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PAPER SERIES 2004-01-2920

The Effects of Orifice Shape

on Diesel Combustion
Pär Bergstrand
Volvo Powertrain Corporation

Reprinted From: Diesel Engine Experiment and Modeling


Powertrain & Fluid Systems

Conference & Exhibition
Tampa, Florida USA
October 25-28, 2004

400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 U.S.A. Tel: (724) 776-4841 Fax: (724) 776-5760 Web:
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The Effects of Orifice Shape on Diesel Combustion

Pär Bergstrand
Volvo Powertrain Corporation

Copyright © 2004 SAE International


Combustion and emission formation in a diesel engine The trend towards higher fuel injection pressure has led
are governed by fuel spray formation and mixing to a decrease in soot emissions and fuel consumption
processes. Spray formation depends mainly on the fuel but a slight increase in nitrogen oxide emissions. With a
injection system and its use, i.e. injection strategies. higher injection pressure, the injection rate increases.
Since future emission legislation will focus on sharply This means that more fuel is injected earlier and the
reducing emissions such as NOX and particulate, spray injection duration shortens for constant fuelling (engine
formation and consequently the fuel injection system load) which is beneficial for lower fuel consumption, and
take on increasing importance. Over the years, the that more of the formed soot can oxidize under better
adoption of electronically controlled fuel injection conditions (longer time at high temperatures). A
systems and higher fuel injection pressure have led to a drawback is that the nitrogen oxide emissions will
decrease in fuel consumption, and compliance with increase. To lower nitrogen oxide emissions in order to
emission legislation has been achieved. To achieve meet regulatory emission standards, the injection event
higher injection pressures, much energy needs to be has been retarded at the expense of increased fuel
provided from the engine, i.e. parasitic losses increase. consumption. The higher injection velocity resulting from
Developments in manufacturing techniques now make the higher injection pressure (see equation 1) leads to
different shapes of the orifices on the fuel injector nozzle better air utilization, provided the combustion chamber is
possible. This includes very small orifice diameters, high optimized, and that the kinetic turbulence level and the
inlet corner rounding and, more recently, conically flame lift-off length increases [1, 2, 3]. This results in an
shaped orifices beside several rows of orifices on the increased mixing rate and a more diluted and
nozzle. A differently shaped orifice could lead to lower evaporated spray [4], which further reduces soot
emissions at the same injection pressure level, i.e. emissions.
emission reduction without an increase in the parasitic
losses. This would then enable a better trade-off
between fuel consumption and emissions. ( PInjection − PChamber )
U = CD * 2 * .....(1)
This paper investigates the effects on emissions and fuel ρF
consumption of five nozzles with different orifice shapes
by using a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine under the It has also been shown that soot emissions can be
same injection pressure conditions. To further try to reduced by using a smaller orifice diameter under the
distinguish the effects of the orifice shapes, the minimum same injection pressure level [5]. A reduced orifice
orifice diameter was kept constant. The results show diameter has a lower fuel flow (lower flow area), a
that orifice shapes resulting in lower fuel flow rates can relatively longer flame lift-off length [3] and also a higher
yield lower fuel consumption and lower emissions than mixing rate (shorter mixing time), see equation 2. It was
orifice shapes that have larger fuel flow rates. A negative shown in [3] that an orifice diameter reduction from 0.23
conisity (divergent) orifice shape yields lower emissions to 0.10 mm leads to a relative increase in the flame lift-
and has lower fuel consumption than the reference off length by a factor of approximately 2 times. This
nozzle with a cylindrical orifice shape. It is also shown leads to a more diluted and evaporated spray [4], which
that in terms of fuel consumption, a 50% HE grinded produces less soot but more nitrogen oxides with a
orifice is a more beneficial selection than a positive reduction in fuel consumption [5].
conisity orifice shape.
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popularity. Conical orifices have proven to have a higher

d ρF injection velocity and a smaller cone angle of the spray
mixing time ∝ .....(2) resulting in advantages for both soot and nitrogen oxide
U ρA emissions [10]. Since the conical shape also affects the
discharge coefficient [4] one would normally adjust the
The fuel flow is reduced by a smaller orifice diameter
orifice diameter in order to have the same total fuel flow
(the fuel flow area is reduced). The discharge coefficient
rate from the nozzle. Here too the effects on emission
has also been found to decrease as the orifice diameter
and fuel consumption will be influenced by the change in
is decreased [3]. Together, this creates the need to
orifice diameter, positively or negatively, depending on
increase the number of orifices on the nozzle to keep the
how the conisity is placed. A constant minimum orifice
total fuel flow constant. Experiments with a nozzle
diameter should be used here too to distinguish the
configuration with a small orifice diameter and a high
effects of the conical shape.
number of orifices have shown low emissions of soot
and carbon monoxide at low engine loads [5], but at a
This study aims to explore how the orifice shape, in
higher engine load (more fuelling), the emissions were
terms of hydro grinding level and conisity at a constant
similar or elevated compared to a standard nozzle
minimum orifice diameter, affects emissions and fuel
configuration with a large orifice diameter. This was
consumption. The total fuel flow rate will vary depending
found to depend on the low air excess at the higher
on the shape, but since the orifice shape itself can affect
engine load [6]. With an appropriate air excess, the
the combustion and spray formation, engine
small orifices have low emissions of soot and carbon
experiments are needed to clarify the net effects on
monoxide also at high engine load conditions. No trade-
emissions and fuel consumption.
off was found between soot and nitrogen oxides (not
dependent on injection timing) with a low soot level by a
sufficiently high air excess, which was not the case for
the large orifice diameter. The drawback with the small
A heavy-duty, four-stroke, single-cylinder diesel engine
orifices and high number of orifices was a shorter fuel
with a displacement of 2.022 liters was used for these
penetration by the smaller orifice diameter and the
experiments. The engine was equipped with a cylinder
narrow placement between the orifices (fuel sprays).
head based on the Volvo Powertrain D12C engine. It
This limits the air utilization and the lowest usable global
has an overhead camshaft (OHC) with 2 inlet and 2
air excess to the engine. This problem is obviously more
exhaust valves and a centrally placed, standing unit
severe as the fuelling increases by a higher engine load
injector (EUI). The unit injector had a plunger diameter
since this enriches the local conditions around the
of 10 mm and was set for a needle opening pressure
nozzle (low local air excess). The Bergstrand
(NOP) of 330 bar. It also had instrumentation for
combustion system, presented in [7], is a more refined
measuring fuel pressure and needle lift. The engine’s
solution. This system has small orifice diameters with a
combustion system is of a low swirl type with an open
high number of orifices (sufficient to keep the total fuel
piston bowl with an omega shape and a compression
flow similar to the standard nozzle configuration with
ratio of 18.5.
large orifice diameter) that are well distributed on the
nozzle in a multirow configuration [7]. In addition to the
The engine is braked by an electric dynamometer. An
nozzle configuration, an appropriate combustion
electrically driven compressor supercharges the engine,
chamber with a deeper and smaller piston bowl was
and the back pressure can be adjusted by a throttle in
used. This combustion system has shown that nitrogen
the exhaust pipe in order to simulate a turbocharged gas
oxide, carbon monoxide and soot emissions can all be
exchange system. The compressed air is dehumidified
reduced at a constant fuel consumption.
before reaching the engine. An exhaust gas recirculation
(EGR) system is also fitted to the engine with an EGR
Some emission reductions can also be achieved with a
cooler and an EGR flow valve. The test bench is also
normal standard nozzle configuration with few orifices
equipped with systems that control the pressures and
having a large orifice diameter. Increasing the inlet
temperatures of the air, fuel, oil and water to the engine.
rounding of the orifice by higher hydro grinding has
For further engine set-up specifications, see Table 1 and
proven to reduce soot [8].
Figure 1.
When increasing the hydro grinding, the orifice diameter
is normally reduced in order to keep the total fuel flow
constant. Since a smaller orifice diameter can have a
The engine and emission measuring devices were
profound effect on soot reduction [9], the result depends
controlled by a PUMA 5 system. This system also
to some extent on the orifice diameter reduction. To
samples time-averaged signals of raw emissions, fuel
eliminate this influence, the higher hydro grinding effects
consumption, pressures, temperatures and flows of air,
should be compared for the same orifice diameter even
fuel, oil and cooling water. Fast transient signals such as
though the fuel flow will be higher for a nozzle with high
needle lift, injection and cylinder pressure are sampled
hydro grinding due to a higher discharge coefficient.
Recently, conical orifice shapes have grown in
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by an in-house data acquisition system. The burnt Table 2. Emission measurement equipment.
fraction was calculated from this data samples. NOX ROSEMOUNT CLD 1000079
Table 1. Engine set-up specifications. CO ROSEMOUNT 1000546
Engine Single-cylinder AVL 501 CO2 ROSEMOUNT 1000444
Cylinder head 4 valve, low swirl CO2EGR MAIHAK UNOR 6N
Stroke 150 mm 1000002
Displacement 2.022 liters Smoke AVL 415 smoke meter
Compression ratio 18.5
Combustion chamber Omega shape with 89 mm piston
bowl diameter NOZZLES
Fuel injector Delphi EUI 200 A3
Plunger diameter 10 mm The production nozzle normally used in the Volvo D12C
Cam rate 0.50 mm/degree engine was used as a reference nozzle. This minisac
Needle Opening 330 bar nozzle had an orifice diameter of 0.23 mm and 6 orifices.
Pressure (NOP) The orifices are manufactured by the electric discharge
Injection pressure Kistler 4067 A 2000 machining (EDM) technique with hydro-erosion grinding
measuring device (HE) to obtain rounded orifice inlets. This nozzle has a
Needle lift measuring Wolff with Hall effect sensor 10% HE grinding, and the steady state fuel flow at 100
device bar differential pressure was 1.67 liters per minute.
Fuel conditioning AVL 753
Fuel consumption AVL 733 S All the other four minisac nozzles were manufactured by
measuring device the same technique and also had 6 orifices at an
Oil conditioning AVL 554 umbrella angle of 157 degrees with the minimum orifice
Water conditioning AVL 553 diameter of 0.23 mm except for one of the four nozzles,
Air compressor Atlas Copco GA 55 W which had a reduced orifice diameter of 0.21 mm with
Max. air flow 159 l/s the same 10% HE grinding. The reduction of flow area
Max. air pressure 7.5 bar by the smaller orifice diameter leads to a lower fuel flow
Dynamometer Siemens 1GG5 319 for this nozzle. Since a smaller orifice diameter also has
a lower discharge coefficient (0.65 compared to 0.72 for
the reference), this leads to a further flow reduction for
The emissions were measured using chemiluminiscence this nozzle. The decreasing discharge coefficient with a
for nitrogen oxides, flame ionization detector (FID) for smaller orifice diameter has been demonstrated for a
hydrocarbons, and a non-dispersive infrared detector range of orifice diameters [3].
(NDIR) for carbon monoxide and dioxide. The oxygen
content was measured with a paramagnetic detector and One of the three nozzles with a 0.23 mm orifice diameter
soot emissions with a smoke meter (Table 2). had an increased HE grinding of 50%, which means a
more rounded orifice inlet corner. This leads to a less
flow-restricted nozzle where the effective flow area is
larger and closer to the geometrical flow area, i.e. the
Compressor discharge coefficient, CD, is higher. The steady state fuel
flow at 100 bar of differential pressure was 1.79 liters per
EGR Valve
minute for this nozzle.

The last two nozzles with 0.23 mm orifice diameter had

EGR a conical orifice shape with a 10% HE grinding. One of
Inlet Exhaust
Plenum Plenum Cooler them had a convergent orifice shape in the flow direction
(positive conisity), where the inlet orifice diameter, DInlet,
(0.254 mm) on the nozzle sac side, is larger than the
outer orifice diameter, DOutlet, (0.230 mm) towards the
Exhaust throttle combustion chamber. The conisity factor was k = 2.4.
Emission The other conical nozzle had a divergent orifice shape in
Measuring the flow direction (negative conisity), where the inlet
orifice diameter (0.227 mm) is smaller than the outer
orifice diameter (0.249 mm). The conisity factor was k =
-2.2 since the conisity factor, k, is defined as (diameters
is taken in microns):
Figure 1. Engine set-up.
k = (DInlet – DOutlet) / 10 …..(3)
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Convergent Reduced Reference 50% HE Divergent

Figure 2. Schematic view of the tested orifice shapes. From left to right: Convergent orifice (positive conisity, k = + 2.4),
Reduced (as reference but with a smaller orifice diameter of 0.21 mm), Reference (cylindrical orifice shape with orifice
diameter of 0.23 mm), 50% HE (as reference but with a more rounded inlet corner) and Divergent orifice (negative
conisity, k = - 2.2).

The conical shape of the orifices affects the effective fuel condition of 25% load (75 Nm) at a higher engine speed
flow where a positive conisity yields an increase in fuel of 28.3 rps was also included. For the low load
flow (higher discharge coefficient) compared to the conditions, the lambda value was kept constant at 3.0,
reference nozzle, while the nozzle with a negative while the lambda value was kept constant at 2.0 for the
conisity has a lower fuel flow (lower discharge high load condition. Four injection timings with the start
coefficient) than the reference nozzle. This has also of injection at -8, -3, 3 and 8 degrees ATDC were used.
been shown previously for a single orifice nozzle with An EGR level of 20% was also used at the low load and
the orifice placed in the axial direction [4]. Further nozzle low speed case of 25% load and 20 rps. For the high
specification data are given in Table 3. load condition, the sensitivity to air excess was tested by
changing the charge pressure to obtain different lambda
Table 3. Nozzle specifications. values (1.5, 2.0, 2.5).
Orifice diameter
Fuel flow
[mm] k- During all conditions, the engine oil temperature was
Nozzle rate @ 100
Sac side Chamber factor kept constant at 100 degrees Celsius, the cooling water
bar ∆P
side at 82 degrees Celsius, the fuel at 40 degrees Celsius
Reduced 0.210 0.222 - 1.28 l/min and the inlet air at 25 degrees Celsius.
Reference 0.233 0.229 - 1.67 l/min
50% HE 0.242 0.234 - 1.79 l/min Data were acquired during a two-minute period after the
Convergent 0.254 0.230 2.4 1.82 l/min engine had stabilized. Directly after this, the two-minute
Divergent 0.227 0.249 -2.2 1.49 l/min measuring period was repeated. From these two
measurements, an average value was calculated for
emissions and fuel consumption.
Commercial Swedish MK1 diesel fuel (Environmental
Class 1) was used. The fuel had a lower heating value, LOW LOAD
QHV, of 43.18 MJ/kg, a C/H wt ratio of 6.27, viscosity of
1.90 mm2/s at 40 degrees Celsius, and a density of For the low load and high speed condition of 28.3 rps
0.8139 kg/dm3 at 15 degrees Celsius. The sulfur content and 25% load, the effect of lower flow rate for the nozzle
was less than 1 ppm-wt and the cetane number was 51. with a reduced orifice diameter and the one with
negative conisity leads to a longer injection duration.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE This leads to a lower injection rate which results in
decreased nitrogen oxide production (retarded
The test procedure included two engine loads at 20 rps, combustion). A few crank angles after the injection ends
one low and one high load condition at 25% (75 Nm) for the nozzle with the longest duration, the nozzle with a
and 75% load (225 Nm), respectively. A low load reduced orifice diameter has a higher rate of heat
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release than the reference nozzle where the burnt the piston shape (wall) and the spray could be regarded
fraction becomes higher than the reference nozzle as a cone. The nitrogen oxide formation depends on the
(Figure 3). This higher mixing rate is sufficient to reduce time the combustion occurs at high temperatures, the
the fuel consumption despite the slower start of heat temperatures and the oxygen availability [12]. Beside
release. this, one should consider the total area of the flame (or
reaction zone). According to the conceptual model by
Dec [13], the combustion zone generating the nitrogen
Div K=-2.2 Red 0.210mmx6 REF 0.230mmx6
oxides is thin and hence a flame area change would
0,9 dominate nitrogen oxide production more than a change
in thickness of the flame. A difference in flame area or
0,7 reaction zone surface thus results in a different amount
of nitrogen oxide being produced if other processes
Brunt Fraction

0,5 influencing nitrogen oxide formation are the same (time,
temperature, oxygen content and time history). Since the
spray angle, for the same orifice shape, is the same for
the different orifice diameters [11], a shorter penetration
0,1 2,00E+00 leads to a smaller total spray and reaction zone surface
350 360 370 380 390 400
CAD which then would reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide
formed. This would be one of the contributing factors to
why much lower nitrogen oxide levels are demonstrated
by these two nozzles with shorter penetration besides
Figure 3. The burnt fraction (10% - 90%) and needle lift the somewhat retarded combustion due to a lower fuel
for divergent, reduced and reference orifice shapes at a flow rate.
start of injection of 8 degrees BTDC for the engine
speed of 28.3 rps and 25% load. The needle lift for the
divergent shape is missing due to a sensor failure. 290

The nozzle with divergently shaped orifices also has a
lower fuel consumption despite a less favorable injection 270 REF 0.230mmx6
BSFC [g/kWh]

rate and early burnt fraction. The nitrogen production is 260

Con K=+2.4
slightly less than the reduced orifice nozzle but much Div K=-2.2

less than the reference nozzle. This contradiction of 250 Red 0.210mmx6

lower nitrogen oxides at the same time as the fuel 240

consumption is lower may indicate that the heat losses
are less with the nozzle with negative conisity. The lower 230
0 2 4 6 8 10
heat losses can originate due to the fact that the fuel NOx [g/kWh]

penetration is shorter for this orifice shape (see

reference [4]). The shorter fuel penetration causes the
combustion to occur closer to the center of the Figure 4. NOx – BSFC trade-off for the five tested
combustion chamber and farther from the chamber nozzles at the engine speed of 28.3 rps and 25% load.
walls, leading to a decrease in the temperature gradient
at the wall. Consequently, less of the combustion- The soot emissions are very similar for the negative
generated heat is transferred to cooling losses, yielding conisity compared to the reference nozzle at this low
lower fuel consumption. A shorter fuel penetration is also load case (see Figure 5). Soot emissions are much
the case for a smaller orifice diameter [4, 11], i.e. the lower for the nozzle with reduced orifice diameter
case for the nozzle with reduced orifice diameter. This because of a relatively longer flame lift-off [3] and a
advance in lower heat losses from fuel consumption due higher mixing rate (eq. 2), which lead to a more diluted
to shorter fuel penetration should then also be the case spray that generates less soot.
for this nozzle besides the improvement in fuel
consumption reduction that comes from the higher The nozzles with positive conisity (k = + 2.4) and 50%
mixing rate with a reduced orifice diameter. HE grinding both have higher discharge coefficients
leading to a higher fuel flow rate and then a higher
Since the nitrogen oxide emissions for these two nozzles injection rate. This would lead to more nitrogen oxides
are similar (Figure 4) and much less than the reference, but both yield less compared to the reference nozzle.
nozzle, while at the same time differing in terms of in The higher injection momentum by the higher injection
burnt fraction, a hypothesis is made. The hypothesis is rate and higher injection velocity (by higher discharge
that the nitrogen oxide emission reduction from these coefficient) leads to a longer fuel penetration for these
nozzles, at this low load condition, depends partly on the nozzles where the fuel reaches the piston bowl wall to a
surface area of the burning spray. At this load condition, greater extent. This would result in flame quenching
the major part of the fuel spray is not affected much by which would reduce the nitrogen oxide formation and
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explain the lower nitrogen oxide values for these nozzles effective combustion. This more effective combustion
compared to the reference nozzle (see Figure 6). The shows also in a slightly shorter injection duration despite
soot and carbon monoxide emissions are also higher for a slightly lower fuel flow rate! This more effective
these nozzles, which further implies wall contact that combustion could come from a better fuel spray break-
reduces the oxidation of these emissions. up and atomization generated by higher cavitation. The
nozzle with positive conisity has a convergent orifice
shape which reduces cavitation [14] to a higher degree
than a smoother inlet corner obtained by a higher HE

0,2 REF 0.230mmx6 EGR

Soot [g/kWh]

Con K=+2.4
0,15 HE=50%
Div K=-2.2 At a test condition of 25% load and 20 rps engine speed,
0,1 Red 0.210mmx6
a case of 20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was
added. Since the diesel process uses an air excess a
part of the recirculated gas also contains air, which has
0 not participated in the combustion. A rather high amount
-10 -5 0 5 10
of EGR can be added before the oxygen content starts
to reach really low values. Since the oxygen content
decreases with increasing amounts of EGR, the nitrogen
oxides are consequently reduced. The lower oxygen
Figure 5. Soot emission versus start of injection (SOI)
content in the cylinder will make it more difficult for the
for the five tested nozzles at the engine speed of 28.3
injected fuel to find the oxygen and hence the possible
rps and 25% load.
heat release will be limited (slowed down) and the
ignition delay will start to increase. This leads to a further
0,3 decrease in nitrogen oxides by retarding combustion but
also to increased fuel consumption at high EGR levels.
By reducing the air and increasing the amount of
combusted products such as H20 and CO2, the cp/cv
REF 0.230mmx6
ratio will be lower, leading to a lower in-cylinder
Soot [g/kWh]

Con K=+2.4
0,15 HE=50% temperature which, in addition to the slower heat
Div K=-2.2
Red 0.210mmx6
release, also reduces the peak temperatures that will
further lead to a reduction of the formed nitrogen oxides.
0,05 In Figure 7, the result of adding 20% EGR can be seen.
The nitrogen oxides are reduced by the above-
0 2 4 6 8 10
mentioned effects and the differences between the
NOx [g/kWh] nozzles of different orifice shape are also damped out.

Figure 6. NOx – Soot trade-off for the five tested

nozzles at the engine speed of 28.3 rps and 25% load.

The impact with the piston would increase the heat 10

losses and thereby lead to higher fuel consumption while REF 0.230mmx6
NOx [g/kWh]

8 Con K=+2.4
the higher injection rate (shorter injection duration) HE=50%
would decrease the fuel consumption. The positive 6 Div K=-2.2
Red 0.210mmx6
conical orifice shape has generally the same fuel 4
consumption as the reference nozzle, meaning that the 2
negative effects for higher heat losses are compensated
by the higher injection rate. For the nozzle with 50% HE 0
-10 -5 0 5 10
grind, the fuel consumption is lower than both the SOI (ATDC)
reference nozzle and the nozzle with positive conisity.
The flow rate (and discharge coefficient) are very similar
between the nozzle with positive conisity and the nozzle Figure 7. NOx versus start of injection (SOI) at the
with 50% HE grind where from this point they should engine speed of 20 rps and 25% load. The case of 20%
obtain similar values on fuel consumption, which they do EGR is represented by thick lines (the lower and
not. One can draw the conclusion, since the nozzle with gathered curves).
50% HE grind has a lower fuel consumption but also
lower soot emissions than the nozzle with positive Despite the similarity in nitrogen oxide emissions
conisity, that the nozzle with 50% HE grind has more between the tested nozzles when applying 20% EGR,
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there is a difference in the soot emissions, as seen in The fuel consumption for the nozzle with a divergent
Figure 8. As for the case without EGR, the nozzle with orifice shape (negative conisity) also has a lower fuel
reduced orifice diameter yields the lowest amount of flow rate but yields lower fuel consumption, which
soot due to a more diluted spray combustion as implies better combustion and lower heat losses due to
mentioned earlier. The nozzles with conisity have a shorter fuel penetration compared to the reference
lower soot value than the reference nozzle at injection nozzle. Compared to the low load case, the nitrogen
timings before TDC while they yield higher soot values oxide production for the nozzles with negative conisity
for injection timings ATDC, where no trend or conclusion and reduced orifice diameter is also here in the high load
could be drawn. case lower than the reference nozzle.

The nozzles with a higher fuel flow rate, the nozzle with
convergent orifice shape (positive conisity) and the
nozzle with the 50% HE grinding have a lower fuel
consumption than the reference nozzle. The higher flow
REF 0.230mmx6 rate shortens the injection duration from which the lower
Soot [g/kWh]

Con K=+2.4
fuel consumption results. At a high load, the nozzle with
0,05 HE=50%
Div K=-2.2 50% HE grind also has a slightly lower fuel consumption

Red 0.210mmx6
compared to the nozzle with positive conisity.


0 204
0 1 2 3 4 5
NOx [g/kWh]

198 REF 0.230mmx6

BSFC [g/kWh]

Con K=+2.4
Figure 8. NOx – Soot trade-off for the EGR case for the
five tested nozzles with different orifice shapes at the Div K=-2.2
Red 0.210mmx6
engine speed of 20 rps and 25% load. 190

Late injection timing (8 degrees ATDC in this study) 186

causes the cylinder pressure and temperature to drop 184

very rapidly. At a lower temperature and pressure, the 0 2 4

NOx [g/kWh]
6 8 10

flame lift-off length becomes longer [3] and the ignition

delay increases, both resulting in a more diluted fuel
spray and consequently the formation of less soot. In Figure 9. NOx – BSFC trade-off at an engine speed of
addition, the longer ignition delay will lead to the fuel
20 rps and load of 75%. Constant lambda of 2.
spray penetrating longer in the combustion chamber and
utilizing the air to a higher degree before the combustion
The trade-off between nitrogen oxide and soot in Figure
starts which further dilutes the spray. The EGR addition 10 shows that the low flow nozzles (reduced orifice
will also elongate the ignition delay and thereby lead to a
diameter and divergent orifice shape) are more
dilution of the fuel spray as well. This will result in the favorable than the reference nozzle, yielding less soot,
low soot emission for a late injection as shown in Figure
while the fuel consumption is lower for the nozzle with
8 (and Figure 6 for a case without EGR). divergent orifice shape (negative conisity).
HIGH LOAD The higher hydro grinding by the nozzle with 50% HE
grind leads to a lower cavitated fuel spray in the nozzle
The high load point was selected at 75% load at 20 rps orifice by the smoother inlet [15] as for the nozzle with
where the lambda value was kept constant at 2. At this
convergent orifice shape (positive conisity) [14]. The fuel
high load condition, a slightly higher fuel consumption jet velocity profile will be more uniform [8] which would
can be found at an early injection timing for the reduced
increase the jet momentum leading to more air being
orifice diameter compared with the reference nozzle entrained into the fuel spray by momentum exchange
(Figure 9). The nozzle with a reduced diameter has a
between the fuel jet and the surrounding air in the
lower fuel flow rate, which elongates the injection combustion chamber. Due to the higher exchange, more
duration and limits the injection rate leading to a time
air would be drawn into the fuel spray and dilute it
loss, which ends up as increased fuel consumption. For resulting in a soot reduction. The fuel would at the same
a late injection timing the faster mixing rate that the
time then also penetrate the combustion chamber longer
reduced orifice has [5, eq. 2] appear to compensate this owing to the larger momentum and possibly also have
time loss where the fuel consumption becomes slightly
increased wall contact, which can lead to flame cooling
better than the reference nozzle. and increased soot emissions. The net result on soot
emissions for these nozzles with less cavitation in the
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orifice seems to be a soot reduction at the latest

injection timing compared to the reference orifice shape 48

at this high engine load condition. 47


0,04 45 REF 0.230mmx6

Efficiency [%]
Con K=+2.4
0,035 44

0,03 43 Div K=-2.2

Red 0.210mmx6
0,025 REF 0.230mmx6
Soot [g/kWh]

Con K=+2.4
0,02 HE=50%
Div K=-2.2
0,015 Red 0.210mmx6
1 1,5 2 2,5 3


0 2 4 6 8 10 Figure 11. Efficiency versus lambda at at a start of
NOx [g/kWh]
injection of 8 degrees BTDC for an engine speed of 20
rps and load of 75%.
Figure 10. NOx – Soot trade-off at engine speed of 20
rps and load of 75%. Constant lambda of 2.


A lambda variation (a change of air excess) at 8 degrees 0,02

REF 0.230mmx6
Soot [g/kWh]

BTDC was made at the high load condition of 75% load 0,015
Con K=+2.4

and at an engine speed of 20 rps. The variation was HE=50%

Div K=-2.2
made by adjusting the charge pressure to the engine 0,01
Red 0.210mmx6
and thus obtaining lambda values of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5. No 0,005
adjustment of the back pressure from the nominal
setting was made. 0
1 1,5 2 2,5 3
All nozzles at this lambda variation were found to be
better than the reference nozzle concerning engine
efficiency (lower fuel consumption), except for the nozzle
with a reduced orifice diameter at higher lambda values Figure 12. Soot versus lambda at at a start of injection
(see Figure 11). By increasing the charge pressure, a of 8 degrees BTDC for an engine speed of 20 rps and
higher lambda value was obtained. With a higher charge load of 75%.
pressure, the cylinder density increases, which leads to
a reduced fuel penetration in the combustion chamber.
At this high load condition where a high amount of fuel is 0,03

injected, the interaction with the combustion chamber

walls can be somewhat reduced by a higher charge
pressure due to the reduced fuel penetration. The 0,02
REF 0.230mmx6
Con K=+2.4
reduced orifice diameter has a shorter fuel penetration
Soot [g/kWh]

than a larger orifice diameter [9] and the penetration is 0,015
Div K=-2.2
reduced even more by increasing the charge pressure. 0,01
Red 0.210mmx6

This can lead to a loss in the air utilization for this nozzle
by a lambda increase. At the same time the reference 0,005

nozzle, with its larger orifice diameter, will also lower its
wall wetting by the increase in charge pressure and 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
possibly improve the fuel consumption since wall wetting NOx [g/kWh]

can cause a poorer oxidation of the fuel and partly

quench the flame which can end up as a loss in engine
efficiency. Figure 13. NOx – Soot trade-off at at a start of injection
of 8 degrees BTDC for a variation in lambda at an
At the lambda variation, the nozzle with a reduced orifice engine speed of 20 rps and 75% load.
diameter yields the lowest soot emissions (Figure 12) as
for the low load conditions, and at the same time the
nitrogen oxide emission is lowest (Figure 13).
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A nozzle with a divergent orifice shape (negative CONCLUSION

conisity) has been shown in [4] to have a reduced fuel
penetration compared to a reference nozzle with Five nozzles, each with different orifice shapes, were
cylindrical orifice shape. The reduced penetration will investigated by using a heavy-duty single-cylinder test
have a lower degree of wall wetting that can cause a engine, based on the Volvo D12C engine. From the
reduced oxidation of the fuel, especially at high load experiments the following conclusions could be drawn.
conditions where a large amount of fuel is injected. This
partly explains why the soot emission is lower at low 1. A divergent conical orifice shape (negative
lambda values (rich condition) compared to the conisity) generally has lower soot emissions,
reference nozzle. In addition, it was also found in [4] that lower nitrogen oxide emissions and a lower fuel
this divergent shape had a small smooth neck formed consumption than the cylindrical orifice shape
just outside the nozzle after which the fuel broke up into that the reference nozzle has. The divergent
a spray (under non-combustion condition). With this shape is also more efficient than the convergent
neck formation it is possible that the flame lift-off conical orifice shape (positive conisity) and the
becomes elongated, contributing to a higher degree of 50% HE grinded orifice shape in terms of both
dilution of the spray and this could reduce the soot lower fuel consumption, soot and nitrogen oxide
formation. emissions. The mixing process seems to be
enhanced by the divergent conical orifice shape.
The engine efficiency for the nozzle with a divergent
orifice shape is the highest of the tested orifice shapes 2. A reduced orifice diameter emits less soot than
and better than the nozzle with 50% HE grind despite its a larger orifice diameter. The nitrogen oxide
lower fuel flow rate, that initially leads to time loss which emissions are also lower since the fuel flow rate
later is recovered by increased mixing rate. The is lower, leading to a retarded combustion while
combustion is improved by the divergent orifice shape. the higher mixing rate prevents a loss in fuel
The initial time loss leads to a retarded combustion consumption at low engine load conditions.
leading to a reduction in nitrogen oxides for the
divergent orifice shape. 3. The nozzle with a higher hydro grinding yields
higher soot emissions than the reference nozzle
The soot gain for the nozzle with 50% HE grind at with low hydro grinding having the same orifice
lambda 1.5 compared to the reference nozzle could diameter, under low engine load conditions. At
come from a larger flame lift-off length due to a higher high loads, there are settings where the higher
injection velocity since the discharge coefficient is higher hydro grinding can emit less soot. The higher
and the cavitation is lower in the orifice leading to a soot emissions with higher hydro grinding are
more uniform velocity profile of the injected fuel spray contrary to common knowledge, where soot is
[8]. This higher injection velocity leads to a longer flame reduced by higher hydro grinding when reducing
lift-off as shown in [1, 2, 3], and consequently a more the orifice diameter to obtain the same fuel flow.
diluted combustion that forms less soot. With the higher It is probable that the soot reductions observed
injection velocity, the injection momentum will increase with higher hydro grinding are not due to the
and so the fuel penetration, which would lead to that higher hydro grinding but due to the reduced
more air, could be trapped in the front of the spray orifice diameter. As a comparison, the nozzle
during injection. At the same time, this can increase the with a reduced orifice diameter has reduced
wall contact, which can reduce the benefits with this soot emissions for all tested conditions as
orifice shape. The similar effects would apply to the compared to the reference nozzle. The similar
nozzle with convergent orifice shape (positive conisity) would also apply to a nozzle with positive
but probably, due to shorter distance in the orifice at the conisity, i.e. the soot reduction found at constant
smallest diameter, the cavitation is less for the fuel flow rate for a nozzle with positive conisity is
convergent orifice shape compared to the nozzle with due to the reduced orifice diameter and not due
50% HE grind and the atomization process could to the positive conical (convergent) orifice
thereby be less efficient leading to a higher soot shape.
emission and worse engine efficiency for the nozzle with
positive conisity, despite similar flow rate and discharge 4. The nozzle with higher hydro grinding has
coefficient. generally lower soot emissions and a lower fuel
consumption than a convergent conical orifice
shape (positive conisity) despite a similar fuel
flow rate. This indicates better combustion with
the higher hydro grinding which could be caused
by a difference in the atomization process by a
different fuel flow structure within the nozzle
orifice due to the difference in orifice shape.
Downloaded from SAE International by Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Tuesday, October 06, 2015

5. This study demonstrates that a nozzle with a 12. Heywood, J., B., Internal Combustion Engine
smaller fuel flow rate (divergent orifice shape) Fundamentals, Mc Graw-Hill, Inc., 1988.
can achieve a lower fuel consumption with 13. Dec, J., “A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel
competitive emissions compared to a reference Combustion Based on Laser-Sheet Imaging”, SAE
nozzle despite a longer injection duration. The Paper 970873, 1997.
flow rate measured at steady state conditions in 14. Schugger, C., Renz, U., “Experimental Investigation
a flow bench consequently just gives an of the Primary Breakup Zone of High Pressure
indication of the capacity of the nozzle and not Diesel Sprays from Multi-Orifice Nozzles”, ICLASS,
the effect from combustion, which can 2003.
compensate for the lower flow rate. 15. Kampmann, S., Dittus, B., Mattes, P., Kirner, M.,
”The Influence of Hydro Grinding at VCO Nozzles on
the Mixture Preparation in a DI Diesel Engine”, SAE
Paper 960867, 1996.

1. Chomiak, J., Karlsson, A., “Flame liftoff in Diesel DEFINITIONS, ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS
Sprays”, Twenty-Sixth Symposium on
Combustion/The Combustion Institute, pp. 2557- AFR = Air to Fuel Ratio
2564, 1996.
2. Siebers, D. L., Higgins, B. S., “Effects of Injector ATDC = After Top Dead Center
Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel
Spray”, Thiesel, 2000. BSFC = Braked Specific Fuel Consumption
3. Bergstrand, P., Försth, M., Denbratt, I., ”The
Influence of Orifice Diameter on Flame Lift-off BTDC = Before Top Dead Center
Length”, ILASS-Europe, Zaragoza, 2002.
4. Bergstrand, P., Persson, F., Försth, M., Denbratt, I., CD = Discharge coefficient
“A Study of the Influence of Nozzle Orifice
Geometries on Fuel Evaporation using Laser- d = Orifice diameter
Induced Exciplex Fluorescence”, JSAE paper
20030217, SAE paper 2003-01-1836, 2003. DInlet = Orifice diameter at sac side
5. Bergstrand, P., Denbratt, I., ”Diesel Combustion with
Reduced Nozzle Orifice Diameter”, SAE Paper DOutlet = Orifice diameter at chamber side
2001-01-2010, 2001.
6. Bergstrand, P., Denbratt, I., “The Effects of Leaner k = Conisity factor
Charge and Swirl on Diesel Combustion”, SAE
Paper 2002-01-1633, 2002. Lambda = Real AFR / Stoichiometric AFR
7. Bergstrand, P., Denbratt, I., ”The Effects of Multirow = Relative AFR
Nozzles on Diesel Combustion”, SAE Paper 2003-
01-0701, 2003. PChamber = Pressure in the combustion chamber
8. Yoda, T., Tsuda, T., ”Influence of Injection Nozzle
Improvement on DI Diesel Engine”, SAE Paper PInjection = Injection pressure
970356, 1997.
9. Bergstrand, P., Small Orifices – Diesel Combustion U = Injection velocity
and Spray Investigations, PhD Thesis, ISBN 91-
7291-312-6, 2003. QHV = Lower heating value
10. Schmid, M., Leipertz, A., Fettes, C., “Influence of
Nozzle Hole Geometry, Rail Pressure and Pre- ρA = Air density
Injection on Injection, Vaporisation and Combustion
in a Single-Cylinder Transparent Passenger Car ρF = Fuel density
Common Rail Engine”, SAE Paper 2002-01-2665,
11. Bergstrand, P., Försth, M., Denbratt, I.,
”Investigation of Diesel Spray Injection into High
Pressure Conditions with Reduced Nozzle Orifice
Diameter”, JSAE Paper 20015324, 2001.