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ANALOG Econoffiy,

Wideban
DEVICES Loe/Antilog
Amplifier
FEATURES
Low-Cost, Complete Log/Antilog Amplifier
External Components Not Reguired;
Internal Reference;Temperature Compensated
S m a l lS i z e :1 . 1 " x 1 . 1 " x O , 4 "
Fast Response:200kHz Bandwidth (1916= 1gA)
6 DecadesCurrent Operation - lnA to 1mA
1% max Error - 20nA to 2009A
2o/omax Error - 1onA to 1 mA
4 Decades Voltages Operation - 1mV to 10V
1%omaxError - 1mV to 2V
2o/omaxError - lmV to 10V
APPLICATIONS
Log Current or Voltage
Antilog Voltage
Data Compression or Expansion

GENERAL DESCRIPTION suited for log applications whenever low cost implementation
Models 759N and 759P are low cost, fast response, dc of logarithmic natural relationshipsis advantages.Exampies
logarithmic amplifiers offering 1% conformance to ideal log are absorbence measurements, data compression and expan-
operation over four decades of current operation - 2OnA to sion, chemical analysisof liquids, computing powers, roots and
ZOO1tA,as well as 2o/oconformance over four decades of volt- ratios and conversion of exponential quantities to linear form.
age operation - 1mV to 10V. Featuring 200kHz bandwidth at
1916= 1pA, these new economy designsare the industry's
fastest log/antilog amplifiers and offer an attractive alternative
to in-house designs.
Designedfor easeof use, models 759N/P are complete, tem-
perature compensated, log or antilog amplifiers packaged in a
small 1.1" x 1.1" x 0.4" epoxy encapsulatedmodule, External
components are not required for logging currents over the com-
plete six decade operaling range from 1nA to 1mA. Both the +15V COM -15V TRIM
scalefactor (K= 2, 1,213 voltldecade) and log/antilog oper- +POSITIVEINPUTSIGNALS,AS SHOWN;USEMODEL759N
ation can be selectedby simple pin interconnecrion. In addition NEGATIVEINPUTSIGNALS.USEMODEL759P

both the internal lOpA reference current as well as the offset


voltage may be externally adjusted to improve overall accuracy K=2
performance.
6

MODEL SELECTION 4

Model 759N computes the log of positive input signals(voltage ,t lt 2


or current), while model 759P computes the log of negative in-
put signals(voltage or current). In the antilog mode of operation, ii l l- zo lo-e t0-8 tO-7 t0-6

both models accept bipolar voltage input signals(-2V(E516/ B l -4


K<2V), with model 759N producing a positive output signal
and model 759P producing a negativeoutput signal.
MODEL759N
-6

APPLICATIONS
-10
Model 759N and 759P can operate with either current or volt-
--*+
age inputs when connected as shown in Figure 1. To illustrate + INPUT
CURRENT(AMPS),
LOGSCALE
the logarithmic transfer characteristics, a plot of input current
versusoutput voltage is also presented.Model 759 is ideally F igure L Functional Elock Diagram and TransferFunction

Informationfurnishedby Analog Devicesis believedto be accurate


and reliable.However,no responsibilityis assumed by AnalogDevices
of patentsor other rightsof third
for its use;nor for any infringements
P.O. Box 28O; Norwood, Masachusetts 02062 U.S.A.
partieswhich may resultfrom its use.No licenseis grantedby implica-
tion or otherwiseunderany patentor patentrightsof AnalogDevices. Telex:924491 Cables:ANALOG NORWOODMAS
SPECIFICATI0IIS (typicar@
+2b"c
andvs=tlsvdcunress
otherwise
noted)
MODEL
7l?NlP OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
TRANSFER FUNCTIONS
Current Mode e6 = -xtogro
Dimensions shown in inches and (mm).
$q
.REF

+1
Voltage Mode .o = -xlogro r--r.r3MAx(28.?,
Fc
TEF

tL.^\
Antilog Mode e o= E n E rt r
\i=i
TRANSFER FUNCTION PARAMETIRS
S c a l e F a c t o r ( K ) S e l e c t i o n s r '' 2,1,2/3 voft/Dec^de
Error @ +25oC 1 l % om d
vs. Tempereture (0 to +70'C) t0.04.2"/'C -o
Reference Voltage (Eppp)2
Error @ +25-C
vs. l emperarure (0 to +7o'c)
Reference Current (lpp.p)2
0.lV
l47o max
to.osoz./oc
l0gA
[-;;-T 9 ':"
T RIM
ts16 5O

EstG 40
Es,G 40
Error @ +25'C 13o6 max [: I --15
15 | I
'l
vs. emperarure (0 ro +7o'c) t o.osy.f c
l-{8 eegl
e 30
9g1 3 Q
I'l;r'
o
0 7Tcc oM
oM
LOC CONFORMITY ERROR 100k
I OPTIONAL I 2 v D20E c 2' . '
2V|DEC
blc
l1q" Er," Range R.T.l. R.T.O. (K = 1)
TRIM
-1t5u
6 +
20nA to 20094 1mV to 2V t l% mrx 14.3mV mu 'u
1 rEoC .1 0" , o
V/D
lonA to lmA lmv to lov !2o/. mu
*57..
18.64mV max l<t I tL
lnA r,' lOnA !2lmV BorroM
vrEW
INPUT SPECIFICATIONS
*l l*tifs'"
Current Signal Range
WEIGHT: l0GRAMS
Model 759N +lnA to +lmA min
-1nA to -lmA min MATTNGSOCKETAC1016 $5.00 {1-9}
Model 759P
Max Safe lnput Currenr l lomA md
'Optional
Bias currenr Ct +25"C (0, *) 29opAmu 1 0 0 k C l e x t e r n a l t r i m p o t . I n p u t o f f s e t v o l t a g em a y b e
'l a d i u s t e dt o z e r o w i t h t r i m p o t c o n n e c t e d a s s h o w n . W i t h t r i m t e r m i n a l
vs. emperature (0 to +70'C) x 2 / + l OC
Voltagc Signal Range 9 l e f t o p e n , i n p u t o f f s e t v o l t a g ew i l l b e t 2 m v m a x i m u m .
,\lodel 759N + 1 m Vt o + l 0 V m i n
Model 759P -lmv to -10V min
Offsct Voltage @ +25"C (Adjusreble ro o) l2mv max
v s . l e m p e r a t u r e( 0 t o + 7 0 - C ) 1 r0!v/oc
vr Supplv Volrage !15ttv l"a

FREQUENCY RESPONSE,Sinewave
Small Signal Bandwidrh, -3dB
l5;5 = lnA 25OHz
ISrc = l0nA l.8kHz
(," = 100nA 25kHz
= lrin 200kHz
krc
lstc = l0pA 3OOkHz
lsrc = l00pA lOOkHz
= lmA 3OOkHz
\,.

RISE TIME
lncreasing Input Currenr
10nA to IOOnA 20lrs
10OnA ro UA 3!s
1pA to loOpA 2.5ps
l00ilA ro lmA 2.5ps
Decreasrng lnput Current
lmA to 10olA 3ps
100!A to UA lgs
lpA to 100nA 1ogs
l00nA to lOnA tOlr.s
I\PUT NOISE
Volrage, loHz to l0kHz lOpV rms
Current, lOHz to 10kHz 1opA rms Plot of Ouput Voltrye vs lnput Currant for Model 759
ourPUT SPEctFIcATIoNS'
Connected in the Log Mode
Rated Output
Volrage t10V min
Current
Log Mode t5mA
Antilog Mode j4mA
Resisrance 0..1f)
POWER SUPPLY4
Rated Performance t l5V dc
Operating t ( 1 2 r o 1 8 ) Vd c
Current,Quiescenr t4mA
I l . \ 1 P t . R , \t U R l . R A N ( ; t
Retril Pcrtormancc o to +70'c
Operating -25ocro +85oC
St orage -55"C to +125'C
CASE SIZE LI25" x 1.125"xO.4"
| \r rcrn)rnal 1 tor K = l\'/decade; (ermrnal 2 fo. K = 2vldccadc. rcrminals 1 and 2
\hoiled (ogethe.) for K = 2/lV/d€cade
\pe.rfrcarion is + for model 759N: for model 759P.
rro Jamage
due to aov pin being shorted ro ground.
I
neeommendetl power supplv. model 9O4. !l5V e, ,5OnA outpur.
LOG OF VOLTAGE
\f..ifications subject to change without notrce.

Plotof Ouqut Voltage vs lnryt Vot4e for Modet 759


Cormeced in the Log Mode

-2-
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION SOURCES OF ERROR
Log operation is obtained by placing the antilog element in the Log Conformity Error - Log conformity in logarithmic de-
feedback loop of the op amp as shown in Figure 1. At the vices is a specification similar to linearity in linear devices.Log
summing junction, terminal 5, the input signaicurrent to be conformity error is the difference between the value of the
processedis summed with the output cunent of the antilog transfer equation and the actual value which occurs ar the out-
element. To attain a balance of these two currents, the op amp put of the log module, after scalefactor, reference and offset
provides the required output voltage to the antilog feedback errors are eliminated or taken into account. Figure 2 below
element. Under these conditions the ideal transfer ecuation illustrates the log conformity performance of model 759 over
(K = 1) is: a 6 decadeinput range.The best linearity performance is ob-
eOUT = 1V logro ISrc/IREF tained in the 5 decadesfrom lOnA to lmA. To obtain opti-
mum performance, the input data should be scaledto rhis
The log is a mathematical operator which is defined only for range.
numbers, which are dimensionlessquantities. Since an input
current would have the dimensions of amperesit must be I
=
F

referencedto another current, I*ra, the ratio being dimension- Er:


less.For this purpose a temperature compensatedreference of
lOpA is generatedinternally. =.t!
Yt!
The scalefactor, K, is a multiplying constant. For a changein i t-:
613
i n p u t c u r r e n t o f o n e d e c a d e( d e c a d e= r a t i o o f 1 0 : 1 ) , t h e o u t - 9.16 MODELS 759N/P ERROR LIMIT

put changesby K voits. K may be selectedas lV or 2V by con-


necting the output to pin 1 or 2, respectively.If the output is InA lpA 10tsA lmtAlzmrA, lihA

c o n n e c t e dt o b o t h p i n s 1 a n d 2 , K w i l l b e 2 l 3 Y . Figure 2. Log Conformity Ercor for Models 759N and 759P

REFERRING ERRORS TO INPUT


Offset Voltage - The offset voltage, Eo., of model 759 is the
A unique property of log amplifiers is that a dc error of any
offset voltage of the internal FET amplifier. This voltage
given amount at the output correspondsto a constant percent
appears as a small dc offset voltage in serieswith the input
of the input, regardlessof input level. To illustrate this, con-
terminals. For current logging applications,its error contribu-
sider the output effects due to changing the input by 1%.
tion is negligible.However, for log voltage applications, best
The output would be, performance is obtained by an offset trim adjustment.

e o u T = l V l o g l s ( I S r G / I R E F ) ( 1 . 0 1w) h i c h i s e q u i v a l e n tt o : Bias Current - The bias current of model 759 is the bias cur-
rent of the internal FET amplifier. This parameter can be a
eour = lV logls (Isrc/IREF) t 1 V l o g r o( l o 1 )
significant source of error when processingsignalsin the nano-
amp region. For this reason,the bias current for model 759 is
Initial Value Change
Change
200pA, maximum.
The changein output, due to a 1%input changeis a consrant
Reference Current - IREp is the internally generated current
valueof t4.3mV. Conversely, a dc error at the output of
14.3mV is equivalentto a changeat the input of 1%o. source to which all input currents are compared. I*Bp toler-
Anabbre-
ance errors appear as a dc offset at the output. The specified
viatedtableis presentedbelowfor convertingbetweenerrors
referredto output (R.T.O.),anderrorsreferredto input (R.T.l.) value of I*r" is t37o referred to the input, and, from Table 1,
correspondsto a dc offset of !12.84mY for K = 1. This offset
is independent of input signal and may be removed by in-
ERROR R:T.O. jecting a current into terminal 1 or 2.
E R R O R R . T . t .K = 1 K=2 K=2/3 Reference Voltage - Ener is the effective internally generated
voltage to which all input voltagesare compared. It is related
0.7"/o 0.43mV 0.86mV 0.28mV to Io"t through the equation:
0.5 2.I7 4.34 1.45 ERgp = IRB. x Rr*, where R^ is an internal 10kSl, precision
1.0 4.32 8.64 2.88
, 12.84 resistor.Virtually all tolerance in E*Bp is due to I*"". Conse-
3.0 25.68 3.56 quently, variations in I*U" causea shift in E*"".
4.O 1 7. O 3 34.06 1 i . 35
5.O 21.19 42.38 14.13 Scale Factor - Scale factor is the voitage change ar rhe output
1 00 47.39 8 27.59 f o r a d e c a d e( i . e . , 1 0 : 1 ) c h a n g ea t r h e i n p u t , w h e n c o n n e c t e d
.2.78 in the log mode. Error in scalefactor is equivalent to a change
Table l. Converting Output Error in mV to lnput Error in gain, or slope, and is specified in per cent of the nominal
in ol value. An external adjustment may be performed if fine trim-
ming is desiredfor improved accuracy.
OPTIONAL EXTERNAL ADJUSTLIENTS FOR LOG
OPERATION
Trimming EOS - The amplifier's offset voltage, Eor, may be
trimmed for improved accuracy with the modei 759 connected
in its log circuit. To accomplish this, a 1OOkO, 10 turn pot is
connected as shown in Figure 3. The input terminal, Pin 4, is
connected to ground. Under these conditions the output volt-
age is:
eoUT = -K logls E95/EREF +15 -15 COtVt TRilll

Figure 4. Functional Block Diagran,


To obtain an offset voltage of 100pV or less,for K = 1, the trim Principle of Operation - The antilog element converrs the
pot should be adjusted until the output voltage is between +3 voltage input, appearingat terminal 7 or 2, to a current which
and +4voltsformodel 759N, and -3 to -4Vformodel 759P. is proportional to the antilog of the applied voltage. The cur-
For other values of K, the trim pot should be adjusted for an rent-to-voltage conversion is then completed by the feedback
output of e6g1 = 3 x K to 4x K where K is the scalefactor. resistor in a closed-loopop amp circuit.
A more complete expressionfor the antiiog function is,

eour = E*u, lo*tN/* * Eos


The terms K,Eos,and E*",. are those describedpreviously in
the LOG section,
Offset Voltage (Egg) Adjustment - Although offset voltage
of the antilog circuit may be balanced by connecting it in the
log mode, and using the technique describedpreviously, it may
be more advantageousto use the circuit of Figure 5. In this
configuration, offset voltage is equal to e6ur/100. Adjust for
the desirednull, using the 100k trim pot. After adjusting, turn
power off, remove the external 1O0S)resistor,and the jumper
from Pin 1 to +15V. For 759P use the same procedure but
Figure 3. Trimming Egg in Log Mode
c o n n e c tP i n 1 t o - 1 5 V .
Reference Current or Reference Voltage - The reference cur-
rent or voltage of model 759 may be shifted by injecting a
constant current into the unused scalefactor terminal (Pin 1
or Pin 2). Each 3301rAof current injected will shift the ref-
erence one decade,in accordancewith the expression' I, =
33O;tA log 1OpA/I*"", where lI = current to be injected and
IRsr = the desired reference current.

By changing IpBp, there is a correspondingchange in E*uo


since, EpBp = IRnp x R^. An alternate method for rescaling
E*uo is to connect an external R*, at the I^ terminal (Pin 5) Figure 5. Trimming Egg in Antilog Mode
to supplant the 10kO suppiied internally (leaving it uncon-
Reference Voltage (Ennf) Adjustment - In antilog operation,
nected). The expressionfor E*ro is then, EREF = Rnt her.
the voltage reference appears as a multiplying constant. E*uu
Care must be taken to choose R^ such that (e5r6 max)/R^
(1mA. adjustment may be accomplishedby connecting a resistor, R,
from Pin 5 to Pin 3, in place of the internal 10kS). The value
Scale Factor (K) Adjustment - Scale factor may be increased of R is determined by:
from its nominal value by inserting a seriesresistor between R = Ener desired/10-sA
the output terminal, Pin 3, and either terminal 1 or 2. The
table below should be consulted when makins these scale Scale Factor (K) Adjustment - The scale factor may be ad-
factor changes. justed for all values of K greater than 2l3Y by the techniques
describedin the log section. If a value of K, lessthan 2/3V is
CONNECT desired for a given application, an external op amp would be
RANGE OF K SERIES VALUE OF R NOTE required as shown in Figure 6. The ratio of the two resistorsis
R TO PIN
approximateiy,
2l3Y to l.OlY 1 3kSlx (K - 2/3) usepins 1, 2
R1/Rc = (1/K - 1) where K = desired scalefactor
1.01V to 2.02V 1 3kQ x (K - 1) use pin 1
>zlzv 3kQ x (K - 2) usepin 2
+
Table 2. BesistorSelection Chart for Shiftirtg ScaleFactor

ANTILOG OPERATION
The model 7 59 may be usedto developthe antilog of the in-
put voltagewhen connectedasshownin Figure4. The antilog
transferfunction (an exponential),is, +15 -15 COM TRll\4

e o u r = E R E F1 6 - e 6 / K t-2(e^/K(21
Figure 6. Method for Adjusting K<2/3V