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12-1

107
CHAPTER 12
SOLUTIONS

Solution:

Solution:

Given: 250 kg/mo of light bulbs

Solution:

a. From http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action

Under Titles column select 40

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12-2

12-4 TCE Evaporation Loss

Given: 590 kg/wk of TCE added, never dumped, drag out = 3.8 L/h, 8 h/d, 5 d/wk
operation, sludge = 1.0% of incoming TCE, density = 1.460 kg/L

Solution:

Evaporation = ?

590 kg/wk 3.8 L/h

1% of in
Figures S-10-14: Mass balance

b. Sludge mass

c. Drag out

Mdrag out = (3.8 L/h)(8 h/d)(5 d/wk)(1.460 kg/L) = 221.92 kg/wk

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12-3

d. Mass balance

Solution:

c. Mass flow from vent

GMW of methylene chloride (from Appendix A, Table A-8, note that methylene
chloride = dichloromethane) = 84.93 g/mole

PV 101.325kPa 25.154 L min 

n   1.046 moles
RT 8.3143 J K  mole 293K 
Mass flow

d. Mass balance

12-6 Efficiency of vent condenser

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12-4

Given: Problem 12-5

Solution:

a. Efficiency

IN  OUT
Efficiency   100%
IN

341.63  0.002386  128.03

Efficiency   100%
341.63

Given: Flow of 5 L/min containing 100 mg/L of HCl

Solution:

a. Write reaction

GMWHCl = 36.5 g/mole

GMWCa(OH)2 = 74 g/mole

100 mg L5 L min   0.0137 mole min

1000 mg g 36.5 g mole 
d. Molar flow of lime to neutralize

From the reaction in "a" one mole of lime will neutralize two moles of HCl or 1/2
mole of lime will neutralize one mole of HCl or 1/2(0.0137) = 0.006849
moles/min of lime

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12-5

0.006849 mole min 74 g mole 1440 min d   0.730 kg d

1000 g kg 
f. Total dissolved solids

In mg/L

0.006849 moles min 111g mole 1000 mg g 

 152 mg L
5 L min 
12-8 Amount of sulfuric acid to neutralize NaOH and TDS formed

Given: Flow of 200 L/min containing 15 mg/L of NaOH

Solution:

a. Write reaction

b. Gram molecular weights

GMWNaOH = 40 g/mole

GMWH2SO4 = 98 g/mole

15 mg L200 L min   0.075 mole min

1000 mg g 40 g mole 
d. Molar flow of sulfuric acid to neutralize

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12-6

From the reaction in "a" one mole of sulfuric acid will neutralize two moles of
NaOH or 1/2 mole of sulfuric acid will neutralize one mole of NaOH or
1/2(0.075) = 0.0375 moles/min of sulfuric acid

0.0375 mole min 98 g mole 1440 min d   5.292 kg d

1000 g kg 
f. Total dissolved solids

In mg/L

0.0375 mole min 142 g mole 1000 mg g   26.625 mg L

200 L min 
12-9 Estimated pH of bath mixture

Given: 1500 L of 5.00% H2SO4 by volume, 1500 L of 5.00% NaOH by weight, Specific
gravity of H2SO4 = 1.841, H2SO4 purity = 96%, NaOH purity = 100%

Solution:

at 96% purity

(72.0 L)(1.841 kg/L) = 132.55 kg or 132,552 g

moles of H2SO4

132,552g
 1,352.57moles
98 g mole

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12-7

moles of NaOH

75,000g
 1,875moles
40 g mole

H 2SO 4  2NaOH  Na 2SO 4  H 2 O

So, 2705.14 moles of NaOH are required to neutralize 1352.57 moles of H2SO4

d. The estimated pH is then

830.14moles  H 
 0.277 mole L
3000L

 1 
pH  log   0.558 or 0.56
 0.277 

2 moles of NaOH form 1 mole of Na2SO4

1875
 937.5 moles of Na2SO4 formed
2

Excess acid of 830.14 moles H+ forms

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12-8

830.14
 415.07 moles H2SO4
2

TDS 
937.5moles  Na 2SO 4 142 g mole   415.07moles  H 2SO 4 98 g mole 
3000L

Solution:

Given: Ozone to oxidize NaCN

Solution:

a. First step

NaCN  O 3  NaCNO  O 2

b. Second step

2NaCNO  O3  H 2 O  2NaHCO3  N 2

Solution:

NaHSO 3  H 2 O  NaOH  H 2SO 3

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12-9

Given: copper concentration to be reduced to 1.3 mg/L, Ksp = 2.00 x 10-19

Solution:

a. Reaction

Cu  2OH  CuOH2

c. Ksp equation

d. Solving for [OH]

12
 2  10 19 
OH   
 
 1.3 mg L  10 g mg 63.54 g mole  
3

[OH] = 1.56 x 10-9 mole

e. Estimate of pH

pOH = 8.81

Given: Q = 100 L/min, 50.0 mg/L Zn in solution, standard = 2.6 mg/L

Solution:
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12-10

a. Calculate final desired zinc concentration in moles/L

Zn  2.6 mg L
 3.98  10 5 mole L
65.4  10 mg mole
3

d. Calculate pH

e. Estimate dose of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2)

Zn  Ca OH2  ZnOH2  Ca

GMWZn = 65.4

GMWCa(OH)2 = 74

Zinc to be removed

50.0 mg/L – 2.6 mg/L = 47.4 mg/L

Moles to me removed

47.4 mg L
 7.25  10 4 mole L
65.4  10 3 mg mole

Dose of lime

(7.25 x 10-4 mole/L)(74 g/mole)(100 L/min) = 5.36 g/min

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12-11

12-15 Volume reduction with filter press and dryer

Given: 1.0 m3/d of metal plating sludge with solids concentration of 4%; filter press
yields solids concentration of 30%; dryer yields solids concentration of 80%.

Solution:

From Water Treatment and solving for V2

V2 P1 V2 0.04
  3

V1 P2 1.0 m d 0.30

V2 = 0.133 m3/d

b. Dryer volume

V2 0.30
3

0.133 m d 0.80

V2 = 0.05 m3/d

Given: Problem 12-15, ferrocyanide concentration of 400 mg/kg at 4% solids

Solution:

a. The concentration of Fe-CN is the mass of Fe-CN divided by the mass per unit volume
of solids. If the Fe-CN is part of the precipitate, then the reduction in solids volume
will increase the Fe-CN concentration.

b. Set up mass balance

(Fe-CNin)(Qin) = (Fe-CNout)(Qout)

c. Solve for Fe-CNout

Fe  CN out 
400 mg 
kg  1.0 m 3 d 
 3000 mg kg
0.133 m 3 d

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12-12

Solution:

gas  flow  rate 60 m 3 min

L   3.33 m 3 min
gas 18
ratio
liguid

First computing the numerator

 
 6000 3.33 8.206  10 5 298  6000 
  1  8.069
ln 
 1.5 
60 6.74  10 3 
 1.5 

0.7201  3.338.206  10 3298   0.5749

 5

 606.74  10  

0.5749

c. Assuming a maximum column height (ZT) of 6 m

46.787m 3
A  7.798m 2
6m

d. Calculating a diameter

 47.798 
12

d   3.15m
  

NOTE: other column height/diameter combinations are possible within the constraints
that ZT < 6 m and d < 4 m

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12-13

Solution:

First computing the numerator

 
 440 0.22 8.206  10 5 293  440 
  1  7.66
ln 
 0.2 
15 100  10 4 
 0.2 

13.5 10 1  0.228.206  10 293 

5
3
  0.013024
 15 100  10  4

 129.4m 3
0.013024

b. Assuming a maximum column height (ZT) of 6 m

129.4m 3
A  21.566m 2
6m

c. Calculating a diameter

 421.566 
12

d   5.24m
  

4.0
2
A  12.566m 2
4

e. Recalculating column height

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12-14

129.4m 3
ZT   10.29m
12.566m 2

This is too tall for one column but two columns in series each with a height of
5.15 m would work. NOTE: other column height/diameter combinations are
possible within the constraints that ZT < 6 m and d < 4 m.

Given: LaGrega form of stripping equation, Hc = 6.44 x 10-3 m3-atm/mole, Tg = 20 oC, L

= 7.13 L/s, KLa = 1.6 x 10-2 s-1, column diameter ≤ 4.0 m, column height ≤ 6.0 m

Solution:

Mass rate = (1.0 kg/L)(7.13 L/s) = 7.13 kg/s

Molar rate =
7.13 kg s10 3 g kg   396.11mole s
18 g mole

1000 g/m
3
C1
35 g/m
3
C2
3
Hc 6.44E-03 m - atm/mole
o
Tg 20 C = 293.15 K
3
R 8.21E-05 atm-m /mole-K
KLa 1.60E-02 s
3
Mw 55600 moles/m
L 396.11 moles/s

Assume values for diameter and air flow rate

Diameter 1m
2
Cross sectional area 0.7853975 m
Air flow rate 8000 moles/s

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12-15

Compute H'
H' = 2.68E-01

Compute Rsf
Rsf = 5.4067792

HTU = 5.67E-01

Number of transferr units

Rsf /Rsf -1 = 1.2269231
C1/C2 = 28.571429
Rsf -1 = 4.4067792
NTU = 3.86E+00
Z= 2.19E+00 m
Plus 20% = 2.63 m

Note: numerous solutions are available depending on the choice of G and

diameter. Some are shown below.

For the following diameters with air flow rate = 8000 mole/s
Z
0.5 m 10.5 m Too tall for specification
2.0 m 0.66 m Columns are normally have Z>dia. This height is not very practical
3.0 m 0.24 m Columns are normally have Z>dia. This height is not very practical
4.0 m 0.14 m Columns are normally have Z>dia. This height is not very practical

For the follwing air flow rates with diameter = 1.0 m

Z
2000 moles/s 5.25 m
4000 moles/s 3.12 m
10000 moles/s 2.55 m
20000 moles/s 2.41 m

Solution:

a. Calculate the equivalent weight of C0

58.7
Equivalent weight =  29.35 mg meq
2
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12-16

55 mg L
C0   1.87 meq L
29.35 mg meq

Volume [L] C [mg/L] C [meq/L] C/Co Co/C (Co/C)-1

0.16 4.23 0.144123 0.076909 13.00236
0.32 5.14 0.175128 0.093455 10.70039 9.700389
0.48 10.03 0.341738 0.182364 5.483549 4.483549
0.64 16.65 0.567291 0.302727 3.303303 2.303303
0.8 23.62 0.80477 0.429455 2.328535 1.328535
0.96 29.54 1.006474 0.537091 1.861882 0.861882
1.12 35.46 1.208177 0.644727 1.551043 0.551043
1.28 39.04 1.330153 0.709818 1.408811 0.408811
1.44 44.04 1.500511 0.800727 1.248865 0.248865
1.6 49.54 1.687905 0.900727 1.110214
1.76 53.32 1.816695 0.969455 1.031508 0.031508
1.92 54.14 1.844634 0.984364 1.015885 0.015885
2.08 53.22 1.813288 0.967636 1.033446 0.033446

c. Plot the data on semi-log paper as shown below.

Problem 10-30 Nickel Ion Exchange

100

y = 20.183e-3.1502x
10
C/C(o)-1

0.1
-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Volume [L]

d. From equation of trendline

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12-17

b= ln 20.18 = 3.00

slope = -3.1502 L-1

f. Calculate k

 7.68 L d 
k  3.1502   12.94 L d  meq
 1.87 meq L 

M = (5.2 g)(1- 0.17) = 4.316 g

h. Calculate q0

q0 
3.007.68  0.4125 meq mg
12.944.316
i. Now calculate the mass of resin for the full scale system

Using the influent and allowable effluent concentrations, calculate the left hand
side of Equation 10-27

 55 
ln   1  3.00
 2.6 

12.94 L d  meq 0.4125 meq mg M 

 1.48  10 4 M 
36,000

The operating cycle of 5 d and flow rate of 36,000 L/d gives

V = (36,000)(5) = 180,000 L

The second term on the right hand side of Eqn 12-5 is

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12-18

36,000

Solution:

a. Calculate the equivalent weight of C0

108
Equivalent weight =  108 mg meq
1

10 mg L
C0   0.0926 meq L
108 mg meq

Volume [L] C [mg/L] C [meq/L] C/Co Co/C (Co/C)-1

0.3 0.01 0.00 0.001 1000.00 999.00
0.4 0.02 0.00 0.002 500.00 499.00
0.5 0.04 0.00 0.004 250.00 249.00
0.6 0.08 0.00 0.008 125.00 124.00
0.7 0.16 0.00 0.016 62.50 61.50
0.8 0.31 0.00 0.031 32.26 31.26
0.9 0.61 0.01 0.061 16.39 15.39
1.0 1.15 0.01 0.115 8.70 7.70
1.1 2.00 0.02 0.200 5.00 4.00
1.2 3.33 0.03 0.333 3.00 2.00
1.3 5.00 0.05 0.500 2.00 1.00
1.4 6.67 0.06 0.667 1.50 0.50
1.5 8.00 0.07 0.800 1.25 0.25
1.6 8.89 0.08 0.889 1.12 0.12
1.7 9.41 0.09 0.941 1.06 0.06
1.8 9.69 0.09 0.969 1.03 0.03
1.9 9.84 0.09 0.984 1.02 0.02
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12-19

c. Plot the data on semi-log paper as shown below

Problem 10-31 Silver Ion Exchange

10000.00
1000.00
y = 7773.2e-6.8937x
100.00
C/C(o)-1

10.00
1.00
0.10
0.01
-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Volume [L]
Figure S-12-21: Silver ion exchange

d. From equation of trendline

b = ln 7773 = 8.96

slope = -6.89 L-1

f. Calculate k

 4.523 L d 

k  6.89L1     336.54 L d  meq
 0.0926 meq L 

M = (7.58g)(1- 0.34) = 5.00 g

h. Calculate q0

q0 
8.964.523  0.0241meq mg
336.545.00
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12-20

i. Now calculate the mass of resin for the full scale system

Using the influent and allowable effluent concentrations, calculate the left hand
side of Equation 12-5

 10 
ln   1  3.7054
 0.24 

336.54 L d  meq 0.0241meq mg M 

 2.25  10 3 M 
3600

The operating cycle of 5 d and flow rate of 3,600 L/d gives

V = (3,600)(5) = 18,000 L

3600

3.70 = 2.25 x 10-3 (M) - 1.56 x 102

M = 7.10 x 104 g or 71 kg

12-22 Ion exchange column for hardness

Given: Ca = 107 mg/L as ion, Mg = 18 mg/L as ion, data on size of pilot column

Solution:

For Ca, the equivalent weight is 40.0/2 = 20 g/eq or 20 mg/meq

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12-21

107 mg L
 5.35 meq L
20.0 mg meq

18 mg L
 1.48 meq L
12.15 mg meq

Volume [m3] C [meq/L] C/Co Co/C (Co/C)-1

2.35 0.21 0.0307 32.5309
2.90 0.48 0.0703 14.2323 13.2323
3.10 1.10 0.1610 6.2104 5.2104
3.26 1.64 0.2401 4.1655 3.1655
3.39 2.47 0.3616 2.7658 1.7658
3.49 3.22 0.4713 2.1216 1.1216
3.56 3.56 0.5211 1.9190 0.9190
3.71 4.52 0.6616 1.5114 0.5114
3.81 5.07 0.7422 1.3474 0.3474
4.03 5.96 0.8724 1.1462 0.1462
4.62 6.78 Problem 10-32 Hardness Ion
0.9925 1.0076
Exchange

1000000.0
y = 1E+06e-3.9481x
100000.0
10000.0
C/C(o)-1

1000.0
100.0
10.0
1.0
0.1
-1 1 3 5
3
Volume [m ]
Figure S-12-22: Hardness ion exchange
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12-22

c. From the equation of trendline

b = ln (1 x 106) = 13.82

e. Calculate k (Note conversions to days and m3)

h d 10 
    2.25 L h6.24 m3 L 
3
1
k  3.95 m 3   3.12  10 2 L d  meq
 83 meq L 

g. Calculate q0 (Note units in answer)

q0 
13.822.25 L h 24 h d   7.24  10 3 meq
3.12 10 2 L d  meq 3.30kg kg

h. Now calculate mass of resin for full scale system

Using the influent and desired effluent concentrations, calculate the left hand side
of equation 10-27. Begin by converting 10 mg/L as CaCO3 to meq/L. The
equivalent weight of CaCO3 is 50 mg/meq.

10 mg L as  CaCO 3
 0.20 meq L
50 mg meq

Then

 6.83 
ln   1  3.50
 0.20 

The first term on the right hand side of equation 12-5 is

3.12 10 
L d  meq 7.24  10 3 meq kg M 
2

 3.96  10 4 kg 1 M 
 
570 m 3 d 10 3 L m 3 
Where M is the unknown quantity of resin. Note the units conversions.
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12-23

The second term on the right hand side of equation 12-5 is

3.12 10 2
 
L d  meq 6.83 meq L 34,200m 3 
 12.79
570 m 3 d

3.50 = (3.96 x 10-4 kg-1)(M) – 12.79

M = 41,136 or 41,000 kg or 41 Mg

12-23 Blending waste to achieve 30% by mass chlorine

Given: Trichloroethylene = 18.9 m3; 1,1,1 Trichloroethane = 5.3 m3; Toluene = 21.3 m3,
o-Xylene = 4.8 m3

Solution:

a. Using Appendix A obtain formulas, molecular weights and densities

Trichloroethylene

formula = ClCH=CCl2, GMW = 131.29, density = 1.476 g/mL

1,1,1 Trichloroethane

Toluene

o-Xylene

b. Fraction of compound that is chlorine

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12-24

Trichloroethylene

3 chlorines with GMW of 35.5 = 3(35.5) = 106.5

106.5
chlorine fraction =  0.811
131.29

1,1,1 Trichloroethane

3 chlorines with GMW of 35.5 = 3(35.5) = 106.5

106.5
chlorine fraction =  0.798
133.41

Toluene

contains no chlorine

o-Xylene

contains no chlorine

c. Compute mass of each compound

Trichloroethylene

mass = (1,476 kg/m3)(18.9 m3) = 27,896.4 kg

1,1,1 Trichloroethane

Toluene

density = 0.8669 g/mL = 866.9 kg/m3

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12-25

o-Xylene

Total mass

27,896.4 + 7,096.7 + 18,464.97 + 4,224.96 = 57,683.03 kg

d. Compute % chlorine

%Cl 
0.81127,896.4  0.7987,096.7 100
57,683.03

%Cl = 49.03 or 49%

The operator cannot achieve 30% chlorine by mixing these waste quantities.

Given: Carbon tetrachloride = 1.2 m3, Hexachlorobenzene = 15.3 m3, Pentachlorophenol

= 25.0 m3, Methanol as required

Solution:

a. Using Appendix A obtain formulas, molecular weights and densities

Carbon tetrachloride

formula = CCl4, GMW = 153.82, density = 1.594 g/mL

Hexachlorobenzene

formula = C6Cl6, GMW = 284.79, density = 1.5691 g/mL

Pentachlorophenol

formula = Cl5C6OH, GMW = 266.34, density = 1.978 g/mL

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12-26

b. Fraction of compound that is chlorine

Carbon tetrachloride

4 chlorines with GMW of 35.5 = 4(35.5) = 142.0

142.0
Chlorine fraction =  0.923
153.82

Hexachlorobenzene

6 chlorines with GMW of 35.5 = 6(35.5) = 213.0

213.0
Chlorine fraction =  0.748
284.79

Pentachlorophenol

5 chlorines with GMW of 35.5 = 5(35.5) = 177.5

177.5
Chlorine fraction =  0.667
266.34

c. Compute mass of each compound

Carbon tetrachloride

mass = (1,594 kg/m3)(12.2 m3) = 19,446.8 kg

Hexachlorobenzene

density = 1.5691 g/mL = 1,569.1 kg/m3

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12-27

mass = (1,569.1 kg/m3)(153 m3) = 240,072.3 kg

Pentachlorophenol

Total mass

19,446.8 + 240,072.3 + 4,945.0 = 264,464.1 kg

d. Compute % chlorine

%Cl 
0.92319,446.8  0.748240,072.3  0.6674,945  0.759
264,464.1
%Cl = 75.9 %

e. Compute amount of methanol that must be added

The chlorine fraction of the combination must be 30%, so the weighted fraction would be
0.759264,464.1  0.0 M CH3OH 
Chlorine fraction =  0.30
264,464.1  M CH3OH

(0.759)(264,464.1) + 0.0 = 0.3(264,464.1 + MCH3OH)

MCH3OH = 404,630 kg

Calculate volume based on density of 7,913 kg/m3

404,630kg
V  51.135 or 51 m3
7,913 kg m 3

12-25 Mass flow of methylene chloride in aqueous feed

Given: Methylene chloride concentration = 5,858 mg/L, flow rate of aqueous stream =
40.5 L/min

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12-28

Solution:

12-26 Mass flow of methylene chloride in flue gas

Given: Methylene chloride concentration = 211.86 g/L, flow rate of flue gas = 597.55
m3/min

Solution:

Solution:

a. Using Eqn. 12-9

237.25  0.1266
DRE  100  99.947%
237.25

12-28 DRE for xylene

Given: mass flow into incinerator = 481 kg/h, mass flow in stack = 72.2 g/h

Solution:

a. Using Eqn. 12-9

481  0.0722
DRE  100  99.985%
481

12-29 Incinerator compliance for dichlorobenzene

Given: Incinerator operating conditions and stack gas concentrations after APC
equipment

Solution:

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12-29

mass flow = (13.0 g/L)(173.0 L/min) = 2,249 g/min

2249 g min
molar flow =  15.298 mole min
147.01g mole

Hydrogen Chloride

b. Mass flows out of incinerator

1,2 Dichlorobenzene

(338.8 g/m3)(10-6 g/g)(6.70 m3/s)(60 s/min) = 0.136 g/min

Hydrogen Chloride

without APC

with APC

or (31.03 g/min)(10-3 kg/g)(60 min/h) =1.86 kg/h

c. Compliance computations

DRE for 1,2 Dicholorobenzene

2249  0.136
DRE  100  99.994 Passes
2249

HCl

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12-30

(0.01)(1,116.75 g/min) = 11.17 g/min

After the APC the emission is 31.03 g/min. This exceeds the 1% limit. Therefore
the incinerator fails to comply with the HCl limits.

Particulates

The limit is 180 mg/dscm, therefore the incinerator emission of 181.6 mg/dscm
fails to comply with the particulate limits.

12-30 Trial burn compliance for POHCs

Given: Temperature = 1,100 oC, Qstack = 5.90 dscm/s, 10% oxygen, assume chlorine =
HCl, inlet and outlet emissions

Solution:

a. Calculate DRE’s

Benzene

913.98  0.2436
DRE  100  99.9733% Fails
913.98

Chlorobenzene

521.63  0.0494
DRE  100  99.9905% Passes
521.63

Xylenes

1378.91  0.5670
DRE  100  99.9589% Fails
1378.91

b. Calculate HCl

Emission rate of 4.85 kg/h exceeds emission limit of 1.8 kg/h. Now check % removal:

Inlet HCl

GMW of chlorobenzene = 112.5 g/mole

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12-31

Molar flow of C6H5Cl =

521.63 kg h 10 3 g kg   4636.71mole h
112.5 g mole

Mass flow of HCl = (1)(4636.71 mole/h)(36.5 g/mole) = 169,239.95 g/h

= 169.24 kg/h

Removal efficiency

169.24 kg h  4.85 kg h
 100  97.13%
169.24 kg h

The HCl emissions fail on both requirements.

c. Particulate emissions

10.61kg h 10 6 mg kg   499.53 mg m3

5.90 m 3 s3600 s h 
Corrected to 10% oxygen

 14 
Pc  499.53   635.76 mg m
3

 21  10 

12-31 Incinerator compliance for trichloroethylene, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, and toluene

Given: Incinerator operating conditions and stack gas concentrations after APC
equipment

Solution:

Trichloroehtylene data from Appendix A

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12-32

mass flow = (0.05)(40.0 L/min)(1,476 g/L) = 2,952 g/min

2952 g min
molar flow =  22.485 mole min
131.29 g mole

Hydrogen chloride

mass flow = (0.05)(40.0 L/min)(1,339 g/L) = 2,678 g/min

2678 g min
molar flow =  20.07 mole min
133.41g mole

Hydrogen chloride

mass flow = (0.05)(40.0 L/min)(866.9 g/L) = 1,733.8 g/min

Hydrogen chloride

b. Mass flow out of incinerator

Trichloroethylene

(170 g/m3)(10-6 g/g)(9.0 m3/s)(60 s/min) = 0.0918 g/min

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12-33

1,1,1 Trichloroethane

Toluene

HCl

without APC

with APC

or (44.928 g/min)(10-3 kg/g)(60 min/h) = 2.696 or 2.7 kg/h

c. Compliance computations

DRE for Trichloroethylene

2952  0.0918
DRE  100  99.9968% Passes
2952

DRE for 1,1,1 Trichloroethane

2678  0.190
DRE  100  99.9929% Passes
2678

DRE for Toluene

1733.8  0.0151
DRE  100  99.9991% Passes
1733.8

HCl

(0.01)(4,660 g/min) = 46.6 g/min

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12-34

After the APC the emission is 44.928 g/min. This is less than the 1% limit.
Therefore the incinerator complies with the HCl limits.

Particulates

The limit is 180 mg/dscm, therefore the incinerator emission of 123.4 mg/dscm
complies with the particulate limits.

12-32 Incinerator compliance for hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, acetone

Given: Incinerator operating conditions and stack gas concentrations after APC
equipment

Solution:

mass flow = (0.093)(140.0 L/min)(1,569.1 g/L) = 20,430 g/min

20,430 g min
molar flow =  71.74 mole min
284.79 g mole

Hydrogen chloride

mass flow = (0.093)(140.0 L/min)(1,978 g/L) = 25,754 g/min

25,754 g min
molar flow =  96.69 mole min
266.34 g mole

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12-35

Hydrogen chloride

mass flow = (0.093)(140.0 L/min)(790 g/L) = 10,286 g/min

Hydrogen Chloride

b. Mass flow out of incinerator

Hexachlorobenzene

(170 g/m3)(10-6 g/g)(28.32 m3/s)(60 s/min) = 0.2889 g/min

Pentachlorophenol

Acetone

HCl

without APC

with APC

or (141.37 g/min)(10-3 kg/g)(60 min/h) = 8.48 kg/h

c. Compliance computations
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12-36

DRE for Hexachlorobenzene

20,430  0.2889
DRE  100  99.9986% Passes
20,430

DRE for Pentachlorophenol

25,754  0.5998
DRE  100  99.9977% Passes
25,754

DRE for Acetone

10,286  0.04758
DRE  100  99.9995% Passes
10,286

HCl

(0.01)(27,933 g/min) = 279.33 g/min

After the APC the emission is 141.37 g/min. This is less than the 1% limit.
Therefore the incinerator complies with the HCl limits.

Particulates

Correct 14% oxygen to 7% concentration using Eqn. 12-10

 14 
Pc  123.4   246.8
 21  14 

The limit is 180 mg/dscm, therefore the incinerator emission of 246.8 mg/dscm
fails to comply with the particulate limits.

12-33 Rotary kiln

Given: Retention time required = 1.0 h, diameter = 3.00 m, length = 6.00 m, slope =
2.00%, peripheral speed = 1.5 m/min

Solution:
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12-37

PeripheralSpeed 1.5 m min

N   0.159 rev min
Circumfere nce / rev 3.00m rev

b. Slope

S = 2.00% = 0.02 m/m

c. Time

0.196.00m 3.00m 
t  119.4 min
0.02 m m0.159 rev min 
This is > 1 hour so permit conditions have been met.

Solution:

5.0cm 
2
A  19.64cm 2
4

b. Solve permeameter equation for t

QL
t
khAt

t
100.0cm 10cm 
3
 58.95 or 60 d
10 7
cm s 100cm 19.64cm 86400 s d 
2

Given: Figure P-12-34, 30 d for 100 mL minimum

Solution:

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12-38

Note: there are many solutions that will work. I chose to double head to 2 m.

a. Solve equation for t

QL
t
khA

b. Area of sample

5.0cm 
2
A  19.64cm 2
4

c. Solve for t

t
100.0cm 10cm 
3
 29.5d
10 7
cm s 200cm 19.64cm 86400 s d 
2

Solution:

10.0cm 
2
A  78.54cm 2
4

b. Calculate area of stand pipe (a)

0.1cm 
2
a  0.007854cm 2
4

c. Calculate hydraulic conductivity (14 d = 1,209,600 s)

2.30.00785425  100  9
K log   2.86  10 cm s
78.541,209,600  25 
The nominal permeability acceptable for a hazardous waste landfill is 10-7 cm/s. Thus,
this is excellent.

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12-39

Solution:

k = (10-7 cm/s)( 10-2 m/cm)(86,400 s/d) = 8.64 x 10-5 m/d

b. Calculate flow

Given: Three soils with differing permeability and depth

Solution:

SOIL A

H  T 0.3m  3m
i   1.10
T 3m

b. Darcy velocity

v = (1.8 x 10-7 cm/s)(1.10) = 1.98 x 10-7 cm/s

c. Seepage velocity

1.98  10 7 cm s
v'   3.60  10 7 cm s
0.55

d. Travel time

t
3.0m100 cm m
3.60 10 7 cm s86400 s d   9645d
SOIL B

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12-40

H  T 0.3m  3m  10m
i   1.33
T 10m

b. Darcy velocity

v = (2.2 x 10-5 m/s)(1.33) = 2.93 x 10-5 m/s

c. Seepage velocity

2.93  10 5 m s
v'   1.17  10 4 m s
0.25

d. Travel time

t
10.0m
1.17 10 m s86400 s d   0.99d
4

SOIL C

H  T 0.3m  3m  10m  12m

i   2.11
T 12m

b. Darcy velocity

v = (5.3 x 10-5 mm/s)(2.11) = 1.12 x 10-4 mm/s

c. Seepage velocity

1.12  10 4 mm s
v'   3.19  10 4 mm s
0.35

d. Travel time

t
12.0m1000 mm m  435d
3.19 10 4 mm s86400 s d 
TOTAL TIME

9645d  0.99d  435d

Time   27.6 or 28 y
365 d y
12-39 Cubic meters of water contaminated at PQL
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12-41

Given: PQL for trichloroethylene = 5 g/L, 0.12 m3 barrel leaks to ground water

Solution:

mass = (0.12 m3)(1,476 kg/m3) = 177.12 kg

In g = (177.12 kg)(109 g/kg) = 1.7712 x 1011 g

b. Volume of water contaminated

1.7712  1011 g
 35,424,000 or 3.54 x 107 m3

5 g L 10 L m
3 3

12-40 Travel time with retardation

Given: Hydraulic gradient = 8.6 x 10-4, hydraulic conductivity = 200 m/d, porosity =
0.23, retardation factor = 2.3

Solution:

b. Find average linear velocity

v 0.172
v'    0.748 m d
n 0.23

c. Calculate the retardation factor

v' 0.748 m d
v' R    0.325 m d
R 2.3

d. Travel time
dis tan ce 100m
t   307.55 or 308 d
speed 0.325 m d
12-41 Pumping rate for purge well

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12-42

Given: Depth of unconfined aquifer = 60.00 m, permeability = 6.4 x 10-3 m/s, plume
depth at 130 m from center of leak is 0.1 m and plume does not extend beyond
150 m.

Solution:

a. From Water Quality Management

Computing h1 and h2

h2 = H - s2 = 60.00 - 0.0 = 60.00 m

Q

6.4  10 3 m s  60.00m   59.90m 
2 2

 1.68 m 3 s
 150 
ln  
 130 

12-42 Single intercept well system

Given: 0.12 m3 of CCl4, K = 7 x 10-4 cm/s, n = 0.38, GWT = 3.0 m, i = 0.002, aquifer =
28 m, Qw = 0.014 m3/s

Solution:

b. Width of capture zone at the well

Q 0.014 m 3 s
  357.14 or 360 m

D( v) 28.0m  1.40  10 6 m s 
12-43 Location of well

Solution:

a. The well should be at a distance equal to xsp (Eqn. 12-18)

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12-43

x sp 
0.014 m s3

228.0m 1.40  10 6
ms   56.8 or 57 m

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12-44

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

12-1 Times Beach

Solution:

Times Beach residents suffered from a dual disaster of hazardous waste and flood. The
dioxin and PCB contaminated soil resulted in the EPA recommending the town to be
abandoned. Most of the residents were left homeless, without jobs and with fear of how
the contamination would affect their health. The town was destroyed and the residents of
it with little hope for the future.

Given: LD50 for 2,3,7,8-TCDD

Solution:

The LD50 toxicity is based on oral intake for a particular species. This statement may be
misleading if it is assumed to be the same for humans, the route of exposure is not orally,
and because toxicity may manifest itself in forms other than death, i.e the slope of the
dose-response curve may yield greater effects at lower doses but have a higher LD50.

12-3 Dry Cleaner

Solution:

He cannot accumulate for 6 months. The time limit for accumulation of a hazardous
waste is 90 days.

From http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action

Then select 262 Standards Applicable for generators of Hazardous waste

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the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their
individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
12-45

12-4 Land ban

Given: Does "land ban” actually ban the disposal of hazardous waste?

Solution:

The "land ban” only prohibits land disposal of hazardous waste if there are no
concentration levels or methods of treatment of waste established by EPA. A better term
is "Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR).

Given: one drum identified, may be responsible for all others

Solution:

This is correct because CERCLA and courts have established strict, joint, and several
liability.

Given: Instituting a program to minimize waste

Solution:

The best first step is to prevent the generation of pollution in the first place. Waste
exchange and then recycling are logic follow-on steps.

Given: plating sludge treated to recover nickel

Solution:
may be displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of
the publisher, or used beyond the limited distribution to teachers and educators permitted by McGraw-Hill for their
individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
12-46

Treatment of the sludge to recover nickel is considered to be reclaiming. Since reclaiming

is a form of recycling - it is also recycling.

Solution: