Dengan Nama ALLAH Yang Maha Pengasih dan Maha Penyanyang 20 September 2010 Teori Politik THE STATE

What is The State? • • • • A collection of institution A territorial unit A philosophical idea An instrument of coercion or oppression territorial domination

Refers to government or regime. Five key features of the state • • • • • The state is sovereign State institution are recognisably public The state is exercise in legitimation The state is instrument of domination The state is territorial association

Constitutional Government • A system of government that operates within a set of legal and institutional constraints that both limit its power and protect individual liberty.

Kenapa demokrasi sangat dibutuhkan?? Benarkah??? Cina republic demokrasi cina Iran republic islam iran. Tax deductable

What different

• • Community Power • • Floyd Hunter. Leviathan defended absolutism of government as the only alternative to anarchy and disorder. high politics bicara pendekatan matrealistik In the social sciences. Power: A radical view (1974) • • • It can involved the ability to influence the making of decisions It may be reflected in the capacity to shape the political agenda and thus prevent decisions being made It may take the form of controlling Decision making • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679). Human beings are essentially power seeking and self interested creatures Power is the ability of an agent to affect the behaviour of a patient Community power debate in 1950s and 1960s about power elite and pluralism. 1963 A small. interlocking elite consisting of key businessmen and members of established and socially prominent families. feminist theorist – kekuasaan dalam pengertian maskulin. The state is a DENGAN NAMA ALLAH YANG MAHA PENGASIH LAGI MAHA PENYANYANG 27 September 2010 Power • • All politics is about power Power is usually understood as ‘force’ or ‘energy’ (in the natural science). sat on the boards of each other’s corporation.• • • Government and the state? The state is more extensive than government. Governments is a part of the state. chatted in the same social clubs and made all the really important decisions about Atlanta – including the governmental . power referred • Steven Lukes.

sejauh mana civil society terlibat dalam proses pembuatan kebijakan publik. professional assoc. neighbourhood groups which alliance with elected official Power as the ability to influence the decision making process Who get their way: siapa How often they get their way: berapa banyak? Over what issues they get their way: issue apa? Dahl • • To base the understanding of power upon systematic and testable hyphothesis 1. R. Connecticut—was fragmented Many different people from a variety of walks of life were involved in decision making by the New Haven City Government Dahl • • • • • • Exercise of power by institutions Ex.decision • Small elite ruled Atlanta – elitist model. Dahl: Who Governs? • • • Almost reach conclucion Local political power in New Haven. unions. must be well defined group Dahl method of community power study • • • Select a number of key decision making areas Identify the actors involved and discover their preferences Analyse the decision made and compare these preferences of the actors . The ruling elite. Churches. Government and Governance (formal or informally arrangement) à public participation.

that power is reflected in the decision making process. Urban. public education and the Nomination of the political candidates Agenda Setting • • Power by A over B Bachrach and Baratz. but to the extend that a person or group –consciously or unconsciously – creates or reinforces barrier to the public airing of policy conflict. the hidden Persuades. it refers to an entitlement to act or be treated in a particular way Legal (in the legal binding) Moral Rights (no legal substance but only exist in moral claims) Legal dan Moral Right • • • • Legal rights are right which are enshrined in law and are therefore enforceable through the courts As describe positive rights Ex.• • Ex. The person of group has a power Elitist • Thought Control • • Vance Packard. renewal. In British until 1992 that husband had legal right to rape their wives Setiap Negara berbeda tentang legal rights . 1960 Described Dengan Nama Allah Yang Maha Pengasih lagi Maha Penyanyang Right • • • • Right is always be a reference in the political debates Modern sense.

and property Tomas Jefferson. natural rights the right to life. movement and religious warship tidak masuk dalam law Everything is permitted that is not prohibited (residual) Restricted that citizen could say based on slander. To use public highway) Claim rights on the basis of which another person no to assaulted by another Legal powers empowering someone to do something (the right to vote) Immunities one person can avoid being subject to the power of another Case of the USA • • • • Bill of rights: the first amendment of the constitutions (freedom of speech and freedom of the press) Codified individual right and liberties Clear legal definition of individual rights Political decision by the judge rather than by the elected politician Human Rights • • • • John Locke.• • • • • British until the European Convention of Human Rights 1998 Freedom of speech. defamation. blasphemy. liberty and the pursuit of happiness God given – human nature All Human being – universal rights Twentieth Century • • • Active government intervention. life. liberty. welfare rights. economic. libel. incitement to racial hatred Lacking legal definition Wesley Hohfeld: Fundamental Legal Conception 1923 • • • • Privileges or liberty rights: these allow a person to do a simple sense that they have no obligation not to do it (ex. and social rights Bagaimana dengan kesehatan? The UN Declaration of Human Rights the rights to works and the right to .

Masyarakat demokrasi modern adalah masyarakat dimana kekuasaan menjadi sebuath tempat kosong.education Bagaimana • • • Marx... every rights of inequality – equal standard to unequal individuals Powerful class interest Modern Marxist: Welfare and social rights. Di masa lalu kekuasaan ada pada raja Bagi Mouffe Demokrasi modern memunculkan kembali prinsip demokrasi klasih dimana kekuasaan harus dilaksanakan oleh rakyat tapi dalam kerangka simbolis yang . advancing the interest of property.. Bagaimana dalam Islam • • • Legal system: wajib. Dengan Nama Allah Yang Maha Pengasih lagi Maha Penyanyang 11 Oktober 2010 Demokrasi Pengantar: Penelusuran sifat demokrasi dimulai dengan berbagai istilah yang digunakan selama dua abad • • • • • Demokrasi modern Demokrasi perwakilan Demokrasi parlementer Demokrasi pluralis Demokrasi konstitusional Bagi sejumlah orang lain seperti calude lefort: Hilangnya tanda-tanda kepastian. sunnah. makruh dan haram Mana yang human rights? Diskusikan. mubah.

2 aspek demokrasi modern: 1. Tradisi demokratis yang ide-ide utamanya adalah antara lain persamaan identitas di antara yang memerintah dan yang diperintah dan kedaulatan rakyat. • Adversaries didefinisikan secara paradoks sebagai ‘friendly enemies’ atau orang-orang yang sesungguhnya adalah . yang terjadi di antara musuh yaitu orang-orang yang tidak mempunyai ruang simbolis bersama. padahal prinsip kedaulatan rakyat (popular sovereignty) ini merupakan dasar pembenaran dari demokrasi liberal. Pada waktu hubungan di antara kita dan mereka mulai di lihat sebagai teman dan lawan maka antagonisme muncul dan pada saat inilah hubungan sedemikian menjadi politis. Kecenderungan dominan saat ini: 1. Ini merupakan kondisi yang diperlukan agar hak-hak demokrasi dapat dilaksanakan. Demokrasi sebagai bentuk pemerintahan.dibentuk oleh diskursus liberal dengan penekanan pada nilai kebebasan individu dan hak-hak manusia. sebuah mode perwujudan antagonisme yang melibatkan hubungan di antara bukan musuh tapi ‘adversaries’. Tradisi liberal yang dibentuk oleh tatanan hokum pembelaan hak-hak manusia dan penghormatan pada kebebasan individu. Agonisme. sebagai ekspresi prinsip kedaulatan rakyat Demokrasi dibentuk dalam dua tradisi: 1. 2. Mengidentifikasikan demokrasi dengan Negara hukum dan pembelaan terhadap hak-hak asasi manusia. dan. 2. à ada public consultation or people souvergenity. tradisi demokrasi yang nilai intinya persamaan dan kedaulatan rakyat. Mengesampingkan unsur kedaulatan rakyat – bahkan usur ini nyaris absolute. 2. Logika demokrasi • • Menarik batas di antara kita dan mereka Siapa yang termasuk di dalam kelompok demos dan siapa yang berada di luar demos. • Dua bentuk antagonisme: 1. Antagonisme proper.

• Dalam dunia global yang ditandai oleh adanya individualisme baru maka demokrasi haruslah dialogis. Hal ini dilakukan sebagai justifikasi penerimaan mereka akan hegemoni neo-liberal akhir-akhir ini. Karena ada saatnya dimana kita perlu menentukan sikap dimana kita harus berdiri ketika konfrontasi agonistis muncul. menciptakan ‘demokrasi emosi-emosi’.• • ‘teman’ karena mereka menempati ruang simbolis yang sama tetapi juga ‘musuh’ • Konsep Adversary ini juga membantu kita untuk memahami keterbatasanketerbatasn teori-teori deliberative dan perpolitikan ‘radical centre. • Perpolitikan radikal tengah (third way) merupakan perpolitikan tanpa ‘adversary’ atau yang berpretensi seolah-olah semua kepentingan dapat dipadukan (reconciled) dan setiap orang dapat menjadi bagian dari yang disebut rakyat (the people). Liberal democracy: State: • • Accountable government Free and fair competitive elections Civil society: • • Civil and political rights Associational autonomy Authoritarianism . Yang dibutuhkan adalah perpolitikan yang hidup yang dapat menjangkau berbagai bidang kehidupan personal. • Menurut Mouffe pemahaman tradisional kiri/kanan harus didefinisikan kembali jika kita ingin memahami hegemoni baru.

extend of industrialization degree of urbanisation and level of education.State • • Dominant state and government not a accountable through elections to citizens No competitive elections Civil Society • • Severe restrictions on individual civil and political rights Autonomous associations and organizations critical of the state virtually non existent Waves of democratisation according to Huntington (baca buku Huntington) Lipset: Democracy is related to a country’s sosioeconomis development or level of modernization Variables: wealth. .