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The Differences of using Povidone Iodine 10% ointment and Turmeric (Curcuma

domestica) Extract Ointment on the Number of Fibroblast on Incised Wound


Healing Process in White Male Rats (Rattus norvegicus strain wistar)
Safira Putri Herdiana

Fakultas KedokteranUniversitas Muhammadiyah Malang


Jl. Bendungan Sutami No. 188A, Malang

E-mail : Putrisafira98@gmail.com

ABSTRAK

Latar Belakang : Perawatan luka yang baik diperlukan dalam proses penyembuhan luka. Salah satu metodenya
adalah pemberian obat topikal. Povidone iodine 10% mengandung antiseptik yang sering digunakan sebagai
pengobatan luka. Kunyit (Curcuma domestica) dapat digunakan untuk perawatan luka alternatif karena
mengandung komponen bioaktif seperti saponin, tanin dan terpenoid yang berperan dalam proses penyembuhan
luka sebagai antiinflamasi, antibakteri dan dapat meningkatkan sintesis kolagen.Tujuan : Membandingkan
efektivitas salep ekstrak kunyit dengan salep povidone iodine 10% terhadap jumlah fibroblast dalam proses
penyembuhan luka sayat tikus jantan putih (Rattus norvergicus ketegangan wistar). Metode : True Experimental,
Post Test Only Control Group Design. Sampel dibagi 3 kelompok. Kelompok 1 kontrol positif (transparent
dressing), kelompok 2 (aplikasi salep povidone iodine 10%), kelompok 3 (aplikasi salep ekstrak kunyit). Hewan
uji diberi perlukaan sayatan pada punggung, dengan ukuran ± 2 cm. Pengambilan sampel jaringan kulit dilakukan
setelah 14 hari. Untuk melihat jumlah fibroblast dilakukan pembuatan preparat dengan pengecatan Hematoxylin
Eosin. Hasil Penelitian dan Diskusi : Uji normalitas menunjukkan bahwa distribusi data normal dengan p>0.05.
Uji homogenitas menunjukkan sig=0,065 yang berarti varian data fibroblast hewan coba homogen. Hasil uji one
way anova menunjukkan signifikansi p=0,000 yaitu terdapat perbedaan bermakna jumlah fibroblast antara
kelompok kontrol dengan kelompok perlakuan. Kesimpulan : Salep ekstrak kunyit menunjukkan peningkatan
jumlah fibroblast pada proses penyembuhan luka dibandingkan dengan salep povidone iodine 10%

Kata Kunci : Fibroblast, salep ekstrak kunyit, salep povidone iodine 10%.

ABSTRACT

Background: Adequate woundxcare is needed onxwound-healing process. Applying topical agent is one of the
wound care methods. Povidonexiodine 10% containxantiseptic is often use as treatment of wound.
Turmericx(Curcumaxdomestica) can be used to alternative wound care because it containsxbioactive components
such as kurkumin, saponin, tanin, and terpenoid that play a role in woundxhealing as antixinflammation, anti
bacterialxagent and promotexsynthesis collagen. Objective: To compare thexeffectivity of turmeric
extractxointment with povidone iodinex10% ointment on the number ofxfibroblast in healing process of
incisedxwound in white male wistar rats (Rattusxnorvergicusxstrain wistar). Methods: True experimental and
post-test only a control group design were used. The sample was divided into 3 groups. The positive control group
were used Transparant dressing, the treatment groups were used povidone iodine 10 % ointment and extracts of
turmeric (Curcuma domestica) ointments 0,5g, twice a day for 14 days. Research Result and Discussion:
Normality test showed that the distribution of data were normal with p>0.05. Homogenity test showed sig=0,065
which mean variant of fibroblast data of animal experiment are homogenous. One Way Anova test result showed
sig p=0,000 which mean significant of fibroblast content between control group and treatment group.The
conclusion: Turmeric extract ointment showed an increase in the amount of fibroblast were greater in the process
of wound healing compared with povidone iodine 10% ointment.

Keywords: Fibroblast, turmeric extract ointment, povidone iodine 10% ointment

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INTRODUCTION the research that has been done by the Ardri
Nugraha dkk (2015) mention that turmeric
Wound is lost or damage to most tissues Curcumin levels had a lot more compared
of the body. This situation can be caused by to other plants by temulawak, Curcumin
sharp objects or blunt trauma, temperature levels found in turmeric is in the range of ±
changes, chemical substances, explosion, 3.03 0.01-0.02 ± 7.31 and at temulawak in
electric shock, or animal bites (Hasibuan, the range of 0.02 ± 1.69-4.92 ± 0.01.
Soedjana & Bisono, 2010). The process Ethanol extracts of turmeric has the
after the wound is the process of wound potential for bitter taste. It is thought to be
healing. Wound healing is the process of the effects of Curcumin as one of the active
repair and replacement of damaged tissue ingredients that can inhibit the formation of
function (Kartika, 2015). turmeric prostaglandins and suppress the
The prevalence of injuries in the rest of activities of the enzyme siklooksigenase
the world is operating i.e. wounds 110 (SN, Khotimah & Muhtadi A, 2014). In
million cases per year while the injuries due addition the turmeric is also useful as an anti
to trauma 1.6 million cases per year, burns oxidant, anti microbial, anti cancer, tumor
1.25 million people, chronic wounds of 6.5 suppression, and lowered levels of blood fat
million people, injuries due to traffic and cholesterol, as well as a blood purifier
accidents (KLL) 1.02%, and cuts due to the (Puji Lestari, 2016).
non-KLL 0.4% (Indonesia health profile, This research aims to know the effects of
2014). Incision is wound injuries most often turmeric extract ointment against the
occurred in Indonesia, based on process of wound healing white wistar rats
RIKESDAS year 2013 mentioned that sayat (Rattus Norvegicus) and assess its
figure Gen. Incision is a sequence of three potential when compared to povidone
types of injuries most IE as much as 23.2% iodine. In this study will observe the
(Health, 2013). number of fibroblasts, fibroblastic cells
Traditional crops have the potential as a where it is used as an indicator of wound
wound healing agent and most favored healing because of this cell is a cell that is
community because of the availability of dominant in the process of wound healing.
space. Turmeric plants have ample
adaptation power in the Tropics (Priyono, RESEARCH METHODS
2010). Indonesia community usually use
turmeric plants to be made into a powder Research done by using this method The
drink/herbs, body scrub (cosmetics), pill post test only control group design with a
(medicine), and others (Priyono, 2010). large sample of 27 mice tails. Test animals
Turmeric can be potentially as drugs wound used white mice (Rattus norvegicus) is
because turmeric contain flavonoids, strains wistar males aged 2-3 months,
saponins, tannins, and triterpenoid weight 150-200 g, the body of a rat in a
(Partomuan Simanjuntak, 2012). Chemical State of healthy marked with active
studies on some simplisia turmeric showed movement, thick fur, and eyes that waters.
that chemical composition in the turmeric Research done in the laboratory
plant is essential oil 4.2 – 14%, oil fats 4,4- biomedicine FK UMM. This research was
12.7%, and compounds kurkuminoid 60- done for 21 days.
70% (Partomuan Simanjuntak, 2012). On

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Stages Of Manufacture Of Turmeric completed. Fibroblasts are the cells in the
Extract form of oval, have one or more nuclei, are
basofilik, and purple on coloring tercat
Turmeric Rhizome sliced thin after that hematoxylin eosin was performed at the
dried with a temperature of 40oC hour into time of the observation preparations
simplisia dry. Methods of maceration with histology of skin tissue using olympus
solvent ethanol 96% added in comparison microscope with magnification of 400
with dried 10:1 simplisia and soaked for 24 times, as well as calculations done with
hours. After that the filtrate is roomy 4 different points of view and then
accommodated and evaporating, so that calculated how much each airy fibroblasts
produce ethanol extracts of semi solid. of view, from the point of view of airy
Ethanol extracts of semi solid is inserted spacious 1 to 4 point of view combined and
into a separating funnel dalami kemudiani taken its average.
added ihexan and dihomogenisasikan
solution for 15 imenit. Hexan fraction Stage Of Treatment
separated from ethanol and is evaporated
with the rotary evaporator, so obtained Rats were divided into 3 groups,
fraction hexan. namely:
a. positive control group (K +): Given the
wound incision on the backs of mice
Stages Of The Making Of Ointments
along the 2 cm to a depth of
Solution of ethyl acetate ethanol extract subcutaneous then covered with
is then added on with 1:1 dalami Transparent Dressings are observed
comparison of the separating funnel. daily for 14 days.
Further shaken for 15 minutes and only b. treatment Group 1 (P1): Given the
needs to formed a double layer of solvent. wound incision on the backs of mice
The top layer is ethyl acetate, while the along the 2 cm to a depth of
Undercoat is ethanol. subcutaneous Povidone iodine ointment
Ethyl acetate fraction is separated and then given 10% 2 times/day is observed
then is evaporated, thus obtained fraction of every day for 14 days.
ethyl acetate. The fraction of ethyl acetate c. Treatment Group 2 (P2): Given the
and fraction of ethanol extracts of turmeric wound incision on the backs of mice
Rhizome hexan is presented in the form of along the 2 cm to a depth of
pharmaceutical preparations ointment. The subcutaneous Povidone iodine ointment
fraction of ethyl acetate and hexan each then given 10% 2 times/day is observed
with a concentration of 10% dihomogenisa every day for 14 days.
with yellow Vaseline using mortar. After it
is stored in a tube and is labeled (Winarsih RESEARCH RESULTS
et al, 2012).
Based on the results in the data table 1
treatment group using povidone iodine
Identification number of fibroblasts cells
ointment 10% average number of
The process of identification of fibroblasts cells as much as 2.531. Group
fibroblasts effected after wound care is treatment using turmeric extract ointment

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10% average number of fibroblasts cells as Average number of
Group
much as 4.375. Positive control group fibroblasts cells
treatment groups are only given the P1 2,531
transparent dressing average number of P2 4,375
fibroblasts cells as much as 1.812. K+ 1,812
Based on the results of observation of the Description:
number of fibroblasts cells over look that
the group uses of turmeric extract ointment P1: using Povidone iodine ointment
10% most effectively increase the number Treatment 10%
of fibroblasts cells on wound healing P2: Treatment using turmeric extract
process of incision than other groups. ointment 10%
K +: control group by using the transparent
dressing

The description of the white rat fibroblasts cells histopathology male each treatment with
400x magnification. A: the control group, B: 1, C Treatment: the treatment 2

Based on the test results using the Shapiro- homogeneous because p > 0.05. It can be
wilk normality. On this penilitian normal concluded that the distribution of the data is
distribution of data obtained, viewed from the both normal and homogenized so that data
sig p > (0.05). Test results of its homogeneity analysis followed by one way anova test.
using Levene test shows sig = 0.065 One way anova test results showed
meaning Variant data the number of significance p = 0.000 that shows there is a
fibroblasts cells of animals try meaningful difference between fibroblasts
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cell number control group with treatment. Curcumin has biological activity quite
Because of the One Way Anova test is extensive including antioxidant,
meaningful and homogeneous data variants, antibacterial and speed healing by means of
then followed by Bonferroni Post Hoc test increasing the production of TGF β-1 in the
to find out which groups have a meaningful process of wound healing. TGF-β 1 can
difference. spur the proliferation of fibroblasts also
Hoc Bonferroni Post test, note that participate in the synthesis of collagen (A &
comparisons of the number of fibroblasts in Chatarina LS Setyowati, 2013).
the control group differed significantly Saponin is a steroid or triterpenoid
(meaningful) and the group that was given glycosides and many found on the plants
a povidone iodine ointment (sig = 0.002) plays an important role on the health of
and the group who were given turmeric humans and animals. Saponins serves as
extract ointment (sig = 0.000). The group antitumor, cytotoxic activity and
that was given a turmeric extract ointment antimutagen. Saponins VEGF can trigger
has the most significant results than the and increase the number of macrophages
treatment group was given a povidone migrate into the wound area thus increasing
iodine ointment 10%. cytokine production that will enable
fibroblasts in wound tissue. Saponins can
DISCUSSION potentially help heal wounds by forming
collagen is the first who had a role in the
Based on the results of the measurement process of wound healing (Aliefia, Umi K,
of the average number of fibroblasts cells of DK & Ika SR, 2015).
the mice given turmeric extract ointment Tannin is a water soluble phenolic
more compared to povidone ointment compounds. Tannins are potentially as
provided group iodine 10%. It can be seen antoksidan that protect from oxidative
from the description of the histologic cell damage such as cancer, arthritis and aging.
fibroblasts that can serve as an indicator of The content of tannin can stop the bleeding,
wound healing. The results of the analysis accelerates wound healing and
of the data shows that there is a meaningful inflammation mucous membranes, as well
difference between groups 1 (control group) as the regeneration of new tissue. In
and group 2 (apilkasi povidone iodine addition, the content of tannin has the
ointment 10%) and group 3 (application of ability of antioxidant and antibacterial. The
turmeric extract ointment). content of tannins speed healing of wounds
An increasing number of fibroblasts is with some cellular mechanism that is
suspected due to the effects of active cleaning up free radicals and reactive
compounds derived from extracts of oxygen, increasing closure of the wound as
turmeric. The results of the ethanol well as increasing the formation of
extraction of turmeric contain several active capillaries also fibroblasts (Christina D, S,
compounds namely Curcumin, saponins, Ketut & Jusak N, 2017).
tannins, and essential oils. The content can Essential oil or also called the essential
help the healing process of wounds by oil derived from leaves, flowers, wood,
different mechanisms (Arum DS, Retty R, grains even the stigma of flowers. The
& Heri K, 2015). benefits of essential oils is as anti pain, anti-
infective and killer bacteria (disinfectant).

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Essential oil contains phenols and kavikol 2. toxicity tests need to be done towards
are useful as antimicrobial, antibacterial turmeric extract ointment preparations
and disinfectant. All content of the turmeric to know a safe concentration limit used.
extracts can clean wounds and prevent the 3. further research needs to be done with
occurrence of infection so that it can the concentration of extract more varied
accelerate the end of inflammatory phase of to find out the optimal concentration for
wound healing process (Aliefia, Umi K, DK accelerating wound healing.
& Ika SR, 2015). 4. closing the wound needs to be done on
Based on the discussion above, then the all the research groups to prevent the
hypothesis in this study have been missed, onset of infection.
namely the granting of turmeric extract
ointment more influence on increasing the BIBLIOGRAPHY
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