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CHAPTER 2:

OP-AMP APPLICATION &


FREQUENCY RESPONSE

EMT 283/3 SEM II 2017/18


Nazuhusna Binti Khalid
Contents
1.Op-amp Application
– Introduction
Application of Inverting Amplifier:
– Inverting op-amp with T-network
– Inverting op-amp with finite differential gain
– Summing Amplifier
• DAC-digital analog converter
Application of Non-inverting Amplifier:
– Voltage Follower / Buffer Amplifier
– Differencing Amplifier
– Integrator
– Differentiator
– Summary
• 2.Frequency Response
Introduction

Op-amps are used in many different


applications. We will discuss the
operation of the fundamental op-amp
applications. Keep in mind that the
basic operation and characteristics of
the op-amps do not change — the
only thing that changes is how we use
them
RECALL:
INVERTING OP-AMP
APPLICATION 1:
INVERTING OP-AMP WITH T-NETWORK
R2 R R
Av   (1  3  3 )
R1 R4 R2
INVERTING OP-AMP WITH T-NETWORK
EXERCISE
For the ideal inverting op-
amp with T-network, shown
in this Figure, the circuit
parameters are R1 = 10kΩ, R2
= R3 = 50kΩ, and R4 = 5kΩ.
i. Determine the closed-
loop voltage gain.
ii. Determine a new value
of R4 to produce a
voltage gain of -100.
APPLICATION 2:
INVERTING OP-AMP WITH FINITE DIFFERENTIAL-
MODE GAIN

R2 1
Av  
R1 1 R2
[1  (1  )]
Aod R1
APPLICATION 2:
INVERTING OP-AMP WITH FINITE DIFFERENTIAL-
MODE GAIN
EXERCISE
The inverting op-amp shown in
this Figure, has parameters are
R1 = 20kΩ, R2 = 200kΩ and
Aod = 5 x 104. The output
voltage is vo = -4.80V
i. Determine the closed-loop
voltage gain.
ii. Find the input voltage.
APPLICATION 3:
SUMMING OP-AMP
inverting amplifier accept two or more inputs and produce a
weighted sum.
op-amp adjusts itself to draw total input current iin through Rf (iin = if)
Analysis:

RF RF RF
vO  ( v I 1  vI 2  vI 3 )
R1 R2 R3
SUMMING OP-AMP
EXERCISE
Consider the ideal summing op-amp
with parameters R1 = 40kΩ, R2 = 20kΩ,
R3 = 60kΩ and RF = 120kΩ.
i. Determine vo for vI1= -0.25V, vI2=
+0.10V vI3= +1.5V.
SPECIAL CASES: Summing op-amp
1. If R1 = R2 =……= R then:

2. If R1 = R2 = … = R and VIN1, VIN2, … are either 0V (digital


“0”) or 5V (digital “1”) then:
the output voltage is proportional to the number of
(digital) 1’s input.
Summing Amplifier Applications
Summing amplifier is a versatile device, used to combine
the signals. These amplifiers add the signals directly or scale
them to fit some prearranged combination rule.

i. These amplifiers are used in an audio mixer to add


different signals with equal gains

ii. There are various resistors are used at the input of the
summing amplifier to give a weighted sum. This can be
used to change a binary number to a voltage in an AC
(digital to analog converter)

iii. This amplifier is used to apply a DC offset voltage with an


AC signal voltage. This process can be done in an LED
modulation circuit to maintain the LED in its linear
operating range.
APPLICATION OF SUMMING OP AMP:
DAC – DIGITAL ANALOG CONVERTER

i. Binary Weighted Resistor

VREF = reference voltage


R1-R4 = weighted resistor
S1-S4 = switches
RF = feedback resistor
APPLICATION OF SUMMING OP AMP:
DAC – DIGITAL ANALOG CONVERTER
4-BIT BINARY WEIGHTED-RESISTOR DAC
• “Weighted Resistors” based on bit
• Reduces current by a factor of 2 for each bit
MSB

R
 b1 b2 b3 b4 
vo       VREF
 2 4 8 16 
2R

4R

8R
EXERCISE

MSB i. Evaluate the output


voltage of 4-bit weighted
R resistor in this figure if the
input is 0110. assume
RF = 10kΩ.
2R i. Evaluate the output
voltage if the signal is
4R changes to 1001.

8R
APPLICATION OF SUMMING OP AMP:
DAC – DIGITAL ANALOG CONVERTER

ii. R-2R Ladder

Same input switch setup as Binary


Weighted Resistor DAC
All bits pass through resistance of 2R

Rf
APPLICATION OF SUMMING OP AMP:
DAC – DIGITAL ANALOG CONVERTER

R-2R LADDER NETWORK IN N-BIT D/A CONVERTER

2R 2R

Req 
2R 2R   R
2R  2R 

Rf
VREF
I1  when RF  R
2R
 I1  2 I 2  4 I 3  2 N 1 I N  vo  VREF  b1  b1  ......  bN 
N
2 2 2 
Thevenin Example: R-2R Ladder
EXERCISE

The N-bit D/A converter with R-2R ladder network is to be


designed as a 6-bit D/A device. Let VFER = -5.0V and
R=RF=5.0kΩ.
i. Determine each currents of I1-I6.
ii. What is the output voltage if the input is 010011.
RECALL:
NON-INVERTING OP-AMP
APPLICATION 1:
VOLTAGE FOLLOWER
• Act as a buffer – isolates circuit from the output (driver).
• Has a high input impedance and low output impedance.
• The closed loop gain becomes, Av = 1, when R1  

vO RL

v I R L  RS
Voltage Follower / Buffer
Amplifier
• High input impedance.
• Low output impedance.
• Voltage gain = 1

Vout  Vin
Vout
Av  1
Vin
APPLICATION 2: VOLTAGE-TO-CURRENT CONVERTER
v1  v2  vL  iL Z L  i1  i2

(1)

Summing currents at (+) terminal:


i3=iL+i4
(2)

Insert (1) to (2):

If Rf/R1R3 = 1/R2, ZL can be 0 (independent of ZL)


Exercise
Consider the voltage-to-current
converter shown in Figure 9.22. The
load impedance is ZL = 200 Ω and the
input voltage is vI = −3 V. Determine iL
and vO if R1 = 10 k Ω, R2 = 1.5 k Ω, R3 = 3
k Ω, and RF = 20 k Ω.
APPLICATION 3: OP-AMP DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIER
• produces an output proportional to the difference between the two inputs
• op-amp subtracts the inputs and amplifies their difference.
Op-amp Difference amplifier

NON -IDEAL CASE:

Analysis:

IDEAL CASE:
R4 R
 2
R3 R1

Difference amplifier with vI2=0 Difference amplifier with vI1=0


Exercise
• Consider the differential amplifier
shown in Figure. Let R1 = R3 and
R2 = R4. Design the amplifier such
that the differential voltage gain is
(a) 40, (b) 25, (c) 5, and (d) 0.5. In
each case the differential input
resistance should be as large as
possible but under the condition
that the largest resistor value is
limited to 250 kΩ.
Exercise
Let R = 10 kΩ in the differential
amplifier in Figure. Determine the
voltages vX , vY , vO and the
currents i1, i2, i3, i4 for input voltages
of v1 = 1.80 V and v2 = 1.40 V.
OP-AMP INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR
• In the op-amp circuits previously considered, the elements
exterior to the op-amp have been resistors. Other elements
can be used, with differing results.

Z1 corresponds to a resistor and


Z2 to a capacitor
The impedances are
then Z1 = R1 and Z2 = 1/sC2

where Z1 and Z2 are generalized impedances


OP-AMP INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR

Op-amp integrator

Op-amp Differentiator
INTEGRATOR

i. basic integrator is easily identified by the capacitor in the feedback


loop.
ii. constant input voltage yields a ramp output.
iii. The input resistor and the capacitor form an RC circuit
iv. slope of the ramp is determined by the RC time constant.
v. can be used to change a square wave input into a triangular wave
output
vo  Z 2 1
 , Z1  R1 , Z 2 
vI Z1 sC 2
s: complex frequency = jω
 Z2 1
 vo  vI 
Z1 sR1C2
t
1
vo  Vc  
R1C2 0
vt (t ' )dt' If Vc is the voltage
across capacitor
at t=0

Rate of change of the output: Vout Vin



t RC
Integrator
• The output voltage:
Vout is the same as the voltage on the negative side of
the capacitor
When constant positive input voltage (step or pulse) is
applied, the output ramp decreases negatively until
the op-amp saturates at its maximum level
• Usefulness:
 Especially use in triangular-wave oscillators
Integrator - Example
• Determine the rate of change of the
output voltage in response to the input
square wave. The output voltage is initially
zero. The pulse width is 200 μs.
• Draw the waveform.
Exercise
Determine the rate of
change of the output
voltage in response to
the step input to the
integrator in Figure
above.
Differentiator

i. does the opposite of the integrator takes


a sloping input and provides an output that
is proportional to the rate of change of the
input.
ii. more susceptible of noise
iii. differentiates low frequency signals but has
a constant high-frequency gain
a. When input is a positive-going ramp, the
output is negative (capacitor is charging)

b. When input is a negative-going ramp, the


output is positive (capacitor is
discharging) – current is the opposite
direction
Exercise
COMPARATOR
i. Digital circuits respond to rectangular or
square waves, rather than sine waves.
ii. These waveforms are made up of
alternating (high and low) dc levels and the
transitions between them.
Comparator

V REF
V in 0 t

+V out (max)
V out 0 t
V out (max)

Comparator Waveforms
Comparator
• Remember that the comparator is configured in
open-loop, making the gain very high. This is open-
loop configuration.
• This makes the comparator very susceptible to
unwanted signals (noise) that could cause the
output to arbitrarily switch states.
Comparator - Application
• Over-Temperature Sensing circuit
Comparator - Application
• Analog to Digital Converter
Frequency Response Of Op-Amp

• Frequency response = magnitude of the gain in


decibels (dB) as a function of the frequency of the
input signal.
• The voltage or current gain of an amplifier
expressed in dB is 20 log10|A|, where A = Vout/Vin.
• The frequency response of an op-amp has a low-
pass characteristic (passing low-frequency signals,
attenuating high-frequency signals)
• The maximum frequency at which an op-amp may
operate depends on both the bandwidth (BW) and
SR parameters of the op-amp.
Frequency Response Of Op-Amp:
Op-Amp Bandwidth
• bandwidth = frequency at which the power of the
output signal is reduced to half that of the
maximum output power.
• Occurs when the power gain A drops by 3 dB.
• For all op-amps, the Gain*Bandwidth Product is a
constant.  if gain of an op-amp is decreased, its
operational bandwidth increases proportionally.
Frequency Response Of Op-Amp:
Slew Rate
• Another parameter reflecting the op-amp’s
ability to varying signals is the slew rate.
• Slew rate provides a parameter specifying the
maximum rate of change of the output voltage
when driven by a large step-input signal.
• If the output at a rate of voltage change
greater than the slew rate:
 Output would not be able to change fast
enough and would not vary over the full range
expected
 Clipping or distortion
Frequency Response Of Op-Amp:
Slew Rate
K=AVi
SR ≥ 2πfK