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Vibrations and waves

z Maxima and nodes


z Frequency and period
z Hertz (Hz) = 1 per second
z Speed = wavelength × frequency (v = λυ)
z demonstration

Wavelength, frequency and


velocity

z Maxima and nodes


z Frequency and period
z Hertz (Hz) = 1 per second
z Speed = wavelength × frequency (v = λυ)

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Longitudinal and transverse
waves

z Transverse waves
z Longitudinal waves

Compressions and rarefactions in


(longitudinal) sound waves

z The speed of sound depends on density


z demonstration

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Waves can be reflected
z Demonstration

Waves refract: why?

demonstration

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Resonance is caused by
forced vibrations

z Finding the resonant frequency


z Resonance in musical instruments
z Resonance in structures
z Demonstration

Wave superposition
z Constructive
interference

z Demonstration

z Destructive interference

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Two-speaker interference

Beats

z Caused by waves with different frequencies


z demonstration

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What is a “standing wave”?

transverse
longitudinal
in musical instruments

Standing waves and


harmonics

z Fundamental

z Second harmonic
z Octave

z Third harmonic
z octave + fifth

z Fourth harmonic
z two octaves

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If several harmonics are
produced simultaneously…

pure tone
composite tone

Different instruments
have different timbres

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The Doppler effect

What’s going on?


z Stationary sound
source

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What’s going on?
z Moving sound source

What’s going on?


z Moving sound source
z At the speed of sound

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What’s going on?
z Moving sound source
z Past the speed of sound

Bow waves and shock waves

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