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UNIMAP ANALOG 2 Lecture note

UNIMAP ANALOG 2 Lecture note

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FREQUENCY RESPONSE

Nazuhusna Binti Khalid

Contents

1.Op-amp Application

– Introduction

Application of Inverting Amplifier:

– Inverting op-amp with T-network

– Inverting op-amp with finite differential gain

– Summing Amplifier

• DAC-digital analog converter

Application of Non-inverting Amplifier:

– Voltage Follower / Buffer Amplifier

– Differencing Amplifier

– Integrator

– Differentiator

– Summary

• 2.Frequency Response

Introduction

applications. We will discuss the

operation of the fundamental op-amp

applications. Keep in mind that the

basic operation and characteristics of

the op-amps do not change — the

only thing that changes is how we use

them

RECALL:

INVERTING OP-AMP

APPLICATION 1:

INVERTING OP-AMP WITH T-NETWORK

R2 R R

Av (1 3 3 )

R1 R4 R2

INVERTING OP-AMP WITH T-NETWORK

EXERCISE

For the ideal inverting op-

amp with T-network, shown

in this Figure, the circuit

parameters are R1 = 10kΩ, R2

= R3 = 50kΩ, and R4 = 5kΩ.

i. Determine the closed-

loop voltage gain.

ii. Determine a new value

of R4 to produce a

voltage gain of -100.

APPLICATION 2:

INVERTING OP-AMP WITH FINITE DIFFERENTIAL-

MODE GAIN

R2 1

Av

R1 1 R2

[1 (1 )]

Aod R1

APPLICATION 2:

INVERTING OP-AMP WITH FINITE DIFFERENTIAL-

MODE GAIN

EXERCISE

The inverting op-amp shown in

this Figure, has parameters are

R1 = 20kΩ, R2 = 200kΩ and

Aod = 5 x 104. The output

voltage is vo = -4.80V

i. Determine the closed-loop

voltage gain.

ii. Find the input voltage.

APPLICATION 3:

SUMMING OP-AMP

inverting amplifier accept two or more inputs and produce a

weighted sum.

op-amp adjusts itself to draw total input current iin through Rf (iin = if)

Analysis:

RF RF RF

vO ( v I 1 vI 2 vI 3 )

R1 R2 R3

SUMMING OP-AMP

EXERCISE

Consider the ideal summing op-amp

with parameters R1 = 40kΩ, R2 = 20kΩ,

R3 = 60kΩ and RF = 120kΩ.

i. Determine vo for vI1= -0.25V, vI2=

+0.10V vI3= +1.5V.

SPECIAL CASES: Summing op-amp

1. If R1 = R2 =……= R then:

“0”) or 5V (digital “1”) then:

the output voltage is proportional to the number of

(digital) 1’s input.

Summing Amplifier Applications

Summing amplifier is a versatile device, used to combine

the signals. These amplifiers add the signals directly or scale

them to fit some prearranged combination rule.

different signals with equal gains

ii. There are various resistors are used at the input of the

summing amplifier to give a weighted sum. This can be

used to change a binary number to a voltage in an AC

(digital to analog converter)

AC signal voltage. This process can be done in an LED

modulation circuit to maintain the LED in its linear

operating range.

APPLICATION OF SUMMING OP AMP:

DAC – DIGITAL ANALOG CONVERTER

R1-R4 = weighted resistor

S1-S4 = switches

RF = feedback resistor

APPLICATION OF SUMMING OP AMP:

DAC – DIGITAL ANALOG CONVERTER

4-BIT BINARY WEIGHTED-RESISTOR DAC

• “Weighted Resistors” based on bit

• Reduces current by a factor of 2 for each bit

MSB

R

b1 b2 b3 b4

vo VREF

2 4 8 16

2R

4R

8R

EXERCISE

voltage of 4-bit weighted

R resistor in this figure if the

input is 0110. assume

RF = 10kΩ.

2R i. Evaluate the output

voltage if the signal is

4R changes to 1001.

8R

APPLICATION OF SUMMING OP AMP:

DAC – DIGITAL ANALOG CONVERTER

Weighted Resistor DAC

All bits pass through resistance of 2R

Rf

APPLICATION OF SUMMING OP AMP:

DAC – DIGITAL ANALOG CONVERTER

2R 2R

Req

2R 2R R

2R 2R

Rf

VREF

I1 when RF R

2R

I1 2 I 2 4 I 3 2 N 1 I N vo VREF b1 b1 ...... bN

N

2 2 2

Thevenin Example: R-2R Ladder

EXERCISE

designed as a 6-bit D/A device. Let VFER = -5.0V and

R=RF=5.0kΩ.

i. Determine each currents of I1-I6.

ii. What is the output voltage if the input is 010011.

RECALL:

NON-INVERTING OP-AMP

APPLICATION 1:

VOLTAGE FOLLOWER

• Act as a buffer – isolates circuit from the output (driver).

• Has a high input impedance and low output impedance.

• The closed loop gain becomes, Av = 1, when R1

vO RL

v I R L RS

Voltage Follower / Buffer

Amplifier

• High input impedance.

• Low output impedance.

• Voltage gain = 1

Vout Vin

Vout

Av 1

Vin

APPLICATION 2: VOLTAGE-TO-CURRENT CONVERTER

v1 v2 vL iL Z L i1 i2

(1)

i3=iL+i4

(2)

Exercise

Consider the voltage-to-current

converter shown in Figure 9.22. The

load impedance is ZL = 200 Ω and the

input voltage is vI = −3 V. Determine iL

and vO if R1 = 10 k Ω, R2 = 1.5 k Ω, R3 = 3

k Ω, and RF = 20 k Ω.

APPLICATION 3: OP-AMP DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER

• produces an output proportional to the difference between the two inputs

• op-amp subtracts the inputs and amplifies their difference.

Op-amp Difference amplifier

Analysis:

IDEAL CASE:

R4 R

2

R3 R1

Exercise

• Consider the differential amplifier

shown in Figure. Let R1 = R3 and

R2 = R4. Design the amplifier such

that the differential voltage gain is

(a) 40, (b) 25, (c) 5, and (d) 0.5. In

each case the differential input

resistance should be as large as

possible but under the condition

that the largest resistor value is

limited to 250 kΩ.

Exercise

Let R = 10 kΩ in the differential

amplifier in Figure. Determine the

voltages vX , vY , vO and the

currents i1, i2, i3, i4 for input voltages

of v1 = 1.80 V and v2 = 1.40 V.

OP-AMP INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR

• In the op-amp circuits previously considered, the elements

exterior to the op-amp have been resistors. Other elements

can be used, with differing results.

Z2 to a capacitor

The impedances are

then Z1 = R1 and Z2 = 1/sC2

OP-AMP INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR

Op-amp integrator

Op-amp Differentiator

INTEGRATOR

loop.

ii. constant input voltage yields a ramp output.

iii. The input resistor and the capacitor form an RC circuit

iv. slope of the ramp is determined by the RC time constant.

v. can be used to change a square wave input into a triangular wave

output

vo Z 2 1

, Z1 R1 , Z 2

vI Z1 sC 2

s: complex frequency = jω

Z2 1

vo vI

Z1 sR1C2

t

1

vo Vc

R1C2 0

vt (t ' )dt' If Vc is the voltage

across capacitor

at t=0

t RC

Integrator

• The output voltage:

Vout is the same as the voltage on the negative side of

the capacitor

When constant positive input voltage (step or pulse) is

applied, the output ramp decreases negatively until

the op-amp saturates at its maximum level

• Usefulness:

Especially use in triangular-wave oscillators

Integrator - Example

• Determine the rate of change of the

output voltage in response to the input

square wave. The output voltage is initially

zero. The pulse width is 200 μs.

• Draw the waveform.

Exercise

Determine the rate of

change of the output

voltage in response to

the step input to the

integrator in Figure

above.

Differentiator

a sloping input and provides an output that

is proportional to the rate of change of the

input.

ii. more susceptible of noise

iii. differentiates low frequency signals but has

a constant high-frequency gain

a. When input is a positive-going ramp, the

output is negative (capacitor is charging)

output is positive (capacitor is

discharging) – current is the opposite

direction

Exercise

COMPARATOR

i. Digital circuits respond to rectangular or

square waves, rather than sine waves.

ii. These waveforms are made up of

alternating (high and low) dc levels and the

transitions between them.

Comparator

V REF

V in 0 t

+V out (max)

V out 0 t

V out (max)

Comparator Waveforms

Comparator

• Remember that the comparator is configured in

open-loop, making the gain very high. This is open-

loop configuration.

• This makes the comparator very susceptible to

unwanted signals (noise) that could cause the

output to arbitrarily switch states.

Comparator - Application

• Over-Temperature Sensing circuit

Comparator - Application

• Analog to Digital Converter

Frequency Response Of Op-Amp

decibels (dB) as a function of the frequency of the

input signal.

• The voltage or current gain of an amplifier

expressed in dB is 20 log10|A|, where A = Vout/Vin.

• The frequency response of an op-amp has a low-

pass characteristic (passing low-frequency signals,

attenuating high-frequency signals)

• The maximum frequency at which an op-amp may

operate depends on both the bandwidth (BW) and

SR parameters of the op-amp.

Frequency Response Of Op-Amp:

Op-Amp Bandwidth

• bandwidth = frequency at which the power of the

output signal is reduced to half that of the

maximum output power.

• Occurs when the power gain A drops by 3 dB.

• For all op-amps, the Gain*Bandwidth Product is a

constant. if gain of an op-amp is decreased, its

operational bandwidth increases proportionally.

Frequency Response Of Op-Amp:

Slew Rate

• Another parameter reflecting the op-amp’s

ability to varying signals is the slew rate.

• Slew rate provides a parameter specifying the

maximum rate of change of the output voltage

when driven by a large step-input signal.

• If the output at a rate of voltage change

greater than the slew rate:

Output would not be able to change fast

enough and would not vary over the full range

expected

Clipping or distortion

Frequency Response Of Op-Amp:

Slew Rate

K=AVi

SR ≥ 2πfK

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