategy and to study the factors which effect guest satisfaction.

An Assessment of the Reliability Gap Between online Travel Portals and Travel Agencies with Reference to Delhi
and NCR
Vohra, S. K. & Murdia, M.
The main aim of this paper is to analyze the reliability gap between online travel portals and travel agencies. Travel
bookings and arrangements through online travel portals in India are becoming popular day by day. The conventional
means of obtaining airline tickets and related travel arrangements are rapidly changing. These changes have become
possible due to attractive offerings by online travel portals and also less expensive and multiple options of getting travel
arrangements in budgeted manner. Customers also feel that there is reliability service gap between travel agencies and
53 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

online travel portals. This study is an attempt to find out the variables where reliability gap was felt. The study dealt with
analysis and interpretation of the data.

DAY 3
TECHNICAL SESSIONS
Technical Sessions III: Cultural Impact on Hospitality &Tourism
(Chairperson: Mr. Manish Sharma)

A study on the consumers' preferences and spending pattern towards fast food -with reference to Haldwani City
Negi, M. S., Singh, T. & Pandey, D.
The paper aimed to analyze the various factors affecting the choice of fast food by the consumers. The paper also explained
the consumer's preferences and spending patterns towards fast food menu. The study revealed that taste, hygiene, ambience
and affordability are the major factors which influence the consumer's preferences towards fast food.

Consumption patterns and choice determinants: A study of street foods in Delhi


Gupta, V. & Khanna, K.
The role of street foods as a special interest tourism driver is widening as the hospitality industry in Delhi is flourishing and
opening new avenues for the tourists to experience Indian gourmet culture. Keeping in view the food habits and changing
preferences towards food consumption, this study had its focus to understand the factors affecting the perception of Indian
youth residing in Delhi, in the age group of 20-30 years, towards consumption of street foods as well as towards making
choice of street food outlets. Being an exploratory research, a survey was conducted to find out the role of street foods
i n d i ff e r e n t a r e a s o f D e l h i f o r p r o m o t i n g t h e i n f l u x o f f o r e i g n a n d d o m e s t i c t o u r i s t s .

A study on expectations of youth towards fast-food chains in Lucknow


Singh, S.
In Lucknow, there are many fast food chains like McDonald, Pizza Hut, Dominos, KFC, Café coffee day and Mr. Brown.
The affinity towards the fast food of the youth may be the driving force for rapidly expanding Fast Food chains in Lucknow.
The study showed that majority of the University have at least one fast food outlet in their Campus and each student visits
these outlets at least once in a week or two to three times in other outlets in the city. The youth love the casual environment
inside these outlets and like the ambience. They are actually not bothered about the nutritional value of these products but
they find it quiet fashionable to sit here and also it is the place for socializing for them. The food served here is tasty and suits
their pockets. But they expect some change in menu after a period of time as most of these outlets are selling the same recipe
over the years.

Study of promotion strategies of various Hotels and Resorts in Uttarakhand


Chauhan, A., Jain, V. & Dimri, R.
Uttarakhand is a land which is bestowed with natural grandeur at its best - picturesque locations; snowcapped mountains,
lush green valleys, a cool climate and hospitable people. This paper focused on promotional strategies of various hotels and
resorts in Uttarakhand. The objective was to identify and analyze the various marketing methods adopted by the tourism
industry in Uttarakhand. The marketing process was defined as “The process of (a) analyzing marketing opportunities (b)
selecting target market (c) developing marketing mix and (d) managing the marketing effort”. The objective was to identify
and analyze the various marketing methods adopted by the tourism industry in Uttarakhand.

Food safety and hygiene practices among street food vendors – a review
Himanshi
Street food vending is one of the most flourishing fields in hospitality industry and became prevalence in recent years. The
study found the gap between Street food vendor's knowledge and hygiene practices. Result showed that Street food vendors
don't wash their hands, not wear gloves and apron while preparation and serving of food. Also vendors not clean working
stations and work in unkempt environment. Few of the vendors don't have adequate facility of water. The study ascertained
that prime focus of the street food vendors was on the financial benefit instead of food safety and hygiene practices. In the
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 54

current research the data collected from review of various research articles (2005-2017) related to food safety and hygiene
practice followed by street food vendor.

Pregnancy Tourism: A Famous yet Infamous Trend


Bhatia, M. & Shipra
There are several tourisms that are emerging in this world be it - Love tourism which is an emerging trend in European
countries, Food tourism, Wedding tourism etc. The researchers' observation suggested the hypothesis that pregnancy
tourism is an under recognized but common trend followed by various sections of society. The objective was to identify that
pregnancy tourism contributes a certain section of society; to make and spread awareness about the acceptability of the key
called pregnancy tourism; to document supporting reviews of certain breeds in parts of India who practice this trend. A lot
of German females are travelling all the way from Germany to India just to get impregnated from the direct descendants of
Aryans. This tourism is economically benefited for the nation, however rarely talked about. This study will help to make
and the awareness of pregnancy tourism as a term globally and presence of Aryans in India can make it a prominent provider
of pregnancy tourism and also can get global recognition.

Khajuraho Dance Festival: An Analytical Evaluation


Som, J. & Suklabaidya, P.
One of the well-recognized and popular cultural events of India is the Khajuraho Dance Festival, an annual event organized
at the UNESCO world heritage site - Khajuraho group of temples. This event is organized in the month of February by the
Madhya Pradesh Sanskriti Parishad and Ustad Alauddin Khan Sangeet Evam Kala Academy. The paper explored the inter
linkage between Cultural Events and its role in attracting tourists. The objective of this paper was to i) study Khajuraho
Dance Festival as a tourism product and the promotional strategy followed by the organizers of Khajuraho dance festival
through SCOT analysis, ii) identify the prolife of the audience of this dance festival; and ii) to isolate the components of
Khajuraho Dance Festival product mix that attracts visitors to this event. The study will help the organisers and promoters
to identify the target market segment for this dance festival as well as help in identifying the product component that is
attracting the visitors to this festival.

Study of “Influence of Gender on Travel Behaviour”


Sajnani, M. & Chandra, S.
The study attempted to examine the travel behaviour in relation to gender. Tourism is a dynamic group of industry that have
developed to serve the need of the travellers worldwide .Tourism has developed into a truly worldwide activity that knows
no political ,ideological , geographical or cultural boundaries. For a long time tourism was fragmented but with maturity
and development it has taken a professional identity. It has now come to be recognized as an Industry with product travel
and is well branded. Travel behaviour explains the way in which tourists behave depending on their sex, age, education,
social and cultural background, education level all of which are the components of buying behaviour before, during and
after travelling. This study gave insight regarding behaviour thus assisting in marketing, product planning and development
which can further increase the tourism. The motivation behind studying the female travellers was triggered by the increase
in the number of women travellers worldwide.
55 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019

DAY 4
TECHNICAL SESSIONS
Technical Sessions IV: Human Behaviour and HR practices in Hospitality & Tourism
(Session Chair: Dr Piyush Sharma)

The Economic Contribution of Tourism Industry in India: An Appraisal


Kumar, S., Shekhar & Attri, K.
The present paper analyzed India's tourism sector from a financial viewpoint. With the help of statistical tools, the paper
studied key tourism indicators, their growth trends and understand the inter relationships among them. India's tourism
development initiatives and budget allocation along with its impact on the FEEs is also studied. The paper throws light on
the opportunities lying ahead for this growing industry and also lists some of the challenges faced by it. The opportunities
and the challenges are assisted with quantitative data for better understanding. Based on the analyses of the key tourism
indicators and the study of opportunities and challenges, suggestions are provided for the development of tourism industry.

Work commitment: A gender comparison from perspective of government employees working in higher education
department in Jammu district
Phakwrya, S.
The main aim of this study is to find out the significant mean difference in perception of male and female employees with
regard to their work commitment including affective, continuance and normative commitment. By using census sampling,
390 permanent teachers from higher education department were approached and 200 employees responded with the
response rate of (51%) including 116 female respondents with the response rate of (58%) and 84 male respondents with the
response rate (42%) through a Self-designed Questionnaire that measured their psychological attributes and commitment
level towards their organization. Results of the study indicated that there exist significant mean differences in the
perception of male and female employees regarding their work commitment. Implications and directions for future
research will be discussed.

Choosing a right career path for hotel management graduates


Thakur, D., Thomas, T. & Pant, S.
Taking decision to their own career is the most important thing in a student's life. Teachers, parents and friends play a very
important role in it. The decision they once took out of peer pressure, parental pressure or due to lack of knowledge may
become the burden of their life. The objective of the research was to find the state of mind of students to choose a right
career option especially the changing mind of students from the journey of first year to the last. To find out the possible
outcomes a primary and secondary research was conducted on hotel management students, with the help of a questionnaire.
The finding shows that students have a great impact of training, it helps them to choose the place they want to be in future,
and at the same time parents and teachers play a very important role in it.

Job satisfaction among employees: A need for the emergent hospitality industry in India for employee retention
Gupta, P. & Raj, A.
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of level of job satisfaction among hotel employees on employee
retention, since employee satisfaction is a reliable predictor of employee retention. It is seen that whenever employers
focus more on employee centered policies the level of satisfaction improves amongst the workers and a satisfied worker
stays longer with organization. This particular study has been restricted to the Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh. The
findings showed that both intrinsic & extrinsic forms of job satisfaction are indirectly proportional to turnover intention.
Although intrinsic forms of job satisfaction have a stronger influence, the extrinsic factors of job satisfaction should also be
considered in evaluation of employee retention. The study signified that high level of job satisfaction among hotel
employees is leading to retention & reduced turnover intention. Thus satisfaction level of employees influences to a large
extent on their decision to continue to work or quit the organization. In conclusion, findings of the study suggested that
there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction & employee retention.
Global Hospitality and Tourism Research: Innovations and Best Practices 56

A Study on the Role of Tourism Education in Tourism Development: A Case of Manipur, India
Devi, S. G., Abraham, S. & Mohanty, P.
The study aimed to analyze the requirement of tourism education in development of tourism in Manipur and enhance the
tourism education to meet the needs of the industry in the state. The study was done to find out the relation between tourism
education and development of Manipur tourism. The study suggested that the tourism curriculum in schools, colleges,
university must be a blend of theoretical and practical session to enhance the curriculum of tourism and improve the quality
of tourism professional. The curriculum should be made by the academicians in consultation with professional from
industry and policy makers. Awareness on training program for local people, policy makers, stakeholders, NGOs,
government organizations, etc. is essential to understand the impact of tourism for the future tourism development in
Manipur.

A Swot Analysis for Festival Celebrations in Delhi with Respect to Ramlila


Jain, B.
The study was conducted on the most famous festival celebrations of Delhi, i.e. Ramlila. The paper aimed to find the
challenges that are being faced to promote the Ramlia and the potential of development it has through the various
parameters. The results revealed that how the visitors are involved in economic activity along with the spiritual belief. Also,
the data on expenditure & revenue among the different stakeholders of this Ramlila was analyzed to find if there has the
potential for being developed as a product of tourism. An attempt was also made to produce data so as to develop and
promote the Ramlila in Delhi as a Tourism Product and not only produce some income but also to promote our culture.

Role of Tourism Industry's CSR Activities towards Sustainability


Bhatia, S. & Roy, M.
The paper presented the communication method of CSR practice for five stars hotels in Chandigarh area and the degree to
which they report their corporate social responsibility initiatives to people through using various modes such as online on
their web sites, newsletters, reports etc. The research is focused only on the different CSR activities performed by the five
star hotels in Chandigarh and their communication methods.

Prevelance and acceptibility of gender neutral restrooms in Hotels and QSR of Delhi and NCR
Bose, D., Adity & Pandey, N.
There search paper focused on the accept ability of Gender Neutral Restrooms by the employees and guests of hotel sand
QSR (Quick Service Restaurants) of Delhi and NCR region. The objectives of the study were to check the accept ability of
the Gender Neutral Restrooms amongst the guests and employees in the Hotels, QSR's of Delhi and NCR and to sensitize
the guests and employees of the Hotels, QSR's, about the concept of Gender Neutral Restrooms. Researchers were able to
gauge the level of accept ability and non-acceptabilityof the Gender Neutral Restrooms amongst the guests and employees
in the Hotels, QSR's of Delhi and NCR.
57 An outcome of 9th India International Hotel, Travel & Tourism Research Conference 2019