March 1972
Reproduced by Permission!
of HMSO
'Pll 11,,t, #
REPORT NO NCREIR579
Mar ch 1972 
ABSTRACT
The report presents a comprehensive account of the mechanics of, and methods
for predicting, the interaction between the vertical vibration modes of a sur
face ship and a nearby underwater explosion. It summarises earlier work in the
field and gives a full unified aocount of the author's recent work (reprted
piecemeal elsewhere).
S.:)eri ntrnden t
1,: ••.......rV•:;'i •:• ,... ..;.,..T•..• ...... . •,'•.  • ......... A.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
iii
SUMMARY
The principal aim of the thesis is to devc:cp, fuid show how to solve,
Equations for this purpose were developed in the USA 1520 years ago and
more general and which leads to equations in matrix form. In this form
the equations are much more suitable for evaluution by computer. The
action are examined in some detail and tt.".' limits of application of the
is the use of strip theory since this cannot allow for either the longitud
inal flow which occurs when the bubble is close to the ship, or for the
flow around the end of the ship when the bubble is in such a region. The
to strip theory for describing the flow around a vibrating ship is presented.
This approximates the full threedimensional flow field around the ship by
the determination of added water mass around a vibrating ship in more usual
vibration problems.
The original American derivation of the equations assumed that the pulsating
upward migration of the bubble due to gravity and the effect of this migra
For severe flexural motions of the ship some plastic yielding or even buck
ling could occur and a direct solution of the original finite element
iv
equations, modified to include such effects, is presented. This shows tht
The entire thesis is a theoretical exercise although the results for the
nonmigrating Lubble case are compared with a few iuudel test results
=v
• V
CONTEN'rS~
C0 N T ENT s
Title e
Declaration Ii
Acknowledgement iii
Summary iv
SECT ION
A Introdu' tion I
D Background 4
E Equations of Motion 34
F The Normal Mlode Equations 38
G Use of the Modal Fquations for Free VJ ration 42
vi
0 The Effect of iOubble ::igration 150
'1
I
A introduction
rupture and for charges further away there may still be considerable
deformation of the structure nearest the charge. The shock wave also
of much lower frequency (typicalky $5 Hz) than the shock motions
acconapa~iyng the local damage, The amplitudes can be very large and
direct shock damage, this damage can or~cur at parts of the ship
quite remote from the site of the explosion. These bending motions
storms if the bow of a ship emerges from the water and then slams
back onto it. They constitute a superposition of the well know.r low
gete the nature of the interaction between the explosion and the ship
!
It is already known from earlier work principally by 0 Chertock
work showed that the whipping is primarily due to the coupling between
the vibration modes and the pulsating flow. This thesis extends the
ship response which show more clearly the nature of the forces
acting on the shtp and are also more readily solved by standard
thesis attempts to tie together only the simplest ideas from each
2
Section D extends strip theory to allow for the explosion induced motion
an allomance for the effect of small bilge keels on the added water mass.
equations developed in sections Cto 11. Most of the new material in the
alternative to the custo,,ary ship theory for the flow around the ship.
for making an allowance for the effect of shock wave damage to the target.
on the forces the bubble produces on the ship. Section R describes how the
basic equations for the ship motion can be modified to allow for plastic
yielding and buckling of the ship. Two further major programs were
migration of the bubble and plastic deformation of the target) and are
develo.,ed to evalu.ite the exact solutions for comparison with the approxi
mate analysis.
ences and figures for each section are grouped at the end of the section.
B Iacjund
Although a considerable amount of work has been carried out on
the vibration and %larmins aspects of ship whipping. very little work
sqam detail.
by
y(x,t) =qi(T i W
Si(x) the ith normal mode shape for transverse vibration in vacto
.th
and qi is a generalised coordinate for the i mode (e.g. the
amplitude at the bow or, alternatively, the root mean square displace
ment). The nor1ial modes for such motions are orthogonal with the
4
angle P is the angle between the vertical and the normal to the
for incompressible flow, the fluid pressure on the ship can be expressed
as a linear sum of the pressure due to the explosion induced fluid flow
on the structure, assumed rigid, and the pressures due to the motion
can be defined by
this gives
2 (B6)
2 M
1• + L..
other by the entrained water around the ship through the coefficients
uncoupled into
M= +Ip  o•'cospdo (B7)
of integral equations where the integrals are over khe whole surface
of the ship hull. In practice, for physical reasons the L.. 's
bodies '
i.e. L  8.
I 13
so that the crosscoupling terms all vanish arid the mode shapes in
air and water are identical, although the frequencies will change
it were rigid, due to the flow around the explosion bubble, the well
[6 46
where V is a factor depending only on the charge position and the
ship aiv; modc shapes. For a clkarge sufficiently far from the ship
where • is tic height of the uxis ef th2 ship abovw the charge centre
and r is the standoff of the particular point on the ship axis from
(M + L q)  IV(t); (BIO)
by the ship.
7
two series o' experiments on model t:irgets. The first series
and nearly uniform and the mode shapes in air and water were
was also satisfied. At the given depth the maximum bubble radius
whipping modc the predicted results agreed very well with the experi
mental (Reference B3) but for the3 node mode the measured amplitudes were
about 30 less than those predicted. For the 2node mode the varia
8 ft long by 9 ins in diameter and two charge sizes, 1.2 gins and
8.2 gins were used. The charge and target were lowered to a series
modes were menasured as the bubble period varied, due to dcpth, from
standoff was aso investigated. For the 2node mode agreem.ent was
again goou cv'ryw;acre but for t.,i 'node :iode the ex.:eri!.ental
vibratiorn :e.sur.ements iere :.r:.'e both in air and water t,, deten.line
the i,.ode sha..cs a•tx: f re, ,'ncies and to deternine thc valies of L..
8
fr.,* tae e.".. tin
the cylinder led to iiinor diff~reices in the mode shapes for the two
of assmiptions (a) to (e), and to sowe extent outside tC.c, the analysis
is quite accxrate. The good agreement also indic Aes that, at least
on siall scale, the assumptions (f) and (g) are justified. Chertock
why the assu,::ption (f) should be generally true even though initially,
when the explosion emits the shock wave, the fluid notion is far from
distance fro; the charge to the ship is large c:'mpared with the ship
tion breaks ,.own at closer ranges. For very small carges of the
type used in the experi..tent and with the pressitre still at...ospheric
9
scale this L, tiot true atl bubbles nigrate very vigorously. Such
calculating the normal mode frequencies and shapes of ships have been
well established over the last half century, their basis, strip theory
The forcing iction or the bubble ptlsations on the ship can then be
10
References:
=I11
C Th Elastic Pepresentation of the Ship
Since the latter part of the last century it '..is been custompary
when com.tpared with the measured deflections gave mnuch lower ay;parent
the straightforward bea:mi theory which made allowance for the effect
C3C8 have been carried out on ships and all have confir:1'c that beaL:
even to the i:oint of failure (C3 and C3) provided that long deck houses
12
ways dc..endi:&g on how they are supported. Instead of the stresses
increasing away from the neutral axis, except in very long well
they are sup.,orted is flexible enough, they may even have a curvaturc
depending on its size shape and support. Theories and ,etn•ods for
C.2.
The a:'D .ication of beai theory t, the vibration of ships has a
shear deflecLions are included and an entrained mass o& water allowed
play anizcreasingly important part for the higher modes and the
appear.
r :i:ally tlh usual strip theory m~etnod for allowing for the
gencrally accepted that only the first few modes, with up to about
induced whipping it is the lowest few modes which turn out to be the
most significant.
13
To a:,);ly the lumped mass/weightless beam idealisation to a
of the section. The forces and moments acting at the ends of any
rotations there, all the ship weight, buoyancy and inertial forces
.M, = I,2
dx
I 2 x3
2I
rE M 2 rYL
y x x
I2E l0 L (Ci)
00
0I x L
S 0 0 0 1 SL
where the suffix L refers to conditions at the left hand end of the
beam section. If the conditions at the right hand end are substituted
the equations may be inverted to give the forces and moments required
14
at each end of the beam to maintain there givir displacements and
2
II +
HL•n
j
(o i r "( I antiy
,
P L
3lo Ck(ILe)
2
y o (C2)
cL
where
1(+v)Iand
C a 2 (03)
S2 Z3~(1 + 2e)
Lth)
androtation
:95(xn)
by(a)t
impoed
matricesA,,
the
n beam
t sectionens
22
a.. ; . )L&3 c.=a.&i ;6.
_1_ = 1_1. _
Here (. a..) are the values given by (C0) for the ithbeanm section
i, I
A ICIBBTy
[= (C6)
This form can be useful since for ship vibrations the rotary inertias
F.
Li
rI
References:
12. Schade, 11. A. ; "Two Beam Deckhouses Theory with Shear Effects."
Schiff und Hlafen, Heft 5/1966, 13. Jahrgang.
"17
w
0z
Yb I
U, * 1I
zw
'S
D The 'iydratn•.y :ic .irces on the Ship
Since tstrip' theory has ovvr the l.'.st 5, years been thie rincipal,
in fact almost sole rethod of allowing for the entrained mass of water
for vibration !ruoi•Iczs in still watcr, it has been used :icre in the
1929 by Lewis (Di. and has changed very little since that time.
Le,;is expl.oitcd the lon, slender nature of ships lby assuming that
close to the ship the hydredynamic flow would be largely confined t,
local flow except near nodes, where the ship motion is largely a
fairly rapidly, for exim.ple near the bow and stern. 3,'ear these
flow. fields, the force per unit length on any crosssection of the
into flows aýoun'cd' a•.ropriately shaped cylinders. Lewis use ' the
Z = B + ;
a +
bi3
transfor:.ition
The added masses per unit length (ýt)were related to the added mass of
C 9
19
The coefficients C are given for the crosssections in Figure 1.
flow effects, Lewis compared the strip theory flow around a prolate
suggestcd that the calculated added mass distribution for the ship
The wh:,l. :)rocedure g.ves very good results for the lower
reduction f:iztor J for the 3D flow effect del.cnds on the shade
vary along t'.c length of the ship, arI in general this is the ca.se.
paper, Tay .or (D2), :rrived at the s%:ie a 1roxi.at:: strip t';eopy
20
A'11    PM.*
for the 2node vibration mode, in Figure D2. Taylor also gave a
'2 2
was assumed. This has nodes at + L(I2B/L ) /215, measured from
the half wavelength for the cylinder motion hihence the appropriate
better with Lewis' ori inal results is not surprising since the
a lesser extent, near the bow and stern of ships, do the boundary
Z = a + )/m + b/ n.
for the cnses (ri,n) = (1,5), (1,7) and t3,7). Lewis' sections of
course arc fcr (im, n) = (I, 3). From these results l'rohaska found
that for sections with some parts concave outwards, the added mass
was very close tn tha' for the same section with the concavity
!I
found the coefficient C could be determined with good accuracy as a
1Kacagno and coworkers 14, D5. These authors used a three parameter
fit for the sections rather than the two param.,etcr fits used by
= Z + +_ + + ..
z
to obtain as close a fit to the actual section as desired. Quite
only ones available on the effects of such keels. The ;nethod used
fairly well by Prohaska's method; simply using the added mass for
22
(the dotted rectangle in Figure )4). For the square section Wendel
quoted the rz.sults in the table for the increase in the coefficient
C for various values of d/b (the bilge keel width to half bean ratio).
in the table.
/b C increase
inb I
n
" increase given
by (I +
d
/12b)
2
 1.512 0 0
(;.04% 1.61 6.74 7.10
j•.123 i .80 19.05 18.16
factor along the length of the ship and showed that in fact, even
least for rizid body motions, lie also showed that the reduction
factor is constant for both Lewis' and Taylor's assumed 2node
vibration modes of a spheroid. The proof for the Taylor mode shape
how,ver 's not quite correct and. in fact the local reduction factor
cnes vary for this case. Kaplan's paper gives an excellent survey
23
tVe ef:*ccts c visc:)sity, curnpressibi!ity and surf.cc .. ives and
The results all shot, that for the pitching and heavirn s:iip modes
the effect of the surface ",'aves changes the added mass appreciably
becomes negli:3ible.
and 4 satisfies 2
24
C. S on I' (D2)
fluid
r r
su that, co. *Žarin,; .ith (DI),
ýx~aft 5)
dr
The fractor *..I ! ows for t:.e u p~er !,ir fa'thce fluid! not :,Ciný;
4?=Ey + c()r .
=V COSO 7n I
ýIlcarly t:ais .*mtcitil is Z~iven b~y 47Ly  (Uv)? mor t:dis stisifies
0 + t
4~ ~ + p(
60e=pUyi V)4 do
25
; yd* is the .rza %.itUinthe cont'm)r r, i.e. 2A whicre \ is the
under..Lter section is
fr =PAU + 4(  V) (D6)
in fact rather obvious. The second term is the inertial force due
to thL relative acceleration of the cylinder and the fluid and the
The vertical velocity of the water due to the explosion bubble motion
of its centreplane v:ith the watcrlinc Ic.,) as though the ship were
not present. If the charge is far enough from the ship for this
the local flow for thc presence of the ship w;ill, ns albove, be
Ii C
,= . ".P
S3D
References
1!. Choung look Lee ; "The Second Crdcr Theory of Cyl indcrs
Oscillating in a Free Surface." Jn. Ship
"Research, Vol ;2, No. 4, 1963.
27
CURVES *Igam TO UNDIRWATER
CROSS SKCTlONAL. ^NARA*) Wi()c
00
o 404
"•,
d 0
d 0
•"
o 0
09
00
4 4
FIGURE 01(s)
28
15,
00
0*
IL 6
HALF BEAM B
DRAFT 2D
0.9
S~TAYLOR'S
U ~~~CYLINDER ,"
JI
U) S~0.
06
VS 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13
L lB
FIGURE D2
30
01
*112
CA
ItI
TWO
 DMNINLSCINv~uLMS OPIIN
FIUR
0D3
o1S
 ! 1
o I
. /
FIGUE D
a *32
)y
/D
uI
FIGURE D5
33
E Equations of Motioi
The only external forces acting on the ship are the hydrodynamic ones
of force along tht ship. In addition to these, the inertial forces due to
the ship's own mass also act and again form a distribution along the entire
length. The form.lation of the elastic nature of the ship assumed only
forces acting at the discrete tnodest between the beam sections. Current
derived from energy considerations. These divide the mass between the
element nodes in t:e most effective manner. However, for the beam
complicated and ai•o much of the ship mass comes from material such as
n equal sections, lump the total mass and inertia of each section into a single
mass and inertia at the centre of the section, and take the elastic beams
is fairly slow, the lumped hydrodynamic force and moment at the ith mass
will be from (D6) (i again being the added mass per unit length),
displacement will be
S= B.t y.
Shsi BZ
"dB. y + B dy 3
. 4 (E2)
hsi dx i idx 12
34
The normal i. .rttal force aud moment are
Si miY (I5)
dy.
Mli idx
ki = .4is . i i 122
1 dE.
ri 12 dx
2_M+I
K 01 [M +51 ]t
LLLW] R+R + Rr
LR'k*R' + (E5)
where u = aIx and the su'b•;atrices are all diagonal with the obvious
offdiagonal submatrices R', 9" and K'. Over most of the length of a
w W r
ship the crosssection is almost constant so that these terms will be
very small except possibly near the ends. Strip theory already ignores
therefore consistent with strip theory to neglect the terms and use the
35"
]i w
ri Ew
equation
= =I  + (E6)
L 0
L R+R
L i rwK 0 Rw+ U
"
I
On applying D',\lemli.rt's Principle, these arc the forces and moinents ncces.ry
M+ 0A+K
B [ •
+R 0 ]E[)
L _Rj L Li
and for the stillwater vibration the right hand side may be dropped.
In general, for ship vibration, it has been found that rotary inertia
effects are usually fairly small. On neglecting the appropriate terms and putting
RR W =K r =RWw =0,
T = C1 BT
and
from its neglect from the norntal Timoshenko beam equations since here it has
slice of the beam, and so is related purely to the depth of the beam and the
amount of material away from the centre of rotation, Here the rotary inertia
includes this term but also includes a term due to part of each lumped mass
36
function of Lhe beam represe;,ration rather than an intrinsic property
Any stresses deduced from equations (E7) and (E8) during motion are
ship.
37
F The Normal Mode Equations
TVe equations (E7) and (E8) are both linear and of the general
form
mi SY = 121u (Fl)
transverse snip motions with any accuracy, the ship has to be split
a single lumped mass on its two weightless beams, all the other
no physical meaning, but its frequency will be very high, and will
modes and to reject at the outset the higher modes known to have no
a=M
+ E =K u
(F2)
38
1, I,
where E = M 2 S112
1 1
T
i.e. a Ni&
= M (F3)
0
%IJ i ii
 2 = 1, *eel N)
c•i + W~i =_•i(t)9 (i
These equations are independent and only the few low frequency
are given by
(F2) become
[iT h*.. : Ui 6
39
N
ie z kYkiYkj  Miij (F5)
k=l
N
T
,T M22,;
27 : ýjt "'2Vkjk
2 N
which gives the ergations for the ith mode coefficients i(t)
shape of the ith mode and the fluid accelerations at all the
N
displacement y(xt) = Z=£o(t)yi(x)
N
velocity J(x~t) = E. 'ii(t)yi(x)
N
bending moment M(xt) = E Qi(t)Xi(x) (F7)
i=I
N
shear force S(x9t) = 'M
1,Ms i(x)
i=4
40
where yi(X), S"(x) and S.(x) are the displacement, moment and shear
force at the position x when the ship is in the ith mode (unit
amplitude). With the normal mode shapes known (Yki' Tki known at
the kth mass) the displacement, moment and shear force for a point
""  2
•2 x (I E)
2
Y.(x) I 21x Ek Yki
Ski
Si(x) 0 0 0 1 SL
41
G Use of the Modal Equations for Free Vibration
In some of the previous vibration calculations inthe literature ships have been
has usually been found acceptable for the low modes. The examples
I.
= 30.106
3 psi; Y = 0.3
242
The matrices A, B and C are then the (20 x 20) matrices
r 1. 5 70 1.570 0 •.. o
I1.570 0 1.570 0 ... 0
0 1.570 0 1.570. 0
B 106 lb
1.570 0 1.570
0 0 . 1570 1.570
4.35 1.781 0 0 to 00
0 1.781 4.35
and h"es,: define the shear forces Si(lb) and bending moments
"43
according to
L"] = [T €]~
Since the density of steel is .284 lb/in , the mass of each
'lumped mass' is 2.216 lb. For the rectangular cross section one
2
= o.601 lb S)
(the usual factor ý has been dropped since for a fully submerged
L/B = 39, the 3D reduction factor is 0.983 so that 3D flow affects
the bar very little. The buoyancy term is not actually needed for
pAZ = 2pBDC = .2815 lb. The immersion force k. is of course zero for a
1
submerged bar. The rotary inertia of each section about its ceitre
2
surrounding water is 1/12mw4
w and of the buoyancy it is
1/12u;t.2 so that
2
r=2,99 b.in.2; rwi .749 lb.in. 2; rw= .358 lb.in..
44
subroutines. FGr the beam vibrating in air alone (awi = wi = 0),
and with shear deflections suppressed, (A. made very large) the
xi E
Number of nodes 2 3 4 5 6
Number of nodes 7 8 9 10
Exact frequency 636.2 846,9 1088 1359
The agreement to within 0.15% for the basic two node frequency
mass formulation and the computer routines used. For the higher
4
4,5
modes the accuracy naturally falls off but that it should be only
that only a 20 lumped mass system was used so that there are only
Number of
nodes
Case 2 3
6 ; Measured value
46
Clearly neither rotary inertia nor shear affects the frequencies
greatly for this beam. Shear in fact has almost no effect but
experimental error.
of giving good results and quite high accuracy can be obtained for
boxbeam. The dimensions are shown in Figure G1. In this case the
The top of the box had a 4" wide opening along its entire length,
The degree of fixity of the cover, and its strength, will affect the
bolts were really tight and that the cover was simply equivalent
data is
The total ballastea weight was 105 lb so that the draft was 2.70
B
in. Then H = 2 = 1.668 and the added mass coefficient C = 1.40
13.33 so that J = 0.903 and this time the effect of the 3D
A47
In the calculation of the added masses the factor "' is
included to allow for the free surface effect, The lumped mass
data is:
6; Measured frequencies
/t8
FREQUENCIES FOR CHIRTOCK'S BOX BEAM MODEL
S~Number of
0 1 2 3 4 5
Case
0
0A 0 86 238 466 771
2A 0 0 88 244 479 794
3A 0 0 87 235 451 726
4A 0 0 86 227 414 628
5A 0 0 85 221 399 602
6A 0 0 81 191197  
t
The agreement this time is much less satisfactory. The 'exact
uniform beam results still agree well with the appropriate case 3,
higher than those measured by 4.7o and 4r respectively, and for the
three node modes the correspondLng figures are 120 and 31%. Since
the lumped mass model has been shown to be accurate for such low
modes, and still agrees with the lexactt uniform beam solution,
S~49
In addition to the natural frequencies, the mode shapes and
effect of shear but it was thought that perhaps the simple beam
It
A it
s m
one side of the neutral axis) might not be very accurate for the
for the shear area of thin walled girder, a smaller value for the
shear area was obtained and this gave the results for case5(a) above.
had a 4 inch wide gap in the centre of the top plating, which was
50
•' ,• •k._
"•
''+''• .r• r+
++ Q• +•.....
 •+ .•'+'"
. +: '' ... •'.. • . +•"=•
• •  '+ +++''+••'•i ' ' •' "•=•....  A•
closed off dut'ing the tests by a boltedon lid. Assuming that the
lid was totally ineffective, the moment of inertia and shear area
become
I = 7.51 in4 As 0.513 in
2
instead of I = 9.51, A = 0.529 in as with the lid.
factor
No. of nodes 2 3 4 5
The fundamental modefrequeniy is now too low but that of the 3 node mode is about
right. It is possible that any relative motion between the lid and
the main box could affect the modes rather differently and this
the added water mass is very large, 1.6 times the structure mass,
for the higher modes. The shear correction for the 5node mode
frequency is 26%. The data for this model however are not adequate
or between the normal beamtype shear area and Taylor's shear area.
c. Full Scale Ship
a vibration test and are given in the following table. As for the
uniform beams, the ship was divided into 20 equal length sections
and the mass and rotary inertia of each section was lumped at its
bow and L is the length of the ship, the lumped masses are at the
positions
x.  (i  ")L/20 ; i 1, ... , 20
x. iL/20 ; i = it .*j, 19
The data require some explanation. The ship mass and buoyancy
are fairly easily obtained from the ship's design drawings. The
calculated from C with the ship design value gave further general
"52
'4 C4  
~ s  
0
4 j v \ t D& _%
oWC
00 000 00000
O '0 0 0 0' 0% t'. 0 0 0% C
0 r.0 til If0^ C4 W
r 4 . ...
tn a\ . %C
... tn .* .
0 0
..4 0
tn3 .. 0. Ot0 0 Q t . 0
C4C4 Lnr00 0\ r\%D n C
•. u. . 0 9 0 0, *9 0 0 * .
r_ tn \4.rN0sr.n
ci LtA\ n CIS 0 N n
r. a\ t,% \r0 x a, Go 00Z i '.\D N % \0 11% !
0 0  .        t.Q
r\'
ttn~
US .0' 4
te%. r 00 0\ 0  C4 n .r Lt'\. %a '00 0\ 0
53
The method is considerably more complex than applying
the collocatoim point either at 1i/3rd of the draft above the keel,
or at the point of attachment of the bilge keel gave the most reason
C13 and G5 both rccommend the use of Wendel's correction factor (07).
1' ' (since the beam is 19 feet and the keel width 2 feet). Applying
at the turn of bilge was rather larger than the width of the
bilge keel so it was assumed that the flow near the keel would
be fairly similar to the flow along a flat wall with a plate project
ing out at right angles. The latter flow is simply one half of
flow is well known. The velocity of the flow past the plate can
the velocity which would exist at ti,, root of the bilge keel
value instead of the value used here would reduce the basic 2node
54
vibration frequency by about 2'j only. For vibration purposes this
was used. For this ship, with a length/beam ratio of 9.3 the factor
mass would be 750 tons greater and the basic frequency would be
0.847 which would increase the added mass by about 150 tons and so
and was not carried out for this ship. It had however been carried
out earlier for a fairly sitailar ship and the values for that ship
forecastle deck was also included entirely right back to the break
shear area is to take the area of all vertical plating. This was
tried bat led to frequencies which were too high. The shear areas
ere about half the values given by the vertical plating method
neutral axis occurs within inches of the waterline, where, for amour
55
reasons, there is an abrupt change in plating thickness. Applying
the above equation rigorously could lead to the shear area changing
of thin walled box girders applies well in this case and several of
well.
are shown in the table, together with the actual frequency where this
was known.
Frequency (Hz)
Number of Nodes Calculated Measured
_ 2 3 _
56
The agreement is quite satisfactory for the four vibration
reducing even the basic mode by 9%o and for the higher, 6 and 7 modes,
good except for the basic mode. This shape however could not be
References
57
z~nh
0
cc,
4 WZU
4
w
o x
0
ILL
2z, A
WW
J J
miaoz z
xi
00
53
K .. MEASU•iED POINTS
MASS NUMBER
1
bow 2 4 6 1 2STERN '
X
VBOW 2 4 .. a 10 K 12 14 16 S 2STERN
U • MASS 4NUMBER
.J
inx
x
0 x
MASS NUMBER
BOW
MBOW •M II I 16 8 2 STERN
N MAS NUMBER
SK
absence of the ship and any boundary surfaces (eg the free surface
u = V/r 2 (I)
V 2V dr V
4%r 4ux dt 4xr 8x r
The second term clearly decays much more rapidly than the first
away from the bubble and•in any case.it is consistent with the
approximation,
U= (H2)
4zr
Referring to the geometry shown in FigureHi, this acceleration,
sV VD R2 2 2 2
a.Cost. 2D R + H .(xX)
42R. •R.3 ; iv
60I
__!
To allow for the presence of a .'ree surface at the shbp axis,
surface the image will have the effect of doubling the vertical
VD (H3)
k=1 k WK ki
for the case where rotary inertias are neglected. The same
theory is applicable.
,'
included here as it, provides a useful leadin to the modifications
a a
U : f
24r
where a is the bubble radius. The kinetic energy is therefore
2
KE = ýP .oI,~r = 2y
a
PE 4ap 4 3 po
3 yi 3
bubble centre. Since the pulsations are very rapid the adiabatic
p=kPY  k Wy
ig 4a3y
E= E3.2
KE +PE = 2paa• 4 pa~gZ°+L.
+ 3 3 kIW
k3(1)
Eo E + P 7 a E a S 4 'x y1 3(y1 )
(Y) (T) a
62
   L .• • •¸r' • • . +, • • . • • • • • , r•, • •.j
L =;
F3E
1/
1/ [T] L I/
(H5)
as
(pgZ )Yl
k = kyII
0
centred about the bubble minimum. At these times the bubble surface
3 k 1 (H7)
xI  k 1 + (Y ý) ; maximum
"63
Y  5/4
and then the actual value of the period is correct if
E = eW
0
1/4
k .0552 Z"0 (H9)
p = 8,15p~' 4
10.25
p = 7.8pg,
for the low pressures involved during most of the bubble period.
With Aron's values, the scale constants L and T and the
64
is then given by
V(t) 3
L3(x3) 1220 W/Zo2/3 ())
/3 2/ x 32
ft)/sec (HI1)
3T 0
"°3
where x , by differentiating (6), is given by
32 .2 3x~ 3.7!
x Xxx
x .=. x i/x 4
_ (3Y4)k/x (H12)
p = PC
Here p is the velocity potential for the flow around the bubble i.e.
4ar
so that
pPV (H13)
4itr
and with the same units as before
pr =  (x3) psift. (H14)
The equations (1110) for the period and amplitude of the bubble
The observed radius was 5.4 inches and ihe period 23.5 msecs.
This period will have been reduced somewhat from the freewater
65
• . I . . 
 " fr x  • ^ • . .. . * . ,"  .. . . .. "    a •a 1' , • • : '  '  * • • , • , • '

a
(see reference 14) (I  0.2 A) i.e. 0.932 for this bubble.
msecs. Now
T~ Ir/2
a L x gZ (1115)
m m o m
so that the ratio of period to amplitude is independent of the energy
k xm x o0 /x
a
m
T 2gZ 1 / 2 T
. (_..)' .£ = 1.520
xM 3 a.
so that k =0.066 (for TNT at the same depth the value would have
radius,
Pr ~~T4x T2x
V4x= : 18.71 x psiinches
These results apply only up to the first bubble minimum since near
radiation and by cooling from water spray projected into the bubble
66
as its surface becomes unstable. By a simailar process to the above,
again making allowance for the surface effect, the observed values
17.6 msecs, 3.9 inches and 15.2 msecs, 3.2 inches for the period
and radius for the second and third pulses lead to the values:
These give results for the first three bubble pulsation which
the surface effect. His length and time scales were arbitrarily
integral for r(x). The method gives high accuracy with very few
terms.
References
b7
H13. Jones, 1i and; "The Detonation of Solid Explosive. The
Miller, A R Equilibrium Conditions in the Detonation Wave
Front and the Adiabatic Expansion of the
Products of Detonation". Proc Roy Soc
Series A Vol 194, No 1039 (Nov 1948).
H4. Kennard, E H; "Migration of Underwater Gas Globes due
to Gravity and Neighbouring Surfaces".
Underwater Exp Res Vol II  The Gas
Globe, ONR.
68
ty
FIGURE HI
69
0
6o
"NI
o  "rSd *Jd
0
o
0
o o
u
0
c
o
00 ce
0, a
0 0 0 0
0• i
Ox
70
N11 0d
0 W
x
00
3;(x
1 0 x
0 0 0
70 N  "'' dI
I. Description of Computer Program I
Atlas, KDF9 and IBM 7090 computers. Copies of the program are held
specification for the program structure, the data format and units
possible that the normal mode part of the program could have
of the (n1) beams connecting the masses awd the elastic constants
associated with each lumped mass together with an added water mass
massdue to the ship mass must also be given. Added water rotary
iaertia mass data are then used tt. build up the mass matrices in
71
used to produce a symmetric matrix whose eigenvalues and vectors
along the ship the program then calculates the coefficients yi(x)W
M.(x)
1
and Si(x) from equation (F8) for use in equations (M7).
The program then integrates the modal coefficient equation (H4) and
to the ship in the data so that the program can form the forcing
initially the ai and their time derivatives a. arc all zero but,
highest frequency mode present. The data needed for the program
72
it is far too large to give an adequate representation of the
References
73
73
J Complete Example
the free surface, directly under the centre of the model. The
agreement for the early motion is quite good but in the later
and also the two curves gradually swing out of phase. The
strains in the model are about 3/4 of yield. Prior to this time,
the difference between the two curves is very small and explainable
stages.
Figureji also shows the lowest frequency rigid body mode and
follows the changes in the bubble volume. The mode shape shown
74
two rigid body modes, when taken together, produce a pure heaving
mot ion.
for the first three whipping modes. For the 2node mode the
depth variations no curves have been given for the second (3node)
the model centre (where these results apply) the amplitude induced
for this mode is zero, the centre being a node. From the curves
it may be seen that the amplitude of the third mode decays slightly
more rapidly than that for the basic mode, both transversely and
and, excepu for very minor variations in the bubble period with
depth, the bubble volume acceleration is the same for a.D charge
beam ideal isation of the ship, together with the strip theory
75
effects such as gravity migration and plastic deformation of the
the nature of the forces acting on the ship and their distribution
alon, ig.
u
0I
02.
0.
,
CL i
LIs
0
0
I 030 40 so
TIME mSECONDS
0
FOCE TO RTI EORETL
0EDI2TE AN EAUEDR ONSETIA
0.
10 2030 40 .5
T IMEr SECONDS
FIGURE JI
77
0 BASIC MODE
0.8
THEORETICAL
r0o6 0 0 o EXPERIMENTAL
04
S"02 FROM
DISTANCE CENTRELINE INCHES
20 40 60 80 100 120
w 0.2
_04
06
0"4
 120
20 40020 so!00
a.
. DISTANCE FROM CENTRELINE INCHES
,(
\0 "4
wu SECOND MODE
09
f[06
404
,<
Ia ,V ;\ : .
0
/06
FiGURE J2
78
1.0
 THEORETICAL
.O.8 *eco EXPERIMENTAL
sIIC MODE
Q.0
0.4
0.2
0.
48 2 16 20 24
_02
uJ
. 08
FIGURE J3
79
.•,. "...i"",l'S•F
• •,,: ......Jr.., , .......
t  0 4
'I°
0.4
a 16 24 32 40 48
*l.
0.8
9L 'THIRD MODE
I
06
w
0.4
0.01 a 16 24 32 40 48
DEPTH BELOW FREE SURFACE INCHES
FIGURE J4
80
X The Early Compressible Phase
F and H, it has been assumed that the motion of the ship is independent
of the initial shock wave, that in fact the ship behaves as though
from rest to accelerate and expand outward and then pulsate. In fact
way this model suggests. What actually happens is that when the
shock wave into the water and almost instantaneously raised the
water the shock wave raises the velocity to a high value and all
these initial high velocities gradully decay until they fall to the
be expected that the acoustic snock wave phase would not produce
interaction and, in addition, did not really include all the inter
81
=
(KI) during the shock wave hull plating interaction phase of the
such that it is generally true that shock wave effects are relatively
82
'V
(K3) who found that in this case the cylinder, after again
asymptotic velocity
2u K1)
1 + pv/a 2 p
is the cylinder radius and ji is the mass of the cylinder per unit
For a circular cylinder the added mass per unit length, pw' is
npa as also is the buoyancy per unit length, ýiw Whence*2) gives
the ship and its entrained water will therefore again be largely
start.
83
References
84
"An alternative to the Strip Flow Method for the Added Water Mass
The usual theory for calculating the hydrodynamic forces on a
and, for the 2node mode a% least, very accurate method of determining
such forces. For the higher whipping modes the experimental evidence
is very limited. The strip theory does however have one possible
the *ode frequencies and shapes were found simultaneously through the
the strip theory added water masses and, through them, the correction
applied to all the modes. This conflicts with the customary use
of the factor , where a different value for J is used for each mde
shape (including the pitch and heave modes). To use the customary
appropriate value for J) for each mode, and extracting just the
appropriate eigen root and vector from each matrix. In the examples
the fact that all the other modes, pitch and heave included,
since strip theory was first used. The two independent oiiginators
of the theory, Lewis (LI) and Taylor (L2) both presented reduction
the correction factor should be constant over the length of the ship,
one recent paper (14) a correction factor has been presented which
magnitude of the off diagonal elements will decay rapidly away from
i p ~r cos 6 V@
S2]/2 ,where u
67
5..L. cos60 Xxi~/
2 iI 2
whence O . =
I r "[r 2+(xxi 1 / j2/2
i+1/2 (L2)
[r2+(xx i+1/2) 2]1/2
(x)=  ucose
l• X i1/2
r (r +(xx i,
1 2) j
9r(i+1/2)
7xxj j} (L3)
Ux(X i
[r2+(x~~xi[ +/21/2}
x4
I
n n
u(X) = j=x
Eu W(X) and ux)W =Eu
j=1 W
r
the fluid and the hull, resolved in the direction of the norhal to
the angle ) between the nornal to the hull and the radial direction
fa V"a= tan b' where b(x) is the radius of the ship, and
• Q ••________
b'= db/dx. The boundary condition is thereforc,
k greate," than the half beam. X will also normally be small except
v'bsinX will therefore be very small. ux, the flow along the
by v') and partly by the changing shape of the ship (bW). It too
v =u r (L6)
except when rapid changes occur in either the ship underwater cross
ship and if these points are suitably chosen the boundary condition
89
Fi (3 u) Ali
the ship, u(x) the vertical velocity at the ship due to the
2 1 *
ji bA (y )
=p ui  Pllijl'j (1.9)
090
4x Cx,x3'/2
wnere b ~ 21/
tI jbi +( ix +4t/2) J
x x Z/2
.b. +(x. x.+e/2 )2]1/2 }
In the vicinity of the ship, 4o has been approximated by o0 uy =
will approximate the average force/unit length over the whole section
and the total upward force S., on the section will be approximately
u 7,obE~
M., : u xp__B' 6# • (LIo)
where B is the matrix (ij ) and Mw is the diagonal matrix with
Mw = %b 3pBAi (1.11)
This matrix depends only on the shape of the ship and is completely
vertical acceleration.
There are two forms of fluid flow, suitable for comparison, ior
exact results for both cases have been compared with the results
r = k(1)/2 (Ip2)1/2
x = ki
k =(a 2b2)1/2 a 2
1~p)/2]
0o It  )/2 where = Wa
/
is v(),/a)
N+1
anZ (1) C03
n=1
t 1
where Fn n (C) are associated Legendre functions of the
is a polynomial so that
N+1 nI
v v ()
n=1
93I
coefficients v of the velocity distribution. This equation is
n=1 n=1
I dQ'
where X represents anka o Multiplying by Pn(p) and
=(
4 +.I
) i(nI)E22,v
iii
n=1 n n Im
+1
where I f gnP (j)dd = o, n < m or (nr) odd
I
i.e.
N+Ii
f(x) = ,pb(x) Z a Q"o )PI (x/a) (L12)
n al on
" • ~94
A snort computer routine has been writLen to compute the values
of '(x)/xpb2 given b/a and values for the coefficients 1 ..••'v 5 "
quartic equations but this is sufficient for the lowest few modes.
3D flow method, for two ellipsoids with b/a ratios of 1/5th and
have also been added to the figures. The Lewis correction factors
have been used for the strip theory results since these are known
for four of the five nodes. The values used for the coefficients
v1 * 0e5 for these cases were
 
Co e fficient 
1, 2 I
3 4 5
Mode
Heave 1 0 0 0 0
Pitch 0 1 0 0 0
2node vertical 0.2 0 1 0 0
3node vertical 0 0.429 0 1 0
4node vertical 0.0274 0 0,534 0 1
position for a 4node ship vibration mode but the relative amplitudes
are not good since the distribution gives too much prominence to
95
ior the W/a = 1/10th ellipsoid (for a ship with a length to beam
ratio of 10) the results of the 3D approximation and strip theory
[ioth agree well with the exact analysis and there is little to
better but at the ends, where the radius is changing rapidly, strip
theory is the better. For the b/a = 1/5th (L/B = 5) ellipsoid the
the exact solution is quite serious near the ends, even for modes
factor for each mode whereas the 3D approximation deduces all the
is that the boundary conditions are not quite the same for the
96
b. Infinite Circular Cylinder
v(x) = v cos kx
0
VoKI (kr)
k@_
kK'(b
•(kb) cos 6 cos kx
1
and is
v K (kb)
:1 coskx (1.14)
f(x) =2 1P cos ObdO =2pbf OcosOdO ox TO (1,14
0 0 kbK0(kb)
The example is not ideal for comparing with the 3D approximation
the selected length in the hope that the central wavelength would
be free of end effects. Since the computer program for the 3D
results are compared with the exact values from the above equation
condition.
97
5 exact . 44W 0 .448 .448 0 . 440 . 448 0 448
34 . 445 . 00 o445 . 0014 . 0014 . 449 . 452 . 0140 .383
For all values of X/b, the forces are clearly very accurate near
the centre being within 4; of the exact value in E.l cases. The points
given were the only ones used, indicating the coarseness of the
7A/b, the differences from the exact result are due to the coarse
mesh rather than the finite length. For the ?Vb = 5 case the
lengths of the sections are near!y equal to their radii, whereas for
the VAb = 20 case the sections are each nearly 9 radii long.
S= 
of data to represent the ship shape and would require the inversion
of a very large matrix. The success of the strip method using Lewis
of each section depends only on the dipole term, the shape of the
the added mss per unit length of the 2D crosssections in the form
pb 2 C
on the section shape. Values for C have been computed for a great
variety of shapes (References LI, L2, L7, L8, L9, LIO and Lii). The
above value for the added mass is also t'at due to a circular
cylinder of radius
bequiv =b (Li)
with the known shapes, C determined, and then (15) gives the
with exact solutions which can be used for comparison but the
vibration mode, in the central section of the ship there the added
99
wss is most important, the technique will give very good answers
since in this region the flow is very nearly 2D and in the 2D case
The results given so far for the 3D approximation have all
been based on the approximate equation (L6) for the boundary equation
ship must be included. If the expressions (L3) and (14) for u r(x)
and ux(x) are substituted into the boundary condition (L5) the
result is
n n
Y Uo + b(y u) [vrj.(xi)biuxj'(x)] AbI E C6
1 o01 o
01 n i xi ' =
where
2
2 2 + (Xb V /
CLj = it + bbblbi " xj + 4 , 2 )2]"f 2 
3 2
[b1 2 + (xi  xj  t/2)21 / 1
the water motion at the ship axis due to the explosion (calculated
!I
• ,I 80 ... ....
as though the ship were not present), and u' is its derivative with
respect to x.
case to deduce from f(x) both the force and moment at each lumped
whence S = Mu  C
((18)
bi/Z xI b
13
1 = 1+b..2
r ( ,2 r2 2 2)4
rI Ua+1 +2 ; I
M= +P , with
101
similar expressions for m2 9 t29 r 2 + and r 2 #
ai•2 21b,
)•
d. ~~I 2't~. 2 I ~r 2 21b 2 ~)
2
l2 +;+ r + P22 2 2+
+ log (L ) lo 2+ )2
2 I"2I x2 2(X
C. + b CL21+
P')'2
2 2 2 2+2.2
X 2. 121 ,+ 2 
(LI 9)
Thus 1 
7L2 __
W . :j L]"JL L DA B ][
i~e.
(L20)
which gives the hydrodynamic force and moment at each lumped mass.
2 W SW1ow
wA+K B y , 1
M .
w1 I Y y W1
MY CI M~
As in section E, since rotary inertia effects appear to be minor they
Here not all rotary inertia terms have been neglected. The terms
affecting the displacement
dw equation (the 2 terms) are retained
since these are the terms which differntiatc between the tsheari
rotary inertia is suppressed these terms can have some effect on the
hydrodynamic forces.
M Y + Sy = Md + M ad° (L23)
I , 3
1y
I=M1 (L24)
M
y +M Sy = IM 
+MI
 1 2 1 3,.
 1I
y + MI Sy =0
except for elements corresponding to the end lumped masses, and there the
GARij
The forces resulting from this amended ratrix were compared with
those produced by the correct matrix for the two ellipsoid cases
and the two sets of forces were found to differ by no more than 3o
on the sqiare root of these forces, even this small difference will
be further reduced in the effect ols the eigenvalues and use of the
T
LL (M + M) (L25)
T
z Ly
L
giving
1 U0 0.
z+E! z=L X +LMu
2 3ý
I Normal strip theory with the Taylor correction for the 2nide
mode
" 105
2. 3D approximation based on equ•Jtion (LII) (the
approximate boundary condition)
Frequency (Hz)
Number S Calculated Measurea
Nodes
2 3
the calculated results and the mer..ured values reflects mainly the
106
SFrequency (itZ)
S2 3
0 Heave 0.20 o.20 0.20
IPitch 0,22 0.23 0.23 
:! ) 1i.64, 1.64 1 .66 1 .68
Iu the 3D flow approximation was still very accurate but strip
given by strip theory and by the 3D approximation, and the close
crosssections.
107
Lewis F .11; "The Inertia of the Water Surrounding a Vibrating Ship."
Trans. SNAME, Vo!. 37, 1929.
L2 Taylor J L; "Some Ilydrodynamical Inertia Coefficients." Phil. Mag. S.7
Vol 9, No. 55 Jan 1930.
L3 Kaplan P ; "A Study of the Virtual Mass Associated with the Vertical
Vibration of Ships in Water." Stevens Inst. Tech.,
Davidson Lab. Report 734, 1959.
L4 Anderson G; "A Method for the Calculation of Vertical Vibration with
SNorrand
K Several Nodes and Some Other Aspects of Ship Vibration."
Paper read to the INA Dec. 15 1968.
L3 Lamb, 1 ; "Hydrodynamics" 6 Edition, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1932.
L6 Nacagno E 0 "Inrotational '.lotion of the Liquid Surrounding a Vibrating
& Lbndweber Ellipsoid of Revolution." Jn. Ship Research, Vol. 2,
L ; No. 1, 1958.
L7 Prohaska "The Vertical Vibration of Ships." The Shipbuilder and
C W ; Marine Engine Builder, 1947.
LS ,endel K ;"Hlydrodynamic Masses and Moments of Inertia" Jahrobuch der
Schiffbautcehnische Gesellschaft Vol 44, 1950.
L.9 Landweber L; "Added .ass of TwoDimensional Forms Oscillating in a Free
& .lacagno M Surface." Jn. Ship Research, Vol 1, 1957.
LIO Landweber L; "Added Masses of a ThreeParameter Family of TwoDimensional
.&
lacagno M Forms Oscillating in a Free Surface." Jn. Ship Research,
Vol 2, No 4 (1959).
Lii. Macagno ,1 ; "A comparison of Three Methods for Computing the Added Masses
of Ship Sections." Jn Ship Research Vol 12, No 4, 1968.
.13 Hoffman D ; "Conformal Mapping Techniques in Ship Hydrodynamics."
,,ebb inst. of Naval Architecture Report No 411, 1969.
.14 \Vartin R S ; Reduction of the Symmetric Eigenproblem Ax = Xpx and Related
& Wilkinson Problems to Standard Form." Numerische Mathematik, 11,
J Hl 99110, 1963.
108
Trr~~ rr~' r ~ ~  var'¶~rr  ~ A'
I0
zx
40
00
AftX
\ II /
109
0
w.
HFIRTAWIPPNGG O
0__
0.5
WHIPPIN MODE!G
0[ECN OD
 EA
(DISANC FROW CENPREOFIMIONI~(AL EGH
COMPA2ISONLOF APPREXMANDTWODMNION ALO
0  WIHTH XCTSLTIOHO
LWAPPROXIMATIONS ITN
A/0 ELIPOI (BL
FULBUDAY
ol~~~~FGR 3NITO(GL
SEODIHPPNIMD
M Li%xt: of Applicability of the Theory
pressure terms, and, for the free surface condition even the
linear gravity terms are neglected. Both these points have been
considered by several authors, e.g. (M2) and (M3) and have been
found small for the vibration modes although they can be significant
linear free surface effect changes the added mass, and adds a
of gravity), is less than about 4. For the heave and pitch motions
b2
of the destroyers described earlier, 7 1 and these modes and
by both Taylor (D2) and Kaplan (DS) and have been found negligible.
Viscous effects seem generally to have received iess attention
vibration tVe Reynolds number is of order 10' and such forces will
is only effective over about two basic whipping cycles and the
and out at the ship frequency and so reduce the amount of water
(•,4) and shown to be important for modes higher than the 4node,
betieen the explosion and the ship and which are consequently
In both Lne strip theory and the 3D flow theory this Approximation
such conuiitionfl very little flow will be induced along the ship axis
•: t..e snip ant it can be cxpectcd that the approximation will be good
b•:t for fairly close charges, the spherical flow divergence around
alon\; t.,e axis will occur and the undisturbed flow at any crosssection
nc..r the bow and stern of the ship flow along the axis (around the
114
of
)sciar!Lion the problem into two parts:
! (i) the detennination of the forces acting on the ship,
e being given by
e(t)  v(t)
cylintler axis is
e e
r2 (by+xy)
eb
(b2+X2)3/
Since the strip theory added mass gw per unit length and 'buoyancy'
2
per unit length are both simply %pa for the cylinder, the
;A 115
The problem has been solved, exactly and inde;endently, by at
least two authors. Savic (M5) solved for the potential flow in
puls:,tion, and Murray (,16) solved the similar but more difficult
2 Co Kn(r?.)_
= ~•e cos nO f r.
Sn ['(aX)In(bX)  I n '(aX)K(bk)]_
7L ;ýo n X~o K"(AX) K
cos(xX)dX ; r>b
Wronskian relation
c~K (PX),
n
)X=o XK p(X)
P =p@
i6
the force per unit length of tile cylinder can be fount! by
integrati n; round the circuaif crence of the cy iinder and is giv en by
,• 2;
f,,(x) (,•adv)cos6 = 2ap fc cos Oda = 2ap [ , s
w K (pX)
f,(x) = 4pe I cos (.,)d) (4f4)
 X=o XK'(X)
The curves show that most of the contribution to the integral will come
from v^ry small values of X since the function decays very rapidly
,s X increitses, except for i5 very close to unity (the charge very
K1 ("7 e
AX; 0.); =i ,
For P > 5 FigureN2 shows that there will be very little contribution
Thus, for P> 5 the denominator may be replaced by the leading terms
by
117
i/ X3iog x cos (QL) dX 
62HH2 1 +
ý log 2 3H
+_'2 apaa
where
40
+e)
aq:2
( +,
F. ''
*118
+ e)
1181
The results given for f(x)/4p by the 'distant flow$ approxima
Thc results show that, for • = 5 the three methods give almost identi
represent the exact solution well for large F, even for P as small
as 1.Ifl. The distant flow aproximation (just the first term of the
of large F however represents the part of the clinder well away from
tne point source, where the flow is directed principally along the
axis rather than across it, and the transverse force is very small.
119
For the smaller values of F., closer to the point source, the
Figure M3. Although only expected to apply for P > 5, even for P
as small as 1.4 the distant flow approximation is in error by only
near the point source, where the transverse forces are largest, the
practical use than the more extended asymptotic result [15], and can
expected to apply over most of the length of the ship, near the bow
and stern it might be expected that flow around the ends could
these areas. For the overall still water vibration problem, the
charge close to either the bow or stern, most of the force acting on
the target will be applied in this error prone region and it seems
forcing function. Since it can allow for such flow the 3D
of both the strip theory and the 3D approximation are investigated
here.
120
are shown in Fisare MO4), They are related to cylindrical coordi
nates (r, 8, x) by
r 2 )
1 2!k('
x k Cp
8 W where k is a constant. [36J
Gon
E E (An cos ,t + Bn sin uwo)(CnP 1 +
!1=O 1R_=O
(tL
Qa (CTon€) 71
Qn Wx) nx x2 >
position ( C1'W
1 = = o) near the ellipsoid C= 0 the
*is the potential needed to reduce the velocity of the fluid at the
ellipsoid to zero in the direction of normals to the ellipsoid.
•t e  C (2n + I))P
r nkot (n Qn() Pn (CI) P(,A) Pn)(P) +
2k
01kn=o
(2E ÷On) n (
Qn I
M) P a () n+ P
P A (+C () +(P
I
n2 ) (n  ).1)2 an a{).
Z,(IC)T PToP)
cos m];
a
" • (C) Pn (p) + , b Q (C) ? (p)
cos M] ; C > CO
8n ona
ac C= o C o
122
so that
nn n no (n +
(from the orthogonality of the functions cos aw and T" (i) over the
whence
+ . (2n.1)
Oft n(CI Pn (Pa
n1=o
n( (C:) +
I,1
123
l E (2n + F(CP) Q)(C)n+
2 1n 0
£(2n+r)ft A I m( n0
then
k,=and C0o /k
so that
Uxpe
f)(2n
n.I
+1) 1 F 2) 11
C
Here P= x/a andC, F` are given IV
9
x1 = k( P " (1
x kC
124
•'+• z•'+'
' ++"= +''''+
  % •++' + •+ +•+124"+• a. i + a I.
A computer routine was written to evaluate this series at a
tht usual recurrence relation except for the Q's, which have arguments
the results produced by both strip theory and by the 3D flow tech
2 2
f Wx b2c (1i
strip 2•
e 7
[2 /2
2 3XX)] [(113]
+ [(114]
*~ 22
where B is the diagonal matrix (b./t2) and u is given by
"012 + (X I
125
"a',ae •csult.s show that in fact there is little difference between
the exact result, strip theory, and the 3D approximation when the
(c/b = 1.5). Strip theory, although slightly less accurate than the
quite accurate. The table shows detailed values for the charge
directly opposite the end of the ellipsoid. The two 3D flow sets
the vibration case, the correction is everywhere very small for the
The table also includes values for the case of the charge
Again strip theory is a very good approximation, even for the very
strip theory and the 3D flow are roughly comparable, strip theory
giving better results near the target centre and 3D flow being
slightly better near the target ends. In either case both methods
actual values of force per unit length which are important but
126
0 C, 1.)0 0 0 C., f( '0 1 C ;4
a, C,'.4r
N :'f. r( 1. t
;(p .
MR 'og R: ooo7
0\ ýo~
"?'
000 C00 000 00
ý"% ",CAS0
FUW'Y.
000 000
000
"I' '7' '9 0 % 8.0 000.0
Q7 0
ok0o 0000 u0 0 0 0 0 00
.. s~~853)S o. 0 00
000 'A000 0 0
..
0yo 0000 0000o 0000 00
r %0
ct. 0%
24ý 8808 00 000~
0 000 0000 044;
0006 0000
* ~ 0a 0 000 C 0a0
Uu [A M00I0 0010
*t*. I. .. W
1 0 0:0 0 Q00r. 0000'v' (000
0 '.'N.el C. 
ojC! .,I. 1 
0 M 0 mo a
A
12?
even less than in the values of force per unit length.
local distortion of the target and also that even when the charge is
In terms of the normal modes excited~this wide load region means that
the higher modes will be much less important than for a point load,
c. Bernoulli Pressurcs
is
p=p+p  u"
that the inertial pressure p was much more important than the
modes are concerned but it has yet to be established for the flow
it _ V
V
Pinertial P'oo= 4%r
and the Bernoulli pressure is
~2 .2
PBern = Pu 4 ( 2 = 2.r4
, I32,qr
The ratio of the two pressures is therefore
PBern i2
Pinert 8%~r3V
T, this becomes
Pb~ern L3_ 3
Pinert 6r 3 J
Clearly there are times during the bubble motion when x3 is almost
3 "3 is obviously a
there are instants when x is zero, and at these x
durations.
acceleration will have a short duration but very high maximum at the
max 2 2
129
so that, at the bubble minimum,
X3
2 (y
 4 at moderate depths.
2 3"
For (X3)max, x3 must be zero and, from equation [H12] this will occur
a3
Bern IL m where a is the maximum bubble radius
Pinert I 8r3 7 r3 m
even at very short range and decrease vcry rapidly compared to the
bubble volume expansion rate is high, will be much less than that of
~ ~.~131

II
z
132
I I
I I
,I I "!I
* I
I jh '
I °0
* I.gn •o00
00
"I o ~ 0
z
6 6 6
133
17•
4L
0,,..• .
0. ZZ Z
0 2
.. xK
•x~o0
0~F.4. A _
1400 0
W I
ooU.
I I
oz IL&L
z
LMA. FEUh
IiILUs
• •I I I/ccI
> 134
I.
Ia
1d
~~ 0
,  f0
1 _,__ *10*4 T
,•0
1g*
o o 6 6 6 6
""
00
0
,
o96
4
0 Z =P: 0 0 0a
34
LO lo
I
z
00
U /
I /
Nw
N N\
! 4
130
13S
* 2
2
O4
Im 02 Y0
X 0 a 9X 0
0 sl
tO 8 6 4 2 * 2 4 6 8 10
EXACT
1' *v.08.
,I
K .04 X,.,
10 S 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 S 10
136
I ' ' S
2"u
~I,
tO 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 Sb 10
 EXACT
x x STRIP THEORY
O O 3D APPROXIMATION
0 #
10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10
FIGURE M6
137
N Modification of the Forcing Function Due to Local Damage
are valid down to very short ranges. The discussions however assumed
should be valid unless very severe damge occurs. The type of severe
damage which would most dramatically change the fluid flow fields is
zero pressure, will divert part of the. flow into the hole instead of
r a(I + 2 (
0
x =aC
0=to
O.
0= The plate around it is the surface . = 0. The axis through
138
Haywood found that the velocity potential for the flow produced
can be written
where R and R are the distances from the source and its image
F(C,') (C  t)" [o  t) 2
+ (0 + t 2 )W e) dt (N2)
i
the source being at the point (Co = x/a, . = 1). The first two
terms in equation (NI) give the usual potential for a source near a
free surface. The third term represents the disturbance in the flow
1
F(C,.~) i a~l (N3)
( "  2R( [sinh . 'P 2 )+ sijh ( Q  2
P2
where aI ,, 2 + )(C'o
0 C )
(.+c )(i + C 0  g
2 2 E2
_ (C. _CC) . (, + M(C _•)
2 2½ 2½
)_(I+ C• .19
(1+ C2 )(1 + C _
2
S~(N4)
M C2)
A2(CO.
0 +C)
2
2 + 0I2 + C2),
2 2
If sinhI (a.  ip) is written in the form y + 16, then y and & are
given by
i_2sinh~v 2i2 Y aM
2 2 
+)40?] 0( 22
2 2
(N5)
and 2 sin28 =1+ CL + •2_ I+ 2 + /j
0
where positive values are to be taken for the square roots. Clearly
fluid. From (N5), y changes sign only when a = 0 so that the real
parts of sinhI (m  ip) and sinhI (m ip) are equal and opposite
and F(C, F) and F(C, F) are both purely imaginary. The potential 5
from (05) that 8 can change from one of these ranges to the other
0I
140
therefore be confined to the range (0, &/2). For F(C,  2 = 0
&),
a.
(Co +
when C 0 and then which is alw.ays > I.
o e)
Consequently 82 changes from one of the ranges (0, V/2) and (,/2, it)
to the other when c62 changes sign. Since ( must be zero for = 0,#
ee 2e [I(NQ)
R R WR Ri
where 8 and 8 are the positive angles given by equations (N4) and
1 82
(N5), with 81 in the range (0, 7/2) and 62 in the range (0, %/2) or
free surface).
xx 2 2
t _• •(o ,o x) + r
r ar
and so 81 0.
0 Also,
a, 2 2r Q
(o+ x) P2 " (X
x +
x)ar r2 
and 4 C
TIT
which is the usual potential for a source near a free
sur face.
x
0 x
Then a  0
x
I 0+ X
r ; P2 0
e 2e [0 e e
RR2I itR2 = R
R +1 2
rigid plate.
P= P = X [S1 2]  (N7)
p= 2o*
the factor (0  ) from the value for the plate without a hole.
142
Figure N2 shnws the values of p(r)/2pý for several values of x /a.
28
For large values of r, the factor (I  ) rapidly approaches its
asymptotic value
R _ Z tanI (N8)
so that, except very close to the hole, the pressures everywhere are
given by
PPR
p = PO R
provitcs a very reasonable method for allowing for the effect of the
hole. All forces on the target are calculated as though the forcing
of fluid flowing through the hole per unit time may be shown by
the total mass of fluid flowing from the source per unit time is
22 tanx
1a
0
N>
This approximation should be quite reasonable when the charge is
which is deflected through the hole. It will become easier for the
lost through the hole and the factor R will become slightly larger
than for the corresponding standoff from a flat plate. The magnitude
obviously be less than the value which would pertain if there were no
plate at all to deflect flow into the hole, just a hole in the fluid.
e2 2r2
(r) e X2o2'2 I+ cot, a r2 ; r <a (N9)
Vr +x~)
be solved, the same boundary condition over the rear of the disc
applies, ielt = Obut over the front face the condition should now
be 4P= 0. The potential for this problem may be found from Bryant's
142
1441
and (NI I)
set of equally spaced points was in fact used. The condition on the
front face was satisfied at n internal points and also at the rim of
the hole. The condition on the rear face was satisfied at n internal
points. A short computer program was used to solve for the first
flowing into the hole is most easily found by considering the flow
flow across such a surface per unit time, due to the disturbance
(g2 2 . a2 2
4•(a4 7C a =_ 4%aei; a Q(iC )Pn(F.
n=o
•. 14.5
Now, for large Q i  .3.3....(2n + 1) + 0C)
03)
47xaei a0
R I+ iaa
0
justified.
References
146
H0
0
ý,R
0 1
R2 I
NST. xCX
S>CCO
/ \•,• =CONST.
I / 40
'4
FIGURE N I
147
olpm.
z I
x~ x inuA
x VI
w 
IAI
0 OA. OS , IlIIl
a~
.W ~*gifL) C
0 _ _
00
C*~ ~s0 I
ii6 0
IL J
II
Iu I
IR
0.8
06
0.4
o2
00
0 2 4 6 8 to
X 0 /a
FIGURE N3
149
0 The Effect of Bubble Migration
the theory it has been assumed that the bubble remained fixed in
space throughout its pulsations. For small charges of the type used
10 ft ling and the maximum bubble radius was about 6 ins when the
between the bubble top and bottom) over (pressure at bubble centre)
is
S40 o0.48
p full scale 33 + 51D
bubble will be sixteena times greater than on the small scale and
130
The mechanism of bubble migration is ve•:. well understood
the effective mass of the bubble; although the gas within the iW*hble
it, the added mass associated with the flow of water around the
contained in the water around it). During the contraction phase the
shoots upwards when near its minimum. During this phase it distorts
greatly, the bottom surface itwerts and forms a jet which penetrates
falls as its added mass rises. Thus the bubble is almost stationary
during the phase when the vertical forces on it are large, but
migrates rapidjy later when the vertical force, are least. During
"the rapid migration phase, since the vertical force is small the
momentum is almost constant so that the product of bub'le volume and
S...
,•,•,•1.51
... ... ", ...... ... _
'rz .ain ard most obvious effect of migration is to bring the
point of emission of the first bubble pulse much nearer to the surface
other effects. The peak pressure during the bubble pulse is well
addition to the usual radial field. This dipole field was first
investigated by Taylor (02] who showed how very intense it can be,
the bubble than the radial field and is seldom observed in pressure
gauge measurements.
number of studies, eg [03] and [04], but in the main these have been
the flow field of higher order than dipole. These higher order terms
decay with distance even more rapidly than the dipole terms and so
L 3
motion of the bubble during the collapse phase when near the minimum
With the geometry of Figure 01, assuming first that the explosion
is deep so that the effect of the water surface can be neglected, the
e e2
rI S•2
s e1 (01)
While the bubble is spherical this will represent the motion exactly
but late during the bubble collapse phase, when it begins to distort,
higher order terms will also be present. Since these will affect the
flow only very close to the bubble surface they are neglected and
e 2 are then readily found to be related to the bubble volume V(t) and
velocity v(t) by
migrating bubble is
uy (y   (0)
(03)
tion u is given by
153
a au + 23 r
TZ v y 3" (Y4)
r13 rI 1 rl13
322
r,1
dt
negligible compared to the added mass of the water moving around it,
which for a spherical bubble is just one half the displaced water
154
large, ie late in the collapse phase and again early in the
pressure phase since then both V and v are very small, and will
bubble, becomes
o3a2
2 3o +' i N't
EC= ,paa +yt3u+
1 Pa3V2 (05a)
d .1 XPa3v= 3 g
 Kxa& (05b)
+e/6 + CC
92 /3Y1)
and the four terms in the expression (04) for the fluid accelera
155
f1 x' ; rL=p d/L
r1 P
f2 (I  =  2  32) X
S2
(07)
3 3 r l 9 () P3
3e 2vd d)3,
f4  3 ( r22 j
the free surface. Since, for rapid motions where surface waves can
e, + e20 1 e2S= +
osOI _cos 02 (08)
rI r1 2
r2r2
for the geometry of Figure 01. In this case, as Taylor showed, the
156
29 ;e a a  v
12 2 4
T= 22 p a3 ;2 (  2 + p a 2 p a2
a 23
E 2 (a + 302 7C3* 2 3
• °=20 aa
2d 3 2 d2
E=2cpa~a I aZ+p A+xa8
0 d
%a (09)
3Y .
(T  V) = (T V)
equations are
(oj o)
[ 3Xx4;2 X_
_5
=4 8 42 C0
157
Since Z = d + h, h being the static head of water equivalent to
x + + '
=•3Y 3 ( +I
r?o 482
where two parameters a, and p have been introduced to ene.ble the
M I Type of Motion
0 0 Nonmigrating
0 Migrating
1 I Migrating near a free surface
nonmigrating case, ie
a =0
158
As with the earlier equations the factor (I +.I' although very
the variables change very rapidly near the bubble minima, but are
become
p3 X3
3 9 3 3 ;
f = Lo 2 (02
P P
4 0 12821
Figure 02 shows the bubble motion and the surface accelerations
above the bubble for a typical large explosion bubble. The figure
and (07) for the migrating case ardl with the results from (01) and
(012) for the same cae with surface effects included. In the
figure only the results prior to the bubble minimum are given for
159
the migrating cases since the bubble equations break down at the
allowing both for migration ard for the free surface is clear.
measured values and the surface acceleration deduced from them will
scarcely moving, ic when the ideal flow conditions are most nearly
form
F = CD (• pv2 A)
luO
where A is the bub',le crosssectional area transverse co the mo•ion
not so obvious as for a solid body but some sch force seems likely.
realistic results.
FY 2p= 3
ie P C a2 v2 tPC a2 2
Xýk i CD 2 3
,i61
d 3_I =L ++L 8+ xliI +D 2 ?2
dv 3 r2o 4
X = a
(C2+ 71 tX)l/2( it
)
482 + C
C 2
become
=9 0 P3
33 C
PP
C 3C
Pp 1882
P3 P
05 k 2 128)
P, p
1021
itv2
The computer program for the bubble motion, which was described
can be obtained from (013) using suitable values for cm, P and CD).
Migration to P Edissipated
Drag Coefficient First PulseE
CD (ft) 0
same point if the bubble did not migrate. In the near field the
distances only the radial field will be felt and the rdtio
p1
pulse prssures. The table shows that for this particular charge
163
size and U't:ch the value CD = 2.25 makes both the migration and the
Pi
ratio 0 approximately correct.
P1
migrating bubbles for which the value was derived the bubble would
have been rather larger than a.surned. Had a m,.re realistic value
for the area been used a lower more realistic va.ue of CD would
migrations.
were derived was the energy balance equation. The addition of the
drag term implies that the bubble loses energy continually through
out the motion. Most of this energy loss naturally occurs at the
the bubble energy and this fact has long been used to measure the
bubble pulsations estimates have been made of the total energy loss
still retained by the bubble at its minimum was  Iculated for the
cases given in the table and the energy dissipated up to this time,
164
The experimental value for the energy losý for this charge size and
the minimum, this gives the 15%, quoted in the table, for the
quit ! clear, the same is not true of strongly migrating bubblts. For
the bubble surface remains fairly spherical until late in the collapse
phase when the bubble pressure rises above the aebient level and
directed from the less dense fluid to the more dense one, causes the
jets being projected into the bubble. Due to its adiabatic compres
sion the gas will be very hot at this time and such an intense spray
later the bottom inverts and penetrates through the bubble turning
water which loses its association with the bubble. The mechanism
behind the bubble, principally when the bubble is small and its
penetrate it and form a vertical water jet. The large plumes which
originate at the bubble pulses and are perhaps due to such jets.
time history calculated for the bubble centre for the 500 lb
rather abrupt halt shortly after the minimum. Although this sort
accord with measured results for the migration and the far field
over the charge the peak acceleration at the pulse is slightly reduced
side the shape becomes mcre similar to the nonmigratUng pulse shape
much reduced. Apart from the slight change in the phasing o. the bub
ble pulse relative to the ship motion, the only sigaificant change in
phase of this is still much shorter than the basic ship period it can
initial expansion impulse for both a 1001b and the 5001b charge have
167
been calculated for a large selection of depths and horizontal stand
Figures 05 and 06. In comparing the initial impulses with the bubble
ble with rio energy losses the latter impulse is exactl3 twice the
former. At shallow depths the bubble equations break down and the
The figures show clearly that over a considerable depth range the
at a depth of 4t5 ft the bubble pulse gives over seven times the
much reduced and can fall well below the factor 2 expected for a non
migrating bubble. For the more strongly migrating 5001b charge the
during the initial expansion and during the bubble pulse are almost
the same. For the 1OOlb charge migration effects are clearly of much
less importance.
which show the relative peak accelerations during the initial expan
sion and the bubble pulse. Only for a very small depth range, and
only directly over the charge, are the peak accelerations increased
acceleration.
i'elated to the total iu'u.nose on the ship. At any point on the ship
axis the impulse per unit length of ship will be proportional to the
168
iumpulse.< shown, the constant of proportionality being the sum of the
displacement and added ma,s (again per unit length) at the point
these impulses along the ship. The contours do however give some
Bubble Jets
a migrating bubble during the bubble pulse will simply have been
For charges directly beneath a ship such jets will presumably transfer
presently unknown. Only one study of any kind seems to have been
made (reference 07) and that only considers the pressure pulse emit
ted by the jet at its moment of creation. The pressure pulse analysis
motion of the jet through the water the work is unsuitable for quanti
1b9
References
170
2 I IMAGE BUBBLE
z
d
, EXPLOSION BUBBLE
FIGURE 01
171
= r
., I
Z 4  NON  MIGRATING
MIGRATING ii
.. SURFACE EFFECTS /
  MIGRATING WITH
T E ,M SONLE SS / /
u 2 5075 ,0I SO
0~1.25
II
Z "
0 PULSATION TERM I
4.BUOYANCY TERM 24
w ..SOURCE MIGRATION 3
"Ii  DIPOLE MIGRATION 4
T TIME DIMENSIONLESS
UT. EFFECTS
 UPPER SURFACE OF BUBBLE.
0n 30. ,.
,,, WITHOUT
SURFACE
40, EFFECTS
SO  B8UB8BLE CENTRE
2172
BUBBLE MOTION  MIGRATING WITH SURFACE EFFECTS INCLUDED
FIGURE 02
172
WATER SURFACE
10
BUBBLE
S20 UPPER SURFACE
30.
O ONMIGRATING B BBLE' .
TIMEDIMENSION LESS
173
/'
zI
12
'2
zz
I I
Mii
us I
zI M
2 eJ
< M
UC I U ,
STIME
u (NON DIMSIONA) I
.
I 1.4 1.6,3 1.4 1.s 1.6
FIGURZ 04
174
S
II 20 .30
20 4
= 3:0;'3
0. 17x
w40  3o 60 
S60 :r so
u,
, _____ _ _
0..1003
0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60
CHARGE HORIZONTAL STANDOFF IN FT. CHA RGE HORIZONTAL STANDOFF IN FT.
100 POUND CHARGE OF TNT 500  POUND CHARGE OF TNT
I . . . . I. j
'20 75 .20
2 53' j IL
i. l
l•
10%O.
40 40 6 400 020 40
170 2 "5
= .
60 0003'
4 050
030
0 T 0 30
T2.0'
20 20
z . 0.75' .0
00
840  x4 "
T
1001 100 
0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60
CHARGE HORIZONTAL S'ANDOFF IN FT CHARGE HORIZONTAL STANDOFF IN FT.
0 12
FIGURE 07
0
20 Oz 20
z, IS
.I I d
ý.Or.
us w
040 40
"w 02 " 6
0
= 0.10
u60  x 60ý02
80
0
_ _ _ 1
10
20
_ _ i_
AO
_ __80
60 0 20
000I
__._
'
40 60
CHARGE HORIZONTAL STANDOFF IN FT. CHARGE HORIZONTAL STANDOFF IN FT
100 POUND CHARGE OF TNT 500 POUND CHANGE OF TNT
3D V.L•dtdal mass, the effect of uj hole in the target and the effect
tt.e datia format and units, and the type of output it gives are all
vibration modes of the ship, and the second using these modes to
form. Instead of specifying the added mass and the displaced water
mass at each node the related Lewis type coefficients C and C are
defined, together with the ship beam. Since rotary inertia effects
appear to be generally small this program does not include them. The
is used to split the total inertia matrix into the form LL T and an
177
Using; these modes the program will then calculate the positional
mode coefficients yi(x), Mi(x) and Si(x) described in section I for
T
T 2 (t)
(L22) and (L23), Xiis the ith mode shape and uj(t) is given by
involved at each time step and for each mode. In computing the
that the mode coefficients and their first time derivatives are all
zero,
)j78
• : .. ... ..  ... .... ' 178 : ".. . . . .• • •. . " 'i ' .. . .. . . ..... ..
Q. Com:,parative Calculatiot~s
with migration included and then without it. Figure Qi shows the effect
whipping mode for a charge directly beneath the centre of the ship, and
also for a similar charge at the same depth but off to one side.
Figure Q2 shows the same charge and geometries but compares the vertical
The most obvious feature of the graphs is that, despite the great
enhancement of the local force above the charge which was shown in
section 0 (Figure 06), the inclusion of migration does not markedly change
the motion of the ship. At the shallower depth the deck strains are
increased by 20% but to the side, and at the greater depth, the motion
the forces on the ship, although greatly increased above the charge,
were reduced at points some way off the vertical. The integrated
effect of parts of the ship away from the charge evidently offsets the
effect on the ship and in such cases gravity migration would be much
more significant as it could bring the bubble from too far away to be
less well known than the first pulse and have been excluded from the
179
Conmparison of tiburc. ,i1 and 02 shows that the basic whipping mode
is the one principally responsible for the observed strains but that
the higher modes still have a significant effect. The higher mode
whip,'ing mode Cor it t' be little excited. Only the first three
[lhipping modes, and the two rigid body modes, are included in the
calculations.
with no energy losses. If such losses were included the bubble pilse
would be slightly reduced and the amplitudes for the nonmigrating case
off the bubble pulsations just after the first bubble pulse. This is
suppressed. The ship then has only gr'vity restraining it and, sipce
gravity has a mnuch smaller effect than the bubble forces, the ship
Since the strains in the ship are virtually independent of the rigid
I
j
i 80
I $0
z 0
Z, uJ
Z 0 0
% on
aa
0 U.
.1 1 J
go
z0z
Laa
I~
J 2a
04 04
2 O
S 0 5 2
'II'
%% U.
% z 0 z
0
z0
Z
0.
.00
S
0a


0 0
~Id4
30 3I4 anicny3
lei
MIGRATING BUBBLE
4000 •
z
2000 S. \ !
4000
0 
z~
ul
I0  Suiu
U.
,• ~~ýJ • 0JUI B
FIGURE Q2
a
182
 MIGRATING BUBBLE
NON MIGRATING BUBBLE
4000
z 
BUBBLE
3000 PULSE i
u 2 S4000
I p
FIGURE Q2b
11
1 33
It
Z4000
I,i 2000
•" TME SErCONDS
/
UJ
S4000
z
w
w
0
20
A
O• "TIME  SECONDS
o 'BUBBLE
PULSE
FIGURE q3
184
R. Plastic Deformation of the Target
tension then plastic yielding will occur and the elastic equations
the basic elastic vibration period, the motion of the ship will not
differ greatly from the fully elastic motion, If however the stresses
in one of the girder flanges reach either yield stress or the flange
buckling stress, in compression, then the flange will buckle and the
LC8]) and the buckling has been found to be very localised. The
the buckle. This type of failure will clearly modify greatly all
Si = MR ii + 4i
where Pi and Qi are the external force and moment. P 1 and Qi are of
(R3)
(ri +r wi) e: iML,i + (rwi ', i) ;  kr.i
When the deformations are elastic, the shear forces S and bending
model yielding would then spread outward along the beam but, to keep
discrete rotation of the beam end relative to the lumped mass. The
rotation of the beam end relative to the lumped mass but at a much
lumped mass displacements and rotations are such that the moment at
a rotation of the beam end, at constant plastic moment VP1 until the
the tendency for the moment to try to increase further stops, say
either side of the hinge will unload elastically and normal elastic
would lead to the plastic moment 2 and plastic rotation along DE.
From E', the buckled flange would start to straighten out and carry
along a vertical.
187
The whole moment/rotation relation is clearly highly over
buckle at a lower moment the second time than the first since the
For shear, since the shear force is constant along each beam,
angle along its whole length once the shear force exceeds the full
that for the moment has been assumed although, in this case, the
deflection and rotation of the right hand eixi of the beam, relative
(R4)
vR = (y+i + eLi+1)  (Yi + d
These are the deflections which give rise to elastic stresses within
the beams. The shear force and bending moments in a beam with these
SR = SL 6a[yR &.1
1 88
where, as in Section C.
El 12(0 + )I
In the (YR' LYR) plane curves of constant MLM and SR are straight
bending moments and shear force will all be zero. When the explosion
occurs the yi and yi will start to change and, for each beam section
the values of YR and tvR calculated from (R4) will describe a carve
in the (YR' 4VR) plane. The motion of the ship will be entirely
elastic until one of these curves meets a boundary. After this the
remains constart. The point in the (YR' 4tvR) plane will either
motion will proceed in a series of time steps and at each step the
boundary the point may jump just outside it. It may then be brought
directions:
189
Ri at 45' to the yR axis
is violated and there is one way to bring the point back to the
of the regions marked II, two conditions are violated and the eventual
posit ion of the point on the boundary depends on the order in which
problem however since the point will always end up close to the
corner, which is where it would have been had its motion been
continuous rather than in discrete steps. The only time when non
position and leaves the point far outside. In this case it is clear
inertia) is provided by the main deck and the bottom near the keel,
elastic to fully plastic, as for a solid bean, the ship behaves fully
M f M
p1 I y
9p2 = f 2 My
with
Sp2 f4 S (R7)
with Sy mA ay
program.
program has been arranged to occur Ahen the total rotation (6O1i L±)
dt a mss exceeds a given critical rotation 7.9 In this way the
moment together.
lumped mass, ie forty equations for a 20 mass model. This means that
the time step must be very small, being restricted to a small fraction
safely. Linear velocity damping was introduced between each mass and
1921
With this technique it cannot be expected that motion equivalent
chosen so that the predicted strains for elastic cases were similar to
those predicted by the computer program II. Even with the damping
case and the computing times were found to be about 20 times as great.
plastic hinging program is very different from that for the elastic
the two types of analysis for a case where plastic deformation does not
occur. The results of such calculations are shown in figure R5. The
agreement is very good for the early motion but falls off considerably
later in the motion due to the damping included in the plastic program.
The damping is actually a little too severe but the calculation shows
high modes are more heavily damped than the low ones. As for the
earlier programs the bubble effects have been suppressed shortly after
where the elastic limit has been exceeded. The strains are those at the
middle of the ship, very close to where buckling occurs in the plastic
present and the longitudinal strains are small. This would not be true
at other parts of the ship. The displacement curve shows that the
hinging. This is even clearer in figure R7 where the ship profiles for
the same example are shown. It is of interest that in this case the
charge geometry is such that the hinge occurs during the suction phase
193
of the bubble and bends towards the explosion rather than away as might
bc expected. The later impulse from the bubble pulse is also very
evident. It occurs very close to the ship and the loading is fairly
local. The high shear stresses indicated at this time lead to heavy
it, the stresses were high throughout most of the length of the ship
first at the centre and then the deformation there partially relieved
194
M RL
I SLL M SR1P
i thfh LL.'f L~~thL
MASS %r I1* MASS
S R MLL SLi MR'
SQ.....•Q,+ I
tl'P•LPL4I
NOMENCLATURE AND SIGN CONVENTION FOR
THE PLASTIC ANALYSIS IDEALISATION
FIGURE RI
AM
L A 
J ~ ~Mp lrae
j K' K.
prp
H' ME2 E
_ Mp,I '
H G F
FIGURE R2
th
8 RL
MASS
t h th 
MASS
PLASTIC SHEAR ANGLE
PLASTIC ROTATION ANGLES
19S
.7L
III
196
CHARGE WEIGHT 60 LB. TNT AMIDSHIP AND 45 FEET DEEP
°°1000
OI01 .2 0 S
.5
z
u
U ..
a.,.
w
Io.
(A w Iu 1.U2SR
0'o
FIGURE IRS
197
CHARGE WEIGHT 500 L8.TNT AMIDSHIP AND 45 FEET DEEP
0 3
4L
'ELASTIC PROG RAM
PLASTIC PROGRAM
10
u .
25.0 • 7S1000I.2
wx
U.
_j %0 \TIM ESECOND S/
i.0
wo
20 
t o
t
Z 0 25 ,I
 1.00
.50 75 1.25
TI\MTESCECONDES
19s
so 5 10 is 20 
STERN,r
I
w
BOW
5~
U.
0,
.8J
FIGURE R7a
199
IL'
3
*3.
..7C
U
 7
.99
FIGURE Rib
200
Appendix
considering the flow around the underwater section and its image
(the dotted .urve) in the free surface. Suppose that the potential Oo
is known for the flow around the section without the bilge keels. If
dimensions of the section then its presence will not greatly alter
the main flow and the new potential will be 0 = 00 + % wher: ob is
necessary to adjust the original flow to the flow around the keel.
In the original flow, without the keel, the fluid at the bilge
U 40= Ucos e
n an 0
U as==•
radius of curvature of the section, the flow loca! to the bilge keel
attachment point will be almost like the flow past a flat plate as
in Figure 2. The motion of both water and plate normal to the plate
water is
V= U(aL + sin od
201
T•e necessary form of the disturbance potential j6b is then that for
width anr is a well known flow. The added mass of a plate of width
Wd 2 ('.+ sin o0 ) ;
2
Wod (a.+ sino ) sin U6.
induced along the centre line of the flow. In the problem of flow past a
plate on a wall,along the plate this pressure distribution will act on the wall
will be no nett force, only a couple, on the ship bottom. Even the
couple is balanced overall by that from th other bilge keel. The
The total downward force on the whole section (image ind uded)
due to the bilge keels will be four times that given above, so, if
C is the added mass coefficient for the section without keels and C'
the coefficient with the keels, it follows from the force equation
202
l. W= + .!xpd la, + sine
t C.. L
0
"P" p•
Ck~ i"• C + 2xpd'(a. + sineo)siniO,
6C = 2 C = 2( ) + isnOe )sin0
to *.e .'ue vclue and some judgenent is necessary to apply it. This
w..ich the !iAle keel is euivalent) decays so slowly that the integral
over the nch ourinj curved wall rmiay have some effect. This can be
S•
•,,, *.. considering the flow about a circular cylinder of diameter B
with s..il 'ins of lcn:,th d .At either cnd of the diameter transverse
+ d] 2
so t.,,.t t.,c increase ovr the usual value is, to the lowest order in
Ly the ethod rolposed aere, when the cylindcr maoves upward with vel)
cit. L. the :.'ater moves doviný.ard with velocity U at the positions of the
fins. 'nc rl.,tive velocity of the fin and water is therefore 2U and
2
2p•cd
 = au 2 ,
B
Sc, ", t'ic additional effect being due to increased pressure around
method is correct and that the force on the keel itself is likely to
D ~ ,,
;L( ++, SI 9.
FIGURE I
4
< o+ U WAT:ER
4

 "  • +,<+ SIN eo)
FIGURE 3
APPENDIX
205