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Why be a teacher?

 The answer you will give determine your success or failure in the
classroom. If your overriding motive is MONEY, you are in the wrong
profession.
 Teaching has his own reward except money
 If you insist on a teaching career with money as your main motive, I am
afraid you will find yourself miserable.
 Do not pass on this misery to your pupils or students. Go elsewhere. Try
trading, real-state or even hair styling.

Or

 Teaching because appeals to you. You are attracted to it because teaching


is fun. Having spent not less than two decades teaching in the classroom,
I can assure you that indeed, teaching is fun.

Teaching Profession

 It is the noblest of all professions.


 It’s a many-splendored thing.
 It’s a many-sided task
o As manager- the teacher is responsible for the effective
management of the various activities directly related to the
teaching learning process.
o As a motivator- the teacher should set the mood of learning by way
of stimulating the interest of the learners and should get them
more involved in the class activities.
o As a leader – the teacher acts as a leader in directing, supervising,
regulating, controlling and supporting the class activities to realize
optimum results.
o As model – the teachers demonstrate the good traits of a person
worthy of emulation as a model to his pupils/students.
o As a surrogate-Parent- while in school, the teachers are parents of
the pupils/students. Parents fell secured when they know that the
children are in good hands.
o As a social catalyst: the teacher as an agent of change should
make things easy for the process of change. Create a group of
inter-related and interdependent topics for the pupils/students in
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the classroom.
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o As a Facilitator- the most important task of a teacher is to facilitate
learning among his pupils/students. All other tasks a teacher does
are parts of his sworn duties and responsibilities.
o As a guide Counselor: Every teacher should act as a guidance
teacher. While every school has a guidance counselor, that should
help pupils/students acquire insights and understanding, abilities,
attitudes, behavior and appreciation necessary to act intelligently
and effectively in dealing with problems of everyday life.
 It’s rewards are many, except material.
 is not a job.
 It is mission to carry out.
 Service is valued more than personal gain
 We teachers, are called not only to instruct pupils (practice of the
profession demands intellectual activity) in our subject but to influence on
them.
 To open the door to varied experience in life, to touch their hearts, to
inspire them to reach the highest peak of their goal in life and enable
their spirit to soar the height still unknown.
 According to Adams: A teacher affect eternity; no one knows where his
influence stops.”
 Never underestimate your power as a teacher. Never underestimate your
power to make a difference in the lives of your pupils.
 For you to have that inner power, never stop studying, Never stop
learning. This is how you can keep that enthusiasm burning.
 When your enthusiasm for your subject dies and your teaching dies, the
teacher in you also dies.
 When the teacher in you dies, you will start hating your subject and
possibly, your students too. You will burn-out.

 This is your profession. It feed on continuing professional education. This
is our calling. This is your mission, to be good influence on the young and
impressionable. It is very noble one.
 Our pupils and their parents, your colleagues, your supervisors, you,
yourself, and God have their eyes/your conscience on how well you will
answer this calling or carry our your mission.

Fr. Joseph V. Landy, SJ, jotted down corridor conversation of students about
their mentors.
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Mr. Gonzales is the best teacher I’ve ever had. Knows Geography from A
to Z and keep the class hanging on every word. We’re almost sorry to hear the
bell ring.

I’m glad I have Miss Lim for history. I thought the period she was
covering would bore us to tears, but she has a way of making the driest
materials come to life.

What a bore Mr. Rodriquez is! He’s supposed to be teaching the


geography of Asia but he sounds as though he is reading facts from an almanac.
Geography used to be my favorite subject, but he’s managed to make me hate
it as much as math.

Miss Santos was a real pill today. Sat at her desk and droned on and on
about the battles in ancient war. Didn’t say a thing our textbook doesn’t say
better. We all fell asleep.

With what group of teacher do you want to be identified. The choice is


yours.

 There are factors of teaching that are considered in this complex human
endeavor
o Teacher role
o Teaching strategies and techniques, the goals and objective as
basis for teaching.
o The means to attain the desired objectives.
o The psychological foundations.
 Teaching viewed in different perspective both an art and science
 It is an art because it calls for the exercise of talent such as creativity and
resourcefulness to deal skillfully and promptly with new situation and
difficulties.
 It is also science for it involves a systematic and organized systems of
procedure, strategies, techniques and mental skill in the attainment of
knowledge and information that will equip the learners for better quality
of life.
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 Inferentially, whatever perspective of teaching people may have, there is
a common thread of agreement and its ultimate purpose is to direct and
facilitative learning.

Guide Question

1. What makes a good teaching?


2. What professional knowledge or content is most important in preparing a
teacher?
3. Can we define good teaching?
 Perhaps no one would argue that teaching is one of the most important
profession from the standpoint of human welfare.
 To understand what makes a good teacher, one must be aware of the
various technical, difficult and challenging task of a teacher.
 The teacher job is not only confined solely to the transmission of
knowledge and information but also important in his personal influence in
promoting the development of basic skills, desired work habits and
attitudes, values, judgment and adjustment of the individual learners to
the environment.
 Undoubtedly, the task of a teacher is virtually complex and demands a
variety of human traits, abilities and competencies.
 There have been various investigation and research to define and
established scientifically about the characteristic of an effective teacher.
The results of the studies generally attribute to two major categories in
which the distinguishing characteristics of an effective teacher may be
group.
o Personal attributes
o Professional attributes

Elements of Teaching and Learning

1. Learners
2. Teachers
3. Conducive Learning Environment
 Without one there could be no teaching, nor will there be learning of a
desired objective.
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Learners

 Learner is an embodied spirit.


 Union of sentient body and rational soul
 His/her soul is the principle of spiritual acts, the source of intellectual
abstraction , self-reflection and free rational volition.
 Body and soul exist in mutual dependence.

The fundamental Equipment of the Learner


1. Cognitive
2. Appetitive

Cognitive
1. Five senses
 The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and the better
the learning.
 Humans are intensely visual animals. The eye contains nearly 70% of the
body’s receptor and send millions of signals along the optic nerves to the
visual processing centers of the brain…We take in more information
visually than through any of the other senses (Wolf, 2001)
 Contribution of senses to learning: Sight 75%, hearing 18%, touch 6%,
taste 3%, smell 3%.
2. Instinct
 Come from the latin word instinctus which means impulse.
 This means that the learners has a natural or inherent capacity or
tendency to respond to environmental stimuli such as danger signs for
survival or self-preservation.
 This is manifested in his/her immediate tendency to flee in case of danger
or to fight when attacked or to rationalize to defend himself/herself when
his/her ego is hurt.
 The teacher must teach and the learner to put his/her instinct under
control. If not, he/she will not be different from any brute that is bound
by its instinct and will be far from the becoming the human person who is
capable of understanding, reasoning, choice and self-control that he/she
is meant to become.
3. Imagination
 The ability to form a mental image of something that is not perceived
through senses.
 The ability of mind to build mental scenes, objects or events that do not
exist, are not present to have happened in the past.
 The teaching learning process will be bare and dry without the use of
imagination. The creative power cannot be unleashed without the use of
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the imagination.
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 The teacher must, therefore , help the learner to develop his/her power of
imagination by encouraging them to “think outside the box” to be
creative, to form new ideas and explore old ideas.
4. Memory
 Retaining and recalling the past experience.
 Do not encourage memorizing without understanding.
 The teacher will do a favor when he/she does not bombard the learners
with too much information too rapidly and when he/she allocates time for
rehearsal/verbal repetition of lessons during classroom lessons.
5. Intellect
 Forming ideas or concepts, reasoning out and making judgment.
 Early concepts get modified and expanded as the child grows and
develops. There is so much concept formation that takes in every
teaching-learning process.
 The intellect enables the learners to reason out and judge.
 Reasoning includes analyzing and Judge is evaluating belong to
cognitive in Blooms cognitive taxonomy
Appetitive Faculties
1. Feeling and emotions
 Emotions is the on/off switch for learning.
 Positive feelings and emotions make the teaching-learning process an
exciting and a joyful, fruitful affair.
 Negative feelings and emotions make the same process a burden and
affect the cognitive process of recalling, imagining, analyzing, reasoning,
judging and evaluating.
 You scare learners and they perform poorly and don’t learn new
information well.
 Anxiety is the enemy of memory.
 The lesson that we learn and remembered most are those that have
struck us in one way or another.
2. Rational will
 Guiding force and the main integrating force in his/her character.
 The learners whose will is weak will easily succumbs to the bad
influence of his/her peer group even if his/her intellect tells him/her
not.
 The focus of values education should be the strengthening of the will.
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Family and Ability
Cultural
Background Factors that
contribute to the Aptitude
differences
Attitude and among learners
Values

Interest

1. Ability

 The learners native ability dictates the prospects of success in any


purposeful activity.
2. Aptitude
 Refers to the learners innate talent or gift.
 An early recognition of said natural adeptness among learners is indeed
compelling so as not waste such aptitude.
 Provision of a formative environment will be of great help in enabling them
to flourish and grow.
3. Interests
 Learners’ interest in learning makes learning no longer a task but a
pleasure.
 Learners have varied interest.
 Interest are not inherited. They are developed.
 A classroom set-up offer centers of interest to give learners an opportunity
to develop interest in many things.
 Interest clubs organized by different disciplines may serve as outlet of
special interests shared by the member.
4. Family and cultural background
 Students who come from different socioeconomic background manifest a
wide range of behavior due to differences in upbringing practices.
 Their participation in classroom activities are influences by home training
and experiences, either they become attuned and confident in their ways or
inactive and apathetic.
 Beneficial relationship of learners with their mentors and with one another
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affirm the kind of bond they enjoy at home.


5. Attitude and Values
 A positive attitude will enhance the maximum and optimum use of the
learner’s cognitive and affective faculties for learning.
 Learners with a positive attitude will demonstrate the value of persistence in
their study.
 Persistent students sustain interest in a learning activity not mindful of the
extra time and effort being spent.

MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE

1. Linguistic Intelligence: Word Smart


 the capacity to use language to express what's on your mind and to
understand other people.
 using words effectively.
 These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in
words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or
stories. They can be taught by encouraging them to say and see words,
read books together. Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books,
tape recorders, and lecture.
 Verbal-linguistic students love words and use them as a primary way of
thinking and solving problems. They are good writers, speakers, or both.
They use words to persuade, argue, entertain, and/or teach.

Learning Activities and Project Ideas:

__ Completing crossword puzzles with vocabulary words.

__ Playing games like Scrabble, Scrabble Junior, or Boggle.

__ Writing short stories for a classroom newsletter.

__ Writing feature articles for the school newspaper.

__ Writing a letter to the editor in response to articles.

__ Writing to state representatives about local issues.

__ Using digital resources such as electronic libraries, desktop publishing,


word games, and word processing.

__ Creating poems for a class poetry book.


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__ Entering their original poems in a poetry contest.


__ Listening to a storyteller.

__ Studying the habits of good speakers.

__ Telling a story to the class.

__ Participating in debates.

2. Logical/Mathematical Intelligence: (Math Smart)


 the capacity to understand the underlying principles of some kind of
causal system, the way a scientist or a logician does; or to manipulate
numbers, quantities, and operations, the way a mathematician does.
 reasoning, calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see
and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve
puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games,
investigations, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before
they can deal with details.
 Logical-mathematical students enjoy working with numbers. They can
easily interpret data and analyze abstract patterns. They have a well-
developed ability to reason and are good at chess and computer
programming. They think in terms of cause and effect.

Learning Activities and Project Ideas:

 Playing math games like mancala, dominoes, chess, checkers, and


Monopoly.
 Searching for patterns in the classroom, school, outdoors, and home.
 Conducting experiments to demonstrate science concepts.
 Using math and science software such as Math Blaster, which reinforces
math skills, or King's Rule, a logic game.
 Using science tool kits for science programs.
 Designing alphabetic and numeric codes.
 Making up analogies.

Characteristics of Logical-Mathematical Intelligence

 Excellent problem-solving skills


 Enjoys thinking about abstract ideas
 Likes conducting scientific experiments
 Good and solving complex computations
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Potential Career Choices


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 Scientist
 Mathematician
 Computer programmer
 Engineer
 Accountant

3. Musical Rhythmic Intelligence: (Music Smart)


 the capacity to think in music; to be able to hear patterns, recognize
them, and perhaps manipulate them. People who have strong musical
intelligence don't just remember music easily, they can't get it out of their
minds, it's so omnipresent.
 show sensitivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also
sensitive to sounds in their environments. They may study better with
music in the background. They can be taught by turning lessons into
lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time. Tools include musical
instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multimedia.
 Musical students think, feel, and process information primarily through
sound. They have a superior ability to perceive, compose, and/or perform
music. Musically smart people constantly hear musical notes in their head.

Learning Activities and Project Ideas:

 Writing their own songs and music about content-area topics.


 Putting original poems to music, and then performing them for the class.
 Setting a poem to music, and then performing it for the class.
 Incorporating a poem they have written with a melody they already
know.
 Listening to music from different historical periods.
 Tape recording a poem over "appropriate" background music (i.e., soft
music if describing a kitten, loud music if they are mad about pollution).
 Using rhythm and clapping to memorize math facts and other content-
area information.
 Listening to CDs that teach concepts like the alphabet, parts of speech,
and states and capitals (i.e., Schoolhouse Rock!).

Characteristics of Musical Intelligence

 Enjoy singing and playing musical instruments


 Recognizes musical patterns and tones easily
 Good at remembering songs and melodies
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 Rich understanding of musical structure, rhythm and notes


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Potential Career Choices

 Musician
 Composer
 Singer
 Music Teacher
 Conductor

4. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence: ( Body Smart)


 the capacity to use your whole body or parts of your body (your hands,
your fingers, your arms) to solve a problem, make something, or put on
some kind of production. The most evident examples are people in
athletics or the performing arts, particularly dancing or acting.
 use the body effectively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body
awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They
communicate well through body language and be taught through physical
activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include
equipment and real objects.
 Bodily-kinesthetic students are highly aware of the world through touch
and movement. There is a special harmony between their bodies and their
minds. They can control their bodies with grace, expertise, and
athleticism.
Learning Activities and Project Ideas:

 Creating costumes for role-playing, skits, or simulations.


 Performing skits or acting out scenes from books or key historical events.
 Designing props for plays and skits.
 Playing games like Twister and Simon Says.
 Using charades to act out characters in a book, vocabulary words,
animals, or other content-area topics.
 Participating in scavenger hunts, searching for items related to a theme or
unit.
 Acting out concepts. For example, for the solar system, "student planets"
circle around a "student sun." Students line up appropriately to
demonstrate events in a history timeline.
 Participating in movement breaks during the day.
 Building objects using blocks, cubes, or Legos to represent concepts from
content-area lessons.

 __ Using electronic motion-simulation games and hands-on construction


kits that interface with computers.
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Characteristics of Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence


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 Good at dancing and sports
 Enjoy creating things with their hands
 Excellent physical coordination
 Tends to remember by doing, rather than hearing or seeing

5. Spatial Intelligence:
 the ability to represent the spatial world internally in your mind -- the way
a sailor or airplane pilot navigates the large spatial world, or the way a
chess player or sculptor represents a more circumscribed spatial world.
Spatial intelligence can be used in the arts or in the sciences.
 think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware
of their environments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps,
daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical
imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings,
3-D modeling, video, videoconferencing, television, multimedia, texts with
pictures/charts/graphs.
 Spatial Intelligence (Picture Smart)
 Description: Students strong in spatial intelligence think and process
information in pictures and images. They have excellent visual receptive
skills and excellent fine motor skills. Students with this intelligence use
their eyes and hands to make artistic or creatively designed projects. They
can build with Legos, read maps, and put together 1,000-piece jigsaw
puzzles.
 Learning Activities and Project Ideas:
 __ Taking photographs for assignments and classroom newsletters.
 __ Taking photographs for the school yearbook, school newsletter, or
science assignments.
 __ Using clay or play dough to make objects or represent concepts from
content-area lessons.
 __ Using pictorial models such as flow charts, visual maps, Venn
diagrams, and timelines to connect new material to known information.
 __ Taking notes using concept mapping, mind mapping, and clustering.
 __ Using puppets to act out and reinforce concepts learned in class.
 __ Using maps to study geographical locations discussed in class.
 __ Illustrating poems for the class poetry book by drawing or using
computer software.
 __ Using virtual-reality system software.

What Is A Visual Spatial Learner?

The simplest explanation of a visual-spatial learner is that they generally


think in pictures, rather than in words. They also tend to learn holistically, instead
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of sequentially, or in parts. The visual-spatial learner can easily see the big picture of
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things, but might miss out on the details.


The term "visual-spatial learner" was created by Linda Silverman, PhD., who
noticed in her research with gifted children that a specific population of bright children
were scoring very high on the visual and spatial tasks related to IQ tests, but very low
on the auditory-sequential items. Further research helped her understand that many of
these children had some very interesting things in common such as:

 thinking primarily in pictures


 good at reading maps
 needing to visualize words in order to spell them
 using intuition to solve problems
 having uneven subject grades in school
 often a late-bloomer
 can have strong artistic, mechanic, or technological talents

The Struggles of a Visual-Spatial Learner

The truth of education is that most of traditional schooling methods are based on
auditory-sequential instruction. This is unfortunate for visual-spatial students, who can
begin to feel "dumb" in a regular classroom. In actuality, visual-spatial children are
often highly gifted, but their classroom work may not adequately reflect their
intelligence. Or, commonly, V-S kids will have incredibly high grades in subjects that
appeal to their visual learning style, but might struggle to keep even passing grades in
subjects such as phonics and math computation, where visual skills are seldom
accessed.

They also suffer exceedingly under the drill and review method of teaching. While
continued practice and repetition is highly beneficial for auditory-sequential learners,
visual-spatial students find it to be completely unnecessary. Once a V-S learner has
mastered a concept, the learning is permanent, and does not need to be reviewed. Any
type of review that highlights a visual-spatial learner's mistakes can be especially
damaging to their self-esteem.

Strategies to Help Visual-Spatial Learners

Although much of the traditional school environment is designed with the auditory-
sequential learner in mind, there are things that teachers or parents can do to make
learning more accessible for visual-spatial learners. The most obvious of these is the
copious use of visual aids in learning. Any auditory instruction needs to be accompanied
by something that the student can see with their eyes, or manipulate with their hands.
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Visual-spatial learners also usually grasp reading more easily if they are taught using
the sight, or whole-word method, rather than with phonics. Pre-tests are another good
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idea for V-S learners, so that you do not waste time teaching them what they already
have mastered. When possible, instead of writing out their work, allow them to
represent their learning in visual and creative ways. Creativity is key for a visual-spatial
learner.

How Time4Learning Can Help Visual-Spatial Learners

The computer is an indispensible tool for a visual-spatial learner. Because their minds
work in pictures, translating those pictures into words, and then into individual letters
can be an arduous task. This task is made even more difficult when the V-S student
must form each of those letters on paper. The computer takes some of this pressure off
by allowing the keyboard to do some of the work. Visual-spatial learners also enjoy the
computer because of its visual impact. In fact, both the computer and the internet were
inventions by people who were very likely visual-spatial learners themselves!

The Time4Learning curriculum is computer-based. Every subject is presented in a


multimedia format that is highly interactive and engaging. Visual demonstrations within
the lessons aid in making information understandable to visual-spatial learners. Even
the highly auditory subject of phonics is presented visually and is supplemented by a
holistic literature connection. For early readers, Time4Learning provides the "read
along" option for reading assignments, where the words of the story are highlighted,
allowing V-S learners to make the word-sound connection.

Older students, still not reading fluently at their grade level, have the choice of having
their core lessons read aloud to them via a text-to-speech program with cartoon
character delivery. One of the most powerful features of the writing instruction in the
upper elementary/middle grades is the Odyssey Writer. This software includes such
visual writing tools as note-card creators, graphic organizers, and the ability to easily
insert images and links into their papers.

One of the biggest complaints about math in elementary schools is the "boredom
factor". Visual-spatial learners have a double struggle with math when information is
presented in sequential steps on a chalkboard and makes no connection to real life.
Time4Learning online math tackles this problem in several ways. First, we make math
instruction visual and engaging. Second, we include learning games that reinforce the
concepts taught. Third, we provide instructional content that illustrates how the ideas
are applied in real-life situations. (Read more about teaching math to visual
learners here.)

Traditional homeschool curricula are often designed much like classroom curricula, and
simply do not address the needs of visual-spatial learners. But these right-brained
learners take to the Time4Learning method almost immediately. They love the colorful
design, the interesting lessons, the interactive platform, and the multimedia format.
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They find themselves craving more, and, as parents, isn’t that exactly what we hope
for?
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Time4Learning has helped thousands of children. Help yours today. Signup for
Time4Learning and gain access to a variety of educational materials, which will engage
and challenge your child to succeed. Make Time4Learning a part of your educational
resource toolbox for teaching your unique visual-spatial learner.

Click for more information and demos. Or to ask other parents, click through to the
Time4Learning parent's forum.

6. Naturalist Intelligence: Nature SMART


 the ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) and
sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock
configurations). This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary
past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central
in such roles as botanist or chef.
Naturalistic Intelligence (Nature Smart)

Description: This intelligence refers to a person's natural interest in the


environment. These people enjoy being in nature and want to protect it from
pollution. Students with strong naturalistic intelligence easily recognize and
categorize plants, animals, and rocks.

 Caring for classroom plants.


 Caring for classroom pets.
 Sorting and classifying natural objects, such as leaves and rocks.
 Researching animal habitats.
 Observing natural surroundings.
 Organizing or participating in park/playground clean-ups, recycling
drives, and beautification projects.

Naturalistic Intelligence

Strengths: Finding Patters and Relationships to Nature

Naturalistic is the most recent addition to Gardner’s theory 5 and has been met with
more resistance than his original seven intelligences. According to Gardner, individuals
who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often
interested in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species.
These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their
environments.
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Characteristics of Naturalistic Intelligence


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 Interested in subjects such as botany, biology and zoology
 Good at categorizing and cataloging information easily
 May enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors
 Doesn’t enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection to nature

Potential Career Choices

 Biologist
 Conservationist
 Gardener
 Farmer

7. Intrapersonal Intelligence:
 having an understanding of yourself; knowing who you are, what you can
do, what you want to do, how you react to things, which things to avoid,
and which things to gravitate toward. We are drawn to people who have
a good understanding of themselves. They tend to know what they can
and can't do, and to know where to go if they need help.
 understanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy
away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have
wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as a strong will, confidence and
opinions. They can be taught through independent study and
introspection. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and
time. They are the most independent of the learners.
 Intrapersonal Intelligence (Self Smart)
 Description: People with a strong intrapersonal intelligence have a deep
awareness of their feelings, ideas, and goals. Students with this
intelligence usually need time alone to process and create.

Learning Activities and Project Ideas:

__ Writing reflective papers on content-area topics.

__ Writing essays from the perspective of historical figures, such as Civil


War soldiers or suffragettes.

__ Writing a literary autobiography, reflecting on their reading life.

__ Writing goals for the future and planning ways to achieve them.
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__ Using software that allows them to work alone, such as Decisions,


Decisions, a personal choice software, or the Perfect Career, a career
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choice software.
__ Keeping journals or logs throughout the year.

 __ Making a scrapbook for their poems, papers, and reflections

Intrapersonal Intelligence:

Strengths: Introspection and Self-Reflection

Individuals who are strong in intrapersonal intelligence are good at being aware of their
own emotional states, feelings and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and
analysis, including day-dreaming, exploring relationships with others and assessing their
personal strengths.

Characteristics of Intrapersonal Intelligence

 Good at analyzing their strengths and weaknesses


 Enjoys analyzing theories and ideas
 Excellent self-awareness
 Clearly understands the basis for their own motivations and feelings

Potential Career Choices

 Philosopher
 Writer
 Theorist
 Scientist

8. Interpersonal Intelligence:
 the ability to understand other people. It's an ability we all need, but is
especially important for teachers, clinicians, salespersons, or politicians --
anybody who deals with other people.
 understanding, interacting with others. These students learn through
interaction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts.
They can be taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues. Tools
include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the
instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, E-mail.
 Interpersonal (People Smart)
 Description: Students strong in interpersonal intelligence have a natural
ability to interact with, relate to, and get along with others effectively.
They are good leaders. They use their insights about others to negotiate,
persuade, and obtain information. They like to interact with others and
usually have lots of friends.
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Learning Activities and Project Ideas:


 Working in cooperative groups to design and complete projects.
 Working in pairs to learn math facts.
 Interviewing people with knowledge about content-area topics (such as a
veteran to learn about World War II, a lab technician to learn about life
science, or a politician to understand the election process).
 Tutoring younger students or classmates.
 __ Using puppets to put on a puppet show.

Interpersonal Intelligence

Strengths: Understanding and Relating to Other People

Those who have strong interpersonal intelligence are good understanding and
interacting with other people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions,
motivations, desires and intentions of those around them.

Characteristics of Interpersonal Intelligence

 Good at communicating verbally


 Skilled nonverbal communicators
 See situations from different perspectives
 Create positive relationships with others
 Good at resolving conflict in groups

Potential Career Choices

 Psychologist
 Philosopher
 Counselor
 Sales person
 Politician

9. Existential Intelligence: the ability and proclivity to pose (and ponder)


questions about life, death, and ultimate realities.

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Learning Style (Dunn and Dunn Learning Style Model
(Designed and Developed by Dr. Rita Dunn and Dr. Kenneth)

Stimuli Elements
1. Environmental The environmental strand refers to these elements: lighting,
sound, temperature and seating arrangement. For example,
some people need to study in a cool and quite room, and
others cannot focus unless they have music playing and it is
warm (sound and temperature elements).
2. Emotional This strand includes the following elements: motivation,
persistence, responsibility, and structure. For example, some
people must complete a project before they start a new one,
and other work best on multiple tasks at the same time
(persistence elements)
3. Sociological The sociological strand represents elements related to how
individuals learn in association with other people: (a) alone or
with peers, (b) an authoritative adult or with a collegial
colleague, and (c) learning in a variety of ways or in routine
patterns. For example, a number of people need to work
alone when tackling a new and difficult subjects, while others
learn best when working with colleagues (learning alone or
with peers elements).
4. Physiological The elements in this strands are: perceptual (auditory, visual,
tactile, and kinesthetic), time-of-day energy levels, intake
(easting or not while studying) and mobility (sitting still or
moving around). For example, many people refer to
themselves as night owls or early birds because they function
best at night or in the morning (time-of-day elements).
5. Psychological The elements in this strand correspond to the following types
of psychological processing: hemispheric, impulsive or
reflective and global versus analytic. The hemisphere
elements refers to left and right processing modes; the
impulsive versus reflective style describes how some people
leap before thinking and others scrutinize the situation before
moving an inch.
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Teacher

 Serve as the prime mover of the educational wheel while the learners are
the key participants in the learning process.
 Is not only just a cog in the wheel he is the wheel in the total complex of
the educational system.
 He is the central figure in the school system, not-withstanding the
pupils/students.
 He can give flesh to the noble aspirations of pupils/students, translate into
commodity and transform values and attitudes into functional attributes.
 Are expected to uphold the professional standard of the teaching
profession by manifesting a genuine enthusiasm and pride in their ceiling.
 The most important variable in the educational environment.
 One of the most rewarding of professions.
 Teachers are models. What the pupils/students see, they emulate: Ex.
Punctuality.
 Teacher are the best visual aids for the students to see, so teacher should
make it a point to be dressed neatly and appropriately.
 Teacher who are dignified and well-mannered are appealing to the eyes of
the students.

The Professional teacher

 Licensed professional who possesses dignity and reputation with high


moral values as well as technical and professional competence…s/he
adheres to observes and practices a set of ethical and moral principles,
standard and values.
 The professional teacher is one who went through four or five years
period of rigorous academic preparation in teaching and one who is given
a license to teach by the Board for Professional teachers of the
professional Regulation commission after fulfilling requirements prescribed
by law such as passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET).S/he
is registered in the roster of professional teachers at the Professional
Regulation Commission and undergoes continuing professional education.

Professional Attributes

 Control of the knowledge base of teaching and learning and use of this
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knowledge to guide the science and art of his/her teaching practices.


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 Repertoire (a stock of musical or dramatic material that is known and can be
performed) of best teaching practices and can use these to instruct children in
classroom and to work with adults in the school setting.
 Disposition( personality) and skills to approach all aspects of his/her work in a
reflective, collegial ( with power shares equally between colleagues) and
problem solving manner.

 View of learning to teach as a lifelong process and disposition and skills for
working towards improving his/her own teaching as well as improving schools.
 The last attribute cited by Arends highlight sense of service as badge of the
professional teacher.
 Dedication to the job of teaching is the true essence of professionalism.
 Today we lament (Express sadness) over the fast disappearing breed of teacher
with a missionary spirit.

Personal Attribute

 Personal is the sum of one’s personal characteristics. It is one’s identity.

Outstanding Personal Qualities that never fails to win their flock are worth mentioning

1. Passion

 Passion for teaching is a compelling fore that emerges from teachers’ love
for children.
 It is passion for teaching that drives them to care for their students
corrected with appropriate reformative action.

2. Humor

 Teachers’ humor connects them with their students like a magnet.


 A clean joke will always elicit rapport in a learning environment.

3. Values and Attitude

 Teachers’ are models of values.


o What the student see, they emulate. If the teacher demands
punctuality from the students, then, punctuality should be
exercised in deeds, not only in words.
o Teacher are the best visual aid for the students to see, so teachers
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should make it a point to be dressed neatly and appropriately.


o The way the teachers are dressed reflects their personality.
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o Teacher who are dignified and well-mannered are appealing to the
eyes of the students.
o Even the way the teachers move their hands, head, and body are
part of the students meticulous observation.
o Teacher should bear in mind that respect is earned.
 Values connote standards, code of ethics and strong beliefs.
 Open-mindedness is basic in promoting respect and trust between
teachers and students.
o Teacher should encourage their students to ask questions, to give
their views, reaction or comments. After all, the classroom is a
training ground for students to relate their classroom experiences
to the experiences they have outside.
 Fairness and impartiality in treating students eliminate discrimination.
 Sincerity and honesty are values exhibited in words and actions.
 Professionalism is highly treasured in the teaching profession.
o Effective teacher must have the knowledge or mastery of the
subject matter.
o Mastery of the subject matter does not only call for the teachers
expertise in their own field but it also needs their ability to let
concepts be understandable to the learners and to let
generalization be form.

4. Patience

 Patience refers to a teacher’s uncomplaining nature, self-control and


persistence.

5. Enthusiasm

 Enthusiasm is synonymous to eagerness and excitement.


 Enthusiastic teachers are full of energy and dynamism.

6. Commitment

 Commitment is a solemn promise to perform the duties and


responsibilities mandated by the laws and code of ethics of the
profession.

These are desirable Characteristics a teacher should possess:


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1. Emotional stability and sound mental health.


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2. Physical health and dynamic personality.


3. Above average intelligence.
4. Creativity, imagination and resourcefulness.
5. Good grooming, poise, and refinement in word and action.
6. Courtesy, kindness and tact.
7. Positive outlook and encouraging attitude
8. Democratic leadership.
9. Systematic
10. Friendly and sociable.
11. Values in academic upgrading and professional development.

Educational Techniques and Procedure

The teacher as a social Catalyst.

a. Has an overall yearly plan designed to meet school goals and objectives.
b. Uses effective lesson planning.
c. Is flexible
d. Helps the student learn to plan and evaluate.
e. Is receptive to new methods of educational experiences.
f. Provide for individual differences.
g. Employs knowledge of individual growth and development in the
classroom practices.
h. Employs knowledge of individual growth and development in the
classroom practices.
i. Utilize available community resources.
j. Shows skill and judgment in evaluating and recording student growth.
k. Modulates voice well for effective communication.

The function of teaching include the following:

1. Explaining, informing and showing how the correct method is used.


2. Initiating, directing and administering class activities.
3. Motivating and unifying the group for a good cause.
4. Providing security and confidence among students.
5. Clarifying attitudes, beliefs, prejudices and problems affecting the students.
6. Diagnosing learning problems of the learners.
7. Selecting and preparing curriculum materials for adoption.
8. Evaluating, recording and reporting performance of students.
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9. Enriching co-curricular and community activities for development.


10. Participating in school and community activities for moral, social and cultural civic
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betterment.
11. Participating in professional conferences and meetings.
12. Establishing rapport with parents and with other members of the community

The Civil Service Rule XII, Section 6, enumerates the following grounds for disciplinary
action or any government officer, employee ad teacher and providing penalties as
provided by law.

1. Discourtesy to private individuals or to government officers and employee.


2. Drunkenness.
3. Gambling.
4. Dishonesty.
5. Repeated or flagrant violation of civil laws or neglect of duty.
6. Notoriously disgrace or immoral conduct.
7. Physical incapacity due to immoral or vicious habit.
8. Incompetence.
9. Inefficiency.
10. Lending money at exorbitant rated of interest.
11. Willful failure to pay just debts.
12. Pecuniary embarrassment arising from reprehensible conduct.
13. Prohibit teachers directly or indirectly to solicit, require, collect or receive
money or service or anything of value, from any person or entity for the
promotion of any political, religious or other partisan interest.

Related Professional Responsibilities

1. Continuing professional growth (workshop, seminars, and travel)


2. Participants in department, college and university meetings.
3. Contribute to other activities related to the university.
4. Manifest pride in the profession.
5. Is punctual about reports and meetings.
6. Treats confidential matters.
7. Strives to maintain professional relation with his colleagues.
8. Is tactful in dealing with peers.
9. Is willing to share ideas and materials with other teachers.
10. Carries out administrative policies, rules and regulations.
11. Shows willingness to follow suggestion for improvement.
12. Communicate with parents to help the students meet university standards.
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13. Follows administrative procedures for identifying students with problems.s


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Learning environment
 The favorable learning environment provides essential features and ingredients
that could make headway in guiding the processes and methodologies needed.
 The learning environment consists of the physical environment as well as the
psychological atmosphere or the socio-emotional climate which is mainly a
product of the interaction and relationship between teacher and students and
among the students.
Physical Environment
 Physical environment includes the physical condition of the classroom, the
arrangement of furniture, seating arrangement, the classroom temperature and
lightning.
Psychological Climate
 Safety (e.g. rules and norms; physical safety; social-emotional safety);
 Relationship (e.g. respect for diversity; school connectedness/engagement;
social support-adults; social support – students; leadership); and
 Teaching and learning (e.g social, emotional, ethical and civic learning; support
for learning; professional relationship.
Facilitative Learning Environment
 Which encourage people to be active
 Which promotes and facilities the individual’s discovery of the personal meaning
of idea.
 Which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning.
 In which differences is good and desirable
 Which consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes.
 In which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on self- evaluation.
 Which encourage openness of self rather than concealment of self
 In which people are encourage to trust in themselves as well as in external
sources.
 In which people feel they are respected.
 In which people feel they are accepted
 In which permits confrontation
 A conducive learning environment is necessary in the full development of the
cognitive and appetitive faculties of the learner.

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Principle of Teaching

 Learning of our students is our foremost concern.


 Learning is the acquisition of a knowledge-based used with fluency to make
sense of the world, solve problem and make decisions.
1. Acquisition of knowledge-base- the definition implies that learning
begins with knowledge acquisition.
2. Fluency- this knowledge learned must be used with ease or fluency
because it has been mastered.
3. Make sense of the world- this knowledge is applied in problem solving,
in decision making and in making meaning of this world.
4. Solve problem
5. Make decision
Knowledge that is just acquired without being utilized is what
American philosopher North Whitehead referred to as inert ideas.
These are ideas that are merely received into the mind without being
utilized or tested or thrown into fresh combinations.
1. Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the
learner.
 The process of learning is primarily controlled by the learner and not by
the teacher
 Learning is not only a function of what a teacher does to, or says to, or
provides for a learner.
 More significantly, learning has to do with something which happens in
the unique world of the learner
 No one directly teaches anyone anything of significance.
 People learn what they want to learn, they see what they want to see and
hear what they want to hear.
 Very little involvement takes place without personal involvement and
meaning on the part of the learner.\
 Then it must be engage the learners in an activity that is connected to
their life experiences.
2. Learning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance of ideas.
 Student more readily internalize and implement concepts and ideas which
are relevant to their needs and problems.
 Learning is a process which requires the exploration of ideas in relation to
self and community so that people can determine what their needs are,
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what goals they would like to formulate, what issues they would like to
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discuss and what content they would like to learn.


 It is necessary that teachers relate lessons to the needs, interest and
problems of the learner.
3. Learning (behavioral change) is a consequences of experience.
 People become responsible when they have really assumed responsibility,
they become independent when they have experienced independent
behavior; they become able when they have experienced success, they
begin to feel important when they are important to somebody, they feel
liked when someone like them.
 If experience is the best teacher, then teacher should make use of
experiential learning. We have not to experience everything in order to
learn.
4. Learning is a cooperative and collaborative process. Cooperation fosters learning.
 Two heads is better than one. “ People enjoy functioning independently
but they also enjoy functioning interdependently. The interactive process
appears to “scratch and kick” people’s curiosity, potential and creativity.
 Teacher should make use more on cooperative and Collaborative
approaches. This way, students are taught to live together and learn
interdependently.
5. Learning is a evolutionary process.
 Behavioral change requires time and patience.
 Learning situations characterized by free and open communication,
confrontation, acceptance, respect, the right to make mistakes, self-
revelation, cooperation and collaboration, ambiguity, shares evaluation,
active and personal involvement, freedom form threat , and trust in the
self are evolutionary in nature.
 Changes takes time. Let us not expect results overnight.
 Rome was not built in one day.
 Then as teacher and learners, let us learn to be patient. Things that are
worthwhile in life take time,
6. Learning is sometimes a painful process.
 Behavioral change often calls for giving up the old and comfortable ways
of believing, thinking, and valuing.
 It is not easy to discard familiar ways of doing things and corporate new
behavior.
 If growth is to occur, pain is often necessary.
 However, the pain of breaking away from the old and the comfortable is
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usually followed by appreciation and pleasure in the discovery of an


evolving idea of a changing self.
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 It may be good to make our students realize that learning is a difficult
task.
 It is accompanied by sacrifice inconvenience and discomfort. But leads to
inner joy.
7. One of the richest for learning is the learner himself.
 Each individual has a accumulation of experiences, ideas, feelings and
attitudes which comprise a rich vein of material for problem solving and
learning.
 As teacher, you must draw these learners’ idea, feelings and experiences.
 You midwife the birth of ideas.
8. The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual.
 Learning is affected by the total state of the individual.
 People are feeling being as well as thinking beings and when feelings and
thoughts are in harmony is maximized.
 As teacher, let us appeal to our students’ intellect as well as to their
emotions.
9. The process of problem solving and learning are highly unique and individual.
 Each person has his own unique styles of learning and solving problems.S
 Some personal style of learning and problem solving are highly effective,
other styles are not as effective, and still others may be ineffective.
 As people become more aware of how they learn and solve problems and
become exposed to alternative models used by other people, they can
refine and modify their personal styles so that these can be employed
more effectively.

Laws of Learning

1. Law of Effect
 Learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying
feeling.
 Learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling.
 Learning takes an places properly when it results in satisfaction and the
learner derives pleasure out of it.
2. Laws of exercise
 Things most often repeated are best remembered.
 Students do not learn complex tasks in a single session.
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3. Law of readiness
 Individual learn best when they are physically, mentally, and
emotionally ready to learn, and they do not learn well if they see no
reason for learning.

Additional Laws (Principles)

The law of Primacy

 Things learned first create a strong impression.


 What is taught must be right the first time.

Law of Recency

 Things most recently learned are best remembered.

Law of Intensity

 The more intense the material taught, the more it is likely learned.

Law of Freedom

 Things freely learned are best learned.


 The greater the freedom enjoyed by the students in the class, the
greater the intellectual and moral advancement enjoyed by them.

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Ten Principles of effective Teaching

1. Focus on the learner, by ensuring that teacher talk is less than pupil talk, giving
choices to learners over what to learn, giving choices to learners over how to
learn, giving learners responsibility for learning and personalizing lessons.
2. Provide a supportive learning environment, by creating a community of learners,
developing trust, mutual respect, risk-taking and exploration and addressing
affective concerns as well as academic ones.
3. Teach the whole class, by monitoring your action zone.
4. Provide structure and signposts, by making purposes of teaching clear, assigning
goal-directed activities.
5. Help learners find their own ways of learning by recognizing different learning
styles,(task-oriented student, dependent student.) by focusing on learning
strategies.
6. Use the book as a resource material by using it as a source book rather than a
course book through “SOARING” with the book i,e. supplement, omit, adapt, re-
organize and by not letting the textbook do the teaching.
7. Don’t follow your lesson plan too closely, by improvising around the plan rather
than teaching to the plan.
8. Don’t under-teach, by putting too much into the lesson and not building in take-
away items.
9. Know your principles, by reflecting on your beliefs, articulating your principles
and reviewing them, assessing priorities, strengths and weakness and discussing
them with others.
10. Teach reflectively, by monitoring your own teaching exploring what happens in
your own classroom, asking critical questions, such as
What kind of teacher I am?
Why do I teach this way?
What should I change about my teaching

Lesson Plan

 It is a step-by-step process that must be followed and must be taken into


consideration in order to achieve the goal just appropriate to your subject
matter.
 Learning how to write a lesson plan a valuable tool that a teacher can
have by his side before conducting classes.
 Preparing a lesson plan is the most crucial work a teacher faces everyday.
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 But what it takes to become an effective teacher is an effective


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formulation of a lesson plan.


 A well-organized plan will allow you and your students to get the most
out of the learning experience. However, planning is not just writing all
your ideas in paper and incorporating them immediately during class
hours.

Here are some guidelines to help you.


1. Set you goals and objectives. Fundamental components in formulating an
effective lesson plan are goals and objectives. An outlined and detailed list
of these priorities will guide you to a structured learning environment with
your students. Take note of this--goals are different from objectives in
that the latter reflect on SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic,
time bound) while the former reflects on the three major domains namely
the cognitive (intellect), affective (attitude/values), and psychomotor
(skills). With these characteristics it shows that goals appear broader and
general as compared to objectives.
2. Determine the activity to be performed. After your goals and objectives
have been set, choosing a set of learning activities follow. This involves
the lesson and units according to the level of your student. Lessons are
activities that run for about an hour or two, whereas units are the series
of lessons incorporated in a similar source and theme. Creativity is usually
required in this step because you are now establishing a concrete learning
environment. Your choice of activity may determine whether your plan is
effective or not, so it is important to appropriately pick an activity. For
example, role playing may not be effectual to preschool, nor building
blocks for a sixth grader up. One vital factor under setting activities is the
time frame. It should be strictly followed and must be consumed
efficiently. Remember the SMART.
3. Prepare the materials needed. During activities, your students’ body as an
instrument for learning will not function alone. Learning materials should
be provided so as to fill the psychomotor domain. Always remember that
materials to be used should be incorporated with your objectives. Besides
creativity, resourcefulness of the teacher is expected in this step.
Resources include books, pamphlets, visual aids, etc.
4. Make an outcome criterion. When your plan turns to action, include an
assessment of its effectiveness. The teacher’s evaluation to students
measures the extent on how learning becomes successful or not. Collect
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your student’s work and come up with a grading system which pertains to
particular objectives earlier outlined. You can also implement quizzes on
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particular problems and concept to find out if the objectives have been
achieved.

Objective-related Principles of Teaching

Objectives
 are the first step in writing lesson plan.
 Without an objective, a lesson plan is meaningless. Your objectives
determine not only what your students will learn in your lesson, but how
they will demonstrate their mastery of the material.

Guiding Principles in determining and Formulating Learning Objectives

1. Begin with the end in mind


 Says Covey the author of Seven habits of effective people. This means
that we must begin our lesson with clearly defined lesson objective.
 Why do we need to have an objective?
 With a clear and specific objective we will have sense of direction.
 With definite lesson objective in mind, we do not lose sight of what we
intent to teach.
 No amount of far fetch question or comment from our students, no
amount of unnecessary interruption or disruption can derail our intended
lesson for the day.
 With a specific objective, our lesson becomes more focused.
 We do not waste nor kill time for we are sure of what to teach, how to
teach, what materials to use.

2. Share your lesson with the students


 Make known to our students our instructional objective and encourage
them to make the lesson objective their own.
 This lesson objective when shared and possessed by our students will
become their personal target.
 It is against this personal target that they will evaluate themselves at
the end of the lesson.
 When our student set their own personal target we are certain that
they will become more self-motivated.
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3. Lesson objective must be in the two or three domain (cognitive)


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skill (psychomotor, and values ( affective)


4. Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives.
 With our lesson objective becoming our students’ lesion objective, too,
our students will be self-propelled as we teach.
 The level of their self-motivation all the more increases when our
lesson objective is relevant to their daily life, hence, significant.
5. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims of education as
embodied in the Philippines constitution and other laws and on the
vision-mission statement of the educational institution of which you
are a part.
 The aims of education as enshrined in our fundamental law of the
land, in the Education At of 1982, the ten-year Medium term
development Plan must be reflected in the vision-mission statements
of educational institutions must filter down to the course objective
stated in course syllabi and in the lesson objectives laid down in lesson
plans.
 We can contribute very much to the realization of our school’s vision
and mission statements because our objectives are based on the
school’s vision and mission statements.
 Imagine what happens when our lesson objectives are not in any way
related to the goals of education and to the vision-mission statement
of the educational institution where we work.
6. Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking.
 We need not to go into a laborious research to be convinced that the
development of critical and creative thinking is wanting in classrooms.
 Most questions asked whether oral and written are convergent, low
level questions.
 With the teachers quite used to awarding ad praising pupils/ students
giving the right answers and sometimes branding the pupil or students
who asks questions “philosopo” the classroom atmosphere that
prevails is not ripe for the development of critical and creative
thinking.
 If we want to contribute to the development of citizens who are critical
and creative thinkers, the type of citizens needed to make democracy,
then we should include in our scope of questions high level, divergent,
or open-ended questions.
 Refer more on the next chapter.
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7. For accountability of learning, lesson objectives must be SMART,
i.e., Specific, measurable, attainable, result-oriented and relevant,
time-bounded and terminal.
 When our lesson objective is SMART it is quite easy to find out at the
end of our lesson if we attained our objective or not.
 It will also be easier on our part to formulate a test that is valid to
measure the attainment of our lesson objective.
 Moreover, our lesson becomes more focused for we have concrete
picture of the behavior that our students should be able to
demonstrate if we realized our lesson objective.
 In short, SMART objective increases our accountability for the learning
of our students.
 With SMART objective we depart from the unsound practice of
teaching that is so spread out that in the end we find ourselves unclear
in what test we are going to give to assess learning.
 With SMART lesson objective, there is greater match between
instruction and assessment.
 There is curriculum alignment.

Learning Objectives

Be Specific. Use numbers where appropriate.

To define your lesson's objectives, consider the following questions:

 What will students accomplish during this lesson?


 To what specific level (i.e. 75% accuracy) will the students perform a given task
in order for the lesson to be considered satisfactorily accomplished?
 Exactly how will the students show that they understood and learned the goals
of your lesson? Will this occur through a worksheet, group work, presentation,
illustration, etc?

Additionally, you will want to make sure that the lesson's objective fits in with your
district and/or state educational standards for your grade level.

By thinking clearly and thoroughly about the goals of your lesson, you will ensure that
you are making the most of your teaching time.
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Stems and Samples

by the Education Oasis Staff


Generally, learning objectives are written in terms of learning outcomes: What do
you want your students to learn as a result of the lesson? Follow the three-step process
below for creating learning objectives.
1. Create a stem. Stem Examples:

After completing the lesson, the student will be able to . . .


After this unit, the student will have . . .
By completing the activities, the student will . . .
At the conclusion of the course/unit/study the student will . . .

2. After you create the stem, add a verb:

analyze, recognize, compare, provide, list, etc. For a list of action verbs see below.

3. One you have a stem and a verb, determine the actual product, process,
or outcome:

After completing these lesson, the student will be able to recognize foreshadowing in
various works of literature.

The ABCDs of Writing Instructional Objectives


 The ABCD method of writing objectives is an excellent way to structure
instructional objectives. In this method, "A" is for audience, "B" is for behavior,
"C" for conditions and "D" is for degree of mastery needed.
 Example: -"Given a sentence written in the past or present tense, the student
will be able to re-write the sentence in future tense with no errors in tense or
tense contradiction (i.e., I will see her yesterday.)."
A – the student
B- will be able to re-write the sentence in future tense
C- Given a sentence written in the past or present tense
D - with no errors in tense or tense contradiction

Language Arts Examples After completing the lesson, the student will be able to:

 listen for the purpose of following directions . . .


 record his or her understanding/knowledge by creating pictures . . .
 use the vocabulary of _____ (shapes, colors, etc.) to describe _____ (flowers,
etc.)
 explain the meaning of the word(s): _____.
35

 generate ideas and plans for writing by using _____ (brainstorming, clustering,
etc.)
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 develop a draft . . .
 edit a draft for a specifi purpose such as _____ (word choice, etc.)
 discuss the differences acnd similarities between the two main characters from
_____ and _____.
 identify the definition of _____ (fables, fairy tales, etc.).
 understand and be able to identify the traditional elements in _____ (fables, fairy
tales, etc.)
 define the literary term _____.
 re-tell in his/her own words _____.
 summarize the plot of _____.
 make inferences from the text . . .
 demonstrate understanding by writing three facts about . . .
 listen critically to interpret and evaluate . . .
 represent textual information by _____ (drawing, painting, etc.)
 recognize and list the literary devices found in _____.
 state an opinion about _____, using examples from the text to support the
opinion
 compare the experience of _____ (a character in a text) to his or her own life
 list the primary plot details in _____ (a text, short story, novel, or drama)
 compare and contrast three different versions of _____ (Cinderella, The Three
Little Pigs, etc.)
 write a narrative version of _____, with appropriate plot characteristics of the
genre
 compare excerpts of _____ (a novel) to first-hand accounts of _____ (the Civil
War, WWI, etc.)
 describe _____ (Victorian, Elizabethan, etc.) attitudes toward _____ (a social
concern, a vice, a virtue, an event, etc.)
 analyze _____ (a character's) desire to _____
 list elements of _____ (a writer's) style in _____ (a text)
 identify and trace the development of _____ literature from _____ to _____
 define basic literary terms and apply them to _____ (a specific text or work)
 produce an effective essay which details _____
 produce an effective persuasive essay which takes a stand for/against _____
 use the work of _____ as inspiration for a representative piece about _____
 draw parallels between _____(a text) and _____ (a text)
 explore the nature and implications of _____ (a vice, a virtue, a societal concern,
a characteristic, etc.)
 explore allegory in various works of children's literature . . .
 recite a poem (or excerpt of text) with fluency
 use specific examples in _____ (a text) to illustrate an aspect of human behavior
 compose a _____ (haiku, verse, rhyme, poem, etc.)
 describe the traditional rules and conventions of _____ (haiku, the personal
36

essay, etc.)
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 demonstrate mastery in the study of _____ through cooperative learning and
research. . .

Math Examples After completing the lesson, the student will be able to:

 sort _____ by _____ (color, size, etc.)


 follow directions to create _____ (a product)
 acquire data by measuring with _____ (a yardstick, etc.)
 display data using _____ (a graph, etc.)
 calculate . . .
 identify and describe _____ (polygons) using the language of _____ (geometry)
 record observations of . . .
 exercise the skills of _____ (multiplication, addition, etc.) to . . .
 discuss, interpret, and ascribe meaning to the organized data . . .
 explain the elements of _____ (a pictograph, etc.)
 use collected data to answer the question(s): _____
 construct _____ (picture graphs, bar graphs, etc.)
 create a series of mathematical steps to be used to . . .
 plot a set of points of graph paper . . .
 interpret the results of the calculations . . .
 solve a numerical expression using _____ (the standard order of operations,
etc.)
 use a spreadsheet to calculate . . .

Science Examples After completing the lesson, the student will be able to:

 recall information about the reading . . .


 develop a basic knowledge of _____ (the solar system, etc.)
 record observations about . . .
 record and compare facts about _____ (the sun, moon, etc.)
 collect, organize, display, and interpret data about _____
 demonstrate an understand of _____ in terms of _____
 create a visual representation of _____ (the water cycle, etc.)
 understand the basic structure of _____ (an atom)
 identify states of matter . . .
 create a concept map of . . .
 identify relevant questions for inquiry
 sequence and categorize information . . .
 demonstrate learning by producing a _____
 present their findings of _____ to the class
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Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains

 Beginning in 1948, a group of educators undertook the task of classifying


education goals and objectives.
 The intent was to develop a classification system for three domains: the
cognitive, the affective, and the psychomotor.
 Work on the cognitive domain was completed in the 1950s and is commonly
referred to as Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain (Bloom, Englehart,
Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956). Others have developed taxonomies for the
affective and psychomotor domains.
 The original levels by Bloom et al. (1956) were ordered as follows: Knowledge,
Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The taxonomy
is presented below with sample verbs and a sample behavior statement for each
level.

Cognitive Domain

The cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956) involves knowledge and the development of
intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural
patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and
skills. There are six major categories, which are listed in order below, starting from
the simplest behavior to the most complex. The categories can be thought of as
degrees of difficulties. That is, the first ones must normally be mastered before the
next ones can take place.

SAMPLE SAMPLE
LEVEL DEFINITION
VERBS BEHAVIORS
Student recalls
or
The student will
recognizes
Write define
information,
List the 6 levels of
ideas, and
Label Bloom's
KNOWLEDGE principles
Name taxonomy of
in the
State the
approximate
Define cognitive
form in which
domain.
they
were learned.
Student Explain The student will
38

COMPREHENSION translates, Summarize explain


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comprehends, Paraphrase the purpose of


or Describe Bloom's
interprets Illustrate taxonomy of
information the
based on prior cognitive
learning. domain.
Student selects,
trans-
fers, and uses
The student will
data Use
write an
and principles Compute
instructional
to Solve
APPLICATION objective for
complete a Demonstrate
each
problem Apply
level of Bloom's
or task with a Construct
taxonomy.
mini-
mum of
direction.
Student
distinguishes,
classifies, and
The student will
relates
Analyze compare and
the
Categorize contrast
assumptions,
ANALYSIS Compare the cognitive
hypotheses,
Contrast and
evidence,
Separate affective
or structure of
domains.
a
statement or
question.
The student will
design a
Student classification
originates, scheme for
integrates, and Create writing
combines ideas Design educational
SYNTHESIS into a Hypothesize objectives
product, plan or Invent that combines
proposal that is Develop the
new cognitive,
to him or her. affective,
39

and
psychomotor
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domains.
Student The student will
appraises, judge the
assesses, or Judge effective-
critiques Recommend ness of writing
EVALUATION
on a basis of Critique objectives
specific Justify using
standards and Bloom's
criteria. taxonomy.
 Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, and Krathwohl (2001) revised
Bloom's taxonomy to fit the more outcome-focused modern education objectives,
including 1) changing the names in the six categories from noun to verb forms,
and 2) slightly rearranging them the order of the highest two levels (Pohl, 2000)

 The lowest-order level (Knowledge) became Remembering, in which the student


is asked to recall or remember information.
 Comprehension, became Understanding, in which the student would explain or
describe concepts.
 Application became Applying, or using the information in some new way, such as
choosing, writing, or interpreting.
 Analysis was revised to become Analyzing, requiring the student to differentiate
between different components or relationships, demonstrating the ability to
40

compare and contrast. These four levels remain the same as Bloom et al.’s
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(1956) original hierarchy.


 In general, research over the last 40 years has confirmed these levels as a
hierarchy (Anderson & Krathwohl).
 In addition to revising the taxonomy, Anderson and Krathwohl added a
conceptualization of knowledge dimensions within which these processing levels
are used (factual, conceptual, procedural, and metacognition).
 The Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching at Iowa State University
(2011) provides an excellent graphic representation on how these two
taxonomies can be used together to generate lesson objectives.
 The two highest, most complex levels of Synthesis and Evaluation were reversed
in the revised model, and were renamed Evaluating and Creating (Anderson &
Krathwohl, 2001).
 As they did not provide empirical evidence for this reversal, it is my belief that
these two highest levels are essentially equal in level of complexity.
 Both depend on analysis as a foundational process.
 However, synthesis or creating requires rearranging the parts in a new, original
way whereas evaluation or evaluating requires a comparison to a standard with a
judgment as to good, better or best.
 This is similar to the distinction between creative thinking and critical thinking.
Both are valuable while neither is superior.
 In fact, when either is omitted during the problem solving process, effectiveness
declines (Huitt, 1992).
 In any case it is clear that students can "know" about a topic or subject at
different levels.
 While most teacher-made tests still test at the lower levels of the taxonomy,
research has shown that students remember more when they have learned to
handle the topic at the higher levels of the taxonomy (Garavalia, Hummel, Wiley,
& Huitt, 1999).
 This is because more elaboration is required, a principle of learning based on
finding from the information processing approach to learning

Physical fitness objectives and outcomes:

 Students will explain the benefits of exercise to their physical, mental, and social
health. (Comprehension)
 Students will label and describe the components of physical fitness. (Knowledge,
comprehension)
 Students will explain and apply the benefits of exercise to one’s physical, mental,
41

and social health. (Comprehension, application)


 Students will demonstrate and distinguish the difference between anaerobic and
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aerobic exercises. (Application, analysis)


 tudents will identify basic principles of exercise. (Comprehension)
 Students will discuss the importance of setting realistic fitness goals.
(Comprehension)
 Students will practice and create realistic fitness program. (Application,
synthesis)
 Students will describe the six basic measures of skills-related fitness.
(Comprehension)
 Students will assess their abilities at each of the skills. (Evaluation)
 Students will differentiate lifestyle and sports activities. (Analysis)
 Students will describe most common injuries that occur during exercise.
(Comprehension)
 Students will demonstrate and practice ways to avoid risk and injury during
exercise. (Application)
 Students will practice treating minor injuries. (Application)
 Students will define the function of the skeletal system. (Knowledge)
 Students will describe the structure and function of bones. (Knowledge,
comprehension)
 Students will compare the various types of joints. (Evaluation)
 Students will identify, choose, and arrange ways to care for the skeletal system.
(Knowledge, comprehension, synthesis)
 Students will describe problems of the joints and bones. (Knowledge,
comprehension)
 Students will explain how nutrition and exercise are important to healthy bones.
(Knowledge, comprehension)
 Students will be able to name and choose two foods that are good sources of
calcium and phosphorus. (Knowledge, comprehension, application)
 Students will name and demonstrate two ways to avoid injury to bones while
exercising. (Knowledge, comprehension, application)
 Students will define the structure and function of muscles. (Knowledge)
 Students will describe what causes muscles to contract. (Knowledge,
comprehension)
 Students will identify and use ways to care for muscles. (Knowledge,
comprehension, application)
 Students will describe problems of the muscular system. (Knowledge,
comprehension)
 Students will identify, describe, and label the largest muscles on the poster.
(Knowledge, comprehension)
 Students will be able to describe and draw what happens when biceps muscle
contracts. (Knowledge, comprehension, application)
 Students will be able to name similarities and differences of skeletal and
muscular systems. (Knowledge, comprehension, analysis, evaluation)
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Affective Domain

The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we
deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms,
motivations, and attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest
behavior to the most complex:

Category Example and Key Words (verbs)

Examples: Listen to others with respect.


Listen for and remember the name of
newly introduced people.
Receiving Phenomena: Awareness,
willingness to hear, selected attention. Key Words: asks, chooses, describes,
follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates,
names, points to, selects, sits, erects,
replies, uses.

Examples: Participates in class


Responding to Phenomena: Active discussions. Gives a presentation.
participation on the part of the Questions new ideals, concepts, models,
learners. Attends and reacts to a etc. in order to fully understand them.
particular phenomenon. Learning Know the safety rules and practices them.
outcomes may emphasize compliance
in responding, willingness to respond, Key Words: answers, assists, aids,
or satisfaction in responding complies, conforms, discusses, greets,
(motivation). helps, labels, performs, practices, presents,
reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.

Valuing: The worth or value a person Examples: Demonstrates belief in the


attaches to a particular object, democratic process. Is sensitive towards
phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges individual and cultural differences (value
from simple acceptance to the more diversity). Shows the ability to solve
complex state of commitment. Valuing problems. Proposes a plan to social
is based on the internalization of a set improvement and follows through with
of specified values, while clues to these commitment. Informs management on
values are expressed in the learner's matters that one feels strongly about.
43

overt behavior and are often


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identifiable. Key Words: completes, demonstrates,


differentiates, explains, follows, forms,
initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes,
reads, reports, selects, shares, studies,
works.

Examples: Recognizes the need for


balance between freedom and responsible
behavior. Accepts responsibility for one's
behavior. Explains the role of systematic
planning in solving problems. Accepts
Organization: Organizes values into
professional ethical standards. Creates a
priorities by contrasting different
life plan in harmony with abilities, interests,
values, resolving conflicts between
and beliefs. Prioritizes time effectively to
them, and creating an unique value
meet the needs of the organization, family,
system. The emphasis is on
and self.
comparing, relating, and synthesizing
values.
Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges,
combines, compares, completes, defends,
explains, formulates, generalizes, identifies,
integrates, modifies, orders, organizes,
prepares, relates, synthesizes.

Examples: Shows self-reliance when


working independently. Cooperates in
group activities (displays teamwork). Uses
Internalizing values
an objective approach in problem
(characterization): Has a value system
solving. Displays a professional
that controls their behavior. The
commitment to ethical practice on a daily
behavior is pervasive, consistent,
basis. Revises judgments and changes
predictable, and most importantly,
behavior in light of new evidence. Values
characteristic of the
people for what they are, not how they
learner. Instructional objectives are
look.
concerned with the student's general
patterns of adjustment (personal,
Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays,
social, emotional).
influences, listens, modifies, performs,
practices, proposes, qualifies, questions,
revises, serves, solves, verifies.
Psychomotor Domain

The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement, coordination,


and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is
44

measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in


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execution. The seven major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most
complex:

Category Example and Key Words (verbs)

Examples: Detects non-verbal


communication cues. Estimate where a
ball will land after it is thrown and then
moving to the correct location to catch the
ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct
Perception: The ability to use sensory
temperature by smell and taste of food.
cues to guide motor activity. This ranges
Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift
from sensory stimulation, through cue
by comparing where the forks are in
selection, to translation.
relation to the pallet.

Key Words: chooses, describes, detects,


differentiates, distinguishes, identifies,
isolates, relates, selects.

Examples: Knows and acts upon a


sequence of steps in a manufacturing
process. Recognize one's abilities and
limitations. Shows desire to learn a new
Set: Readiness to act. It includes mental, process (motivation). NOTE: This
physical, and emotional sets. These three subdivision of Psychomotor is closely
sets are dispositions that predetermine a related with the “Responding to
person's response to different situations phenomena” subdivision of the Affective
(sometimes called mindsets). domain.

Key Words: begins, displays, explains,


moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states,
volunteers.

Examples: Performs a mathematical


equation as demonstrated. Follows
Guided Response: The early stages in instructions to build a model. Responds
learning a complex skill that includes hand-signals of instructor while learning to
imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of operate a forklift.
performance is achieved by practicing.
Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react,
reproduce, responds
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Mechanism: This is the intermediate Examples: Use a personal


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stage in learning a complex skill. Learned computer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drive a
responses have become habitual and the car.
movements can be performed with some
confidence and proficiency. Key Words: assembles, calibrates,
constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens,
fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates,
measures, mends, mixes, organizes,
sketches.

Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight


parallel parking spot. Operates a computer
Complex Overt Response: The skillful
quickly and accurately. Displays
performance of motor acts that involve
competence while playing the piano.
complex movement patterns. Proficiency is
indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly
Key Words: assembles, builds, calibrates,
coordinated performance, requiring a
constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens,
minimum of energy. This category includes
fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates,
performing without hesitation, and
measures, mends, mixes, organizes,
automatic performance. For example,
sketches.
players are often utter sounds of
satisfaction or expletives as soon as they
NOTE: The Key Words are the same as
hit a tennis ball or throw a football,
Mechanism, but will have adverbs or
because they can tell by the feel of the act
adjectives that indicate that the
what the result will produce.
performance is quicker, better, more
accurate, etc.

Examples: Responds effectively to


unexpected experiences. Modifies
instruction to meet the needs of the
learners. Perform a task with a machine
Adaptation: Skills are well developed and
that it was not originally intended to do
the individual can modify movement
(machine is not damaged and there is no
patterns to fit special requirements.
danger in performing the new task).

Key Words: adapts, alters, changes,


rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies.

Examples: Constructs a new theory.


Develops a new and comprehensive
Origination: Creating new movement
training programming. Creates a new
patterns to fit a particular situation or
gymnastic routine.
specific problem. Learning outcomes
emphasize creativity based upon highly
Key Words: arranges, builds, combines,
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developed skills.
composes, constructs, creates, designs,
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initiate, makes, originates.


Other Psychomotor Domain Taxonomies

As mentioned earlier, the committee did not produce a compilation for the psychomotor
domain model, but others have. The one discussed above is by Simpson (1972). There
are two other popular versions:

Dave's (1975):

 Imitation — Observing and patterning behavior after someone else.


Performance may be of low quality. Example: Copying a work of art.
 Manipulation — Being able to perform certain actions by following instructions
and practicing. Example: Creating work on one's own, after taking lessons, or
reading about it.
 Precision — Refining, becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent. Example:
Working and reworking something, so it will be “just right.”
 Articulation — Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony and internal
consistency. Example: Producing a video that involves music, drama, color,
sound, etc.
 Naturalization — Having high level performance become natural, without
needing to think much about it. Examples: Michael Jordan playing basketball,
Nancy Lopez hitting a golf ball, etc.

Harrow's (1972):

 Reflex movements — Reactions that are not learned.


 Fundamental movements — Basic movements such as walking, or
grasping.
 Perception — Response to stimuli such as visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or
tactile discrimination.
 Physical abilities — Stamina that must be developed for further
development such as strength and agility.
 Skilled movements — Advanced learned movements as one would find
in sports or acting.
 No discursive communication — Effective body language, such as
gestures and facial expressions.
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Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization of Content

 The intended content of what we teach is laid down in Phil. Elementary


Learning competencies (PELCs) and Phil. Secondary Learning
Competencies (PSELs).
 Which means we are not entirely free in the selection of our content. They
are given but how they are organized and presented in the classroom
ultimately depends on you. Below are some principles to guide you.
1. One guiding principles related to subject matter content is to observe the
following qualities in the selection and organization of content.
a. Validity
 This means teaching the content that we ought to teach according
to national standards explicit in the K to 12 Basic Education
Curriculum;
 It also means teaching the content in order to realize the goals and
objectives of the course as laid down in the basic education
curriculum.

b. Significance
 What we teach should respond to the needs and interest of the
learner, hence meaningful and significant.
c. Balance
 Content includes not only facts but also concepts and values.
 The use of the three-level approach ensures a balance of cognitive,
psychomotor and affective lesson contents.
 A balanced content is something that is not too easy to bore the
above average student, neither not too difficult to turn off the
average.
 It is something that challenges the student.
 To observe the principle of balance, no topic must be extensively
discussed at the expense of other topics.
d. Self-sufficiency
 Content fully covers the essential. Learning content is not mile-wide
and inch-deep. The essential are sufficiently covered and are
treated in depth.
 This is a case of “less is more”.
e. Interest
48

 Teacher consider the interest of the learners, their developmental


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stages and cultural and ethical background.


f. Utility
 Will this content be of use to the learners, their developmental
stages and cultural and ethnic background.
g. Feasibility
 The content is feasible in the sense that the essential content can
be covered in the amount of time available for instruction.
 A guaranteed and viable curriculum is the first in the shool-related
factors that has the greatest impact on the student achievement 9
Marzano, 2003)
 It is observed that there is so much content to cover within the
school year, that the teachers ted to rush towards the end of the
school year, do superficial teaching and contribute to mastery of
content.
 This is one reason why least mastered competencies which are
found at the end of the PELCs and PSLCs.
 This was a finding the implementation of the third elementary
Education Project.
2. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content is a fact. We
can’t do away facts but be sure to go beyond facts by constructing an
increasingly richer and more sophisticated knowledge base and by working out a
process of conceptual understanding.
Here are few ways cited by cognitive psychologist (Ormrod, 2000) by which you
can help your students.
 Providing opportunities for experimentation
 Presenting the ideas of others.
 While it is beneficial for you to encourage your students to
discover principles for themselves, it will jeopardize your
students if you present the ideas of others who worked hard
over the years to explain phenomena.
 Emphasizing conceptual understanding
 Many a time, our teaching is devoted only to memorization
of isolated facts for purpose of examination and grade.
 When we teach facts only, the tendency is we are able to
cover in a test but our teaching ends up skin-deep or
superficial, this meaningless.
 If we emphasize conceptual understanding, the emphasis
49

goes beyond facts.


 We integrate and correlate facts, concepts and values in a
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meaningful manner.
Here are some specific strategies that can help you develop
conceptual understanding in your students: (Ormrod, 2000)

1. Organize units around a few core ideas and themes.


2. Explore each topic in depths . For example, by considering many
examples, examining cause-effect relationships and discovering how
specific details relate to more general principles.
3. Explain how new ideas relate to students’ own experience and to things
they have previously learned.
4. Show students- through the things we say, the assignments we give, and
the criteria we use to evaluate learning-that conceptual understanding of
subject matter is far more important than knowledge of isolated facts.
5. Ask students to teach to others what they have learned. A task that
encourages them to focus on main ideas and pull them together in a way
that make sense.
6. Promote dialogue. When we encourage our students to talk about what
they learn, they are given opportunity to reflect, elaborate on, clarify
further and master what they have learned.
7. Use authentic activities. Incorporates your lessons into real world
activities. Instead of simply asking students to work on some items on
subtraction, simulate a sar-sari store and apply subtraction skills.

3. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive, skill and affective elements.


 While our subject matter content comes in three domains, these three
domains should not be treated as though there was a clear dividing line
among them.
1. Cognitive (Ormrod, 2000)
(a) facts is an idea or action that can be verified.
Example: names and dates of important activities, population of the
Philippines.
Facts – are the basic unit of cognitive subject matter content. From
facts, we go higher to concepts, principles, hypothesis, theories and
laws. It is therefore, necessary that the facts that we begin with are
updated and accurate.
(b) Concepts – is a categorization of events, places, people, ideas.
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Example- The concept furniture includes objects as chairs, tables, beds


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and desks. The concept swim encompasses different action like breast
stroke , crawl, butterfly that involve propelling oneself through water.
(c) Principles- is the relationship between and among facts and
concepts. These are arrived at when similar research studies.
(d) Hypothesis- are educated guesses about relationships (Principles)
Example: for lower division undergraduate students, study habits is a
better predictor of success in a college course than is a measure on
intelligence or reading comprehension.
(e ) Theories refer to a set facts, concepts and principles that describe
possible underlying unobservable mechanisms that regulate human
learning, development and behavior. They explain why these principles
are true.
Example: Piaget’s theory on cognitive development, Kohlberg’s theory
on moral development.

Personal Theories – by the time they to go school, children have their


own personal theories about things and happenings in the world.
When I was young , I thought that every time I swallowed a santol
seed, the seed would germinate in my stomach and its branches and
leaves would grow out of the ears, mouth and nose.

(f) Laws are firmly established, thoroughly tested principles or theory.


Example: Thorndike Laws of effect, law on the conservation of matter and
energy, the law of supply and demand and the law of gravity.

(2) Skills

(a) Manipulative Skills- There are courses that are dominantly skilled oriented like
computer, Home Economics and Technology, Physical Education, Music and the
like. In the biloligical and Phyical Science manipulative skills such as focusing the
microscope, mounting specimens on the slide, operating simple machines ad
other scientific gadgets, mixing chemicals are also taught. What are other
manipulative skills that you can think of?

The learning of these manipulative skills begin with naïve manipulation and ends
up in expert and precise manipulation.

(b) Thinking Skills – These refer to the skills beyond recall and comprehension.
51

They are skills concerned with the application of what was learned. (in problem-
solving or in real life) evaluation ad critical and creative thinking and synthesis.
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Divergent thinking: This include

1. Fluent thinking
2. Flexible thinking
3. Original Thinking
4. Elaborative Thinking

Fluent Thinking – is character

Classroom Management

1. What do you mean by Management?


2. What are the skills of a classroom manager?
 Technical Skills
 Conceptual Skills
 Human Relation
3. Do you agree effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly
manage classroom.
4. “Classroom management is not teaching it is necessary condition to teaching”.
What is your insight with the quotation?
5. How th 3Ms the Moment, Materials and Man help the classroom Manage?
 Facilitate learning
Moment – time
Materials- teaching materials and other physical features like desk and tables.
Man- the learner themselves
6. “Prevention is better than cure” How this adage apply to classroom
management?
 Let us anticipate potential problems and nip) them in bud.
 To be consistent in our classroom management; we apply at all times
established rules and policies to all pupils/students regardless of creed, color,
economic status, academic standing in class.
 We do not say this and do another that will be a blow to our credibility.
7. What is the advantage of establishing daily routines for all daily task and needs?
Give some example of daily routine base in your example what is the advantage
of that?
 According to Doyle “ routinization makes classroom activities less susceptible
to breakdown and interruption because students know the normal sequence
of events and what is expected of them?
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 Saves a time and effort


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 We do not to explain or instruct pupils/students on how to pass papers,
collection assignment, prepare experiment day in and our because we have
established the routines for these everyday tasks.
 Students already know what to do and under what condition.
 Give rise to orderly learning environment and maximum and optimum use of
precious time.
8. What do you mean by Restlessness is the father of classroom disciplinary
problems.
 Smooth transition and continuity of momentum throughout the day ensure us
that every instructional moment is made use of wisely.
9. Do you think boredom creep into the classroom; we have disciplinary problems
in our hand? As teacher what we need to do take away the boredom?
 Ensure a variety of students activities will ensure that students’ multiple
intelligence and varied learning styles are considered in the conduct of
students’ activities.
10. What do you mean by with-it-ness by Kounin?
 While our back faces them when we write on the board, our “eyes on the
back of heads” will make our pupils and students feel that we know what
they are doing.
 Our visibility in and outside the classroom may serve as a deterrent in the
outbreak of untoward students’ behavior.
11. If you found out one of the students started crying do you need to give him a
space or one day before you talk to him?
 Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they become major
disruption.
 We have not to wait until our class is out of control.
 Misdemeanor has a “ripple effect” if not checked early.
12. How we appreciating and recognizing hard work and good behavior of our
students?
 Be generous with genuine praise.
 Our praise to be genuine it must be given according to merit.

MANAGEMENT OF TIME

 205 days for the school year


 If the average teaching-learning hours is six (6) hours per day we have one
thousand hundred thirty (1230) hours for the entire year.
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 Many hours robbed of every student for several reasons.


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 One big reason is disruption of instruction due to disciplinary problems,
interruption due to announcements, administrative task such as checking
attendance, hardware not working like an OHP with busted bulb, brown-out
when you are scheduled for film viewing etc.

Here are some research-based effective techniques

1. Orchestrate (Organize something) smooth classroom transition.


2. Remain involve with the students during the entire class period allowing for no
idle time.
3. Use fillers( make sometjing full or become full), in case you finish the lesson
ahead of time. Examples of fillers are reciting a favorite stanza them letting
others explain the meaning or conducting a short contest about the lesson.
4. Use planning or pacing material such as a copy of the scope and sequence of the
subject or a calendar for long-term weekly, and daily planning. These serve as a
visual reminder for both the teacher and student on what comes next.
5. Use a common place to keep materials such as scissors, school supplies. This
save time. You have not to look for them when your need them.
6. Follow a considered schedule and maintain the procedures and routines
established at the begging of the year.
7. Handle administrative tasks quickly and efficiently.
8. Prepare materials in advance.
9. Make clear ad smooth transition.
10. Limit disruption and interruption through appropriate behavioral management
techniques.

For quality output within an allotted period, here are some suggestion.

1. Schedule all activities with corresponding time allotment way ahead of time.
Early preparation could avoid haste and confusion.
2. Provide enough time for everything you expect to happen.
3. Avoid rushing since you know you have carefully allotted required time for every
activity, Quality may suffer.
4. Anticipate difficulties or failure of some operation in order to be able to pursue
alternative actions.
5. Be flexible with time assignments. If students are observed to be so interested
and eager to continue working, allow a little more time for them to complete and
achieve the objectives with satisfaction.
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6. Set the example by showing that you are time conscious. They will develop the
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same precision regarding time utilization.


DISCIPLINE

1. What are causes of disciplinary problem?


 Unfavorable learning condition
o Overcrowded with more than the regular number of students to a
class.
o With poor lightening facilities and inadequate ventilation.
o With furniture and storage cabinets disorderly positioned.
o With inappropriate seating arrangement
o Near source of noise which obstruct understanding of the lesson.
 Teacher’s poor management skills
o Lack of adequate knowledge and skills in handling occurrence of
misbehavior likewise contribute to a trouble-prone setting.
o Knowledge and skill in employing in a wide range of classroom
strategies and procedures
o Personal and emotional attributes
 Students’ varied background
o The students bring to the classroom surprising record of individual
attitudes , interest and abilities.
 Family background
 Physical and mental capacities
 Emotional traits among others.

How to prevent disciplines problems

1. Depending on the students’ abilities and interest, teachers can implement group-
oriented methodologies such as:
 Cooperative learning approach
 Team learning
 Peer tutoring
 Group projects and collection
2. Teachers who are sensitive to possible misdirection of efforts and interaction fast
to switch form one techniques to another as the need arises.
3. Of prime importance are the teachers personal attributes such as:
 Patience
 Compassion
 Concern and caring attitude
 Respect and trust for others
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4. The teachers’ personalities are the “arms” that can either win or fail amidst a
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controllable learning situation.


A warm, respectable relationship with students through sincere and
straightforward communications can demonstrate trust and credibility.
5. The teachers’ teaching style will determine how the students will respond, at
times receptive, sometimes withdrawn.

Various Modes of Establishing Discipline/Classroom Control

1. Discipline is the students’ responsibility.


2. Discipline is the teachers’ way of establishing a desirable student-oriented
environment for learning.
3. Discipline is coupled with effective teaching strategies and techniques.
4. Discipline is achieved through the effect of group dynamics on behavior.
5. Discipline is believed to be exclusive responsibility of the teachers.

Here are some tips that could make a good disciplinarian

1. Be prepared to face a class with multi-behavior tendencies.


2. Know your student well-their names, family composition and socio-economic.
3. Show your sincere concern for their well fare.
4. Commendable behavior is reciprocal. Your winsome manners and positive
attitude will be watched and willingly duplicated in return.
5. Be calm, poised and tactful in solving discipline problems. Refrain from unkind
words and harsh punishment.
6. At all time be firm and consistent in following classroom “dos” and don’ts.
Students will likely test your patience and try how far they can go.
7. B enthusiastic and the students will match your enthusiasm instead of being
drawn to trouble.
8. Let out your good sense of humor. Laugh with your students and sometimes at
yourself. It will reduce tension from all.
9. Speak with a good voice volume, not too loud to become noise nor too soft to be
heard.
10. Be humble in words actins. It could produce a magnetizing affect.

Ways of dealing with discipline Problems

Acceptable and effective:


1. Use verbal reinforcers that encourage good behavior and discourage good
behavior and discourage bad tendencies.
2. Use nonverbal gestures, frown or a hard look to dissuade them from
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mischief.
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3. Dialogue can help in discovering problems and agreeing on mutually
beneficial solutions.
4. Focus attention on one who is unruly and is about to disturb the
neighbors. Lead them/her to a secluded area and nicely convince him/her
to be quit.
5. Award merits for good behavior and demerits for inconsistencies and
lapses.
6. A private one-on-one brief conference can lead to a better understanding
of mistakes that need to be remedied or improved.
7. Give students the freedom to express or explain agitated feelings and
misgiving rather than censure them right away.

Unacceptable and ineffective

1. Scolding and harsh words as a reprimand will have a negative effect on the
entire class.
2. Nagging and faulting, together with long “sermons” are repugnant and nasty.
3. Keeping students in a detention area during or after classes as penalty for
misbehavior is a waste of time and occasion for learning. The shameful
experience is not easy to forget.
4. Denying a student some privileges due to unnecessary hyperactivity can all the
more encourage repetitions.
5. Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make them dislike
the subject.
6. Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a formentor.
7. Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.

Managing The Physical Environment

1. Well designed utilization of classroom space is of utmost is necessity?


 Well designed utilization of classroom space is of utmost necessity if the aim
is to be able to manage all learning activities to a successful completion.

How should the environment be structured for effective teaching and learning?

 Furniture
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o Conveniently arranged furniture


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o Furniture such as chairs tables for demonstration or displays must be
positioned appropriately.
o Exhibits shelves are either permanently pinned to the wall or are made
to stand at the sides.
o White board for writing and clarifying lessons discussion, together with
bulletin boards are available for posting important messages and
outstanding pieces of students work, art and illustration.
 Seating Arrangement
o Foremost consideration since the students stays in each at the longest
time for the day.
o Match the seating arrangement with the format and activities of your
lesson.
o Semi permanent arrangement of the chairs is one where they are
arranged in four rows with six to eight in a row.
o Sufficient space is allotted in the aisles and in-between the seats for
ease in moving around.
 Physical condition of the classroom
o Must be also be a safe place where curious, overactive and energetic
children are always on the go.
o Avoid slippery floors, rickety chair and old furniture.
o Performing experiment like electric stoves extreme care must be
exercised in order to prevent fires.
o For Lively and fresh look, potted indoor plants can be placed at the
corners and flowers on the teachers table.
o During class proper lightening and ventilation
o Clean rooms, hallways and surroundings are wholesome places to stay
in.
o Let us not forget that equally important, if not more important, the
psychological atmosphere that reign in the classroom.

ESTABLISHING CLASSROOM ROUTINE

“Routines are the Groundwork for a well-orchestrated classroom.”

1. When is the right time we identify and explain specific rules and procedures
in our classrooms?
 The first day of school will be most timely.
 For elementary it is good to rehearse classroom procedures until they become
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routines.
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 Reinforcing correct procedures and re-teaching an incorrect one will be of
great help.

Some routines on the following can be of great help.

1. Beginning and ending the class day or period.


o Organizers
2. Transition
 Examples of anticipated interruption are:
o Beginning of an instructional episode.
o Between instructional episodes.
o After an instructional episode.
o Equipment set-up and take-down
o Material distribution/collection
o From teacher-to-student-centered activity
o Beginning/end of class or school day.
 Solving Pre-lesson
o First five minutes
 Problem of the day
 Brain teaser
 Vocabulary
 React to quotation
 Warm-up problem
 Solving Transition during the lesson
o Give supplementary exercise for the fast workers.
o Get the fast learners to tutor student in need of help
o Ask the fast learner to assist you in your administrative task like
preparing for the next learning episode.
 Solving Post-Lesson Transition
o Create a routine for the last five ( after the bell pick up the paper the
magic word thank you and have a great day.
3. Getting/distribution of materials and equipment.
 Material captain (Your,Mine and Ours)Admiral the teacher
4. Group work
 Cooperative learning
o Two before me – ask each other for help before coming to the
teacher.
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5. Seat work and teacher –led activities.


 5,4,3,2,1 – countdown
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o 5 freeze
o 4 quite
o 3 for eyes only on the teacher
o 2 hands free (put things down)
o 1 for listen for instruction
 Raise your hand if you wish to participate
 To obtain teacher’s attention
o One finger – I need to sharpen my pencil
o Two finger – I need a tissue
o Three – I need your help

Effective Instructional techniques

1. What is motivation?
 Is a driving force that impels one to react.
 It is the inner urge that moves a person.
 Energizes, direct and sustain behavior that ultimately leads to higher
achievement in the classroom
 If the teacher is motivated students are also motivated to learn are observed
to be wide-eyed and are eager to be involved in any learning activity.
o Students are highly motivated and poorly motivated
1. How we know that the students have that kind of motivation

Highly Motivated

1. Actively participates in every class activity


2. Often see procuring over additional references.
3. Curiously examining the proboscis of a butterfly
4. Volunteers to borrow and return materials used
5. Facial expression shows satisfaction over an award

Poorly Motivated

1. Passively stuck to the seat during discussion


2. Uninterested look and facial expression
3. Endlessly bother neighbor rather than listen
4. Unable to follow simple instruction
5. Leaves learning task half-done
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Kinds of motivation

1. Intrinsic Motivation
o Internal motivation
o Originates from the students inner selves or from factors inherent in
the tack being performed.
 Example: students may engage in a learning activity because
they enjoy the activity or because they are convinced that what
they learn is important or is the right thing to do.
o Innate values and attitude possessed by the students.
2. Extrinsic Motivation
o External motivation
o Originated from the students’ learning environment or from factors
external to the students and unrelated to the task at hand.
o It takes the form of rewards or incentives or recognition.
 Example: Are the trophy for the first placer in a contest, a trip
to Disney lad for a year-end grade, a certificate for being well-
behaved and a medal for winning in a debate.
Which group of motivated students is most likely to show the beneficial
effects of motivation?
1. Intrinsic
 Students tackle assigned task willingly and are eager to
learn even without reward or an authority like the
teacher prod them.

Motivational Strategies

1. Employ variety of teaching strategies


2. Narrate short story or recite a poem related to the lesson
3. A good sense of humor. Know how to make them smile
4. A pleasing personality always wins positive interaction.
5. Plan lesson that arouse their curiosity.
6. Lesson that will require manipulation of tools and operation of equipment will
keep everyone moving to get a chance at the wheel.
7. Introduce an educational game that is related to the lesson
8. Some teaching strategies that high motivating power could be tried.
9. Film viewing, slide presentation, television broadcast.
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Effective Questioning and Reacting Techniques

“ Children go to school as question marks and leave school as Periods” Neil Postman

1. Do you think the kind of question we ask determine the level of thinking of our
Students?
 Yes the kind of question we ask determine the level of thinking we develop?

Low level question

 demand low level responses.They require responses of the simple recall or


memory type of answer.
Example: What was the temperature range yesterdays>
What insect transmit dengue fever?
What part of the plant serves as its factory?

High Level Question

 Why and How question require analysis of observation.


 The conclusion is arrived at after weighing evidences or establishing a pattern
out of a recorded tabulation of data.
Example Why does the temperature continue to raise from early morning till
about noontime?
How does the hydrologic cycle occur?
 The question is taken as a request for information.
 It is simply an inquiry about something

Types of Question according to Purpose

1. For assessing Cognition


 Used to determine one’s knowledge in understanding.
 Promote high level thinking
 Divergent question and open-ended question inquiries call for analysis and
evaluation.
Example: What is likely to happen if the ozone layer of the atmosphere
continues to deteriorate?
Why is sound heard louder when under water than out of it?
2. Verification
 Determines the exactness or accuracy of the results of an activity or
performance
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Example: Was the weight of liquid displaced exactly the same as the weight
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of the object immersed in it? Why id lightning seen before thunder is heard?
3. Creative Thinking
 It probes into one’s originality
Example: How will you present the layer of the earth to your class?
Simulate the eruption of Mt. Mayon.
 The question may ask for pupils’ own ideas or new ways of doing things?
Example: How can you demonstrate soil-less gardening?
4. Evaluating
 Elicits responses that include judgment, value and choice. It also asks
personal opinions about an event, a policy or a person.
Example: Was your teacher’s slide presentation well done?
5. Productive thinking
 Includes cognitive reasoning
 Analyses facts, recognizes patterns or trends and invokes memory and recall.
Example: Why was our fourth Secretary of the Department of Agriculture
successful with the small landowners?
How can we apply the Law of Conservation of Energy?
6. Motivation
 Before discussing the lesson, a number of question about the topic can serve
to arouse their interest and focus attention.
 It attempts to put students in the right mood.
Example: Would you like to know how your favorite flower can remain fresh
longer?
Did you ever train a pet?
7. Instructing
 The question asks for useful information
 It directs, guide and advise on what and how to do an activity.
Example: What are the steps in performing an experiment?

Types of questions according to Level/Answer

1. Low level question


2. High Level question
3. Convergent Question
 Question that requires a single predictable answer.
Example are those that call for: 1. Defining, 2. Stating, 3. Interpreting, 4.
Summarizing.
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Example: When does lunar eclipse occur?


4. Divergent Question
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 They require the respondent to think in “ different direction” to think of
alternative actions or to arrive at own decision.
 There are several possible answer
Example: Why are you voting for him?
What will happen if you leave it under direct sunlight for a week.

Questioning Skills

 Class interaction is dependent on your questioning skills.


 What skills should you acquire to generate interaction among your students?
They are:

1. Varying type of question


 ask convergent, divergent and evaluative questions.
2. Asking non-directed question
 Pose the question first, then call on a student to answer.
 Don’t direct your answer o just one student.
 Direct the question to all.
3. Calling on non-volunteers
 Don’t just call on those who raise their hands.
4. Rephrasing
 If you sense a question was not understood, simplify it or ask it in another
way.
5. Requiring abstract thinking
 This means going beyond simple recall question.
Example: What generalization can draw from the data presented.
6. Asking open-ended questions
 This means asking divergent question to develop higher order thinking skills.
7. Allowing for sufficient time
 Wait time refers to the pause needed by the teacher after asking a question.
This is the time when she waits for an answer.
 A number of things to consider
o The level of difficulty of the question
o The type of response required
o The background knowledge of the respondent
o The intellectual ability of the respondents
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o An average of 2 to 5 seconds is sufficient for “what” question and


about 5 to 10 seconds for “why” and “how” question.
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 Usually there is a need to revise or improve the question if it proves difficult
at the moment.
 This is the second wait time.
 A longer pause would encourage the second wait time.
 A longer pause would encourage the students to continue thinking.
 It most case they are able to think of the best answer.
 The follow-up question can lead to extended ideas instead of short memory
question.
Provides sufficient wait time can achieve the following
o Motivate the slow thinking student to respond
o Improves the quality of response made
o Decreases the amount of guessing or wrong inferences
o Increase the number of correct responses
o Leads the teacher to vary her questions
o Provide time for the teacher to evaluate the answers given
o Encourage the students to ask their own question. Give students
enough time to think about the answers.
 Assessing comprehension
o Ask question to test comprehension. Now and then find out if your
students are with you.
 Involving as many as possible
o Distribute your question to many as many students.

How to improve Questioning Techniques

 Know your style of questioning


 Request a colleague to critique your own style
 Increase your repertoire of type of questions.
 Consider the individual abilities and interest of the students.
 Spend time reflecting on the type of question you ask. Improve on them.

How to encourage question from students

 The teacher questioning is the key in encouraging students to ask correct,


relevant and high level question. Her question can serve as good example.
 Attend to their questions. Avoid dismissing irrelevant question. Assist in
clarifying or refocusing in order to solicit correct responses.
 Praise the correct formulated question. It develops confidence and makes
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knowledge search easy and satisfying.


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 Allot an appropriate time slot for open questioning. This will encourage the
slow thinkers to participate freely.

Handling Pupils responses

1. Provide feedback on the correctness or incorrectness of a response


Correct feedback

 Remember that the reaction ‘ that’s wrong’ can put off or embarrass a
learner. Be more tactful
 Give a hint or break down the question if necessary, to guide the learner to
the correct response.
 Explain the correct answer when the learners cannot arrive at it.
 Initially ask easy question to enhance the student’s (particularly a slow one’s)
self confidence and to encourage active participation from everyone.
2. Give appropriate praise to high quality responses
In giving appropriate praises
 Match praise to the level of difficulty of the question answered or to the
quality of the response given.
 Vary acceptance reaction. As someone said, there are 99 was of saying
“okay”
 Remember that slow/insecure learners need more praise than a fast confident
one. Be discreet, lest the faster ones think that praise is only for the slow
learners.
3. Follow up question
 Remember that follow up question should logically relate to the preceding
question and/or the learners response.
 Follow up question should ne characteristically develop mental and direct
towards a beter/deeper understanding of the topic being discussed.
 Clearly stated, short follow-u question elicit better responses from the
students.
4. Redirecting question
 Certain question deserve to be answered by more than one learner. Take
advantage to this opportunity to promote creative or divergent thinking.
 Some students need a re-formulation of the question elicit better responses
from the students.
5. Following up students responses with related question
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 Slowly repeating or replacing certain words in a question may be the way to


enable a student to give the correct answer.
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 On the other hand, other students may need to understand better an
accepted (learner’s) response to a question. The students can feel the learner
can feel the teacher’s interest in them when their needs communicated
directly or through non-verbal behavior are accommodated.
6. Rephrasing the seemingly unclear question
a. Rephrase unclear question by using terms or idioms familiar to the
students.
b. Avoid long and complicated sentences structure in asking question.
7. Show non-verbal encouragement
 Cultivate the habit of conveying positive meanings through your body
language.
 Eye to eye contact, a smiling face, and an encouraging hand gestures remove
fear of embarrassment from the students.
8. Encouraging learners to ask question
 Watch out for students who seem to have problem about certain responses.
Encourage them to bring out their question.
 Create a communication climate which encourage

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