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Evaluation of SABLA Scheme

A Report Submitted to
Ministry of Women and Child Development,
Government of India
September 2013

Administrative Staff College of India


Bella Vista, Raj Bhavan Road
Hyderabad 500 082
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Tel: 040 66533000
Fax: 040 66534356
TABLES OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................ 9


CHAPTER 1. RAJIV GANDHI SCHEME FOR EMPOWERMENT OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS: AN
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 24
ABOUT THE SCHEME ............................................................................................................................................. 24
OBJECTIVES OF THE SCHEME ................................................................................................................................. 25
TARGET GROUP ..................................................................................................................................................... 26
SERVICES AND PROGRAMME NORMS .................................................................................................................... 26
DELIVERY MECHANISM OF THE SCHEME............................................................................................................... 32
FINANCIAL ALLOCATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 34
CHAPTER 2. SITUATING SABLA WITHIN PROGRAMMING FOR ADOLESCENT GIRLS ........ 36
UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC CONCERNS OF ADOLESCENTS .................................................................................... 36
BACKGROUND TO PROGRAMMING FOR ADOLESCENT GIRLS & INCEPTION OF SABLA ........................................... 39
CHAPTER 3. STUDY METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................. 47
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ................................................................................................................................... 47
APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY........................................................................................................................... 47
THEORY OF CHANGE OF SABLA........................................................................................................................... 47
COVERAGE AND REFERENCE PERIOD .................................................................................................................... 49
CHAPTER 4. COVERAGE OF BENEFICIARIES.................................................................................... 58
COVERAGE OF BENEFICIARIES............................................................................................................................... 58
NUTRITION COMPONENT COVERAGE: PERFORMANCE OF STATES ......................................................................... 59
NON- NUTRITION COMPONENT COVERAGE: PERFORMANCE OF STATES ............................................................... 62
CHAPTER 5. SCHEME INPUTS OF SABLA ............................................................................................ 89
AWARENESS AND CAPACITY BUILDING AMONG AWWS ....................................................................................... 89
BUILDING CAPACITY OF FUNCTIONARIES............................................................................................................ 101
CONVERGENCE WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS ...................................................................................................... 107
FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE .................................................................................................................................. 117
CHAPTER 6. SCHEME OUTPUTS – INSIGHTS FROM THE SURVEY ........................................... 132
NUTRITION COMPONENT ..................................................................................................................................... 133
HEALTH CHECK-UP & REFERRAL ........................................................................................................................ 141
EXPOSURE TO PUBLIC SERVICES ......................................................................................................................... 147
VOCATIONAL TRAINING ...................................................................................................................................... 153
IFA SUPPLEMENTATION ...................................................................................................................................... 163
COUNSELLING COMPONENTS: NHE, ARSH AND FAMILY PRACTICES, AND LIFE-SKILLS TRAINING ................... 172
MAINSTREAMING ................................................................................................................................................ 182
KISHORI SAMOOHS AND SAKHI-SAHELI EXPERIENCE ......................................................................................... 188
CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSIONS AND WAY FORWARD ........................................................................ 202
STRENGTHS AND BARRIERS ................................................................................................................................. 204
PERFORMANCE OF SAMPLED STATES .................................................................................................................. 205
WAY FORWARD................................................................................................................................................... 207
ANNEXURES ................................................................................................................................................... 211
REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................................... 211
ANNEXURE I: TOOLS .......................................................................................................................................... 221
ANNEXUE II: DETAILED KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS ..................................................................................... 224
ANNEXURE III: NUMBER OF AWWS INTERVIEWED ............................................................................................ 227
ANNEXURE IV: DESCRIPTION OF NON- BENEFICIARIES ....................................................................................... 229

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ACA Additional Central Assistance


AGs Adolescent Girls
ANM Auxiliary Nurse Midwife
ARSH Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health
ASHA Accredited Social Health Activist
AWC Anganwadi Centre
AWW Anganwadi Worker
BMI Body Mass Index
BPL Below Poverty Line
CDPO Child Development Project Officer
CHC Community Health Centre
DPO District Programme Officer
DWCD Department of Women and Child Welfare
FGD Focus Group Discussion
GoI Government of India
GER Gross Enrolment Ratio
HCM Hot Cooked Meal
ICDS Integrated Child Development Services
IFA Iron and Folic Acid
IMR Infant Mortality Rate
ISGs In School Girls
KAPs Knowledge-Attitudes-Practices
KII Key Informant Interviews
KS Kishori Samooh
LSBE Life Skills Based Education
LSE Life Skills Education
KSY Kishori Shakti Yojana
MDMS Mid Day Meal Scheme
MES Modular Employable Skills
MMR Maternal Mortality Rate
MNGO Mother Non Governmental Organisation
MPR Monthly Progress Report
MSS Matching State Share
MoHFW Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
MoHRD Ministry of Human Resource Development
MWCD Ministry of Women and Child Development
NFHS National Family Health Survey
NNMB National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau
NIPCCD National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development
NGO Non Governmental Organisation
NMR Neo-natal Mortality Rate
NPAG Nutrition Programme for Adolescent Girls
OOSGs Out Of School Girls
PHC Primary Health Centre
PRI Panchayati Raj Institution
QPR Quarterly Progress Report
RGSEAG-Sabla/ Sabla Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for the Empowerment of Adolescent Girls
STDs Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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TA/DA Travel Allowance/ Dearness Allowance
TFR Total Fertility Rate
THR Take Home Ration
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
VHND Village Health and Nutrition Days
VT Vocational Training
WHO World Health Organisation
WIFS Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Nutrition Component ..............................................................................................27


Table 3.1 : List of Districts where the SABLA Scheme is piloted ..........................................50
Table 3.2: Zone wise Selection of States & Districts for SABLA Evaluation Study..............54
Table 4.1: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition) ...........................................................................58
Table 4.2: Beneficiary Coverage (Non- Nutrition)..................................................................59
Table 4.3: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition) - All States ........................................................60
Table 4.4: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition) - Sample States .................................................61
Table 4.5: Beneficiary Coverage (IFA Tablets): All States.....................................................63
Table 4.6: Beneficiary Coverage (IFA tablets)- Sample States...............................................64
Table 4.7: Beneficiary Coverage (Health Check Ups & Referrals) - All States......................65
Table 4.8: Beneficiary Coverage (Health Check Ups & Referrals) – Sample States ..............66
Table 4.9: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition & Health Education-NHE) - All States .............67
Table 4.10: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition and Health Education) - Sample States ...........68
Table 4.11: Beneficiary Coverage (Family Welfare, ARSH & Child Care Practices)- All
States ........................................................................................................................................69
Table 4.12: Beneficiary Coverage (Family, ARSH and Child Care Practices)- Sample States
..................................................................................................................................................70
Table 4.13: Beneficiary Coverage (Life Skill Education) - All States ....................................71
Table 4.14: Beneficiary Coverage in LSE- Sample States ......................................................72
Table 4.15: Beneficiary coverage (Accessing public services)- All States .............................73
Table 4.16: Beneficiary Coverage (Accessing Public Services)- Sample States.....................74
Table 4.17: Beneficiary Coverage (Mainstreaming into school system)- All States...............75
Table 4.18: Beneficiary Coverage (Mainstreaming into school system)- Sample States........76
Table 4.19: Beneficiary Coverage (Vocational Training)- All States .....................................77
Table 4.20: Beneficiary Coverage (Vocational Training)- Sample States ..............................78
Table 5.1: Source of Information.............................................................................................90
Table 5.2: Number of Master Trainers for SABLA...............................................................105
Table 5.3: Fund Allocation- National Overview ...................................................................117
Table 5.4: Fund Utilisation- National Overview (Total Amount) .........................................118
Table 5.5: Proportion of Allocation Utilised .........................................................................118
Table 5.6: Fund Allocation under Sabla ................................................................................118
Table 5.7: Fund utilization under Sabla- Across the States ...................................................119
Table 5.8: Utilisation over the Years- Across the States .......................................................120
Table 5.9: Fund Allocation- Nutrition Component (Sample States) .....................................121
Table 5.10: Fund Utilisation - Nutrition Component (Sample States) ..................................121
Table 5.11: % of Allocation Utilised .....................................................................................122
Table 5.12: Unspent Balance- Nutrition (Sample States) 2011-12........................................123
Table 5.13: Unspent Balance - (Nutrition) - 2012-13............................................................124
Table 5.14: Unspent Balance (Nutrition) - Change over the Years and Trends ....................124
Table 5.15: Fund Allocation- Non Nutrition (Sample States) ...............................................125
Table 5.16: Fund Utilisation - Non- Nutrition (Sample States).............................................126
Table 5.17: % of Fund Allocation Utilised- Non- Nutrition (Sample States) .......................126
Table 5.18: Unspent Balance (Non- Nutrition) - 2011-12.....................................................127
Table 5.19: Unspent Balance - Non Nutrition - 2012-13.......................................................128
Table 5.20: Unspent Balance - (Non -Nutrition)- Change over Years and Trends ...............128
Table 6.1 : Sample Awareness of Supplement Component...................................................135
Table 6.2 : State-wise Sample that received Food & Supplement.........................................135

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Table 6.3 : Form of Nutrition received ..................................................................................136
Table 6.4 : Utensil in which Hot Cooked Meal received.......................................................137
Table 6.5 : Frequency of receiving Take Home Ration (per month).....................................138
Table 6.6: Monitoring of BMI: Sample District-1................................................................140
Table 6.7: Monitoring of BMI: Sample District 2 .................................................................140
Table 6.8 : Exposure Visits attended by Beneficiaries .........................................................147
Table 6.9: Learning from the exposure visits ........................................................................150
Table 6.10: Information on Vocational Training ...................................................................153
Table 6.11: Number of girls attending vocational training classes........................................155
Table 6.12 : Place of conduct of Vocational Training ...........................................................157
Table 6.13: Beneficiaries attending Vocational Triaining .....................................................158
Table 6.14: Vocational Training programmes Imparted across Sample States .....................159
Table 6.15: Beneficiary Attitude towards skills learnt from the training ..............................161
Table 6.16: Whether IFA Tablet was consumed in front of AWW (OOSG) ........................172
Table 6.17: Counselling sessions attended at AWC under SABLA ......................................173
Table 6.18: Usefulness of Counselling sessions ....................................................................174
Table 6.19: % Respondents Reporting Receipt of Counselling On Entering School ............183
Table 6.20: Person Who Counselled About Entry Into Schools............................................184
Table 6.21: Respondents Who Reported Trying to Enter School..........................................185
Table 6.22: Class joined into post counselling .....................................................................186
Table 6.23: Attendance Out of those (2524) who were aware, Ever Attended Kishori Samooh
................................................................................................................................................189
Table 6.24: Last Kishori Samooh Meetings Attended..........................................................192
Table 6.25: Respondents who are either currently Sakhi or Saheli .......................................195
Table 6.26: State-wise, Sakhi-Sahelis Reporting on Functions Performed ...........................196
Table 7.1: Evaluation of the Scheme: Input and Output Parameters .....................................205
Table 7.2: Performance of Sampled States …………………………………………….… 205

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Sabla Scheme: Operational Convergence .............................................................28


Figure 1.2: Organisation Chart ................................................................................................32
Figure 3.1: SABLA Scheme Components ...............................................................................49
Figure 4.1: SABLA: Age Distribution.....................................................................................79
Figure 4.2: Respondent Distribution by Schooling..................................................................80
Figure 4.3: Age Distribution In-School and Out of School Respondents................................81
Figure 4.4: Religion .................................................................................................................81
Figure 4.5: Caste ......................................................................................................................82
Figure 4.6: Type of Housing by Schooling..............................................................................83
Figure 4.7: Type of House of the Respondents........................................................................83
Figure 4.8: Respondent Houses with/ without basic infrastructure by school going status ....84
Figure 4.9: Class of study at Drop Out among Respondents...................................................85
Figure 4.10 : Reason for Drop Out among Respondents .........................................................85
Figure 4.11: Respondents: Current Work Status .....................................................................86
Figure 4.12: Occupation of Respondents who are working for a wage...................................87
Figure 4.13: Daily wage of OOSGs .........................................................................................87
Figure 5.1:Communication about SABLA activities...............................................................91
Figure 5.2: Awareness among non-beneficiaries.....................................................................92
Figure 5.3: Beneficiaries who received Kishori Cards ............................................................96
Figure 5.4: Total Allocation of Funds- Sample States...........................................................119
Figure 5.5: % of Funds Utilised over the Years.....................................................................120
Figure 5.6: Percentage of Allocation Utilised - Nutrition......................................................123
Figure 5.7: Change in % of Unspent Balance as % of Allocation .........................................125
Figure 5.8: % of Fund Allocation Utilised- Non- Nutrition (Sample States) ........................127
Figure 5.9: Unspent Balance (Non- Nutrition) - Change over years .....................................129
Figure 6.1: Consumption patterns of Take Home Ration ......................................................139
Figure 6.2: Number of Beneficiaries who attended the Health Check-up Camps (By Zone)141
Figure 6.3: Number of Beneficiaries who attended the Health Check-ups (By state)...........142
Figure 6.4: Frequency of Health Check-upCamps ................................................................143
Figure 6.5: Incidence of Diagnosis during Health Check-up Camps (N=78) .......................143
Figure 6.6: State Wise Distribution of Beneficiaries who were diagnosed with a problem ..144
Figure 6.7: Reasons for Referrals during Health Check-up Camps (n=78)..........................145
Figure 6.8: Problems diagnosed.............................................................................................145
Figure 6.9: Beneficiaries who were referred to a hospital or health centre ...........................146
Figure 6.10: Beneficiary Perception about Health Check-up Camps (n=9222) ...................146
Figure 6.11: Person who organised the exposure visit ..........................................................148
Figure 6.12: Places of Exposure Visits ..................................................................................148
Figure 6.13: Frequency of Exposure Visits ...........................................................................149
Figure 6.14: Beneficiary Experience of Exposure Visits.......................................................149
Figure 6.15: Learning from the exposure visit.......................................................................151
Figure 6.16: Beneficiary's attitude towards public services...................................................152
Figure 6.17: Non- Beneficiary's attitude towards Public Services ........................................152
Figure 6.18 : Beneficiaries counselled about Vocational Training........................................154
Figure 6.19: Source of information on vocational training....................................................154
Figure 6.20: Girls attending vocational training classes ........................................................155
Figure 6.21: Problems faced in attending training.................................................................156
Figure 6.22: Reasons for not attending training.....................................................................157

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Figure 6.23: Number who pursued Vocational Training completely ....................................159
Figure 6.24: Training Sessions ..............................................................................................160
Figure 6.25: Beneficiaries who intend to use their skill later ................................................162
Figure 6.26: Beneficiaries who will try for a job post Vocational Training..........................162
Figure 6.27: Beneficiaries who intend to set up their business..............................................163
Figure 6.28: Receipt of IFA Tablets under the Scheme.........................................................164
Figure 6.29: Beneficiaries who agree that taking an IFA suplement is important ................165
Figure 6.30: Frequency of receiving IFA tablets ...................................................................165
Figure 6.31: Frequency of receiving IFA tablets ...................................................................166
Figure 6.32: Number of IFA Tablets received.......................................................................166
Figure 6.33: Number of IFA tablets received (by Zone) .......................................................167
Figure 6.34: Number of IFA tablets received (by State) .......................................................167
Figure 6.35: Person who gives IFA tablets to the beneficiary...............................................168
Figure 6.36: Person who gives IFA tablets to the beneficiary ( by State) .............................168
Figure 6.37: Place of receiving the IFA Tablets ....................................................................169
Figure 6.38: Where does the beneficiary receive the IFA Tablet? ........................................169
Figure 6.39: Time of receiving the IFA Tablets ....................................................................170
Figure 6.40: Place where the IFA tablet is consumed ...........................................................170
Figure 6.41: Place of consumption of the IFA tablet (by State) ............................................171
Figure 6.42: Place of Consumption of the IFA Tablet...........................................................171
Figure 6.43: Attendance of Counselling Sessions under the Scheme....................................174
Figure 6.44: Number of Counselling Sessions per month (NHE, ARSH, LSE combined)...175
Figure 6.45: Number of Counselling Sessions Attended.......................................................176
Figure 6.46 : Percentage of Beneficiaries attending Specific Counselling Sessions .............177
Figure 6.47: Knowledge about the Nutrition Health Hygiene ...............................................178
Figure 6.48: Beneficiary attitude towards Nutrition Health Hygiene....................................179
Figure 6.49: Beneficiary's Practices (Nutrition Health Hygiene) ..........................................180
Figure 6.50: Knowledge of Reproductive Health among non-beneficiaries .........................181
Figure 6.51: Beneficiary's attitude towards adolescent reproductive and sexual health .......181
Figure 6.52: Respondents reporting Counselling on Entering school ...................................183
Figure 6.53: Person who counselled about Entry into schools ..............................................184
Figure 6.54: Respondents Who Reported Trying to Join School ..........................................185
Figure 6.55: Respondents who rated mainstreaming component as good.............................186
Figure 6.56: Reasons for not joining School after SABLA ...................................................187
Figure 6.57: Awareness of Kishori Samooh and Attendance ................................................188
Figure 6.58: Awareness of Kishori Samooh and Attendance (by State) ..............................188
Figure 6.59: Respondents who ever attended Kishori Samooh .............................................189
Figure 6.60: Number of Kishori Samooh Meetings Attended ...............................................191
Figure 6.61: Last Kishori Samooh meeting attended by the respondent ...............................191
Figure 6.62: Respondents who attended Kishori Divas.........................................................192
Figure 6.63: Last Kishori Divas attended by the respondent.................................................193
Figure 6.64: Health Check-up Conducted at Kishori Divas .................................................194
Figure 6.65: Knowledge of Sakhi Saheli Concept.................................................................195
Figure 6.66: Responsibility of Sakhi/ Saheli .........................................................................196
Figure 6.67: Training received to be a Sakhi- Saheli.............................................................197
Figure 6.68: As a Sakhi & Saheli, I am responsible for conduct of SABLA activities .........198

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls-Sabla (RGSEAG-Sabla,
referred to here, as Sabla) scheme is a pioneering effort by the Government of India (GoI) to
empower adolescent girls (AGs) across the country. Since its launch in 2010, the scheme has
reached over 10 million s. Empowerment of adolescent girls has multiple dimensions, and
requires a multi-sectoral response. Sabla is a comprehensively conceived scheme which
involves inputs from key sectors of health, education and employment, each of which
addresses needs fundamental to the holistic growth of an adolescent girl. The activities under
the scheme are based on the robust theory of life-course approach to ensure improved health,
delayed pregnancy and reduction in maternal and infant mortality through nutrition and life-
skills interventions to adolescent girls. The scheme also aims to result in educated, aware, and
economically empowered AGs through training in vocational skills and exposure to public
services and leadership development. Key informant interviews with principal stakeholders
from Departments of Health, Education and Labour indicate that most stakeholders at
multiple levels are hopeful that long term implementation of this scheme will positively
impact the health and social status of women in India.
Objectives of the Evaluation1
1. To evaluate the Rajiv Gandhi Scheme Empowerment Adolescent Girls-Sabla
2. To assess the scheme from the perspective of:
a. Functioning of the scheme and all its components
i. Nutrition component
ii. Non Nutrition component
iii. Administrative component
iv. Flow of funds
v. Training component
vi. Promotion & Publicity component
b. AGs being serviced through the scheme both out of school adolescent girls
and in school adolescent girls including Sakhis and Sahelis
c. Role of government officials (State level, district level, block level and village
level) their response towards the scheme
d. Non-beneficiaries

1
As mentioned in the RfP document

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e. Other stakeholders including families of the AGs, and PRI members,
Community leaders of the village
3. To assess the strengths of the scheme and barriers against the scheme
4. To provide a ‘way forward’ for the scheme.

Methodology

The study covered 12 states selected zonally by a frame provided in the Terms of Reference.
The states included Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab (North Zone), Bihar, Odisha (East Zone),
Maharashtra, Rajasthan (West Zone), Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu (South Zone),
Assam, and Tripura (North East Zone). Respondents across 900 anganwadis between
February-July 2013 were surveyed. This included beneficiaries, non-beneficiaries and
officials involved in scheme delivery at State, district, block, and village level and from the
Departments of Health, Labour, Education, and Youth Affairs. For some specific questions
the reference period was mentioned as “last three months” or last six months which is defined
as 90 days and 180 days preceding the date of enquiry/interview respectively. Reference
period for secondary data was until December 2012 (as on 31st December 2012) and earlier,
but data received in April 2013 has been included in discussions after the study period was
extended.

Key Findings

1) Sabla has strengthened the recognition of adolescent girls as a group with distinct
needs. The scheme’s design and delivery has endeavoured to address their health,
social, economic, and psychological needs in a comprehensive manner.

2) Two years into delivery, the scheme has been stabilising, and reaching out extensively
to beneficiaries. In the studied states, nutrition is being provided largely in the form of
Take Home Ration (THR). The utilization of funds and delivery of the ration to
beneficiaries is occurring on a regular basis. The various activities under the Non-
Nutrition component have been implemented with varying extent of success and ease
across States. Health Check-ups, delivery of IFA tablets, nutrition and health
counselling and ARSH counselling, life-skills education including exposure visits
have been taking place more smoothly than activities like school mainstreaming and
vocational training.

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3) Sabla relies on convergence with multiple sectors, departments and stakeholders for
its successful delivery. The findings suggest a mixed experience thus far.
Convergence with the Department of Health has been well implemented and
coordination needs to be improved with Education, Youth Affairs, and Labour and
Employment sectors. Not all states have effectively involved NGOs; where they have,
such as in Odisha, Karnataka, Rajasthan, the scheme components are working well.

4) In terms of funds allocation, the nutrition component over the last two years has been
much larger (> 80%) than the non-nutrition component. The overall utilization trend
is efficient: in 2011-12 was 64.9 % of the fund allocated and in the following year,
78% of the allocated funds were utilized. When the utilization is segregated, better
utilisation is observed under the nutrition component than the non-nutrition
component. Whereas 67.6% and 82.2% of the nutrition component were utilized in
2011-12 and 2012-13 respectively, about half of the non-nutrition component funds
were utilized at 50.1% in 2011-12, and 44.9% funds in 2012-13. This implies that
there is a need to decentralize and foster innovations to effectively use funds in
implementing the non-nutrition component.

5) The coverage of beneficiaries under the scheme has gradually increased over the two
year of implementation of the scheme. Secondary analysis suggests that, till the end of
December 2012, the nutrition beneficiaries have reached to over 86 lakh AGs.

6) In terms of their role in ensuring awareness about the scheme, Anganwadi Workers
(AWWs) must be given due credit. The study found that 100% of the beneficiaries in
our sample were aware of the ‘nutrition’, ‘counselling’, ‘health check-ups’ and ‘life-
skills’ components of the scheme. Among non-beneficiaries interviewed, the level of
awareness was high at about 69%. Other stakeholders like Panchayat members,
parents, and representatives of community organisations were also aware of the
scheme.

7) In all states under study, excepting Bihar, steering and monitoring committees had
been formed at state, district, block and village level to ensure smooth implementation

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of the scheme. Review meetings were also reported to be held on a regular basis at all
levels.

8) Master Trainers from across states were trained for providing cascade training of the
components of the scheme at the regional centres of NIPCCD. The capacity building
exercises of field level staff are in progress. While AWWs interviewed were aware of
the scheme, about 75% of the AWWs reported that the information about the scheme
was covered in monthly and quarterly reviews. It was also reported that the training
periods were short and they required ongoing handholding and training support.

9) In terms of impact of the nutrition component, the absence of a baseline has made it
difficult to assess the scheme’s impact on the health status of the beneficiaries. In
addition, due to poor tracking of BMI at the programmatic level, and inadequate
monitoring (and reliance on self-reporting by beneficiaries) of the consumption of the
Take Home Ration, it was not possible to examine its direct impact on the nutritional
status of AGs.

10) During health assessments of AGs through the scheme, among 116 respondents who
reported being diagnosed with any medical problem, 67.2% were referred to a health
centre or a hospital for treatment. All the respondents from Maharashtra and Odisha,
who attended health camps and were diagnosed with a medical problem during their
visit, were referred to other hospitals or health camps for further treatment. Similarly,
at least 75% of the total respondents who required referrals attended health camps in
Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan (80%) and Haryana (80%) were referred to secondary care for
treatment. Bihar has not performed well with respect to providing health care
referrals to AGs. Among the problems diagnosed, 44% were anaemia or menstrual
related, followed by fever (28%) and ENT related problems (13%).

11) Most of the respondents (75%) consume their IFA tablets at home, while only 24.5%
consumed them at the AWC. Odisha (60.8%) reported the highest number complying
with the recommendation that IFA tablets be consumed at the AWC. The scheme
guidelines recommend that in order to ensure compliance, the IFA tablet should be

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taken in front of the AWW. Again, Odisha (64.5%) along with Punjab (65.6%) and
Tamil Nadu (66.2%) reported higher levels of compliance. Coverage of beneficiaries
under the IFA component in Assam was very low.

12) The study reveals that at least 48% (1612) OOSGs reported being counselled on
joining school. Among the studied states, higher number of respondents reported
being counselled to join school in Rajasthan (72%), Andhra Pradesh (66.7%), Tamil
Nadu (66%), Punjab (63.9%) and Odisha (61%). In Bihar only 12% reported
receiving any such information.

13) Around 71.6% of the respondents had ever attended counselling and information
sessions on nutrition and health education (NHE), life-skills education (LSE) and
reproductive and sexual health (ARSH) related topics.2 The highest reported
attendance was in Rajasthan (96.5%), Tamil Nadu (95.5%) and Odisha (92.1%)
among respondents. Each respondent had altogether ever attended an average of 4.1
sessions since the scheme began. Across the states, respondents ever attended an
average of 10.9 sessions in Rajasthan. In Odisha and Karnataka, the respondents
attended an average of 7 and 6 sessions respectively. Respondents in Assam have
reported the lowest number of sessions attended, with an average of 1.8 sessions.

14) A wide range of topics covered during the counselling and information sessions.
Greater proportions attended sessions on personal hygiene and sanitation and nutrition
as these were topics AWWs routinely addressed during their interactions with AGs
and pregnancy and lactating women. Personal Hygiene and sanitation, nutrition,
physical exercise, first aid and family planning were the highest attended followed by
other topics. In terms of the usefulness of the sessions, 96.4% reported that the
sessions were useful or very useful.

15) Around half (44.1%) of the eligible girls in the age-group 15-18 years had received
any information about vocational training. More than half of the eligible AGs in
Andhra Pradesh (73%), Rajasthan (70.5%), Haryana (60.7%) and Odisha (51.1%)

2
As beneficiaries perceived all these as ‘classes’ at the AWC, they responded to questions about the
components together rather than separately.

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received information on vocational training. In Assam, only about four per cent
received information about vocational training. Around 422 of the total 3358 OOSG
respondents had completed vocational training among respondents nationwide. There
were multiple reasons, outside the direct purview of this scheme that affected the
effective performance of this component. There are insufficient Vocational Training
Providers (VTPs) within a five kilometre radius at the village-level. For beneficiaries
residing in remote villages or those far away from district or blocks headquarters,
parents of AGs were less likely to allow them to attend such training. Further, while
there are nearly 230 modules identified for Sabla girls under Modular Employable
Skills (MES) of the Department of Labour, field functionaries were largely unaware
of these provisions and could not follow up on them.

16) All girls who were or had ever been appointed as the sakhi or saheli reported that they
liked being a sakhi and saheli. In terms of their roles and responsibilities, 96.4%
reported motivating others girls, while 89.4% reported helping to maintain registers
(72.6%), distribution of THR (82.1%), accompanying AWWs on home visits (77.9%),
helping to organise Kishori Divas (82.9%), and coordinating during Kishori Samooh
meetings (89.5%).

17) Many positive insights about themselves and development of a sense of confidence
could be comprehended from the girls who had been sakhis and sahelis. Around
85.2% sakhis and sahelis reported a sense of ownership of the delivery of activities
under the Sabla scheme. About 54.1% expressed a sense of leadership; 89.2%
reported that they felt they should help other girls; 89.8%% reported having learned
new things as Sakhis and Sahelis. Many (80.8%) felt they were important and
influential in their peer groups. Around 85.7% felt a sense of pride, a sense of
usefulness and purpose (87.3%), and 86.4% felt their family was proud of them.

Strengths and Barriers

Five positive findings emerged from our assessment:


1) Positive Perceptions Regarding Sabla: Government officials, beneficiaries, non-
beneficiaries, parents, community members, civil society organisations and other
stakeholders unanimously endorsed the relevance and importance of the scheme and felt that

14
if implemented effectively across the country, it would contribute greatly to creating a
healthy and empowered population of women in the future.
2) High Awareness: All beneficiaries and AWWs, parents, stakeholders, and government
officials were aware of the scheme and its different activities and provisions. Their primary
sources of information in village levels and remote areas were the AWWs who must be given
due credit for advocating the scheme.
3) Nutrition Component: The nutrition component has been implemented effectively due
to the streamlining of its delivery on pre-existing mechanism of ICDS. The nutrition
component is also an essential prerequisite to better AG health as well as a major motivation
for the AGs to visit the AWC.
4) Good Design: Key stakeholders at multiple levels have agreed and underscored that the
Scheme is comprehensively designed and covers the physical, nutritional, health,
psychological and social dimensions of adolescent development.
5) Good Convergence: Convergence in the current scenario has worked well with the
Health Department and components of the scheme such as health Check-ups, nutrition and
health education (NHE) and distribution of IFA tablets have been streamlined.

Evident Barriers:
1) Non-Nutrition Component: The implementation and service delivery of the non-
nutrition needs to be further improved. Flexibility and adaptation to local needs of
AGs is an essential feature of this component of the scheme. As convergence with the
State approved VTs have been limited in their functioning, alternative mechanisms of
engaging AGs and training them needs to be encouraged. Convergence with
Department of Education and mainstreaming of AGs back to school has been slow
across States, and uneven mainly because of socio-economic barriers and the lack of
sustained engagement and follow up with parents and AGs. Social education and
innovative approaches are required to engage AGs into formal and informal education
systems.
2) Limited capacity of Anganwadi Workers: AWWs have received only limited
sustained training and support across the states, given that Sabla is a relatively new
Scheme. They reportedly feel overburdened with multiple tasks motivating the AGs,
following up with parents, conducting NHE, Kishori meetings, Kishori Divas,
coordinating with other department functionaries, monitoring progress, organizing
counselling through NGOs and resource persons, delivering the nutrition component,
15
organizing exposure visits, in addition to their ongoing responsibilities. They also
expressed lack of motivation due to absence of any provision of incentive. This
adversely affects their morale and motivation in addition to intensifying their work
burden. In addition, a major challenge for the AWWs is that they are solely
ineffective in adequately motivating AGs to attend the AWCs regularly.
3) Limitations in the AWCs affected implementation of the scheme in several AWCs.
In urban centres like Dharwad, Ambala and Patna, the size of the AWCs were a major
constraint. One of the smallest AWC during the survey was observed in Patna Sardar-
5 is 8ft by 8ft. AWCs in Ambala were reported as not having sufficient storage
capacity for ration, for instance. Conducting Kishori meetings with 20-40 AGs,
providing space conducive for counselling classes, and activities like painting,
drawing, and drama activities, and for them to interact with one another can pose a
significant challenge in this context.
4) Monitoring of the Programme: Scheme reporting and monitoring were occurring in
a routine manner. Yet, reports such as details of AGs and their BMI were prone to
errors. Separate reporting on health referrals was not maintained, provisions for the
same could be made. Formats were considered difficult to fill and consolidate, and
delays were experienced in receiving filled formats by district and state officials.
5) Fund Adequacy: For non-nutrition components, the budgetary provisions have been
studied to be insufficient. A cost effectiveness study to assess the non nutrition
component implementation may be commissioned by the Ministry. The 3.8 lakh
rupees per year, budgeted to implement the activities under non-nutrition component
is inadequate. Moreover, Rs. 30,000 allocated for VTs is a meagre budget for
engaging paid vocational trainers, where the State government approved VTPs cannot
reach to provide services. There is a need to examine the costs of delivering various
components through involvement of private providers. One of the barriers among few
AGs is to attend training sessions without any incentive. Possibilities to provide
incentives to eligible AGs during the training period could be considered. This could
also encourage more AGs to utilize the benefits of the scheme.
6) Information on consumption of THR Component by AG is dependent on self-
reporting. There is a need for encouraging innovations in social monitoring
mechanism at the village level that could involve Sakhis and Sahelis or informal
social groups.

16
Scheme Performance

Table A: Overall Performance


Parameters Good Average Poor

Scheme Awareness regarding Sabla 


Inputs/Delivery Monitoring Committees 
Receipt and Use of Kishori Cards 
Convergence with Health 
Convergence with Labour and Employment 
Funds Utilisation Trend 
Field Capacity including Workload and
Space adequacy 

Scheme Nutrition Component Receipt 


Outputs IFA Tablets 
Health Check-ups 
Health Referrals 
VT 
Counselling Attendance 
Sakhi Saheli Training 
Coverage (NC) 
Coverage (NNC) 
Mainstreaming in Education 
Source: Based on Analysis of Secondary Data and Primary ASCI Field Survey data, 2013

In terms of overall performance, Sabla has stabilized and improved in 2012-13. Awareness
of the scheme is high, monitoring committees, use of Kishori cards, convergence with Health
Department, receipt of nutrition and IFA and conduct of health Check-ups are positive
aspects of the scheme. Fund Utilisation, Health Referrals, Counselling Attendance and
training of Sakhis and Sahelis are functioning better in 2012-13 than 2011-12 and can be
further strengthened. Vocational training in convergence with Labour Department has faced
many challenges as summarized in key findings above, including the distance of VTPs from
the villages and cultural barriers from parents not willing to send daughters to residential
training. Mainstreaming in education can be improved with sustained engagement with
OOSGs. The capacity of field functionaries in terms of handling the multiplicity of tasks,
time management skills and ability to manage the workload is a considerable problem in the
scheme delivery.

17
Table B: Overall Performance of Components across States
Graded Positions
Parameters Good Medium Poor

Nutrition Component
All 12 sample States None None
Receipt

Odisha, Punjab, Haryana,


Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Bihar Assam and Uttar
IFA Tablets
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Pradesh
Tripura and Maharashtra

Karnataka, Andhra
Punjab, Rajasthan and Tamil Odisha, Haryana and Pradesh, Bihar,
Health Check Ups
Nadu Maharashtra Tripura, Assam and
Uttar Pradesh

Health Referrals None None All 12 sample States

Odisha, Punjab,
Haryana, Rajasthan,
Andhra Pradesh,
None Tamil Nadu and
Vocational Training Bihar, Tripura,
Karnataka
Assam, Maharashtra
and Uttar Pradesh

Odisha, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka. Bihar,


Counselling Tripura
Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Assam, Maharashtra
Attendance
Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh

Sakhi-Saheli Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan,


Odisha and Uttar Tripura, Assam and
Training Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh Maharashtra
Pradesh and Bihar

Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu,


Coverage NC Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan and
None
Tripura, Assam, Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra
and Bihar

Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan,


Coverage NNC Odisha, Punjab, Assam
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Uttar Pradesh
and Maharashtra
Pradesh, Tripura and Bihar

Andhra Pradesh,
Awareness of Sabla Odisha, Haryana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Rajasthan,
Assam and Uttar
Karnataka and Tripura Bihar and Maharashtra
Pradesh

Punjab, Karnataka,
Use and Issuance of
Odisha, Haryana and Tamil Nadu Rajasthan, Andhra Bihar, Assam,
Kishori Cards
Pradesh and Tripura Maharashtra and
Uttar Pradesh
Odisha, Punjab, Haryana,
Formation of Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu,
None
Monitoring Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,
Bihar
Committees Tripura, Assam, Uttar Pradesh
and Maharashtra
Source: Based on Analysis of Secondary Data and Primary ASCI Field Survey Data, 2013

18
Scheme Coverage
 There has been a significant increase in coverage of beneficiaries in 2012-13
compared to 2011-12 in the nutrition component and non-nutrition component (except
for Vocational Training).
 States like Odisha, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra
Pradesh covered more than two-thirds or 66% of target beneficiaries in 2012-13, and
also increased their overall coverage from the preceding year. While most states were
struggling with the vocational training component, these states increased the number
of girls receiving vocational training in absolute numbers towards the last quarter of
2013 (after the reference period of December 2012). Bihar and Assam are considered
medium performers as they did not record a significant increase in coverage and their
coverage remained between 33-66% (one-third to two-third) of their target
beneficiaries over the two years.
 Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh both recorded lower than 33% increase in nutrition
coverage and 33-66% increase in absolute coverage of beneficiaries over the two
years; however, they showed no change in the vocational training component.
 As far as mainstreaming in schools is concerned, there is data insufficiency to
compare across States. Reportedly around 4214 girls were mainstreamed in Assam,
3611 in Punjab and 8000 in Rajasthan in 2011-12, while 1151 girls were
mainstreamed in Haryana.

Scheme Delivery
 Under Scheme Delivery, we found that Odisha, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil
Nadu, and Karnataka performed well on all delivery parameters except for
Convergence with Labour and Employment (Rajasthan was poor, Tamil Nadu was
good, whereas Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab, and Odisha were medium performers. In
addition, Karnataka and Punjab reported shortages in Kishori Cards until December
2012. The shortages in Kishori Cards were reported by more than 66% beneficiaries
at the time of the survey (this has subsequently been rectified at the end of 2012-13).
 All 12 states did well on improving fund utilization of funds over the two years.
 All states except for Bihar had set up Sabla Monitoring and Steering Committees at
village, block, district, and state levels and were holding meetings, particularly at the
village level. While Convergence with Health was good in these two states,
vocational training was a significant challenge.

19
 In Assam and Bihar, the awareness about Sabla was around 33%, and 60% among
non-beneficiaries respectively.
 Bihar had not set up any monitoring committees, but had extended vocational
training. Assam and Tripura had very few vocational training beneficiaries.

Scheme Outputs
 Under Scheme Outputs, we considered the experiences and responses of Sabla
beneficiaries and observations of records at the AWCs. Odisha, Punjab, Haryana,
Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh reported good performance,
while Bihar reported medium performance figures, performing poorly on health
check-ups, health referrals, vocational training, and counselling attendance.
 Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tripura and Rajasthan
faced many challenges in terms of completion of vocational training. Assam, Bihar,
Karnataka, and Maharashtra reported low figures for counselling attendance. All
states did well on Sakhi-Saheli training except for Tripura, Maharashtra and Assam.

Key Recommendations and Way Forward

Improve Coverage

 Multi-level stakeholder interactions during the study explicitly brought out that Sabla
is holistically conceived and scaling up of the scheme across all districts of India
should be contemplated. In this context it was also mentioned that Sabla is already
showing positive outcomes in terms of usefulness to the beneficiaries in its
implementation span of two years.
 The nutrition component of Sabla has an already streamlined mechanism in place and
is being implemented well in all States, whereas the non-nutrition component needs
further emphasis and improvement in implementation. The States need to foster
decentralization, flexibility and innovation in implementing the non-nutrition
components. Knowledge sharing exercises to exchange best practices in
implementation should also be encouraged.

20
Reviewing Financial Allocations
The amount of allocation for supplementary nutrition needs of AGs per day per beneficiary
may be reviewed and increased as per the restructured ICDS norms for pregnant and lactating
women.
 Considering the number of AWCs and number of beneficiaries per block, the current
budgetary provision for the non-nutrition component (Rs 3.8 lakhs per block per
annum) must be reviewed and revised upwards. This is important for the successful
delivery of diverse services under this component, including vocational training.
 The Vocational Training component is an essential activity under the scheme and
needs to be strengthened in implementation. The study reveals that in the current
scenario there is a shortage of Vocational Training Providers or VTPs coupled with
the challenge of inaccessibility and parental restrictions over their daughters’’
mobility for several days for training. Thus budgetary provisions may be made within
the Scheme for providing training at the village-level itself for AGs. The vocational
training can be opened up to organisations capable of delivering quality vocational
training.
 Most of the States have not adequately used the flexibility in utilisation of funds under
various head of non-nutrition component of the Scheme. This aspect of the scheme
should be given due importance by the Ministry by issuing instructions to the States
on a regular basis, and ensuring that information about the provisions for flexibility
under the scheme are conveyed to district level officers.
 There is inadequate space in many AWCs to carry out activities under the non-
nutrition component and gatherings for AGs under the Scheme. Budgetary provision
needs to be made for extension of AWCs for exclusive space to carry out activities for
AGs enrolled in Sabla. Till such provisions are made, provisions for hiring school
buildings or community halls to carry out activities for Sabla enrolled girls may be
explored.
Scheme Delivery and Capacity
 Campaign involving various community stakeholders and sustained motivation and
engagement with AGs to motivate them to attend AWC should be planned.
 Operational limitations such as shortages in weighing machines, involvement of
ANMs in AWC activities must be addressed.

21
 In a few blocks in the studied States, innovations in delivery are observed: for
instance, in Saharsa, the CDPO has formed procurement committees that procure the
rations for the AWCs; in Andhra Pradesh and Tripura, a combination of THR and
HCM are provided to the AGs. These and other examples may be studied further for
shared with other states for learning.
 Given that AWWs and Anganwadi Helpers (AWHs) are overburdened with various
government works in addition to their core duties, it is recommended that they should
be given additional honorarium as an incentive to implement Sabla scheme.
 AWWs, Supervisors and CDPOs need to be trained adequately for effective
implementation and monitoring.
 For effective delivery of the scheme, additional personnel who can facilitate and
support implementing officers at various levels are required. Exclusive scheme
management units at the central, state, district and block level is recommended.
Monitoring and MIS:
 As Sabla is a comprehensive scheme, it has multiple parameters that require
monitoring. The inputs from various stakeholders and delays in submission of reports
by the States/Districts suggest there is a need for digitization of monitoring of the
Scheme. There is a need to develop a Management Information System (MIS) for
tracking inputs, outputs and outcome levels of indicators which shall assist in taking
informed decisions regarding the future development of the Scheme.
Partnerships:
 A more inclusive role must be envisioned for the civil society organisations in the
delivery of the non-nutritional component. The selection of NGOs, wherever
required, for imparting training or allied services, could be done at the District level
by forming required committees at that level. This approach shall expedite the
selection as well as service delivery processes. NGOs with experience of working
with adolescent populations, women, and on education, empowerment, livelihoods
and health may be prioritised where available.
 Life-skills education and ARSH counselling needs to be delivered through specialised
resource persons.
 Consumption of Take Home Ration: While state governments are increasingly
providing THR, there has to be an intensive and sustained engagement with AGs and

22
their families through social participation to ensure that AGs get to consume the
rations. Sakhi-Sahelis could be trained to monitor this aspect of the programme.
 ANMs and Medical Officers must receive written instructions to ensure Health Check
Ups and Health Referrals of AGs.
 Mainstreaming of girls into schools needs to be reviewed, and stronger convergence
with Education Department and NGOs working on children’s education must be
ensured. Non-formal education, migrant children’s school, hostels are models that
already exist and can be used for mainstreaming out of school girls.
 Kishori Divas must be organised separately from VHND to ensure AGs receive
focussed attention from health officials and AWWs.
 Role of Sakhi-Sahelis must be expanded not only in assisting AWWs in service
delivery, but also in monitoring the scheme. While they are on village committees,
they should be capacitated to represent their interests. Training of Sakhi-Sahelis
should be monitored and tracked.
 Focus group discussions with AWWs and community members elicited that there is a
need for adolescent boys’ to also receive attention. It was suggested that a similar
scheme for adolescence boys might be initiated, which would focus on the nutrition,
health and life-skill needs of adolescent boys and in turn make them responsible and
productive citizens.

23
Chapter 1. RAJIV GANDHI SCHEME FOR EMPOWERMENT OF ADOLESCENT
GIRLS: AN INTRODUCTION

Adolescence is a phase of transition from childhood to adulthood marked by physical and


accompanying psychological changes. Addressing the curiosities, dilemmas and life
challenges that pubescent girls go through in this phase with relevant information on various
facets of life like health, nutrition, lifestyle related behaviour, employment and livelihood
opportunities alongside facilities to promote good health and nutrition can go a long way in
easing the transition to womanhood and promoting a healthy and productive lifestyle amongst
young girls and their families. Recognising this, the Central Government launched two
schemes to address the concerns of adolescent girls, especially amongst socio-economically
disadvantaged groups. Kishori Shakti Yojana (KSY) was launched in the year 2000 to
improve the health and nutrition status of AGs and to promote their overall development
especially awareness of health, nutrition, personal hygiene, family welfare and management
and to upgrade home-based and vocational skills. In 2002-03, another scheme Nutrition
Programme for Adolescent Girls (NPAG) was launched in 51 selected districts to address
under-nutrition amongst AGs. Under NPAG, every under-nourished AG was entitled to a
monthly ration of six kilograms of free food grain. The financial assistance and coverage
under both schemes was limited and both the schemes catered to more or less similar target
groups; they were therefore combined into a pilot scheme envisioned to be more
comprehensive, called Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls-Sabla
(RGSEAG-Sabla, referred to here at Sabla).

About the Scheme

Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls –Sabla aims to support the
empowerment and development of adolescent girls aged 11-18 years by making them self
reliant, improving their health and nutrition status, promoting awareness about health,
hygiene, nutrition, Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health (ARSH), family and child
care, Life-Skills Education and Vocational Training. It also aims at mainstreaming out-of-
school adolescent girls (OOSGs) into formal/non-formal education. It covers in-school
adolescent girls (ISGs) in the same age group for certain key services. The scheme is being
implemented on a pilot basis in 205 districts in all States / UTs across the country. To address
differing age-specific concerns and to provide age-appropriate attention to girls, the target
group is also divided into two different age-specific sub-groups, viz., 11-14 years and 15-18

24
years.3 Interventions on health and personal hygiene are planned differently for the two
groups.

The scheme mainly focuses on Out of School Girls (OOSG) and has a range of activities
particularly aimed at them. It intends to provide all 11-18 year old OOSGs nutritious food
under the nutrition component either as Take Home Ration (THR) or as Hot Cooked Meal
(HCM) cooked and served at the AWC. Mainstreaming OOSG into formal or non-formal
education is an outlined objective of the scheme and the scheme seeks to address this by
establishing convergence with the Department of Education. The non-nutrition component
provides all OOSG to receive IFA supplementation, Health Check-ups and Referral services,
Nutrition and Health Education Counselling/Guidance on Family Welfare, ARSH, Childcare
Practices, Life Skill Education and accessing public services. OOSGs in the 16-18 age-group
are also given Vocational Training under the National Skill Development Programme
(NSDP). A key conduit to bringing the girls together is mobilising them into groups known
as Kishori Samoohs that would assemble at the Anganwadi Centre (AWC) on a regular basis
for collective activities and counselling.

The Nutrition component of Sabla covers In-school girls (ISG) in the 14-18 age group as
younger adolescent girls are expected to be covered by the Mid Day Meal Scheme (MDMS).
Under the Non-Nutrition Component, ISGs, also meet at the AWC at least twice a month, and
more frequently (four times a month- once a week) during holidays. Both groups are meant to
receive life skills education, nutrition and health education, and awareness about socio‐legal
issues. The scheme aims to create a space to enable increased interaction between ISGs and
OOSGs so that the latter can be motivated to join school.

Objectives of the Scheme

As specified in the guidelines (p. 6), the scheme seeks to enable self-development and
empowerment of AGs; improve their health and nutritional status, increase their awareness
with regards health, hygiene, nutrition, adolescence, Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual
Health (ARSH), and family and child care and upgrade their home‐based skills, life skills and
vocational skills. It also intends to mainstream OOSGs into formal or non formal‐education;
and inform and guide them about existing public services, such as Primary Health Centre

3
P.6, Sabla Scheme Guidelines, MWCD, Government of India

25
(PHC), hospitals, Post Office, Bank, Police Station, and other key institutions in addition to
activities under life-skills education.

Target Group

The scheme focuses on all OOSGs in the age group of 11 to 18 years under all ICDS projects
in 205 districts across the country on pilot basis. It also covers ISG aged 14-18 years. To
address differing age-specific concerns and to provide age-appropriate attention to girls, the
target group is also divided into two different age-specific sub-groups, viz., 11-14 years and
15-18 years. Interventions on health and personal hygiene are planned differently for the two
groups.

A composite weighted index, using the following four criteria related to AGs, was used for
the selection of districts with different weights assigned, including Drop‐out rate of females
from school (50%); Female literacy rate (20%); Girls married before the age of 18 years
(20%); Female work participation (10%). The districts chosen (listed in Chapter Three) are a
combination of good performing, moderate and poor performing districts in all States / UTs
across the country, based on this index. This has been done to test check the success of
implementation in pilot districts before expanding the Scheme.

Services and Programme Norms

Sabla is a comprehensive scheme and its services have been grouped under two primary
components:

(a) Nutrition Component: Take Home Ration or Hot Cooked Meal for 11-14 year old
OOSGs and 14 -18 year old OOSGs and ISGs

(b) Non-Nutrition Component: 11-18 year old OOSGs are being provided IFA
supplementation, Health check-up and referral services, Nutrition & Health
Education, Counselling / Guidance on family welfare, Adolescent Reproductive
Sexual Health (ARSH), child care practices and Life Skill Education and accessing
public services. In addition, 16-18 year old AGs are also being given vocational
training. When ISGs assemble at the AWC, they also benefit from the above services.

26
Nutrition Component

Table 1.1: Nutrition Component


Service Service Provider
Nutrition Provision Rs.5 per day (600 calories and 18‐20 AWW /AWH/Peer Leader
gram of protein)
IFA supplementation ANM/AWW/Health System
Health Check‐up and Referral services ANM/ MO/AWW
Nutrition & Health Education (NHE) AWW/ANM/ASHA/MNGO
Counselling/Guidance on family welfare, child care MNGO/ANM/NRHM
practices and home management, ARSH system/AWW
Life Skill Education (LSE) and accessing public MNGO/Education officials /Youth
services (also includes efforts to mainstream into Affairs/AWW/Supervisor
formal/non formal education
Vocational training (VT) (for girls aged 16 and above) Through NSDP of Ministry of
using existing infrastructure of other Ministries Labour, Supervisor/CDPO
/Departments: NSDP
Source: Developed by ASCI Based on Scheme Guidelines, MCWD
Under Sabla, nutrition is being provided to AGs in the form of Take Home Rations (THR) or
Hot Cooked Meals (HCM) as found suitable by the State governments. If HCM is provided,
care must be taken to ensure quality standards. Each AG is eligible to receive at least 600
calories and 18‐20 grams of protein and recommended daily intake of micronutrients per day,
@ Rs 5 per day per beneficiary, for 300 days in a year. Only OOSGs 11-14 year old girls,
and both, OOSGs and ISGs girls aged 14-18 years are covered under this component. The
calorific norms for AGs are similar to the THR being provided to pregnant and lactating
mothers under ICDS Scheme, and as such the same THR can be provided. The frequency of
distribution of THR is left to the States/UTs. Energy‐dense food, like oil, groundnut, soya,
vegetables, eggs, roots and tuber, coconut, gram, milk and milk products, other locally
available healthy supplements, are to be provided. The scheme also provides for
customisation by recommending that nutrition palatable to the AGs must be provided.

27
Figure 1.1: Sabla Scheme: Operational Convergence

SERVICE PROVIDER CONVERGENCE

IFA
NRHM
Health Department
at state/ UT
IFA supplied to AWC AWC
Department of Health and OR through CDPO
Family Welfare
•School Health Programme Department of
or WCD of State/ UT
•Annual State Project
Implementation Plans (Purchase IFA)

NUTRITION HEALTH AWW Training, Demonstration and Education on Nutrition

EDUCATION
ANM/ ASHA Food and Nutrition State Government/
Board (FNB) UT
NGO
In coordination with FNB
Community Food and Mobile Food and NIN and Voluntary
Nutrition Extension Units Extension Units Organization

Health Check up
HEALTH CHECK UP AND
REFERRAL ANM/ ASHA
Medical Officer at
CDPO
local PHC
Facilitates

FAMILY WELFARE AND AWW


ARSH Department of Health
ANM/ ASHA and Family Welfare
•Reproductive and
Child Health (RCH-II)
NRHM

MNGO

MNGO Enrolment of out-of-


LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION Life Skills Education
school adolescent girls in regular schools
AND ACCESSING PUBLIC and non-formal education centres
SERVICES Education
Department Adolescent Health
EDUCATION SYSTEM Development Project
Youth of Department of
Affairs Youth Affairs and
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan
Sports
AWW Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas
•National Programme for
Adolescence Education Programme Youth and Adolescent
(where implemented) Development (NPYAD)
•Existing youth / teen clubs

Mahila Samakhya Programme

Sakshar Bharat

Vocational Training
VOCATIONAL TRAINING Ministry of Co-ordinates
Labour NSDP CDPO/ Supervisor

Source: Developed by ASCI based on Scheme Guidelines, MWCD

28
Non-Nutrition Component

There are several services under the non-nutrition component of Sabla.


IFA Supplementation: It is estimated that over 70% of girls in the age group of 10 to 19
years suffer from moderate to severe anaemia (DLHS‐RCH 2004). IFA supplementation is
considered helpful in combating anaemia and enhancing adolescent growth. RCH‐II scheme
under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has covered children (6‐10 years) and
adolescents (11‐18 years) under the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme
(NNAPP). The recently launched4 Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS) is
also an attempt to address the high anaemia rates in adolescent girls in India. Under Sabla,
State /UT Governments have established convergence with Health Department to ensure IFA
tablets reach each beneficiary. Policy guidelines regarding IFA supplementation issued by the
NRHM under the aegis of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare are to be followed. OOSGs
attending the AWC are eligible to receive two adult IFA tablets per week when they come to
the AWC for other services. In order to ensure actual consumption of the tablet, the scheme
guidelines recommend that the AGs should preferably consume the IFA tablets at the AWC
itself. In addition to the tablets, AGs receive information and counselling on food
fortification, dietary diversification, advantages of supplementation by IFA tablets and its
consumption with food for combating IFA deficiency from ANM/AWW. Depending on
arrangements within the state, the Department of Health and Family Welfare provides IFA
tablets as part of the School Health Programme or through other platforms, or the Department
of Women and Child Development procures the IFA tablets on their own or decentralises
procurement to the district authority.

Health Check‐up and Referral Services: Avoidance and delays in visiting doctors is
common amongst women and girls schooled in placing the needs of men and family over
self. Such delays and avoidance often complicate health problems that would otherwise have
yielded to simpler treatments and cures. To counteract this behavioural barrier and address
various general and reproductive and sexual health risks and problems that adolescents face
like sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, violence and injury,
nutritional, psychological and behavioural problems relating to adolescence, Sabla has a sub-
component dedicated to ensure AGs’ access to health screening and referrals. This sub-
component includes health check-ups once every three months on a dedicated day, Kishori

4
July 2013

29
Diwas in cooperation with ANM and health functionaries. AWW, assisted by Sakhis and
Sahelis, ensure recording of height, weight and BMI of AGs on Kishori Cards. Adult
weighing scales provided to AWCs under ICDS and/or in the ASHA/ANM’s kit are used for
weighing AGs. Medical officers, ANMs assist and counsel the AGs on any concerns, and in
case any specific condition is diagnosed, refer them to the District Hospital /PHC / CHC /
Maternal & Child Health (MCH) Sub–Centre.

Nutrition and Health Education (NHE): AWWs along with health functionaries like ANM
and ASHA, external resource persons, non-governmental organisations (NGOs),
representatives of Food and Nutrition Board’s (FNB) Community Food & Nutrition
Extension Units provide training, demonstration, information and education on nutrition and
health to AGs to ensure that they understand the importance and sources of nutritious food.
Sustained information and counselling are expected to transform behaviour and help break
the vicious intergenerational cycle of malnutrition. NHE sessions include discussions by
AWWs promoting healthy cooking, eating habits, balanced diet and locally available
nutritious food; sharing information about nutrient deficiency disorders, prevention,
nutritional requirements during pregnancy and lactation; promoting use of safe drinking
water and sanitation; providing information on personal hygiene, onset of puberty and related
changes; and informing about common ailments, home remedies, first aid, personal hygiene
and exercise.

Guidance on Family Welfare, ARSH, Child Care Practices and Home Management: Sabla
provides for counselling and guidance of AGs and their families to promote better healthcare,
family welfare and reproductive & sexual health, better childcare practices and improvement
of home management skills to ensure effective and sustainable behaviour change in AGs and
their families with regard to these aspects. Orientation and training modules for ARSH,
being utilized under the RCH-II scheme of NRHM, are made available to individual resource
persons or NGOs/CBOs for training on ARSH.

Life Skills Education and Accessing Public Services: Sabla also provides AGs with inputs
to build knowledge and develop healthy and positive attitudes and skills that will support
them as they cope with the demands and pressures of growing up. Issues covered in life
skills education may include confidence‐building, development of self-awareness and
self‐esteem, decision‐making ability, capacity for critical thinking, better communication
30
skills, awareness of rights and entitlements, coping with stress, responding to peer pressure,
and functional literacy. States/UTs have the option to link the life skills component of the
Sabla Scheme with similar schemes/interventions of the Department of Youth Affairs and
also explore the possibility of leveraging the schemes and financial resources of these
departments for AGs through Sabla. The confidence-building interventions include exposure
of AGs to existing public services to build their understanding on how to access and use
them.
Awareness talks and visits are being arranged in collaboration with PRI members and
Government offices including the Collectorate, NGOs, police personnel, bank officials,
Postal Department officials and health functionaries. AGs are either taken for exposure visits
to these places, or personnel from these institutions address AGs at the AWC. The learning
outcome is to access and utilize such services when needed, as opening and operating bank
accounts and post office accounts, sending telegrams, filing an FIR, accessing health services
and attending to health emergencies, learning about the panchayat system, voting and being a
part of governance, making train reservations, learning the working of government offices,
and being aware of various relevant schemes and programmes of the Government.

Mainstreaming Dropout AGs back to Schools: Motivation, information and guidance about
entry into formal and non-formal education are provided for under the scheme in
coordination with the State Department concerned with Elementary Education.

Vocational Training: In order to build a foundation for the economic empowerment of


adolescent girls and for their future, Sabla has envisioned a component on vocational
training. Skill-building is a critical input in improving girls’ employability. The Ministry of
Labour & Employment has developed a new strategic framework for skill development for
early school leavers and existing workers, especially in the unorganised sector. The Modular
Employable Skills (MES) under Skill Development Initiative Scheme (SDIS) is being used.
Various VTPs under Central Government, State Governments, Public and Private Sector and
Industrial establishments provide AGs counselling and vocational guidance, training
facilities as per norms, post-training support to trainees in getting employment, maintain data
base on trainees trained and the outcome of the training. Sabla has a flexible delivery
mechanism of training programmes (part-time, weekends, full-time, onsite/ offsite) to enable
AGs to participate in block level training programmes. In the event that AGs are not willing
to go far from their residence for training, states/UTs are required to establish convergence
31
with skill development centres (SDCs) at village levels and leverage them to optimum use to
tie up for vocational training component.

Delivery Mechanism of the Scheme

Under the scheme, the Anganwadi centre (AWC) in the village is the focal point for the
implementation. Both ISGs and OOSGs come together at the AWC to receive services and
training including life skill education, nutrition & health education, awareness about other
socio-legal issues etc. The AWC also, ideally, provides an opportunity ISGs and OOSGs to
meet and interact, possibly resulting in motivation in the latter to join school.

Sabla utilizes the platform of the Integrated Child Development Services or ICDS, the
flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child Development. The organizational
structure of ICDS consists of five different levels i.e. Central Level, State/Union Territory
Level, District Level, Block Level and Village Level. At the Central Level, the Department
of Women and Child Development is the nodal department, responsible for budgetary control
and implementation of the programme. At the State Level, the Secretary of the department
designated as the nodal department for the programme, viz., the Department of Women and
Child Development, Social Welfare, Health, Rural Development, Community Development,
Tribal Welfare or any other is responsible for the implementation of the programme within
the state. ICDS cells have been set up within these departments to monitor the programme.
O r g a n iz a t ion C h a r t
Figure 1.2: Organisation Chart

S TA T E N O D A L O FF IC E R

D IS T R IC T PR O G R A M M E O FF IC E R (DP O)/
P R OJ E C T D IR E C TO R

C H I LD D E V E LOP M EN T P R OT EC T IO N O F FI C ER
( CDP O)

S U P ER V I SO R

A N G A N W A D I W O R K E R S ( AW W )/ A N G A N W A D I
H EL P ER S (A W H)

Source: Sabla Scheme Guidelines

32
Within the state, ICDS is administratively decentralised; at the District Level, the district
officer (Collector/District Development and Programme Officer/Deputy Commissioner) is
responsible for the overall coordination and implementation of the scheme. The
administrative unit of the ICDS scheme within the districts is called an ICDS project. An
ICDS project covers a community development block in a rural area, a tribal development
block in a tribal area, and a group of slums in an urban area. Districts having five or more
ICDS projects have ICDS monitoring cells.

At the Block Level, the Child Development Project Officer (CDPO) is in overall charge of the
programme implementation and monitoring at the block level. Each block has, on an average
100 AWCs. To facilitate supervision, the block is further divided into 4-5 circles depending
upon the number of AWC; each circle has a Supervisor who monitors between 20-25 AWC
and reports to the CDPO. In large rural and tribal blocks, an Additional Child Development
Project Officer (ACDPO) is recruited to connect the supervisors and the CDPO and assist the
CDPO in day-to-day functioning and field visits.

At the Village Level, ICDS services are provided at the Anganwadi centre (AWC) located in
the village or urban slum area the programme serves. Anganwadi literally means “courtyard.”
AWC is the focal point for ICDS service delivery that normally operates daily for four hours
except Sundays and holidays. The Anganwadi worker (AWW), a woman, is the key
functionary of ICDS at the grassroots level. AWW is a voluntary worker recruited from
within the local community, and paid an honorarium per month. She is assisted by an
Anganwadi helper (AWH) who receives a monthly honorarium as well.

In order to ensure effective delivery of various components of Sabla, State/UT Governments


have the option to involve MNGOs, NGOs, CBOs and other institutions or resource persons
for the following services: Nutrition and health education; Counselling/guidance on family
welfare; Adolescent Reproductive & Sexual Health (ARSH); childcare practices, home
management and Life skills education & accessing public services, and Sakhi-Saheli training.
In case there is shortage of availability of NGOs / CBOs in any State/UT, the State
Government /UT may engage the services of Voluntary Organisations, SHGs, or credible
private providers including qualified resource persons.
33
Financial Allocations

The scheme is centrally sponsored with a matching state share (MSS) for the nutrition
component. The Government of India covers the cost of the Nutrition Component up to 50
% of the financial norms or the actual expenditure incurred, whichever is less and the entire
cost of the non-nutrition component. Certain sub-components of the scheme have fixed
allocations. For instance, Rs. 30,000 has been allocated annually towards Vocational training
while Rs. 40,000 per annum per project has been allocated for developing a Sabla kit. A
provision of Rs. 20,000/‐ per project has been made for procurement of IFA tablets in the
eventuality that the department has to procure them on their own. The DM or the District
Health Officer has to certify that IFA Tablets are not available under NRHM. If the supply of
IFA tablets is regular from Health Department, then the allocation of Rs. 20,000/‐ per Project
could be spent by the State Government on other components of the scheme, with prior
intimation to the Central Government. Under the NHE component which also included
expenditures to be made for IEC, an amount of Rs 30,000 has been allocated per project.
Similarly Rs 50,000 has been available per project to bear the cost of Life Skills Education
and Accessing Public Services. The guidelines also suggest that if two or more AWCs are
located in close proximity, they may be considered together for training to optimise
resources. The amount of Rs. 30,000/‐ per project per annum may be used for partly
compensating the fee component charged under the training programmes. Miscellaneous
expenditures like Kishori Diwas etc. have been allocated Rs 30000 per project and another Rs
30000 has been allocated to printing of Health Cards and procurement of registers and
utensils. Thus, a total amount of Rs 3.8 lakhs has been allocated per project under Sabla’s
Non- Nutrition Component.

The central government releases funds to the state government, which is received by the latter
through the Finance Department, which then releases it to the state department partially or
fully. Utilization depends entirely on the amount received, and importantly, on the timely
and untimely release of the amount by the state government to the nodal department.
Thereafter the amount is released to the districts. Allocations made towards NHE and LSE
could be utilized for providing financial support to voluntary organizations in organizing
modules including arranging exposure visits on the subject at the AWC level. Resource

34
persons available locally could also be utilized for providing this service. There is no
provision for incentives to AWW or AWH under the scheme.

Sabla thus is envisioned as a comprehensive scheme that provides a broad spectrum of


services relevant to the empowerment of adolescent girls using existing delivery mechanisms
of ICDS and through convergence with other departments including Health and Family
Welfare, Labour and Employment, Youth Affairs, and Education.

35
Chapter 2. SITUATING SABLA WITHIN PROGRAMMING FOR ADOLESCENT
GIRLS

India is home to 21.4 % of the global share of the adolescent population (National Youth
Policy 2000). Viewing adolescents5 as a group distinct from the categories of either youth or
children, deserving specific programming began in the late 1980s with formulation of
targeted programmes at national and international levels. Designing, implementing and
evaluating fruitful programmes for adolescents require the recognition of this population as
heterogeneous, with unique age-specific concerns that are multi-dimensional in nature.
Characterized by distinct physical and social changes, adolescents have separate health,
education, economic and employment needs that are distinct, and necessitate focused
attention. Adolescents from rural or socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds may
bear certain specific vulnerabilities that do not affect their urban and more advantaged peers.
While vulnerabilities like sexual abuse, risk of sexually transmitted diseases, lack of reliable
information on reproductive and sexual health affect both sexes, adolescent girls are also seen
to face specific problems like malnourishment, high prevalence of anaemia, early
engagement in labour, lack of educational and skill development opportunities, early
marriage and pregnancy and high rates of maternal mortality. This chapter offers a brief
(select) history of programming for adolescent girls in India and the attempts at providing
adequate attention to this population.

Understanding Specific Concerns of Adolescents

Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood, and is characterised by


rapid physical, biological and hormonal changes resulting in psycho-social, behavioural and
sexual maturation. Thirty per cent of India’s population (327 million individuals) is in the age
group of 10-24 years (Source: WHO, 2007). According to NFHS6, 47.3 % 20-24 year old
women in rural India are married by the age of 18 years. Of these, 2.6% were married before
they turned 13 years of age, 22.6 % were married before they were 16 years old, and 44.5%
were married when they were between 16 and 17 years old. In some states, the prevalence of
early marriage is high like Rajasthan (65.2%), Uttar Pradesh (58.6%), Madhya Pradesh
(57.3%), Jharkhand (63.2%), Chhattisgarh (55%), Bihar (69%) and Andhra Pradesh

5
Those in the age group of 10-19 years.
6
NFHS-3 (2004-05)

36
(54.8%),while in others it is low, like Himachal Pradesh (12.3%), Punjab (19.7%), and Kerala
(15.4%). Low age at marriage results in early onset of sexual and reproductive activities.
Overall, 12% of women aged between 15 and 19 years have become mothers, and four
percent of women age 15-19 are currently pregnant with their first child. This means that one
in six women aged 15-19 have begun child bearing. The percentage of women who have
begun childbearing increases sharply with age, from three percent at age 15 to 36 % at age
19. NFHS-3 also reports that the child bearing is more than twice as high in rural areas (19%)
as in urban areas (nine percent). The level of adolescent pregnancy is 9 times higher with
women with no education than among women with 12 or more years of education. The
adolescent motherhood is five times as high for women in households with the lowest wealth
index than for women in households with the highest wealth index. The proportion of
adolescent’s child bearing is highest in Jharkhand (28%), West Bengal (25 %) and Bihar
(25%).7

Seven per cent married and nine per cent unmarried girls reported current use of modern
contraceptive methods, and 60% girls in the age group 15-19 were found to be anaemic
(NFHS-3). Anaemia is a contributing cause of increased age-specific mortality among female
adolescents. In one study, among 12,447 children surveyed across 13 states in India, 50%
reported some form of sexual abuse.8 Among the 15-19 year olds, 25% of adolescents in
rural areas and 10% in urban areas are illiterate. Gender disparities persist in the education
sector despite improved school enrolment rates. Girls account for less enrolment than boys at
all stages of schooling. Rural girls are the most disadvantaged. Male–female differences
grow with each level of education. Poor educational attainment of AGs needs to be
understood in relation to variables including, inter alia, sibling care, mobility, increase in
domestic responsibilities, early marriage and pregnancy, lack of female teachers and
sanitation facilities in school. Another major challenge in educating adolescents is the high
drop-out rates, particularly amongst girls. As we go higher, dropout rates increase more
steeply for girls than for boys despite high 9 subsidies to address financial constraints, a major
variable in this case. Other reasons often cited for dropouts, especially in case of girls include
lack of interest of parents and children in studies, and participation in paid labour. Statistics

7
The adolescent fertility rate is 153 in Madhya Pradesh, 143 in Haryana, 141 in Maharashtra and comparatively
lower in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. It is only 38 in Kerala.
8
Source: Study on Child Abuse, Ministry of Women and Child Development, 2007
9
77% students are provided free education at the primary level (NSSO 1998, p22).

37
as these strengthen the need for age and gender specific interventions capable of addressing
societal and familial contexts.

Outcome-related concerns related to education such as livelihood and employment are also of
crucial importance. Lack of experience and training forms a severe hindrance for both rural
and urban youth especially girls, who are denied access to skills development opportunities
that can help them learn better wages. Such opportunities, wherever available stay mostly
restricted to their male siblings. It is important that the capacity of the education system is
enhanced to address the skill gap and increasing unemployment being caused by it with
special focus on the needs of adolescent girls who have restricted mobility due to cultural and
other reasons.

Addressing adolescents’ need for information and support services regarding reproductive
and sexual health is an area of much neglect given cultural taboos. The domain of adolescent
reproductive and sexual health (ARSH) is shrouded with several ethical, moral and practical
questions as to whether at all these services should be made available to adolescents and if
provided, what an appropriate mix would consist of. In the Indian context, early marriage,
poor health and high fertility rates among adolescent girls and the inter-generational
consequences of early assumption of reproductive roles are compelling reasons for the
development and expansion of ARSH facilities, specially designed for AGs. Studies (Mehta
1998, Jeejebhoy, 1996) show that indulgence in sexual activities during adolescence is
significant in South Asia. A report from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Country
Paper 1998) notes that nearly ten percent of adolescent girls are sexually active before
marriage. While under-reporting is expected, gender and power dynamics of age and gender
compounded by superstitious beliefs, lack of information and access to facilities, leave
adolescent girls sexually vulnerable. Parents and teachers are often inept or hesitant about
providing reliable sexual and reproductive health information. Reliance on peers is common,
but information shared among them might be misleading and inaccurate and contribute to
STD prevalence among adolescents.10

In addition to knowledge and information, adolescents also need support in critical thinking,
confidence, communication, and leadership to find their place in the world. The need for a

10
In a study among tribal girls in Maharashtra, ten percent were found to be suffering from syphilis (MoHFW
Country Paper 1998).

38
Life Skills Based Education (LSBE or LSE) came to prominence with the 1986 Ottawa
Charter for Health Promotion that viewed LSE as an essential pre-requisite to the ability to
make healthy life choices. Its importance was later stressed by the 1989 Convention on the
Rights of the Child, 1990 Jomtien Declaration on Education for All and 2000 Dakar World
Conference. LSE is now recognized as an important strategy to address a variety of child,
adolescent and youth development issues in a world where young people tend to face various
forms of socio-economic discrimination. LSE grounded in the environment and context of the
target group can support social and emotional learning, critical thinking, lateral thinking, trust
building, decision making, communication and negotiation skills, leadership skills, livelihood
related skill building and skills based health education; at the same time, it can also extend to
empowering girls with knowledge about services and positive role models and gender ideals.

Background to Programming for Adolescent Girls & Inception of Sabla

Programming for adolescents girls was initiated in the 1980s post ICPD and initial national
programmes were limited both in size and scope, touching certain aspects in isolation,
ignoring the rest. The National Nutrition Policy of 1983, identified adolescent girls as an
especially vulnerable group and sought to redress their nutritional problems, but it viewed
them primarily as wives and mothers. In the domain of education, the National Education
Policy 1986, modified in 1992, committed the state to eradicate illiteracy with special focus
on those in the age group of 15-35 years. While this policy tried to cover older adolescents,
recent programmes that seek to universalise primary education cover the younger
adolescents. A major drawback of many programmes addressed at youth or at education and
vocational training is that they do not sufficiently address the concerns and handicaps of
AGs. In 1986, Support to Training cum Employment Programme for Women (STEP) was
launched by MWCD to groups of women to train them in production, managerial and
marketing skills and enhance their earning capacity through employment-cum-income
generation programmes. The programme aimed to establish both backward and forward
linkages and help in asset formation in income generation and provide support services like
legal awareness, gender sensitization, health, education etc. STEP led to development of
valuable infrastructure like setting up of Employment and Income Generating Training cum
Production Units for Women, Construction/Expansion of Hostel building for Working
Women with a Day Care Centre, Vocational Training most of which is now part of the
Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana or SGSY that includes adolescents as part of their

39
target group. Another scheme specifically targeting the youth is Training of Rural Youth for
Self Employment (TRYSEM). However schemes such as these have not had a significant
impact on the problems of youth unemployment and economic development. A survey11
(Visaria 1997) showed that only about 48 % of beneficiaries of these schemes were employed
owing to a range of inadequacies from poor training infrastructure, unsatisfactory training
facilities and poor employment linkages. In addition, most programmes like TRYSEM
address beneficiaries who are at least 18 years old, ignoring the needs of the 15-18 year old
age group.

In terms of policy attention, the National Plan of Action on Children 1992 had a separate
section on adolescent girls and attended traditional concerns such as nutrition and health,
literacy and numeracy and the provision of home based skills but made no mention of the
empowerment of adolescent girls. It also expressed the need for appropriate measures to
increase the age of marriage. The girl child also became an international concern of this
period and the South Asia Association of Regional Co-operation (SAARC) declared 1991-
1000 as the ‘Decade of the Girl Child’ during which the problems and concerns of the girl
child were elaborately discussed with an emphasis on a holistic policy approach. The draft
Health Policy of 1999 viewed adolescent girls as a special group but limited the concern only
to nutritional health. The needs of adolescent girls’ were also conflated with those of
pregnant women and children and not seen as a distinct group with separate needs. Major
health issues such as high infant mortality rates, high fertility and maternal mortality rates
being largely related to the health, status and empowerment of adolescent girls, it is not
surprising that AGs have mostly being covered in programmes trying to address these issues.
The National Youth Policy of 2000 provides a comprehensive overview of youth issues and
concerns, and views youth as a vital resource to be nurtured for the development of the
country through their active participation of youth as primary stakeholders.

Two schemes are particularly noteworthy in this context, namely, the Lok Jumbish12 and
Mahila Samakhya13 programmes. Lok Jumbish (People’s Movement for Education for All),
launched in 1992 to effect empowerment and social change through education, used a
decentralized and multi-dimensional approach, to enhance access to education for children up

11
Visaria 1997, p 27
12
In collaboration with Swedish Government
13
In collaboration with Dutch Government

40
to 14 years by setting up innovative management structures in collaboration with local
communities and the voluntary organisations. Attention to underlying causes of gender
discrimination constituted a major component of the programme and the camp model was
used to involve women and girls and address their educational needs through their life
experiences. The Mahila Shikshan Vihar and Balika Shikshan Shivir are two Lok Jumbish
camps that covered over 3,000 adolescent girls from1997 to 1999.

The Mahila Samakhya programme was initiated in 1989 by the Department of Education,
MHRD, to create an enabling environment for women’s empowerment by facilitating
community transformation. It sought to increase the participation of women and girls in both
formal and non-formal educational institutions. The Mahila Shikshan Kendras offer a unique
learning opportunity to adolescent girls and young women, supporting them in delaying their
marriage and providing them with vocational training among other things. The programme is
effective in large parts of Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya
Pradesh, Assam and Kerala and organizes women’s groups for community mobilisation and
uses education as a tool for empowerment and social change.

The National Population Policy 2000 marked a shift from its predecessors in terms of its
breadth and depth while programming for women and gave due attention to adolescent
concerns and elaborately discussed strategic themes, and operational strategies. The policy
also repeatedly mentioned adolescents with regards access to information, nutrition,
contraceptive use, STDs and other population related issues. To meet its demographic targets
it emphasized developing a health package for adolescents and stressed on enforcement of the
Child Marriage Restraint Act. The National AIDS Policy 2000 was another crucial step
towards improving the reproductive and sexual health of adolescents by extending ARSH
facilities and services to them. In July 2013, the Government of India launched a massive
programme Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (WIFS), targeting AGs, based on
the empirical evidence that weekly supplementation of 100 mg Iron and 500µg Folic acid is
effective in decreasing prevalence of anaemia in AGs The programme provides Iron and
Folic Acid and de-worming tablets to girls free of cost, along with testing and counselling
services and intends to cover nearly 13 crore adolescent girls.

An initial foray into programming for AGs was made with the Adolescent Girls scheme in
2000. The scheme was an integral part of ICDS, in 507 selected blocks and included two sub-

41
schemes viz. Scheme-I (Girl to Girl Approach) and Scheme-II (Balika Mandal). Scheme-I
had been designed for adolescent girls in the age group of 11-15 years belonging to families
whose income level was below Rs.6, 400 per annum. Scheme-II was intended to reach to all
adolescent girls in the age group of 11-18 years irrespective of income levels of the family
but with a definite preference in the identification process to girls belonging to poor families.

This initiative taken by the Department of Women and Child Development in 1991-92 to
include 11-18 year old school dropout girls and girls deprived of school enrolment belonging
to families below poverty line (BPL) into ICDS programme in 507 blocks of the country has
been considered a significant step towards addressing adolescent health. The objectives of the
programme were to improve the nutritional and health status of the girls, to provide them the
required literacy and numeric skills through non-formal stream of education, to improve and
upgrade their home based skills as also to build awareness on health, hygiene, nutrition,
family welfare, age of marriage, and child care. Anganwadis and Mahila Mandals were
identified to achieve these objectives, with the AWC as the focal point for delivery of all the
services and building capacity of adolescents.

Under the Girl-to-Girl Approach (Sub-Scheme I), all adolescent girls in the age group of 11-
15 years belonging to families in rural areas were eligible for receiving services such as
hands-on learning experience at the Anganwadi centres for six months. Further, 12 girls are
identified per Anganwadi to receive services throughout the year. The Balika Mandal (Sub-
Scheme II) was designed for the girls in the age group of 11-18 years. In each block, ten per
cent of the Anganwadi centres implementing Scheme-I (i.e. Girl to Girl Approach) were
selected to serve as "Balika Mandals". The Balika Mandal programme was to be developed in
adherence to the interests and skills of girls and to ensure the participation of enrolled girls.
On an average, an adolescent girl participated in the activities of Balika Mandal for a period
of six months. Each Balika Mandal catered to about 40 adolescent girls in a year and the
components included learning through sharing experiences, training of vocational and agro-
based skills and household related appropriate technology, and supplementary nutrition.

The Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India also designed and
launched two schemes for development of Adolescent Girls (AGs), namely, Kishori Shakti
Yojana (KSY) and Nutrition Program for Adolescent Girls (NPAG). Kishori Shakti Yojana
(KSY) was initiated in 2000 using the infrastructure of the Integrated Child Development
Services Scheme (ICDS). The objective of this scheme was to improve the nutrition and

42
health status of Adolescent Girls (AGs) aged between 11 and 18 years, to equip them to
improve and upgrade their home-based and vocational skills, and to promote their overall
development, including awareness about their health, personal hygiene, nutrition and family
welfare and management.

KSY was launched in 2000-01 as part of the ICDS scheme. Kishori Shakti Yojana is being
implemented through Anganwadi Centres in both rural and urban areas. The scheme aims at
breaking the inter-generational lifecycle of nutritional and gender disadvantage and providing
a supportive environment for self-development by improving the nutritional and health status
of girls in the age group of 11-18 years; providing the required literacy and numeracy skills
through the non-formal stream of education. It also aims to stimulate a desire for more social
exposure and knowledge and to help them improve their decision making capabilities; train
and equip the adolescent girls to improve/ upgrade home-based and vocational skills;
promote awareness about health, hygiene, nutrition, family welfare, home management and
child care, and to take all measures to ensure delaying marriage until they have attained the
age of 18 years; enable them to gain a better understanding of their environment related
social issues and the impact on their lives; and encourage adolescent girls to initiate various
activities to be productive and useful members of the society. As per this scheme,
interventions were planned to assist adolescent girls to enhance their self-esteem and acquire
skills and knowledge. With the launch of this special intervention – Kishori Shakti Yojana, a
basket of programmatic options became available with the States and districts to selectively
intervene for the development of the adolescent girls on the basis of their own area specific
needs and requirements. Special care has been taken to involve Panchayati Raj Institutions,
NGOs and other institutions for implementation of the Scheme. A meaningful convergence
with other schemes was also explored under Kishori Shakti Yojana.

KSY remained limited to 2000 ICDS Projects, covering a total of 2.4 lakh adolescent girls. In
comparison, as per the census of 2001, the total female population in the 11-18 year age
group stands at approximately 844 lakhs. KSY impacted 56.3 lakhs AGs in 6118 projects in
2008-09 and 64 lakh AGs in 2009-10 in the projects. NPAG was initiated by Planning
Commission as a pilot project in the year 2002-03 in 51 identified districts across the country
to address the problem of under-nutrition among adolescent girls. Under the program, six
kilograms of free food grains per month were allotted to each under nourished adolescent girl
(11-19 years, weight <35 kg)). The programme was implemented by MWCD from 2005-06

43
onwards. As per Government reports, NPAG covered 30.8 lakh beneficiaries in 2008-09 and
24.27 lakh beneficiaries in 2009-10. Although the two schemes have performed well, there
were limitations in the way of their making the desired impact on health and nutrition status
of adolescent girls.

Another scheme addressed at the health of adolescent girls was the Adolescent Girls Anaemia
Control Programme. The programme was effective in reducing the prevalence and severity
of anaemia among adolescent girls. The success of the scheme showed that it was possible to
scale up its reach and coverage with state government funds; importantly, the programme
contributed to drawing attention to policy formulation and programme design for adolescent
girls in India. By the end of 2011, the Adolescent Girls Anaemia Control Programme was
being rolled out state wide in 13 states (Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Gujarat,
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and
West Bengal) using schools, anganwadi centres and SABLA as the delivery platforms. The
programme was reaching 27.6 million adolescent girls of whom 16.3 million school-going
girls and 11.3 million out-of-school girls. This represented a nearly two-fold increase in the
number of girls reached by the programme (from 14.5 to 27.6 million). Particularly important
was the 2.6 fold increase in the number of out-of-school girls reached (from 4.4 to 11.3
million).14

Initiatives in programming for adolescent girls have also been taken at the state level that
include various kinds of transfers such as the Mukhya Mantri Balika Bicycle Yojana in Bihar,
Gujarat, and other states, and the Ladli scheme in Delhi and Madhya Pradesh, among others.
These schemes are along the lines of the Dhanalakshmi Scheme of Government of India,
introduced to incentivize the birth of the Girl Child. Dhanalakshmi was launched on a pilot
basis, on 3rd March, 2008 in 11 educationally backward blocks selected from seven States
including Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and
Punjab. A financial assistance of Rs.5,000 is given to girls and their families for the birth of a
girl child and its registration with the state. The scheme covers girls born after the cut-off
date of 19th November 2008. In the year 2009-10, an amount of Rs 10 crores was disbursed
under the scheme. The Bhagyalakshmi Scheme is similar to the above schemes but has
provisions to directly benefit the girl through her adolescence in Karnataka. Launched in
2006-07, in partnership with the Life Insurance Corporation of India, to promote the status
14
Source: 14. Adolescent Anaemia Control Programme: UNICEF. The report also contains lessons learnt and
costing of anaemia control.

44
and birth of a girl child in economically weaker families within the family and society, the
scheme provides financial assistance to the girl child through her mother/father/natural
guardian subject to certain conditionalities.

Haryana Integrated Women’s Empowerment and Development Scheme, developed in


collaboration with UNFPA, is a comprehensive and multi-dimensional programme for
women’s (and girls’) empowerment and education. The scheme has a specific component for
adolescent girls that imparts them Life Skills Education and information on basic health,
sanitation, reproductive health and women’s rights. The programme is now in its second
phase of implementation and provisions are being made under the scheme to take initiatives
for both adolescent girls and boys. The life skills development programme for adolescent
girls is directed towards girls in the age group of 12-18 years who have never been to school
or are school dropouts. It enables them to achieve their self-development and encourages
them to join Jagriti Mandalis (women’s groups) once they are 18 years. Short duration camps
of 2-3 days are conducted for adolescent boys to educate them with appropriate family life
education and sensitise them to gender issues.

In 2011, to build on the successful elements of the KSY and NPAG in particular, and address
their gaps and limitations, the Government of India launched a comprehensive scheme for
adolescent girls called the Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for the Empowerment of Adolescent Girls
(RGSEAG). The scheme has come to be popularly referred to as Sabla. In its initial phase,
Sabla was designed to be implemented in 205 districts across the country (about one-third of
the districts in India) through the ICDS programme platform. Sabla aims at empowering
adolescent girls by improving their nutritional and health status, mainstreaming them in
education, and building their life skills through counselling, capacity and perspective
development.

Sabla addresses important concerns of an adolescent life under two components Nutrition and
Non-Nutrition. Under Nutrition component, nutritious food is made available to the
AGs15either as Hot Cooked Meal (HCM) or as Take Home Ration (THR) through the AWCs.
Under the Non-Nutrition component, girls are provided regular health Check-ups and given
IFA supplementation. They are also divided into peer groups and given LSE through
specially designed kits. The peer group sessions also attempt mainstreaming of girls by

15
Food is provided to all girls in the age group of 15-18 and only to OOSGs in the 11-14 category under Sabla.
In-school girls in the 11-14 age group are covered by the MDMS.

45
encouraging them to join school or under non-formal education and vocational training. This
component draws from KSY which had been launched by the WCD to address the needs of
self development, nutrition and health status, literacy and numerical skills, vocational skills
among Adolescent Girls of 11 to 18 years age group. Through a comprehensive design and
approach Sabla addresses the physical, psychological, social, educational, and economic
empowerment needs of adolescent girls.

46
Chapter 3. STUDY METHODOLOGY

Objectives of the Study

The present study seeks to evaluate the Sabla Scheme by:

1. Assessing the scheme from the perspective of:-functioning of the scheme and all its
components including Nutrition component; Non Nutrition component; administrative
component; flow of funds; training component; publicity component; AGs being
serviced through the scheme; role of government officials (State level, district level,
block level and village-level) their response towards the scheme; non-beneficiaries;
and other stakeholders including families of the AGs and PRI members, Community
leaders of the village

2. Assessing the strengths of the scheme and barriers against the scheme

3. Providing a ‘way forward’ for the scheme

Approach and Methodology

The evaluation was to be carried out within a short time frame and with a national scope, and
hence was utilisation-focused and looked at those aspects with a direct bearing on learning
about these factors. In the absence of baseline, and given the short span since programme
implementation, and the short study timeline, the impact questions from the beneficiary
perspective could not be fully investigated such as nutritional impacts or behavioural and
change in practices. Empowerment is a long-term process of change, and may not be
captured in the short term; the process of empowerment is as important as its outcome. The
evaluation relied on a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods for optimal insight into
processes as well as interim outputs. The approach to the assignment has been to carry out an
evaluation that looks at inputs of the scheme, expected outputs and a focus on delivery and
process. The programme theory is represented in the figure below (Figure 3.1).

Theory of Change of Sabla

The evaluation was guided by the theory of change of the programme which suggests how a
particular set of activities and inputs might influence and bring about change. Given the

47
reality that no theory can account for every single dimension, there ought to be ample room
for accommodating and analyzing unintended changes and consequences. Having said that,
there is also a great value in developing a scheme’s theory of change at the evaluation stage
because it helps to unpack and lay bare the set of assumptions about the relationships
between inputs and expected results. Sabla aims at all-round development of adolescent girls
of 11-18 years (with a focus on all out-of-school AGs) by making them ‘self-reliant’ by
improving their health and nutrition status. In addition to improving the health and nutrition
status of AGs, the scheme is expected to bring about the change in knowledge, attitude and
practices amongst the beneficiaries, their families and other stakeholders.

Sabla’s theory of change links nutritional and non-nutritional life-skills and awareness
building components as complementary inputs that will strengthen the physical,
psychological, and social aspects of adolescent girls. Girls who are out of school are
particularly vulnerable to isolation, low confidence, and lack of skills. Even those who are in
school, find adolescence an extremely socially and psychologically confusing and
contradictory life-stage. Indeed, Adolescents as an age group usually tend to be subsumed
under the categories of either youth or children. The formulation of definitions clearly
demarcating the age and characteristics of adolescents is only a recent phenomenon, and yet
to be widely recognised across the world. WHO defines adolescence both in terms of age
(spanning the ages between 10 and 19 years) and in terms of a phase of life marked by special
attributes that include rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and
psychological maturity, but not all at the same time; sexual maturity and the onset of sexual
activity; Experimentation; Development of adult mental processes; and adult identity;
Transition from total socio-economic dependence to relative independence

Sabla seeks to directly address adolescent girls as a group and address various dimensions of
their vulnerability through a multi-pronged approach.

48
Figure 3.1: SABLA Scheme Components

Coverage and Reference Period

The study covered 12 states selected zonally by a frame provided in the Terms of Reference.
Field work including beneficiary and non-beneficiary survey, focus group discussions
(FGDs), key informant interviews in the field and over phone and paper questionnaires to
departments for secondary information were also carried out between February and June
2013. Contact was maintained with state officials and key informants throughout the study
period to conduct interviews and to follow up on information formats that had been sent from
them over the study period. For some specific questions the reference period was mentioned
as “last three months” or last six months which is defined as 90 days and 180 days preceding
the date of enquiry/interview respectively. Reference period for secondary data was until
December 2012 (as on 31st December 2012) and earlier. However, additional data received
from state governments covering April 2013 has been included to make the document up to
date, and to illustrate improvements and trends.

Sabla has been introduced in 205 districts from all States/UTs across the country. These 205
districts comprise of nearly 2300 ICDS projects across the country. A suggestive
methodology for the study was provided in the Terms of Reference given by the Ministry. A

49
modified version of the same was adopted on ASCI’s understanding of the scope and
considering the limitations of time.

The evaluation was designed to be conducted in 12 States distributed across the five regions
(at least 2 from each) of the country. The selection of states was based on the pilot districts
and states where the scheme has been implemented. 12 states were to be chosen with at least
two states representing each of five zones: East, North, North East, West, and South.16 Out
of 12 identified states, 15 districts were to be selected as per the terms of reference. All the
pilot districts had been categorized into three types in the RfP document – Good performing,
Poor performing, and Medium performing. It was required to select districts on the basis of
covering at least 2 per performance category. The decision on specific districts was
discussed with the Ministry. A total of 9222 beneficiaries were surveyed across 900
Anganwadis as in the ToR, and a total of 630 non-beneficiaries were queried across the
states.

Table 3.1 : List of Districts where the SABLA Scheme is piloted


# Name of the State Name of the District # Projects Grade
1 A & N ISLANDS 1 Andamans 5
2 ANDHRA PRADESH 2 Mahbubnagar 19 W
3 Adilabad 15 W
4 Anantapur 17 M
5 Visakhapatnam 22 M
6 Chittoor 21 G
7 West Godavari 18 G
8 Hyderabad 5 G
3 ARUNACHAL PRADESH 9 Papum Pare 8 W
10 Lohit 4 M
11 West Kameng 5 M
12 West Siang 6 G
4 ASSAM 13 Dhubri 14 W
14 Darrang 9 W
15 Hailakandi 5 W
16 Kokrajhar 4 M
17 Karbi Anglong 11 M
18 Dibrugarh 8 G
19 Kamrup 17 G
20 Jorhat 9 G
5 BIHAR 21 Katihar 15 W
22 Vaishali 16 W
23 Paschim Champaran 17 W
24 Banka 10 W
25 Gaya 25 M
26 Saharsa 7 M
27 Krishnaganj 7 M
28 Patna 23 M

16
As per RfP. Although we had initially considered central zone, we finalized states based on the zones
required as per the RfP.

50
# Name of the State Name of the District # Projects Grade
29 Buxar 10 G
30 Sitamarhi 17 G
31 Mungar 9 G
32 Aurangbad 11 G
6 CHANDIGARH 33 Chandigarh 3
7 CHHATTISGARH 34 Surguja 20 W
35 Bastar 13 M
36 Raipur 18 M
37 Rajgarh 10 G
38 Rajnandgaon 11 G
8 DADRA & NAGAR HAVELI 39 Dadar and Nagar Haveli 2
9 DAMAN & DIU 40 Diu 1
41 Daman 1
10 DELHI 42 North west 18 W
43 North east 8 M
44 East 4 G
11 GOA 45 North Goa 6
46 South Goa 5
12 GUJARAT 47 BanasKantha 18 W
48 Dohad 19 W
49 Kachchh 12 W
50 PanchMahals 16 W
51 Narmada 6 W
52 Ahmadabad 23 M
53 Jamnagar 13 M
54 Junagadh 18 G
55 Navsari 9 G
13 HARYANA 56 Kaithal 7 W 7 W
57 Hisar 10 W
58 Yamunanagar 7 M
59 Ambala 7 M
60 Rewari 6 G
61 Rohtak 6 G
14 HIMACHAL PRADESH 62 Chambal 7 W
63 Kullu 5 M
64 Solan 5 M
65 Kangra 14 G
15 JAMMU & KASHMIR 66 Anantnag 9 W
67 Kupwara 11 M
68 Kathua 9 M
69 Jammu 13 G
70 Leh (Ladakh) 6 G
16 JHARKHAND 71 Giridih 13 W
72 Sahibganj 13 W
73 Garhwa 8 M
74 Hazaribagh 30 M
75 Gumla 18 M
76 PashchimiSinghbhum 15 G
77 Ranchi 22 G
17 KARNATAKA 78 Gulbarga 11 W
79 Kolar 5 W
80 Bangalore 11 W
81 Bijapur 5 M
82 Bellary 8 M

51
# Name of the State Name of the District # Projects Grade
83 Dharwad 7 M
84 Chikmagalur 7 G
85 Uttara Kannada 11 G
86 Kodagu 3 G
18 KERALA 87 Malappuram 15 W
88 Palakkad 13 W
89 Kollam 14 M
90 Idukki 8 G
19 LAKSHADWEEP 91 Lakshadweep 1
20 MADHYA PRADESH 92 Sheopur 6 W
93 Rajgarh 10 W
94 Siddi 7 W
95 Nimpuch 6 W
96 Jhabua 6 W
97 Tikamgarh 8 M
98 Rewa 15 M
99 Bhind 10 M
100 Damosh 8 M
101 Indore 15 M
102 Sagar 16 G
103 Jabalpur 13 G
104 Bhopal 10 G
105 Betul 12 G
106 Balagat 11 G
21 MAHARASHTRA 107 Bid 13 W
108 Nanded 19 W
109 Mumbai 33 W
110 Nashik 29 M
111 Gadchiroli 12 M
112 Buldana 15 M
113 Kolhapur 15 M
114 Satara 19 G
115 Amravati 17 G
116 Nagpur 19 G
117 Gondiya 10 G
22 MANIPUR 118 Chandel 4 W
119 Senapati 5 M
120 Imphal west 2 G
23 MEGHALAYA 121 West Garo hills 8 W
122 South Garo Hills 4 M
123 East khasi hills 5 G
24 MIZORAM 124 Lunglei 4 W
125 Saiha 2 M
126 Aizwal 6 G
25 NAGALAND 127 Mon 6 W
128 Tuensang 8 M
129 Kohima 5 G
26 ODISHA 130 Koraput 15 W
131 Gajapati 7 W
132 Mayurbhanj 26 W
133 Sundargarh 19 M
134 Kalahandi 14 M
135 Bhadrak 7 M
136 Puri 11 G

52
# Name of the State Name of the District # Projects Grade
137 Cuttak 15 G
138 Bargarh 13 G
27 PONDICHERRY 139 Karaikal 2 W
28 PUNJAB 140 Patiala 9 W
141 Faridkot 3 W
142 Gurdaspur 16 W
143 Mansa 5 M
144 Jalandhar 11 G
145 Hoshiarpur 10 G
29 RAJASTHAN 146 Bhilwara 12 W
147 Jodhpur 11 W
148 Banswara 9 W
149 Udaipur 14 M
150 Jhalawar 7 M
151 Dungarpur 8 M
152 Bikaner 8 M
153 Jaipur 6 G
154 Barmer 16 G
155 Ganganagar 9 G
30 SIKKIM 156 North 3 G
157 East 5 G
31 TAMIL NADU 158 Salem 22 W
159 Tiruvannamalai 19 W
160 Cuddalore 14 W
161 Ramanathapuram 11 M
162 Madurai 17 M
163 Tiruchirappalli 16 M
164 Coimbatore 18 G
165 Chennai 12 G
166 Kanniyakumari 10 G
32 TRIPURA 167 West Tripura 22 W
168 Dhalai 6 M
33 UTTAR PRADESH 169 Shrawasti 6 W 6 W
170 Bahraich 15 W
171 Mahrajganj 13 W
172 Lalitpur 7 W
173 Agra 16 W
174 Sonbhadra 6 W
175 Sitapur 20 W
176 Mirzapur 14 M
177 Chandauli 10 M
178 Deoria 17 M
179 ChattrapatiShahu jiMaharaj 24 M
Nagar
180 Mahoba 5 M
181 Pilibhit 8 M
182 Rae bareli 22 M
183 Banda 9 M
184 Farrukhabad 8 G
185 Bulandshahar 17 G
186 Saharanpur 12 G
187 Jalaun 10 G
188 Bijnor 13 G
189 Lucknow 10 G

53
# Name of the State Name of the District # Projects Grade
190 Chitrakoot 6 G
34 UTTARAKHAND 191 Hardwar 7 W
192 Uttarkashi 6 M
193 Chamoli 9 M
194 Nainital 9 G
35 WEST BENGAL 195 Maldah 16 W
196 Puruliya 21 W
197 Nadia 18 M
198 Koch bihar 12 M
199 Jalpaiguri 15 G
200 Kolkata 12 G
Total 200 2270
Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, GoI

The following states and districts were chosen for the study:

Table 3.2: Zone wise Selection of States & Districts for SABLA Evaluation Study
Zone State Good Medium Poor
North Uttar Pradesh Lalitpur
Haryana Ambala
Punjab Hoshiarpur
East Bihar Patna
Odisha Baigarh Gajapati
West Maharashtra Amravati
Rajasthan Udaipur Bhilwara
South Karnataka Dharwad
Andhra Pradesh W. Godavari
Tamil Nadu Cuddalore
North-East Assam Kamrup Darrang
Tripura Dhalai
Total 12 States 5 Districts 5 Districts 5 Districts

The mixed methods approach adopted in the study included a range of activities.

Feedback from Beneficiaries and Other Key Stakeholders: Response to inputs, receipt of
services, perceptions of quality and satisfaction, and changes in knowledge or other
parameters among beneficiaries is, in any evaluation, the best way to assess whether desired
outcomes of a programme are actually being achieved. In this study, 9222 beneficiaries were
surveyed. In addition, other stakeholders such as non-beneficiaries (630), community

54
members were also interviewed. Five elected representatives were invited to a multi-
stakeholder discussion. Ten FGDs were conducted with beneficiaries and community.

Interviews with Supply Side Functionaries and Officials: The study included key informant
interviews with supply side stakeholders to identify constraints of the programme and provide
feedback to improve processes and outcomes. 300 Key informants including Anganwadi
workers and supervisors, 12 district level officers, and 12 state level officers were
interviewed. Between submissions of draft reports, we were in touch with the state and
district officials to verify and receive accurate information or clarify details as necessary. 30
Focus group discussions with parents, community members, beneficiaries and non-
beneficiaries were conducted.

Various investigation tools were developed including beneficiary field survey questionnaires,
FGD guides for beneficiaries, community members including panchayat members, families,
and other stakeholders, and key informant interview questionnaires for supply side
stakeholders. These tools were piloted for field testing and refined by the evaluation team.
Formats were also designed to receive state level data on beneficiaries, fund releases, fund
utilisation, scheme implementation and delivery. Tools once approved by the Research
Advisory Committee (RAC) of the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of
India, were shared with the agency for translation.

Subsequently, the survey was sourced out to an agency, Sigma Research and Consulting Pvt.
Ltd. with national presence and a proven track record of work in national field surveys
collection, and presence of staff with knowledge of most of the languages in the states
covered. Once the study instruments had been prepared and approved by the Ministry (12th
February, 2013), they were translated into local languages. In order to ensure quality and
training, a manual containing guidelines and instructions involved in field work was prepared
and provided to all concerned for ready reference. In addition, an extensive training-of-
trainers was planned with field executives and subsequently, with field investigators on a
regional basis, and carried out during the second half of February. Multiple training-of-
trainer exercises with field executives and subsequently, training workshops with field level
investigators were conducted with field executives and field teams where they were briefed
on the purpose of the survey. All questionnaires were discussed in detail with the teams.

55
The next stage involved field survey in districts selected by various field survey teams and
administration of questionnaires to various respondents. This was planned to be carried out
between the end of February and March 2013. Eight field teams were deployed across the
states. However, unexpected delays were caused by field level conditions. Once the study
instruments had been prepared and approved by the Ministry (12th February, 2013), they
were translated into local languages. The field work was delayed in Tripura due to elections
and involvement of local officials in the election process. This was subsequently carried out
in April 2013. There was also a delay in cleaning and processing of data from all states;
complete cleaned data was received in July 2013 for all states. Formats and queries sent to
state governments for financial, beneficiary, and monitoring and programme data were also
received in June-July, 2013, and were utilised in the drafting of the report. Data analysis of
secondary and primary was undertaken by ASCI.

The fieldwork phase included field survey with beneficiaries conducted largely at
anganwadis or in a school hall, FGDs with beneficiaries and with community members and
key informant interviews with officials, staff, and others. We also surveyed non-beneficiaries
at the AWCs and conducted key informant interviews with AWWs, CDPOs, DPOs,
Supervisors, Health Officials, Education officials, and labour department officials. These
were subject to the availability of the functionaries and the information available with them.
Some responses were not detailed or satisfactory, and process related questions could not be
satisfactorily answered because of low and inadequate and untimely responses. To this extent,
the diagnostic analyses of observed phenomena in the study are inadequate. FGDs with
beneficiaries, families, and community members were conducted in Lalitpur (Uttar Pradesh),
Patna (Bihar), Hoshiarpur (Punjab), Aravati (Maharashtra), Udaipur (Rajasthan), Bhilwara
(Rajasthan), Dharwad (Karnataka), West Godavari (Andhra Pradesh), and Kamrup (Assam).

Study Instruments and Analyses: Both qualitative and quantitative instruments were
developed and used including quantitative survey, semi-structured, and unstructured
qualitative interviews schedules, and FGD Guides. Interview schedules for Key Informant
Interviews (KII) including Anganwadi Workers (AWWs), Child Development Program
Officers (CDPO), Supervisors, and State Nodal officers, Panchayat members (PRI), and
health, education, labour department were also developed. Open-ended questionnaires were
used for other stakeholders. Close- ended survey instruments, and semi- and unstructured
interview schedules were developed for beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Responses to

56
the qualitative questions and FGDs were used to complement the survey findings by
providing explanations. Some process related questions could not be satisfactorily answered
because of incomplete and untimely responses, and in some cases, non-response. These were
properly factored in the analysis. Means, standard deviation and percentages were calculated
for the results using SPSS and Stata. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the
correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Statistical results were considered to be
significant at p = 0.05.

Secondary Literature and Data Analysis: Data from secondary sources has also been included
to develop a clearer picture. These included data collected regularly through the programme
reporting mechanism such as Monthly Progress Reports (MPRs), Quarterly Progress Reports
(QPRs) and Annual Progress Reports (APRs) from 2011-12. However, all the monitoring
reports for all anganwadis were not made available for the same period of time by all the
states and districts. In addition to these sources, formats were sent to the states to get
information. These were used to describe the delivery of the scheme in the report.

In the initial phase of the evaluation, a review of literature, consultations with officials and
contact with state governments was undertaken for the purpose of identifying study sites.
State and district level information was obtained from state governments after many attempts
and communications. We also requested MWCD for letters and interventions on our behalf.
There were some many delays in receiving contact information of CDPOs and AWWs in
many states. A significant amount of time was spent liaising with state officials to obtain
contact information of District Officials, and subsequently liaised with district officials to
obtain lists of Anganwadi Centres (AWCs), and contact numbers of Anganwadi Workers
(AWWs).

57
Chapter 4. COVERAGE OF BENEFICIARIES

Sabla aims at covering adolescent girls in the age group of 11 to 18 years under all
ICDS projects across 205 districts in the country. The target group has been categorised in
terms of age and schooling status. To capture and address the diverse needs of early and late
adolescence the scheme recognizes beneficiaries in two age-related categories, viz. 11‐14
years and 15‐18 years. Interventions on health and personal hygiene, ARSH are meant to be
planned such that the older age group receives ARSH, family welfare and childcare
counselling. The scheme also focuses on all Out‐of‐School AGs (OOSGs) aged 11 to 18
years, and In School Girls (ISG) in the 14-18 age group.

The coverage of beneficiaries over the period of two years has shown a steady, if gradual,
increase. Coverage may be viewed in terms of Sabla’s nutrition and non-nutrition
components. As described in earlier chapters, the scheme provides nutrition to beneficiaries
in the form of Take Home Ration (THR) or Hot Cooked Meal (HCM), while the non-
nutrition component comprises of six different services or sub-components. Under the Non-
nutrition services, OOSGs are entitled to receive life skills education including exposure to
public services, nutrition and health education, awareness about socio‐legal issues, health
check-ups and so on.

Coverage of Beneficiaries

Nutrition Component

In terms of coverage, the nutrition component was low in 2010-11, covering only 44.4 lakhs
across the country, but increased by 127.6% to 1.01 crore the following year, and at the end
of December 2012, had reached 86 lakh girls and 1.13 crores by April 2013.

Table 4.1: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition)


Year Target Beneficiaries
Covered
2010-11 118,79,770 44.4 lakhs
2011-12 118,96,408 1.01 crores
2012-13 (December 2012) 101,70,443 86 lakhs
2012-13 (April 2013) 101,70,443 1.13 crores

58
Non-Nutrition Component

In terms of non-nutrition services, Health Check Ups and Referrals, NHE, IFA distribution,
and Family Welfare and ARSH counselling covered the highest number of girls. These
services are delivered in convergence with the health system. Life-Skills Education and
Accessing Public Services saw the largest increases as the scheme stabilised into its second
full year of implementation. Vocational training and mainstreaming have been slow and
lowest in terms of coverage. Mainstreaming coverage in 2012-13 appears to have fallen, but
it might pick up in last quarter of the year.
Table 4.2: Beneficiary Coverage (Non- Nutrition)
Non-Nutrition 2011-12 2012-13 Difference % Difference
Component
Health Check-up 52,58,119 53,58,041 99,922 1.9%
& Referrals
Nutrition & 48,83,679 54,55,789 5,72,110 11.7%
Health Education
(NHE)
IFA 39,56,376 49,22,892 9,66,516 24.4%
Family Welfare, 35,92,506 48,11,264 12,18,758 33.9%
ARSH & Child
Care Practices
Life Skill 15,14,490 52,82,509 37,68,019 248.8%
Education
Accessing Public 7,41,594 22,63,144 15,21,550 205.2%
Services
Vocational 1,51,875 2,48,145 9,6270 63.4%
Training
(16 - 18 years)
Mainstreaming 68,425 18,227 -50198 -73.4%
into School
System
Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Nutrition Component Coverage: Performance of States

In terms of coverage across the states, higher numbers are seen in larger states with larger
numbers of pilot districts and population to be covered such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya

59
Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan, while smaller states and UTs
had lower target number of beneficiaries to be covered. Compared to 2011-12, all states
showed a healthy and good trend of covering beneficiaries except for Uttarakhand. Some
states like Mizoram exceeded their targets and would need to revise their targets. Indeed,
overall, the coverage for 2012-13 is higher than the target.

Table 4.3: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition) - All States


Name of State Target (no. of Actual number of Target (no. of Actual number
beneficiaries) beneficiaries beneficiaries) of beneficiaries
(2011-12) covered (2012-13) covered
(2011-12) (2012-13 As
on. April 2013)
Uttar Pradesh 1982432 1934000 1934000 1934000
Bihar 1305200 1305200 1602769 1305200
Gujarat 565654 573482 1299308
Madhya Pradesh 1007594 800758 1007594 892666
Maharashtra 950379 793042 NA 742226
Odisha 571114 571114 627265
Andhra Pradesh 809973 618975 626487 620533
Rajasthan 802487 656733 796067 613212
Karnataka 424454 432227 439711 460774
Tamil Nadu 396589 368694 382050 396589
Assam 385276 385276 385276 385276
Chattisgarh 356750 0 354582 373906
Jharkhand 357177 357177 423283 292190
West Bengal 688036 75422 688036 291484
Kerala 300016 442321 439711 238661
Punjab 205921 152615 201939 205163
Haryana 166278 78341 149942 145512
Delhi 8830 130205 187020 129202
Himachal Pradesh 90016 90016 98571 99205
Tripura 107161 54933 107161 81542
Jammu & Kashmir 98676 92186 65549 47509
Meghalaya 47105 47105 48404 47105
Nagaland 19804 28387 19804 35000
Manipur 33644 33647 NA 34092
Goa 30470 34556 32000 32470
Mizoram 14782 14781 16879 21709
A & N island 8830 9424 10374 9500
Arunachal Pradesh 7030 14226 7695 8200
Sikkim 9116 9116 9888 7306
Pondicherry 4566 4449 5074 4480
Daman & Diu 5650 2166 1213 2209

60
Name of State Target (no. of Actual number of Target (no. of Actual number
beneficiaries) beneficiaries beneficiaries) of beneficiaries
(2011-12) covered (2012-13) covered
(2011-12) (2012-13 As
on. April 2013)
Chandigarh 11488 1291 1764 2033
Uttarakhand 118663 0 127600 0
D & N Haveli 3371 NA NA
Lakshadweep 1876 NA NA
TOTAL 11896408 10111865 10170443 11385527
Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

The nutrition component of the scheme has been stabilising over the last two years of
implementation in the sample states as well.

Table 4.4: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition) - Sample States


Actual number Actual number of % change in % of target %
of beneficiaries beneficiaries beneficiary beneficiary beneficiary
covered in covered (2012- coverage covered in covered in
2011-12 13) 2011-12 2011-12
Name of State

Uttar Pradesh 1934000 1934000 0 97.6 100


Bihar 1305200 1305200 0 100.0 81.4
Maharashtra 793042 742226 -6.4 83.4 NA
Odisha 571114 627265 9.8 100.0 NA
Andhra Pradesh 618975 620533 0.3 76.4 99.0
Rajasthan 656733 613212 -6.6 81.8 77.0
Karnataka 432227 460774 6.6 101.8 104.8
Tamil Nadu 368694 396589 7.6 93.0 103.8
Assam 385276 385276 0 100.0 100
Punjab 152615 205163 34.4 74.1 101.6
Haryana 78341 145512 85.7 47.1 97
Tripura 54933 81542 48.4 51.3 76.1
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

Maharashtra and Odisha did not report their target beneficiaries under Nutrition Component
for 2012-13. Maharashtra and Rajasthan are the only states that recorded a decrease in
beneficiary coverage among the states covered under the study. 17 However, this could have
changed over the fourth quarter as our reference period for secondary data was until

17
. In Maharashtra, this component is under stay since January 2013 due to Supreme Court order, however, the
state covered over 7 lakh beneficiaries under Sabla’s Nutrition Component.

61
December 2012. All other states recorded an increase in coverage. Over 13 lakhs girls are
being covered in Bihar, over six lakhs are being covered in Andhra Pradesh and a little less
than four lakh girls are being covered in Assam. Haryana and Tripura had one of the lowest
coverage in 2011-12 but while Haryana increased its coverage by 85.7%, in Tripura the
increase has only been a little less than 50%. Subsequent chapters look at these variations in
greater detail.

Non- Nutrition Component Coverage: Performance of States

The non-nutrition component of Sabla comprises several components including IFA


Distribution; Health Check up and Referrals; Nutrition and Health Education (Counselling);
Family Welfare and Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health (Counselling); Life Skills
Education (Counselling and Activities); Accessing Public Services (Exposure Visits);
Mainstreaming OOSGs into Schools; and Vocational Training.

Coverage of beneficiaries for IFA tablets distribution is done through the institutions related
to the Department of Health, and across the states has been good in terms of coverage of
overall numbers. Some states like Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Uttarakhand have not reported on
the component.

62
Table 4.5: Beneficiary Coverage (IFA Tablets): All States
IFA 2011-12 IFA (2012-13)
Name of the State Target (no. of Number of Target (no. of Number of
beneficiaries) beneficiaries covered beneficiaries) beneficiaries covered

Odisha NA 571114 NA 960851


Bihar 765131 277025 2376922 680182
Rajasthan 904825 508606 1112746 549683
Gujarat NA 247474 NA 460393
Tamil Nadu NA 454227 454227 454227
Andhra Pradesh 626487 279089 1115972 446664
Uttar Pradesh NA NA NA 256624
Madhya Pradesh 336081 201506 336081 205850
Chattisgarh NA 314179 150000 138468
Punjab NA 187080 334907 133975
Jharkhand 201779 157363 252506 93532
West Bengal 208895 103438 208895 87088
Karnataka NA 80851 553201 86347
Jammu & Kashmir NA 21034 65549 55241
Tripura NA 6203 63573 54614
Himachal Pradesh 156772 111292 169615 54322
Haryana NA 55413 272350 54048
Meghalaya NA 88523 42514
Kerala NA 148289 499685 38745
Nagaland NA 28087 35000 28387
Delhi 51888 4684 51380 11365
Arunachal Pradesh 14226 14226 14226 9876
Pondicherry NA 0 302 8667
Mizoram 4000 3836 3356 3356
Goa 3816 1967 32000 2381
Daman & Diu 2410 2166 2166 2209
A&N NA 1022 3000 1682
Chandigarh NA 1164 1764 824
Sikkim NA 18227 17119 777
Assam 631369 129254 NA 0
Manipur 34092 27560 9205 0
Uttarakhand NA 0 223331 0
TOTAL 3941771 3956376 8447601 4922892
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India
Among our sample states, Uttar Pradesh and Assam had not distributed any tablets for 2012-
13at the time of the study. Maharashtra did not report any figures in this regard and Uttar
Pradesh did not report its beneficiaries for the year 2011-12 and target beneficiaries for either
year. Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Karnataka, Tripura, Haryana did not report their
target beneficiaries for 2011-12 but did so during the following year. Odisha did not report its
targets for either year but has been one of the best performers, covering over five lakh girls in
2011-12, and nine lakhs in the following year, recording nearly 70 % increase. Tripura began

63
with 6203 girls in 2011-12 and extending the coverage to over 50,000 in the following year.
Tamil Nadu has maintained status quo covering over four and a half lakh girls annually.
Punjab and Haryana have both recorded a decrease, most likely owing to the reporting period,
but their coverage has been significant over the years with over one lakh in Punjab and over
50000 in Haryana. While Assam covered over one lakh girls in 2011-12, it had not covered
anyone under this component in 2012-13 till December 2012.

Table 4.6: Beneficiary Coverage (IFA tablets)- Sample States


Name of the State Actual number Actual number of % change in % %
of beneficiaries beneficiaries beneficiary beneficiary beneficiary
covered in covered in 2012- coverage covered in covered in
2011-12 13 2011-1218 2011-12
Odisha 571114 960851 68.2
Bihar 277025 680182 145.5 36.2 28.6
Rajasthan 508606 549683 8.1 56.2 49.4
Tamil Nadu 454227 454227 0.0 100
Andhra Pradesh 279089 446664 60.0 44.5 40.0
Uttar Pradesh NA 256624 NA
Punjab 187080 133975 -28.4 40.0
Karnataka 80851 86347 6.8 15.6
Tripura 6203 54614 780.4 85.9
Haryana 55413 54048 -2.5 19.8
Assam 129254 0 -100.0 20.5
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

Health Check-Ups and Referrals are facilitated through the Health machinery at the village
level with the participation of ANMs, Medical Officers and ASHA workers. The Check-ups
and referrals are carried out on Kishori Divas, a special day devoted quarterly to Sabla
beneficiaries. In most states, Kishori Divas is converged with the Village Health and
Nutrition Day (VHND) where AGs receive health Check-ups along with pregnant and
lactating women, and children. Most of the states did not report target beneficiaries, but
appeared to be covering AGs for health check-ups. However, health Check-ups and referrals
for further treatment or intervention are recorded together rather than separately, making it
difficult to note the exact proportion of cases referred for follow up owing to anaemia,
infections, or other problems. This is detailed in Chapter Six through qualitative discussions
that reveal that while Check-ups are carried out widely, referrals and follow up on referrals
are quite limited.

18

64
Table 4.7: Beneficiary Coverage (Health Check Ups & Referrals) - All States
Name of the State Health Check-up & referrals
Target (no. of Actual number of Target (no. of Actual number of
beneficiaries) beneficiaries beneficiaries) beneficiaries
2011-12 covered 2011-12 2012-13 covered 2012-13

Odisha NA 571114 NA 960851


Bihar 765131 0 2376922 937705
Tamil Nadu NA 454227 454227 454227
Gujarat NA 373268 NA 427038
Uttar Pradesh NA 1934000 NA 408985
Andhra Pradesh 626487 367848 1115972 347843
Rajasthan 904825 207420 1112746 328878
Karnataka NA 87445 536532 312869
Assam 631369 10397 NA 165285
Jharkhand 158608 146989 245154 152153
Chattisgarh NA 262007 630000 115157
Madhya Pradesh 336081 98329 336081 112305
Punjab NA 162338 334907 90434
Meghalaya NA 88523 88523
West Bengal 208895 51801 208895 81204
Kerala NA 155505 396435 76894
Haryana NA 52767 272350 71034
Himachal Pradesh 156772 143964 169615 55606
Tripura NA 6203 63573 54532
Nagaland NA 27200 35000 28787
Jammu & Kashmir NA 50461 102704 24017
Delhi 51888 6588 51380 17743
Mizoram 25856 17815 32271 17338
Pondicherry NA 0 8677 8667
Arunachal Pradesh 14226 14226 14226 6745
A & N island NA 4372 4000 5448
Goa 1417 493 32000 2379
Daman & Diu 2410 2166 2166 2209
Manipur NA 28120 34092 1344
Chandigarh NA 1164 1764 932
Sikkim NA 18227 17119 909
Uttarakhand NA 1665 223331 0
TOTAL 3883965 5258119 8900662 5358041
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India
In our sample states, Karnataka, Haryana and Assam recorded large changes in beneficiary
coverage including 258%, 35%, and 1490% respectively. Uttar Pradesh saw a 79% decline
in coverage, whereas Odisha and Rajasthan recorded good increases by 68% and 59%

65
respectively. Tripura, which had not recorded any coverage in 2011-12, covered 32,023
beneficiaries. Tamil Nadu consistently recorded similar figures over both years. Punjab
recorded a decline along with Andhra Pradesh that recorded a slight decline that might be
owing to the period of reporting without the last quarter of 2012-13 when the states might
have ensured delivery. Again, Maharashtra did not record any figures for this component.
None of the states recorded the Health Check-ups and referrals separately which makes it
difficult to comment on the proportion of referrals out of the total girls who received health
Check-ups.

Table 4.8: Beneficiary Coverage (Health Check Ups & Referrals) – Sample States
Name of the Actual Actual number
state number of of beneficiaries % change in % beneficiary % beneficiary
beneficiarie covered 2012- beneficiary covered in 2011- covered in 2012-
s covered in 13 coverage 12 13
2011-12
Uttar 1934000 408985 -79%
Pradesh
Odisha 571114 960851 68%
Andhra 367848 347843 -5% 30.8 30.4
Pradesh
Karnataka 87445 312869 258% 61.5
Rajasthan 207420 328878 59% 23.9 26.4
Haryana 52767 71034 35% 25.4
Assam 10397 165285 1490% 4.1
Tripura 0 32023 50.3
Punjab 162338 90434 -44% 8.9
Bihar 0 937705 0 1.3
Tamil Nadu 454227 454227 0% 100
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

Nutrition Health Education (NHE) or NHE counselling was taken up well across the states
with Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Kerala,
Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh recording high numbers of coverage between
one lakh and 19 lakhs. Uttarakhand and Maharashtra recorded low performance on this
component.

66
Table 4.9: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition & Health Education-NHE) - All States
Name of the State Nutrition & Health Education (NHE)
Target (no. Actual number Target (no. of Actual number
of of beneficiaries beneficiaries) of beneficiaries
beneficiaries) covered 2012-13 covered 2012-
2011-12 2011-12 13
Uttar Pradesh NA 1934000 NA 1934000
Odisha 571114 960851
Gujarat 326211 349548
Andhra Pradesh 626487 192813 1115972 339525
Karnataka 118013 485242 298532
Rajasthan 904825 216229 1112746 293357
Kerala 276501 449068 211004
Chattisgarh 322823 450000 192891
Jharkhand 146989 129219 245154 163185
Madhya Pradesh 265490 110100 265490 115090
Meghalaya 88523 88523
West Bengal 1231766 53384 1231766 86452
Haryana 29985 272350 69193
Assam 631369 26089 65653
Delhi 144230 24630 143633 57590
Himachal Pradesh 156772 229917 169615 39915
Jammu & Kashmir 77095 102704 38816
Tripura 0 63573 32023
Punjab 27542 334907 29742
Bihar 765131 0 2376922 29703
Mizoram 25856 25856 32271 25521
Goa 1340 335 32000 8832
Arunachal Pradesh 14226 14226 14226 6745
A & N island 2853 3550 5448
Tamil Nadu 4170 4170 4170
Manipur 20185 35000 2520
Daman & Diu 2410 2166 2166 2209
Chandigarh 1164 1764 2033
Sikkim 18227 17119 1282
Nagaland 1136 1136
Pondicherry 0 300 300
Maharashtra 4656 0
Uttarakhand 123040 223331 0
TOTAL 4916891 4883679 9273562 5455789
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

67
Table 4.10: Beneficiary Coverage (Nutrition and Health Education) - Sample States
Name of the Actual number Actual number % change % %
State of beneficiaries of beneficiaries in beneficiary beneficiary
covered in covered 2012- beneficiary covered in covered in
2011-12 13 coverage 2011-12 2011-12
Uttar Pradesh 1934000 1934000 0
Odisha 571114 960851 68.2
Andhra Pradesh 192813 339525 76.1 30.8 30.4
Karnataka 118013 298532 153.0 61.5
Rajasthan 216229 293357 35.7 23.9 26.4
Haryana 29985 69193 130.8 25.5
Assam 26089 65653 151.7 4.1
Tripura 0 32023 50.4
Punjab 27542 29742 8.0 8.9
Bihar 0 29703 0 1.3
Tamil Nadu 4170 4170 0 100
Maharashtra 4656 0 -100
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

Uttar Pradesh, Odisha and Maharashtra did not report their target beneficiaries for both the
years for the NHE component. Karnataka, Haryana, Tripura, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and
Maharashtra did not report coverage figures for the year 2011-12. In Tripura and Bihar,
Nutrition and Health Education component took off only in 2012-13 and over 32,023 girls
were covered under this component in Tripura and 29,703 girls were covered in Bihar. All
other states show a significant increase in beneficiary coverage with the exceptions of Punjab
where the increase has been relatively gradual and Maharashtra where this component had
not been delivered for the year 2012-13 till December 2012. Rajasthan and Karnataka have
done well, with Karnataka registering a 150 % increase in coverage, covering over 1.1 lakh
girls in 2011-12 and nearly three lakh girls in 2012-13. Rajasthan covered over two lakh girls
in 2011-12 and nearly three lakh girls the following year.

In the ARSH services component in 2012-13, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Karnataka (more than
three lakhs), Gujarat, Rajasthan Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Kerala, and
Madhya Pradesh recorded coverage of one lakh and above beneficiaries with UP at 19.3
lakhs and Odisha at 9.6 lakhs covering the largest numbers.

68
Table 4.11: Beneficiary Coverage (Family Welfare, ARSH & Child Care Practices)- All States
Name of the State Target Actual number of Target (no. of Actual number of
(no. of beneficiaries beneficiaries) beneficiaries
beneficiaries) covered 2011-12 2012-13 covered 2012-13
2011-12

Uttar Pradesh 1934000 1934000


Odisha 164808 960851
Karnataka 84086 332617 298532
Gujarat 201092 263361
Rajasthan 904825 98054 1112746 197339
Andhra Pradesh 52650 36819 52650 170876
Chattisgarh 197235 450000 160688
Jharkhand 129219 122065 245154 138420
Kerala 144795 344943 126568
Madhya Pradesh 265490 110100 265490 115090
Meghalaya 88523 88523
Himachal Pradesh 156772 136040 169615 57636
Tamil Nadu 49821 49821 49821
Haryana 8314 272350 45639
Jammu & Kashmir 58224 65549 39024
Bihar 765131 0 2376922 36263
West Bengal 601497 12051 601497 34830
Punjab 22373 334907 26997
Mizoram 596 596 16242 17901
Delhi 144230 4098 143633 11803
Assam 631369 10132 9251
Tripura 0 63573 8608
Pondicherry 0 5065 4480
Manipur 32733 34092 4250
A & N island 139 3475
Daman & Diu 2410 2166 2166 2209
Chandigarh 1164 1764 2033
Arunachal Pradesh 14226 14226 14226 1360
Nagaland 1136 1136
Goa 922 316 32000 228
Sikkim 18227 17119 72
Maharashtra 4656 0
Uttarakhand 123040 223331 0
TOTAL 3669337 3592506 7315995 4811264
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

69
Table 4.12: Beneficiary Coverage (Family, ARSH and Child Care Practices)- Sample States
Name of the Actual Actual number
State number of of beneficiaries
beneficiaries covered 2012-13
covered % change % beneficiary %
2011-12 in covered in beneficiary
beneficiary 2011-12 covered in
coverage 2011-12

Uttar 1934000 1934000 0


Pradesh
Odisha 164808 960851 483
Karnataka 84086 298532 255 89.8
Rajasthan 98054 197339 101.3 10.8 17.7
Andhra 36819 170876 364.1 69.9 324.6
Pradesh
Tamil Nadu 49821 49821 0 100
Haryana 8314 45639 448.9 16.8
Bihar 0 36263 0 1.5
Punjab 22373 26997 20.7 8.1
Assam 10132 9251 -8.7 1.6
Tripura 0 8608 13.5
Maharashtra 4656 0 -100
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

Uttar Pradesh (19.3 lakhs), Odisha (9.6 lakhs), Karnataka (2.9 lakhs), Rajasthan (1.9 lakhs)
and Andhra Pradesh (1.7 lakhs) were good performers on this component in terms of absolute
numbers. Odisha (483%), Haryana (448%) and Andhra Pradesh (364%) recorded significant
increase in coverage during 2012-13 over the previous year. Rajasthan too doubled its
coverage with a moderate 20% increase. Maharashtra did not appear to cover any
beneficiaries by December 2012.

Under the life-skills component that included counselling on communication, confidence


building, painting, theatre and other activities, most states with the exception of Uttarakhand,
Maharashtra, and Sikkim recorded significant coverage in 2012-13. Uttar Pradesh, Odisha,
Bihar, Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Kerala, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, and
Chhattisgarh recorded coverage of over one lakh girls each in this period. Other states across
the regions recorded increases overall in 2012-13 (as on December 2012) compared to the
previous year.

70
Table 4.13: Beneficiary Coverage (Life Skill Education) - All States
Life Skill Education
Target (no. of Actual number of Target (no. of Actual number
Name of State
beneficiaries) beneficiaries covered beneficiaries) of beneficiaries
2011-12 2011-12 2012-13 covered 2012-13
Uttar Pradesh 195000 1934000
Odisha 0 960851
Bihar 765131 0 2376922 765131
Karnataka 55519 426176 298532
Gujarat 149241 189570
Andhra Pradesh 52650 55049 52650 149962
Rajasthan 904825 88706 1112746 139876
Kerala 195256 392042 137340
Delhi 144230 8051 143633 130402
Madhya Pradesh 265490 110100 265490 115090
Chhattisgarh 169393 200000 108838
Meghalaya 88523 88523
Jharkhand 122065 51639 167335 66840
Haryana 8354 272350 42763
Himachal Pradesh 12029 126229 10762 31348
West Bengal 688036 21115 688036 25712
Punjab 24480 334907 24756
Jammu & Kashmir 47019 30700 20833
Mizoram 2922 2900 3356 18221
Assam 631369 4442 10220
Tripura 0 63573 8350
Manipur 32733 9205 4250
Tamil Nadu 4170 4170 4170
Daman & Diu 2410 2166 2166 2209
Chandigarh 1430 1764 2033
Nagaland 1136 1136
Arunachal Pradesh 14226 14226 14226 1023
Pondicherry 0 200 200
A & N island 50 150 180
Goa 1341 163 32000 148
Sikkim 18227 17119 2
Maharashtra 4656 0
Uttarakhand 123040 223331 0
TOTAL 3606724 1514490 6933532 5282509
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

71
Table 4.14: Beneficiary Coverage in LSE- Sample States
Actual number of
beneficiaries covered
Actual number of beneficiaries 2012-13
Name of State covered 2011-12

Uttar Pradesh 195000 1934000


Odisha 0 960851
Bihar 0 765131
Karnataka 55519 298532
Andhra Pradesh 55049 149962
Rajasthan 88706 139876
Haryana 8354 42763
Punjab 24480 24756
Assam 4442 10220
Tripura 0 8350
Tamil Nadu 4170 4170
Maharashtra 4656 0

Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

In the states of Odisha, Bihar and Tripura, there were no beneficiaries under the LSE
component for the year 2011-12 as the Non-Nutrition Component of the scheme was
implemented only in 2012-13. In 2012-13, 9.6 lakh beneficiaries were covered in Odisha,
7.6 lakh beneficiaries in Bihar, while only 8350 beneficiaries were covered in Tripura.
Maharashtra covered 4656 girls under LSE in 2011-12 but no beneficiaries were reported for
the year 2012-13 by December 2012. In Tamil Nadu, 4170 girls were covered in both the
financial years consistently.

For available states, Karnataka, Haryana and Punjab recorded increases while Andhra
Pradesh recorded a moderate decrease, and Rajasthan covered very low numbers over the two
year period. This decrease/decline could be attributed to poor reportage or the time that the
data was collected. Odisha and Bihar recorded coverage of 9.6 lakhs and 7.6 lakhs
respectively in 2012-13 while there was no coverage reported in 2011-12.

72
Table 4.15: Beneficiary coverage (Accessing public services)- All States
Target (no. of Actual number of Target (no. Actual number of
beneficiaries) beneficiaries of beneficiaries
2011-12 covered 2011-12 beneficiaries) covered 2012-13
Name of the State 2012-13
Odisha 0 960851
Bihar 765131 0 2376922 765131
Madhya Pradesh 860751 96041 860751 115090
Meghalaya 88523 88523
Jharkhand 77329 51639 167335 58575
Kerala 91438 369272 51167
Chhattisgarh 32479 150000 34775
Gujarat 74575 33791
Andhra Pradesh 52650 40281 52650 29038
Karnataka 6780 332400 28629
Assam 631369 0 25896
Punjab 11777 334907 14770
West Bengal 601497 15704 601497 8217
Haryana 3302 272350 7408
Delhi 144230 3342 143633 6300
Rajasthan 904825 28527 556373 6000
Himachal Pradesh 12029 8965 10762 5796
Tripura 0 63573 5728
Manipur 32733 9205 4250
Tamil Nadu 4170 4170 4170
Arunachal Pradesh 7039 7039 7039 2311
Daman & Diu 2410 2166 2166 2209
Jammu & Kashmir 5962 30700 1450
Chandigarh 1534 1764 1304
Nagaland 1136 1136
A & N island 0 200 310
Pondicherry 0 200 200
Mizoram 596 500 3356 99
Goa 1395 232 32000 20
Maharashtra 4656 0
Sikkim 18227 17119 0
Uttarakhand 3389 223331 0
Uttar Pradesh 195000
TOTAL 4061251 741594 6712198 2263144
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

73
Table 4.16: Beneficiary Coverage (Accessing Public Services)- Sample States
Name of the State Actual number of Actual number of
beneficiaries covered beneficiaries covered
2011-12 2012-13

Odisha 0 960851
Bihar 0 765131
Andhra Pradesh 40281 29038
Karnataka 6780 28629
Assam 0 25896
Punjab 11777 14770
Haryana 3302 7408
Rajasthan 28527 6000
Tripura 0 5728
Tamil Nadu 4170 4170
Maharashtra 4656 0
Uttar Pradesh 195000 NA
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

Mainstreaming of girls into schools has been a low performing component of Sabla overall.
Many states like Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Jharkhand
Karnataka, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Tripura recorded no coverage in 2012-13.
Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Delhi, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu
and Uttarakhand recorded coverage in both years. Other states were slow to see any results
in ensuring that out of school girls are mainstreamed back into school. Overall, 68,425 girls
were re-enrolled in school in 2011-12, while 18,227 girls were mainstreamed the following
year by December 2012.

74
Table 4.17: Beneficiary Coverage (Mainstreaming into school system)- All States
Mainstreaming Into School System
Target (no. of Actual number of Target (no. of Actual number of
Name of the State beneficiaries) beneficiaries beneficiaries) beneficiaries
covered 2012-13 covered 2012-13

Madhya Pradesh 33608 12866 336081 14631


Meghalaya 1187 11609 1521
Haryana 24088 1151
Delhi 51888 121 51380 859
Sikkim 18227 775 35
Himachal Pradesh 12029 4 10762 20
Chandigarh 156 405 7
Daman & Diu 23 28 3
Bihar 765131 0 765131 0
Jammu & Kashmir 30700 0
Mizoram 596 3356 0
Uttarakhand 267 19096 0
Andhra Pradesh 88549 0 101802
Arunachal Pradesh 2107 2107 2107
Assam 179884 4212
Chhattisgarh 5000
Goa 1017 0 2262
Jharkhand 51639 17616 81237
Karnataka 0 116407
Kerala 11601
Manipur 500
Punjab 3611 15342
Rajasthan 396937 8000 421916
Tamil Nadu 18996
Tripura 63573
West Bengal 86539 86539
TOTAL 1669924 68425 2180723 18227
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

75
Table 4.18: Beneficiary Coverage (Mainstreaming into school system)- Sample States
Name of the State Actual number of beneficiaries Actual number of beneficiaries
covered 2011-12 covered 2012-13
Haryana Not reported 1151
Bihar 0 0
Andhra Pradesh 0 Not reported
Assam 4212 Not reported
Punjab 3611 Not reported
Rajasthan 8000 Not reported
Haryana NA 1151
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

Out of the sample states, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh have
not reported any figures with regard to mainstreaming of girls in schools for both the
financial years. Haryana did not report numbers for the years 2011-12 while Andhra Pradesh,
Assam and Karnataka have not reported numbers for 2012-13. Bihar reported no
mainstreamed girls there in either of the years.

The vocational training component has also taken time to stabilise under Sabla from a
beneficiary coverage perspective. Over the last two years, while the coverage has picked up,
the overall numbers remain low. During 2011-12, only 1.5 lakh beneficiaries received
vocational training, whereas during 2012-13, nearly 2.5 lakh beneficiaries had done so across
the country. Only Bihar has covered over one lakh beneficiaries (1.3 lakhs) in 2012-13, while
the rest of the states covered less than 50,000 beneficiaries each. Only Rajasthan (31,911),
Madhya Pradesh (12,057) and Gujarat (11,563) covered more than 10,000 beneficiaries.

76
Table 4.19: Beneficiary Coverage (Vocational Training)- All States
Vocational Training (16 - 18 years)
Target (no. of Actual number Target (no. of Actual number
beneficiaries) of beneficiaries beneficiaries) of beneficiaries
2011-12 covered 2011- 2012-13 covered 2012-
12 13
1 Bihar 765131 0 55909 130346
2 Rajasthan 122558 10023 200000 31911
3 Madhya Pradesh 5000 15602 15300 12057
4 Gujarat 82562 11563
5 Chhattisgarh 0 1000 9827
6 Jharkhand 26098 2759 58800 8490
7 Meghalaya 182 7349 7349
8 West Bengal 73415 337 73400 6938
9 Tamil Nadu 4170 4170 4170
10 Odisha 1980 3960
11 Nagaland 1136 3408
12 Andhra Pradesh 1220 0 1220 3004
13 Karnataka 1899 126633 2410
14 Chandigarh 312 334 2362
15 Punjab 75 17626 2042
16 Kerala 3950 5681 1669
17 Haryana 1151 4000 1486
18 Himachal Pradesh 3150 1591 3150 992
19 Daman & Diu 50 25 25 916
20 Jammu & Kashmir 1923 8762 898
21 Mizoram 139 2500 1769 625
22 Tripura 4421 569
23 Delhi 16945 64 18385 446
24 Arunachal Pradesh 2010 2010 2010 258
25 Manipur 252 210 224
26 A & N island 117 100 136
27 Pondicherry 0 50 50
28 Goa 164 93 2262 20
29 Sikkim 200 545 19
30 Assam 20375 16827 0
31 Uttarakhand 135 24771 0
TOTAL 1036255 151875 637882 248145
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

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Table 4.20: Beneficiary Coverage (Vocational Training)- Sample States
Actual number of Actual number % change in % %
beneficiaries of beneficiaries beneficiary beneficiary beneficiary
covered 2011-12 covered 2012- coverage covered in covered in
13 2011-12 2011-12

Bihar 0 130346 0 233.1


Rajasthan 10023 31911 218.4 8.2 16.0
Tamil Nadu 4170 4170 0 100
Odisha 1980 3960 100
Andhra Pradesh 0 3004 0 246.2
Karnataka 1899 2410 26.9 1.90
Punjab 75 2042 2622.7 11.59
Haryana 1151 1486 29.1 37.2
Tripura 569 12.9
Assam 16827 0 -100 82.6
Data Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Govt of India

Among sample states, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra did not report any figures for the
Vocational Training component. Bihar showed great improvement given that while no
vocational training was imparted in the state in 2011-12, over 1.3 lakh girls were covered by
December 2012. Tamil Nadu consistently provided vocational training to 4170 girls each
year, while Karnataka (27%), Punjab (2622%), Haryana (29%) and Odisha (100%) recorded
significant increases.

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Description of Respondents among Benefiaries
The Sabla Scheme is aimed at addressing the empowerment needs of 11-18 year old
adolescent girls. Girls in this age group are considered particularly vulnerable socially,
psychologically, and economically. WHO defines adolescence both in terms of age
(spanning the ages between 10 and 19 years) and in terms of a phase of life marked by special
attributes. These attributes include: Rapid physical growth and development; Physical, social
and psychological maturity, but not all at the same time; Sexual maturity and the onset of
sexual activity; Development of adult mental processes and adult identity; and Transition
from total socio-economic dependence to relative independence. The specific needs of
adolescent girls stretch across a wide spectrum, from nutrition necessities, to maternal
mortality, to STDs, to drug abuse, to literacy, to sanitation, to employment opportunities.
These concerns are also further stratified by socio-economic class, community and cultural
background, level of education, and regional specificities.
Figure 4.1: SABLA: Age Distribution

SABLA: Age Distribution


100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0% 52.5% % 15-18 Yrs
18.5%
50.0% 44.9% 28.2%
40.0% 32.1% 33.8% % 11- 14 Years
31.0%
30.0% 21.7% 26.2%
16.6% 19.9%
20.0% 13.6%
10.0%
0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013


The overall percentage of respondents in the age group of 11-14 year girls in the sample is
29% and the remainder 71 % belong to the age group of 15-18 years. The figures for
Maharashtra, Odisha, Bihar and Tripura are similar to the overall state figures for the
proportion of respondents in the age group of 11- 14 years at 28%, 26%, 32% and 31%
respectively. Over 80 % of the respondents are in the age groups of 15- 18 years in the states
of Andhra Pradesh (86.4%), Haryana ( 83.4%), Punjab (80.1%) and Tamil Nadu (81.5%). In

79
comparison to the other states, the proportion of respondents in the age group of 11-14 years
is higher in the state of Assam (45%) and Uttar Pradesh (52%).
Figure 4.2: Respondent Distribution by Schooling
100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%

Schooling status Going to school Schooling status Not going to school

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Out of the total sample of respondents, the number of school-going girls is 63.6% across all
the five zones and the out-of-school girls made up 36.4%. Among the states, the total number
of school respondents is high at 89.5% in Punjab and 86.5% in Tripura.

Number of OOSGs in the higher age group (15-18 yrs) is higher (81.6%) than thenNumber
of OOSGs among respondents in the lower age group (11-14 yrs). 65 % of the total surveyed
respondents in the age group of 15-18 years are in school.

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Figure 4.3: Age Distribution In-School and Out of School Respondents

Age Distribution of In-School and Out of School


Respondents
% 11- 14 Years % 15-18 Yrs

65.0% 71.0%
81.6%

35.0% 29.0%
18.4%
In School Out of School Total
Source: ASCI Survey 2013
The majority of respodents are Hindus (80.6%), followed by Muslims (13%), Sikhs (3.9%)
and smaller numbers from other religions.
Figure 4.4: Religion

Religion Buddhist Jain


Sikh 1.5% 0.2%
3.9% Didn't Reveal
Christian
0.7% 0.1%
Hindu
Muslim Muslim
13.0%
Christian
Sikh
Buddhist
Hindu
Jain
80.6%
Didn't Reveal

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

While the religion pattern is similar to the above graph across zones, Assam shows slight
variation with the majority AGs sampled being Muslims (58.5%). In Tripura and Maharashtra
around ten per cent respondents sampled follow Buddhism. Another variation is in the state
of Punjab, where a significant proportion (41%) of the respondents is from the Sikh
community.

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Beneficiary Caste

Among the respondents, majority belong to Backward Castes (38.4%), followed by


Scheduled Castes (29.5%), Scheduled Tribes (10.6%), Forward caste (10%) and others
(9.4%).

Figure 4.5: Caste

Caste

OBC ST
10.6%
Forward OBC
Caste 38.4%
SC
None
29.5%

Didn't Reveal

Didn't Reveal
2.1% None Forward Caste
9.4% 10.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Socio economic Status

As far as socio-economic status is concerned, the households of ISGs belonged to a higher


socio-economic status than OOSGs. Among the ISGs, 47.4% live in Pucca houses, whereas
among the OOSGs, only 34.8 % live in Pucca houses.

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Figure 4.6: Type of Housing by Schooling

Type of housing by schooling


Kaccha Pucca Semi Pucca

1.4% 2.1% 1.9%

34.8% 42.8%
47.4%

63.5% 55.0%
50.1%

Out of School In School Total

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Out of the total sample (9222), 5070 (55%) of the AGs responded that they lived in in a
kuccha house while 3946 (42.8%) stay in a pucca house. Tripura (97.8%), Assam (79.5%),
Maharashtra (76.1%), and Odisha (70.1%) have a significantly high percentage of
respondents living in kuccha homes. About 70% or higher percentage of respondents lives in
Pucca homes in Karnataka (81.2%), Rajasthan (75.2%) and Punjab (69.5%).
Figure 4.7: Type of House of the Respondents
Type of House
100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0% 97.8%
40.0% 79.5% 76.1% 70.1% Semi-pucca
30.0% 66.8% 65.0%
47.6% 53.9% Pucca
20.0% 35.0% 30.5% 24.8% Kaccha
10.0% 18.8%
0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

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Figure 4.8: Respondent Houses with/ without basic infrastructure by school going status
Out of School In School

37.8%
34.1%

56.8% 51.8%
8.8%
15.9%

House without Electricity House without Toilet by House without water tap
by Schooling Status Schooling Status by Schooling Status

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

34.6% respondents reported having discontinued from school and about 0.5% had never
enrolled in the school. Out of the total respondents, 14.8% had dropped out during their
ninth or tenth class, 10% had dropped out between sixth to eighth classes and 8.8% dropped
out between first to fifth class. The figures for the individual states are similar to the overall
percentages, except in Rajasthan where the respondents who had dropped out between first to
fifth class is high (24%). In addition, 51.5% of the respondents finished at least ninth or tenth
class and 6.2% have dropped out of school post 10th class in Tamil Nadu.

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Figure 4.9: Class of study at Drop Out among Respondents

Last Class Attended before Dropping out


100.0%
90.0%
80.0% % Above 10th
70.0%
60.0% % 9th to 10th
50.0%
40.0% % 6th to 8th
30.0%
20.0% % 1st to 5th
10.0%
0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 4.10 : Reason for Drop Out among Respondents


Reasons for Dropping Out

Illness 3.6%

Marriage 0.6%

I did not feel like studying 17.7%

School is very far 9.5%

Work on family farm/ for income 10.3%

Family did not permit me to continue 33.4%

Poor Performance in School 9.0%

Domestic Responsibilities 29.4%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

In terms of reported reasons for dropping out of school, most of the OOSGs (62.8%) cited
family-related reasons: 33.4% (reported that their families denied them permission to
continue their studies and 29.4% (reported an increase in burden of domestic responsibilities.
More than 40% reported domestic responsibilities as a primary reason for discontinuing
school in Bihar (48.9%), Punjab (56%), Rajasthan (41.9%). Karnataka (76.5%) and Tamil

85
Nadu (56.6%) have family denying permission to continue education as the primary reason
across all the states. The second major set of reasons pertained to education-related ones,
including disinterest (17.7%) and poor performance or failures (9%). 9.5% also stated
distance from school as a major reason for dropping out from school.

About 10% of the respondents attributed working with family on the farm/ or for income as
an important reason for discontinuing education. Illness (3.6%) and Marriage (0.6%) are
some of the other reasons.

Among the dropouts, only about 18% are currently working for a wage. Out of these AGs,
28.2 % are engaged as agricultural labours, followed by tailoring and wage labour at about
20% each. About 18.7 % are engaged in other petty work and fewer than ten percent are
working in a factory or a shop.

Figure 4.11: Respondents: Current Work Status

Current Work
Working
for a
Wage
18%

Not
Working
for Wage
82%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

86
Figure 4.12: Occupation of Respondents who are working for a wage

Occupations of those reportedly working for a wage

Other petty
work Agricultural
18.7% Labour
28.2%

Tailoring
Factory
20.3%
0.3%
Wage Labour
20.7%
Housework
1.6%
Factory or Shop Data Entry
9.8% 0.3%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Out of the OOSGs engaged in economic activities, 43.4% are earning up to Rs.50 per day,
and 42.3% earn between Rs. 51-Rs. 100 per day. Smaller numbers (14.3% or 130) earned
above Rs 100 per day.

Figure 4.13: Daily wage of OOSGs

Out of School Girls: Daily Wage

72.9%

43.4% 42.3%

14.3%

Below Rs. 50 Rs. 51-100 Above Rs.100 Not Working for a


Wage

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

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Among those who reported 'not working for a wage', a majority were extensively involved
in household work including, cooking, cleaning, elderly care and sibling care.

Key Issues: The coverage of beneficiaries under the scheme made a slow beginning, but has
been on an increase over the two year period. The nutrition component coverage was low in
2010-11, covering only 44.4 lakhs across the country, but increased by 127.6% to 1.01 crore
the following year, and at the end of December 2012, had reached 86 lakh girls. Non-
nutrition component coverage is variable. School Mainstreaming and Vocational training are
lowest in coverage while health check ups were best covered.

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Chapter 5. SCHEME INPUTS OF SABLA

Sabla is currently being implemented in the states using the existing ICDS platform, and
Anganwadi Centres (AWC), the AWW and the AWH play an important role in the delivery
of services to adolescent girls. It is at the AWC that adolescent girls are meant to receive
nutrition, counselling on health, education, Adolescent Reproductive And Sexual Health,
family planning, childcare, and have a space of their own to experience social connection
with their peers, build their confidence and morale, and receive support to envision their
future. The AWW plays a critical role in motivating adolescent girls to come to the AWC
for meetings, counselling and services, formation of “kishori samooh” or AG groups; also
essential is the timely availability of required supplies at the AWC such as funds, THR/ raw
material for HCM, IFA tablets, Kishori Cards and regular and proper monitoring and
maintenance of records.

Another critical requisite for the success of the scheme is the level of convergence and
coordination between the different ministries, departments and functionaries involved in
implementation of the scheme. At the field level, the Department of Health is to ensure that
beneficiaries undergo regular health check-ups and receive IFA supplementation, and that
health check-ups occur regularly and referrals are done. The Department of Health also
shares the responsibility for training AGs and ensuring they are aware of relevant aspects of
health, nutrition, personal hygiene and ARSH. Departments of Education and Labour are also
important to the education and vocational training dimensions of the scheme respectively. In
addition, participation of the community and Panchayat members in implementation and
awareness activities is important. Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and Self-Help
Groups (SHGs) are also important stakeholders in the scheme wherever they have been
involved. The quality and level of engagement of scheme functionaries with these
stakeholders is an important milestone for the smooth functioning of the scheme. This chapter
elaborates on and provides some insight into these aspects.

Awareness and Capacity Building among AWWs

All AWWs interviewed were aware of the scheme but they had not all uniformly benefited
from formal training about various dimensions of the scheme. About 75% of the AWWs
reported that the information about the scheme was covered in monthly and quarterly
reviews, for brief periods of 30 to 45 minutes.

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As the scheme includes several services and components, timely communicating these to the
beneficiaries and their families is crucial for effective implementation. The guidelines expect
the AWWs and Sakhi-Sahelis to take a lead in this regard. The study found that AWWs,
Supervisors and CDPOs had ensured that all beneficiaries in our sample were aware of the
scheme’s components. Other stakeholders like Panchayat members, parents, and
representatives of community organisations were also aware of the scheme, and non-
beneficiaries noted that they knew about a scheme for adolescent girls. Most of the
beneficiaries (94.4%) reported that AWW informed them about activities and there was not
much variation across regions with respect to this aspect, except Maharashtra (77.2%),
Punjab (86.5%) and Assam (78.4%). In Punjab, Assam, Bihar and Odisha, Sakhi-Sahelis
were also sharing this responsibility. In Punjab, at least 13.5% of the girls and in Assam, nine
per cent of the girls said that they were informed about the activities by Saheli. In Bihar only
5.2% Sakhi-Sahelis were doing so, while in Odisha this was being done by only 0.8%.

Table 5.1: Source of Information


State AWW Saheli
Andhra Pradesh 96.7%
Assam 78.4% 9.3%
Bihar 94.8% 5.2%
Haryana 98.0%
Karnataka 98.7%
Maharashtra 77.2%
Odisha 99.2% 0.8%
Punjab 86.5% 13.5%
Rajasthan 100.0%
Tamil Nadu 96.3%
Tripura 100.0%
Uttar Pradesh 93.6%
Total 94.4% 1.5%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

90
Figure 5.1:Communication about SABLA activities

Communication about SABLA activities


AWW Saheli

99.2% 100.0% 96.3% 100.0%


96.7% 94.8% 98.0% 98.7% 93.6% 94.4%
86.5%
78.4% 77.2%

9.3% 13.5%
5.2% 0.8% 1.5%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

CDPOs told us they were actively involved in promoting Sabla amongst the community
members. This was done at Gram Panchayat and other village level meetings. The CDPO of
Padmapur, Odisha told us that in her project, village-level Sabla committees had been formed
and Sabla Committee Meeting at the village-level were being used to promote the scheme.
The scheme was also being regularly discussed at Gram Panchayat meetings in Padmapur.
The CDPO of Bheden, Odisha also reported a similar practice. The CDPO of Baripada
informed us that she had been to villages and interacted directly with the AGs to promote the
scheme amongst them. In Bihar, CDPOs affirmed that they discussed the scheme in
Panchayati Raj meetings. In Andhra Pradesh, CDPOs said that they promoted the scheme
through community meetings. In Karnataka, the CDPOs were trying to target mothers of
AGs. The CDPO of Bhilwara, Rajasthan reported that in her project she was promoting the
scheme by talking to women and adolescent girls about the benefits of the scheme. In
Karnataka, even the DPOs have actively engaged themselves in the promotion of the scheme.

We talk about the Sabla scheme in village level Sabla


Committee meetings and in gram panchayat meetings.
CDPO Padmapur, Odisha

We speak about Sabla when we visit AWCs. We also speak


about it in mother’s meetings and in Gram Sabha meetings.
DPO, Dharwad, Karnataka

91
Among non-beneficiaries interviewed, the level of awareness was about 69%. Only about
30% of non-beneficiaries queried were unaware of the scheme. The Southern zone emerged
as the least aware zone with an awareness level of 57%. Other zones saw awareness levels of
60% and above.

Through our detailed KIIs, we learnt that one barrier in attracting beneficiaries to the scheme
is that the scheme has no cash incentive. In the absence of cash incentive, adolescent girls
from poor socio-economic who are engaged in paid labour find it hard to attend Sabla
activities during workdays. In one KII, the ICDS supervisor of Sritadganj in Mayurbhanj
District of Odisha, noted that “a young girl earns Rs 100-150 in forest labour and in
construction. There is no money in Sabla, so if she comes to Sabla sessions, she loses her
money and gets nothing… Even if we give vocational training to the girls, many of them do
not have money to buy material to start their own business. So they hesitate to attend sessions
on a regular basis. What can we tell them if they ask us these questions.”

Figure 5.2: Awareness among non-beneficiaries


% Non-Beneficiaries awareness of the Sable Scheme

100.0%
90.0%
70.4%
59.4% 60.5% 62.9%
52.7%

27.7% 33.3%
15.6%

Source: ASCI Field Survey 2013 (Sabla)

Capacity of AWCs: From our KIIs, we learned that limitations in the physical infrastructure
of the AWC affected implementation of the scheme in several AWCs. The CDPO of Patna
Sardar-5, Bihar described in detail the infrastructure related concerns in her project. The story
was similar in Dharwad Urban, Karnataka. In urban centres as these, the size of the AWCs

92
was major constraint. The smallest AWC in Patna Sardar-5 is 8ft by 8ft and the largest is a
community centre. The CDPO added,
… imagine a 10 by 10 room packed with 20-30 adolescent girls. Such a suffocating
room offers them no change from the claustrophobic ambience of their small packed
houses. If we really want to help them, then we should provide them a different
ambience and atmosphere. The atmosphere should be so different that the girls come
themselves for a change. If we had bigger space, it would be easier to conduct
meetings. We can also paste posters and charts on the walls and create an
atmosphere for learning. But in the absence of all this, one can say the scheme is
being implemented but it is limping. Desired outcomes are tough to attain.

Storage capacity for THR was not mentioned as a problem except in Ambala. According to
the DPO of Ambala, the AWCs of Ambala, did not have sufficient storage capacity for ration.
The district being a flood-prone region storage was a serious one. Funds, from Central
Government, being irregular and untimely, there were times when the district authorities had
to buy stock in advance or procure ration at a later date. In all such cases, due to lack of
storage capacity they had to give 2-3 months ration at a time to beneficiaries. To sort the
problem in one stroke, the DPO of Ambala has now made it a norm to give THR on a bi-
monthly basis on second Saturdays. She said “What can we do, we do not get funds on time
for monthly procurement and many times supply gets delayed at FCI, and because we do not
have capacity to store grains, this works best for us. They can keep it in their houses.” While
giving ration in bulk is an option, it is not well-aligned with the spirit of the scheme that
seeks to take the responsibility of feeding AGs seriously enough to improve their nutrition
status and BMI. While HCM serves this objective better than THR, once THR is given in
bulk, the chances of it benefitting the AGs go further down. Larger quantities of grain hold
the risk that they could be sold by needy parents or used by the entire family. Such
probabilities increase when THR is given in the form of food grains like rice, wheat and dal.
The CDPO of Patna Sardar-5 told us that the best way to avoid this was to give the girls
something that would be medicinal so that the chances of it being used by others get
considerably reduced.

In Patna Sardar-5 Block, Bihar, one of the major hurdles was that there was a shortage of
staff at the ground level, especially those who were skilled and trained. Excess work load
worsened the situation. Under the CDPO, there is a provision for seven supervisors but only
three posts were filled and only one of these was a permanent recruit. With this understaffing,

93
the CDPO noted that monitoring of AWCs was a difficult task. Each supervisor had over 40
AWCs to monitor. At the AWC level, work pressure was unimaginably high.

They work from morning 9 to evening 5 and have nearly 18 registers to manage for
different schemes. In the field it is the AWW who carries out most schemes of the
health department. She has to draw money from the bank, procure THR supplies,
make home visits and to this we add another scheme, say Sabla, for which she
receives no additional incentive, how can we expect her to do all this work for only Rs
100 a day. We use an iron fist to get work done, we scold them and shout at them and
use threatening, but after a point the work load is so high and the man power is so
less that nothing works. They have no time in a 24 hour day to carry out orders.

Managing the schemes with limited staff created burdens on the CDPOs also. She said if
there were enough staff, at least all the sanctioned posts were filled, it would be far easier for
her to manage her work. Due to excess work pressure, she had to cut down on her time in the
field trying to manage 160 AWCs.

Availability of Sabla Guidelines and Registers: The Sabla Guidelines require that all AWCs
implementing the scheme have a copy of the Sabla Guidelines and a Sabla Register for
effective planning and monitoring of the scheme. Both had been disseminated to the
states/UTs by the Central Government. In Uttar Pradesh, a copy of the guidelines had been
made available to the concerned DPOs, CDPOs and Supervisors and all the AWCs had been
given Sabla registers. In Andhra Pradesh, 1868919 AWCs had Sabla registers while 28886
AWCs had a copy of the Sabla Guidelines. In Tripura, 5380 AWCs, in Assam, 19298 AWCs,
in Karnataka 17533 AWCs and in Tamil Nadu, 16607 AWCs had a copy of both. Rajasthan
reported that while 25000 AWCs had Sabla registers, 24642 had a copy of the guidelines.
From our surveys and reports submitted by State Governments and Central Government, we
learnt that Sabla registers had not been made available in Punjab by the end of December
2012, our study reference period.

Sabla Training Kits: The guidelines (p.7) state that a training kit be provided to every AWC
implementing Sabla to assist AGs in understanding various health, nutrition, social and legal
issues. The training kit is to have interesting and interactive activities and a number of games
so that the AGs enjoy while learning. Sabla girls are divided into peer groups and peer group
leaders called ‘Sakhi-Sahelis’ are chosen from each group and trained to use these kits for

19
All figures are from reports and information shared by state governments and MWCD unless otherwise
mentioned

94
imparting peer education. The cost of each kit is estimated at Rs. 1,000/‐. The Central
Government reports say that two prototype of Sabla Kits had been made available to the
States and UTs implementing Sabla and the state governments were required to contextualize
and translate these as per their specifications and local needs and make these available to
AWCs for use. While in some states, these had been procured for all AWCs, in certain others,
the procurement was in process.

In states where the non-nutrition component was in the initial phases of implementation,
these kits were yet to be procured. Goa, Punjab, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh were yet to
procure and make them available to the AWC by December 2012. In Andhra Pradesh, the
CDPO of Peddapadu, told us that the Sabla kits had been designed by Durgabai Deshmukh
Andhra Mahila Sabha to suit specific requirements of the state and they had procured the kits
for 150 out of 244 AWCs in Peddapadu. As per State and Central government reports,
Andhra Pradesh had procured 14,973 Sabla kits. In Uttar Pradesh, where the non-nutrition
component was yet to take off, tenders were being processed to determine a suitable
organization that would localize the kit for usage in the State. In Rajasthan, 24,642 kits had
been procured, designed by an NGO, Chetna, while Assam and Karnataka had procured
19,298 and 17,533 kits respectively. Tripura had not procured these kits yet but training
material had been made available in 54933 AWCs. In Tamil Nadu, State government had
distributed 16,607 kits were during the Sakhi-Saheli training programmes.

Use and Issuance of Kishori Card: Under Sabla guidelines (p. 8), every beneficiary is entitled
to a Kishori card that will contain all personal information including their names, education
details, and information on weight, height, Iron and Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation,
referrals and services received by the beneficiary under Sabla. The card also contains
important milestones in the girl’s life like joining school, leaving school, and marriage, which
are marked as and when they are achieved. The AWWs and Sakhi-Sahelis assist the girls in
maintaining their Kishori Cards. The guidelines also require that each card be signed by the
respective AWW. From the field investigation and KIIs, we learnt that Kishori Cards had
been received by an average of 54% of the respondents by December 2012. In Uttar Pradesh
where the non-nutrition component was yet to pick up, these cards were not yet available. In
most other states, the cards were being used by the AWWs and beneficiaries. In Odisha, the
usage as reported by the beneficiaries during our survey was as high as 94.7% followed by

95
Tamil Nadu, where the reported usage was as high as 86.5%. In Haryana 70.6% beneficiaries
reported that they had a Kishori Card.

In states like Bihar and Karnataka, the reported use of the cards was less than five per cent,
while in Assam less than ten per cent of the Sabla beneficiaries reported that they had even
received the Kishori cards. In Punjab, a slightly higher usage at 21.6% was reported. In other
states like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Tripura there was approximately a
20% deviation from the national average. However, according to the State and Central
Government reports published in 2013, in some states mentioned above where usage of these
cards was low, the procurement and dissemination process was completed shortly after our
field survey. This includes the states of Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Tripura where
cards have been made available in all AWCs implementing Sabla as per reports from the
respective state governments. Andhra Pradesh reported dissemination of 3.8 lakh Kishori
Cards.

Figure 5.3: Beneficiaries who received Kishori Cards


% who received Kishori Cards
94.70%
86.50%
70.60%
63.40%
55.60% 54.00%
47.80%
32.70%
21.60%
8.00% 3.80%
1.50% 0.00%

Source: ASCI Field Survey 2013

Monitoring of the Scheme: Sabla Steering and Monitoring Committees: In order to ensure
effective implementation and monitoring of the Sabla throughout the country, a National
Monitoring and Supervision Committee has been set up under the chairpersonship of the
Secretary, Ministry of Women & Child Development. The composition of the committee
includes secretaries of Ministry of Women & Child Development (Chairperson), Planning
Commission Member, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of

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Youth Affairs, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Rural Development,
Ministry of Panchayati Raj, State Secretaries, Director, NIPCCD, Director, NIHFW, Joint
Secretary (ICDS), MWCD, and Joint Secretary, in charge of the Programme (Member
Secretary). This Committee meets quarterly or as and when required at the notice of the
Chairperson.

State, District, Block and Village Level Committees comprising of representatives from other
concerned departments review, monitor and advise on matters relating to the implementation
of the scheme and cause the convergence across the stakeholder departments. In all states
under study, with the lone exception of Bihar, committees had been formed at state, district,
block and village level to ensure smooth implementation of the scheme. At the State level,
the State Monitoring and Supervision Committee is chaired by the Chief Secretary, and
members include representatives from Planning Department, Finance, representative from
Health & Family Welfare, Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, Youth Affairs, Labour,
Education, five MPs and five MLAs of the area have been involved in order to have broad
spectrum of political representation.

At the district level, the District Magistrate/ Deputy Commissioner / District Collector
(DM/DC) of the district heads the committee. Counterparts of all Departments concerned and
representative of District level Panchayat Samiti (if there is elected Panchayat system) are
members, while the DPO is the Member Secretary. The committee includes the DM/DC,
CEO, Zila Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti representative, Civil Surgeon, Labour
Superintendent, Experts/NGOs, District Education Office, five CDPOs, and DPO (Member
Secretary). At the Project level, the District Programme Officer heads the monitoring
committee while members include Block Development Officer, Medical Officer In‐Charge,
Block Education Officer, Block Public Relations Officer, J.E. (PHED), and the CDPO. At
the village level, a female panchayat member (if present) heads the committee, and members
include ASHA, ANM, SHG leader, school principal, an AWW, and a Sakhi (AG). The
project and village committees meet on a monthly basis.

Across the states, meetings were being held on a regular basis. In Andhra Pradesh,
committees have been formed at the district and block level and meetings were being held at
all four levels of administration on a quarterly basis. At the state level, officials in charge of
the scheme said that they held meetings with various departments to ensure convergence and
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smooth implementation of the scheme whenever needed. Odisha also has committees at all
level and the state and district level committees met on a quarterly basis while the block and
village level committees met once every month. In Assam too, committees have been formed
at all levels. One state level meeting and 16 district level meetings had been held by the end
of December 2012. At the block level, 137 meetings while at the village level, 4148 meetings
had been conducted.

Haryana had not had any state level meeting during our reference period but it reported
functioning committees at all four levels, and regular meetings from district level downwards.
At the village level 2199, at the block level 43, and at the district level six meetings had been
held over the year. Karnataka had committees at all levels and while only one meeting had
taken place at the state level, as many as 17,287 meetings had been conducted at the village
level over the preceding year. Nine meetings had been conducted at the district level and 57
at the block level in the same period. In Maharashtra, district and block level meetings were
held on a monthly basis while at the village level, meetings were organised as per
requirement. Committees were functioning at all levels, but we received no information
regarding state level meetings.

Functioning committees at all levels were also reported by Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu,
Uttar Pradesh and Tripura. The number and frequency of meetings held at each level varied
from state to state. Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh reported for state level meetings each while
Punjab, Rajasthan and Tripura reported only one meeting at the state level. At the district
level, four meetings had taken place in Tripura and Uttar Pradesh while Punjab had
conducted six meetings and Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu reported and ten and twelve meetings
respectively. However Punjab and Rajasthan did not report any village level meetings. At the
block level, Punjab had conducted 22 meetings and Rajasthan had conducted 80 meetings by
December 2012. Tamil Nadu reported 12 meetings at both levels. In Tripura, 23 meetings had
taken place at the block level and 1962 meetings at the village level. Uttar Pradesh where the
non-nutrition component of the scheme was yet to start only four block level meetings and 12
village level had been conducted. Bihar reported no functioning committees or meetings by
the end of December 2012.

On a daily basis, the responsibility for monitoring is divided vertically between various
functionaries of the relevant implementing department responsible for implantation of the
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scheme. The supervision/monitoring mechanism operates at all the levels. The lowest level of
supervision is the circle level consisting of few Gram Panchayats where a supervisor is
responsible for the information provided by the Anganwadi Centres under her control. Above
at the block level, the Block Level Officer is responsible for the entire block level data. The
next level is the district, at which the district coordinator is responsible for supervision,
monitoring and compilation of all programme data for the district. At the state level, the
entire data for the state is to be checked, and then, these are forwarded to the headquarters.
The Anganwadi Workers are required to maintain registers at the Anganwadi Centres, and fill
Monthly Progress Reports. Supervisors interviewed mentioned that they prepare the project
wise/ village wise distribution of AGs and also submit the Monthly & Quarterly Progress
Reports in the prescribed formats to the District Project Officers. All the CDPOs reported that
they receive the Monthly Progress reports from the projects assigned to them, which they
consolidate and submit to the State Nodal Officers every quarter through Quarterly Progress
Reports.

In terms of compliance, findings show that the State of Haryana shared the MPRs for 12
months and QPRs for the same period. In the state of Andhra Pradesh, for West Godavari
district, the MPRs shared were of different formats for different months. A few MPRs include
the Utilization Certificates while the others don’t. There is a break-up of amount spent on
Nutrition and Non Nutrition components. Few months reports indicate availability of the
various services while for other months they project no figures. In the MPRs of West
Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh for example, over the period of March, April, May, and
July 2012, the figures for girls recorded with “Normal BMI” were 94953, 94953, 94953 and
83318, while the number recorded as “Malnourished” remain constant at 324. There is no
explanation for this variation. MPRs of Ambala District, Haryana State conform to the
prescribed formats. Data on all the components is well-captured. As per the Utilization
Certificate submitted for the July – September 2012, the amount spent was reported to be
only on the Nutrition component. It is observed that funds are not being utilised for the non-
nutrition component.

In Maharashtra, Monthly Progress Reports were reported to be prepared irregularly as they


were time-consuming. QPR for Jan – Mar 2012 that was shared with the study team
conformed to the guidelines. Ithas been observed that the funds were utilised for both
nutrition & non-nutrition components. The report also indicates non-issue of IFA tablets and

99
non-conduct of any health check-ups. Counselling sessions on nutrition, health, family
welfare, ARSH, life skills education & exposure visits were conducted according to the QPR.
Information on monitoring committees meetings at different levels is not reported. In the
state of Odisha, for Bargarh district the MPR (Dec 2012) submitted was not as per the
guidelines. It had details of the vendors supplying the THR, number of beneficiaries,
Quantity supplied and Amount to be paid for the THR to the vendors. QPRs were not
available. Also other information on the malnourishment, and non nutrition component were
not filled in the forms.

In the state of Odisha, for ‘Mayurbhanj’ district the MPR (Dec 2012) submitted was as per
the format with data properly entered, challenges captured, and corrective actions
documented. FGDs and key informant interviews with officials gave us an insight into the
many areas that could use improvement. Almost all anganwadi workers interviewed
expressed difficulty of filling the Monthly Progress Reports on time and said that they would
try to fill them all up together. They felt overburdened with time and activity commitments
of the various schemes. As per the formats currently in use, heath Check-ups and referrals
are not separately captured.

For Sabla, there are monthly formats designed for regular reporting. In the assessment, it was
found that these were filled up in different ways in different centres. From some states we
found only the financial information captured with no details of activities. Regarding
monitoring, one CDPO shared difficulties in collecting information and completing the
format with regularity. They said, “Sometimes we face problem of not getting data from the
centres on time. This is a regular problem. Another problem being the MIS format is
difficult to fill up.” A District Programme Coordinator (DPC) referring to irregular reporting
system and lack of monitoring, said, “Reporting system is irregular and monitoring is not
done properly at their level. Timely data does not come from different departments. Due to
irregular reporting system, we are not able to ensure that effective services are provided to
adolescents. Monthly monitoring formats are given, but nobody fills indicators or variables.
Most columns are left blank.” There were also human resources problems that posed a
barrier, as a Supervisor expressed, “I don’t know if my contract will be extended… so how
much can I do? I also have small children.”

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Limitations in uniform availability of infrastructure such as computers proved to be a major
hurdle in some AWCs and districts. Several of the district officers expressed, “We are
supposed to fill them online. But there is no proper internet facility. Even to give you
information, I went to a cyber café. But that is because I am in the district headquarters. We
don’t have computers in some of our offices. And if we do, some of our officers have not been
trained to use them.” Another expressed, “And there is power problem. We don’t have back
up. We have to go to the field, and also do this… I take the help of my son who is studying to
fill up at night.” State official receive monthly reports from centres, but it has been difficult
to monitor the programme. A District official from Odisha expressed that there are work
burdens and delays to contend with. “Reports come to me and I send them to the State
Programme Officer, and I have to verify everything on paper and then enter it in the system
and then send it. This takes time. If we have a system where we fill the formats online at the
block level, it will help.”

In addition to official monitoring through formats and visits, there were some interesting
models of community-based monitoring that had evolved. In every AWC in Sardar-5, Bihar,
procurement committees have been formed. These comprised of beneficiaries and
Anganwadi staff. The beneficiaries were represented either by mothers of Sabla girls or by
pregnant and lactating women who were also receiving nutrition from the AWC. The groups
procured the ration locally. An arrangement as this ensured social audit and guaranteed
quality of supplies. A Supervisor informed us, “Quality is not compromised. But since
Government rates are fixed, when we do not get ration within that rate, we cut down on the
quantity. If the local shops charge Rs 90/kg for soya nuggets, then we procure only 200 gms.
Quantity gets compromised a bit. But we have done this for a year now and there has not
been much problem in implementing this section of the scheme.”

Building Capacity of Functionaries

The National Institute for Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD) is the nodal
agency appointed for building the capacity of the ICDS system to implement Sabla. This
includes 2 functions: developing knowledge products including training module, training kits,
materials and curriculum; organising training at various levels including training-of-trainers

101
and of functionaries. NIPCCD had conducted training programs for different levels of the
ICDS functionaries like the DPO, DD, PD, PC, CDPO, Supervisor, Trainers and others for all
the states. The scheme provides that while NIPCCD would organise the training of trainers of
MLTCs and AWTCs, they, in turn, would train the supervisors and AWWs. States have the
responsibility to ensure that the supervisors and AWWs are provided training on Sabla by the
trainers trained at NIPCCD/Regional Centres. A total of 672 functionaries were trained in
2010 – 2012 including 74 DPOs/DDs/PDs/PC; 168 CDPOs; 84 Supervisors; and 314
Trainers of AWTCs/ MLTCs/ STIs.

In a few states officers at all the levels had undergone training while in few others
functionaries only at one or two levels had attended the training. In the states chosen for the
study:

(a) 30 functionaries, covering all levels were trained in AP


(b) 15Trainers from Assam
(c) 21 trainers from Bihar
(d) 20 DPO/DD/PD/PC, CDPO and Trainers from Haryana
(e) 71 of all levels from Karnataka
(f) 24 DPO/DD/PD/PC, CDPO and Trainers from Kerala
(g) 40 CDPO, Supervisors and trainers from Maharashtra
(h) 16 trainers in Odisha
(i) 10 DPO/DD/PD/PC, CDPO and Trainers from Punjab
(j) 44 functionaries, covering all levels from Rajasthan
(k) 37 functionaries, covering all levels from Tamil Nadu
(l) 76 functionaries from all levels from Uttar Pradesh

Looking at other parts of the country, until December 2012, functionaries from Andaman &
Nicobar Islands, Dadra Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu and Lakshadweep had not received any
such training. Around 111 Master Trainers from across states were trained about the
components, conditionalities, benefits etc of the scheme at the regional centres of NIPCCD.
A number of training sessions conducted differed from state to state. Only one training
session was held in Andhra Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka reported holding two
training sessions so far. In Rajasthan, it is reported that the training sessions are held four
times a month while in Tamil Nadu, they are being held once in every five days.

In Karnataka, three State Level Master trainers attended one training programme spread over
three days in 2010-11 by NIPCCD; nine DPOs and 57 CDPOs were similarly trained over the
next two financial years. In 2011-12, three DPOs and 31 CDPOs were trained while in the

102
following year six DPOs and 26 CDPOs received NIPCCD training. All supervisors had been
given a one-day block level training by the department. 430 supervisors were covered in
2011-12 and 232 were covered in the next year. AWWs are being trained at the block and
cluster level and 17287 AWWs have been reportedly trained for Sabla. Training programmes
are being planned for new ICDS functionaries.

I have not attended any training for Sabla. We were all briefly
oriented on the scheme by our higher authorities. I manage. I read
online material on the scheme and consulted the Scheme
Guidelines and pamphlets when I get any doubt.
CDPO, Peddapadu,
West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh

In Andhra Pradesh, supervisors and AWWs were being recruited to fill vacant posts in
February 2013 when we investigated the field. The induction training of supervisors had been
scheduled for 2013 April-May. Freshly recruited AWWs are also reportedly being trained for
Sabla as part of their induction training. About 26,184 AWWs and 3338 AWHs had already
been briefed in 2012-13 by supervisors and CDPOs in their monthly meetings. Most CDPOs
and ACDPOs were yet to receive training. Only 71 officials in this level had been trained by
NIPCCD and Swati. In 2011-12, only six CDPO level training programmes took place.
Others were trained in 2012-13. The State has only two master trainers at the DPO level who
were both trained at NIPCCD in 2011-12. The CDPO of Peddapadu informed us that she had
not had any training for Sabla and she was managing with the help of orientation programmes
that she had attended and by studying online material on the scheme. She consulted the
Scheme Guidelines and pamphlets in doubt.

In Uttar Pradesh, in 2011-12, 22 DPOs, 66 state level master trainers and 256 CDPOs
attended training organised by NIPCCD while 1186 supervisors were trained by UNICEF and
AMS. The state also arranged training for 52,173 AWWs and AWHs. In Rajasthan, training
had been provided by NIPCCD, UNFPA, IIHMR, DWE and the state Government. NIPCCD
trained 12 master trainers for the state in 2010-11, and ten master trainers each in 2011-12
and 2012-13. A total of 35 master trainers were trained by UNFPA and IIHMR in 2012-13,
while the State Government itself trained 121 master trainers in 2011-12. Ten DPOs were
trained in 2011-12 by the State Government and DWE. In 2011-12, 712 supervisors were
trained at the Block level along with 3350 Sathins. While 21,929 AWWs were trained in

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2011-12, no AWH has received any training in this state. About 64 Prachetas were trained in
2011-12 at the District Head Quarters. About 114 CDPOs had thus far received training
between 2011 and 2013 at their respective District Head Quarters. In Tamil Nadu, Sabla
functionaries at different levels were trained in 2011-12 with 31 master trainers receiving
training at NIPCCD in 2011-12 along with nine DPOs. 139 CDPOs, 16,607 AWWs and 543
supervisors were trained in the state by ICDS master trainers with the help of UNICEF.

In Tripura in the year 2011-12, two DPOs and 11 CDPOs received training at the district
level through NIPCCD trainers while five CDPOs had been trained prior to this in 2010-11
while two more were trained in 2012-13. All these training programmes were three days long.
Three-day programmes organised by NIPCCD were attended by ten state level master
trainers. During 2010-11, one Deputy Director and three Supervisors were trained as master
trainers. In 2011-12, training was extended to three more supervisors and three MNGOs. In
2012-13, two CDPOs and four supervisors were trained as master trainers. Apart from these,
18120 supervisors have been trained at the district level by NIPCCD trainers over 2010-2013
with the duration of training varying between one to three days. Among AWWs, 70 were
trained in AWTCs in 2010-11, while 244 were trained in AWTCs during the following year
(2011-12). The training is in the process of being extended to AWHs. Assam reported that 14
DPOs, 78 CDPOs and 318 supervisors received training through NIPCCD during 2011-12.
A total of 7012 AWWs who are implementing the scheme were trained at the project level
during 2011-12 and 6575 in the year 2012-13. The training programmes in the states of
Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were irregular in nature.

20
21 Supervisors were trained in 2010-11, 156 in 2011-12 and 4 in 2012-13.

104
Table 5.2: Number of Master Trainers for SABLA
State/District DPO/DD/PD CDPO Supervisors Trainer of Others Total
/PC AWTCs/M
LTCs/STI
Andhra Pradesh 2 7 1 20 - 30
Arunachal 1 - - 9 - 10
Pradesh
Assam - - - 15 - 15
Bihar - - - 21 - 21
Chandigarh - - 9 - - 9
Chattisgarh 6 4 15 1 2 28
Delhi 2 8 1 4 - 15
Goa - 5 - - - 5
Gujarat 2 3 1 9 1 16
Haryana 4 5 - 11 - 20
Himachal Pradesh 3 6 8 1 3 21
Jammu & 6 4 - 1 - 11
Kashmir
Jharkhand 2 10 - 14 1 27
Karnataka 7 15 20 14 15 71
Kerala 5 14 - 5 - 24
Lakshadweep - - - - -
Madhya Pradesh 2 20 12 19 - 53
Maharashtra - 15 6 19 - 40
Manipur - - - 16 - 16
Meghalaya 3 4 5 6 - 18
Mizoram - - - 2 - 2
Nagaland - 8 - - - 8
Odisha - - - 16 - 16
Puducherry 1 - - - - 1
Punjab 3 2 - 5 - 10
Rajasthan 11 8 3 22 - 44
Sikkim - - - 2 - 2
Tamil Nadu 6 26 1 4 - 37
Tripura - - - 10 - 10
Uttar Pradesh 9 1 2 56 8 76
Uttarakhand - 3 - - - 3
West Bengal 1 - - 12 - 13
Total 76 168 84 314 30 672
Source: NIPCCD

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The training sessions covered several dimensions of the scheme and attempts to impart
training of trainers and build the capacity of functionaries to be able to offer services
including counselling and monitor the scheme by covering, inter alia, the following topics:

 Situational analysis of Adolescent Girls in India


 SABLA Scheme
 Health & Nutrition component
 Awareness of legal rights
 Adolescent Reproduction and Sexual Health
 Monitoring & Supervision of SABLA
 Life skills & Leadership module
 Time management
 Home management
 Guidance on accessing public services including RTI.

SABLA Training Modules were published by NIPCCD and distributed among the following:

 WCD Secretaries of all states and UTs (five copies each)


 Social Welfare Secretaries of all states and UTs (five copies each)
 Directors dealing with WCD/ Social Welfare of all states and UTs (five copies each)
 Regional centres of NIPCCD (ten copies each)
 AWTCs/MLTCs (two copies each) through the Department of Posts, Government of
India.

During interviews, several of the AWWs, Supervisors and CDPOs expressed that they did not
feel they had received adequate training in all aspects of the scheme implementation and
monitoring, especially on establishing convergence, organising meetings, and motivating
parents and AGs. In Amravati, for instance, CDPOs expressed that despite receiving
training, there were many barriers to implementing the scheme for them. They were not clear
on how the different services of the non-nutrition component were to be implemented.
Certain government decisions, like the SC stay on THR also affect the scheme. “Girls came
regularly to take THR. But now it has stopped. Due to cultural reasons they hesitate to come
to the AWC for HCM. But once a component is stalled one does not know when it would
restart and how.” They expressed the need for more frequent training and experience sharing
exercises where they could learn from one another on overcoming challenges. In addition,
providing the counselling component was found to be quite demanding on their time. They
also felt that they had not received adequate training on ways to motivate adolescent girls and
their parents to come to the Anganwadi Centre on a regular basis. Many CDPOs also
expressed that there was not adequate motivation on the part of Anganwadi workers due to
lack of incentives, and on the part of the AGs for the same reason.

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Convergence with Other Departments

In its very design, Sabla envisions a convergent model of several services being provided by
different departments. Sabla’s successful implementation is contingent upon effective and
seamless coordination between different and departments at all including Health, Education,
Youth Affairs, Labour & Employment and PRI. The guidelines require that the Monitoring
and Supervision committees at the State, District, Block/Project and Village levels make
convergent micro‐plans with concerned departments at all levels for effective implementation
of the scheme.

Convergence with Health Department


Convergence with Health Department is vital as four of the seven services under the scheme,
i.e. Distribution of IFA Supplementation, Health check-ups and Referral services, Nutrition
and Health Education, and Family Welfare and ARSH services, are to be provided in
convergence with the schemes of the Departments of Health & Family Welfare and AIDS
Control. Sabla implementation guidelines (p.17) suggest convergence with the Reproductive
& Child Health II (RCH‐II) programme of the Department of Health & Family Welfare and
elaborate on the action to be taken in case of each of these services. In States / UTs where
the menstrual hygiene programme is being implemented through the Water & Sanitation
Department, Sabla officials need to seek convergence accordingly.

One indicator of convergence is whether the required IFA supplementation is being provided
by the Health Department. In the Southern states of Tamil Nadu21 and Andhra Pradesh, the
IFA tablets were being provided by the Health Department. In Karnataka, the Health
Department was only partially involved, and the state spent some amount out of the Sabla
budget to procure IFA tablets. In Uttar Pradesh, IFA supplementation had been given to 2.5
lakh AGs by the Health Department. In Assam, IFA supplementation for ISGs was being
addressed by the Adolescent Anaemia Control Programme implemented by the State
Department of Education in collaboration with the NRHM and UNICEF in four out of eight
Sabla districts of Kamrup, Darrang, Dibrugarh and Jorhat. In Tripura, out of the targeted

21
According to Tamil Nadu State Government report, in all its 16607 AWCs, IFA supplementation was being
provided by the Health Department.

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63,573 beneficiaries who were to be given IFA supplementation, 54,614 were being covered
by the Health Department. For the year 2013-14, the state has projected a target of 59,443
AGs and intends to follow WIFS22 strictly. In Bihar, convergence has been reported by state
government reports, and tablets were distributed twice a year to girls by the Health
Department.

Availability of Health Personnel on Kishori Diwas is another crucial indicator of


convergence. KIIs with ICDS and Health functionaries and beneficiaries from the evaluated
states confirmed that health personnel actively participated on Kishori Diwas. It was usually
held on the same day as the Village Health and Nutrition Day. In Uttar Pradesh, health check-
ups of over four lakh23 AGs were carried out by the Health Department on Kishori Diwas. In
Andhra Pradesh, health personnel took the lead and educated and counselled girls on health
and related issues on not only Kishori Diwas but also during the WIFS week. In Assam, the
Sub-divisional Medical and Health Officer, Block level medical officers, personnel at PHCs,
ANMs and LHVs all actively involved themselves in the Kishori Diwas celebration.

Convergence with Department of Health for the ARSH component has worked well in all
states except in Bihar and Punjab. In Assam, the Department of Social Welfare and
Department of Health and Family Welfare held a joint meeting24 at the state level in which it
was decided that IFA and de-worming tablets would be provided under NRHM, Kishori
Diwas would be celebrated on a day separate from the VHND, counselling would also focus
on ARSH, special IEC/BCC would be arranged for menstrual hygiene and NRHM would
send a list of MNGO/FNGO engaged in ARSH. In Andhra Pradesh, 136 ARSH clinics have
been started in 2012-13. ARSH clinics have also been started in Uttar Pradesh and monthly
convergence meetings were being conducted with the Health Department. In Tamil Nadu,
RTI clinic services are being provided every Friday. In Rajasthan, ARSH sessions are being
conducted in Kishori Samoohs by health personnel. The DPO of Ambala, Haryana also
reported a similar practice of inviting health experts to conduct training on ARSH. Rajasthan
has also signed an MoU with an NGO, Swasthya, in the three Sabla districts of Jaipur,
Bikaner and Bhilwara to ensure effective implementation of ARSH. Convergence meetings
are regularly being held in Rajasthan at State, District and Block level. The ARSH sessions in

22
Weekly Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Programme for Adolescents
23
4,08,985 girls as per State and Central Government Reports
24
Meeting was held on the 4th of June 2011

108
the state are conducted at the AWC in coordination with ANM and ASHA using training kits.
The Training-of-Trainers (ToT) of master trainers on ARSH has been conducted with the
support of UNFPA at Indian Institute for Health Management and Research (IIHMR).
Capacity building of AWW, Saathin ANM, ASHA and Sakhi-Saheli has also been organised.
In Tripura, ASHA workers from Department of Health have been directed to visit AWCs
regularly to support Sabla activities.

Convergence with the Education System


The role of education in ensuring the empowerment of adolescent girls is critical. The
pervasive presence of the public education system at the village level following Sarva
Shiksha Abhiyan and the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE) increases the
possibility and scope of convergence with the Department of Education. Towards this goal,
the functionaries and officials implementing Sabla are recommended to ensure convergence
with Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, KGBVs25, AEP26, Mahila Samakhya Programme27 and Sakshar
Bharat28 wherever these programmes are implemented alongside Sabla. The guidelines (p.18)
suggest that the peer educators under the AEP be made a part of the Kishori Samoohs formed
under Sabla.

The Right to Education Act entitles all 11 to 14 year old children to be in school and Sabla (p.
17) seeks to be an ideal platform to enable, motivate OOSGs adolescent girls and to enrol
them either in schools or in a suitable non‐formal education by making them aware of the
many benefits of schooling. The District Level Committee for Sabla monitors convergence
and progress in terms of enrolment of OOSGs in regular schools and non‐formal education
centres. The OOSGs include girls who dropped out of school or those who have never been
to school. The school authorities assess these girls and determine the appropriate class they
can be enrolled in accordingly. Convergence mechanisms suggested require school
functionaries to be inducted as members of the District, Project and Village level committees.

25
Over 3800 KGBVs or Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas have been set up for girls belonging to
SC/ST/minority and poor communities
26
Adolescence Education Programme
27
Mahila Samakhya Programme is being implemented in 105 districts in 10 states across the country
28
Shakshar Bharat was launched in 2009 as the recast national literacy initiative with special focus on females

109
They are invited to address OOSGs on pre-determined days or on Kishori Diwas to motivate
and enrol them.

Convergence with the Education System is of crucial significance in places where AWCs
infrastructure limitations especially spatial inadequacies. In all such AWCs, the guidelines
recommend that the school premises be used to implement Sabla and the State Governments
are to coordinate with the education department to decide and earmark specific spaces and
timings for non-nutrition Sabla sessions.

Our study found a mixed picture across the 12 states in the implementation of the school
mainstreaming component. The KIIs we conducted indicate that most CDPOs and
supervisors were involved in mainstreaming of girls. With the lone exception of Maharashtra,
in all states a list of OOSGs had been given to the Education Department. Reports obtained
from Karnataka indicate that steps were being taken to mainstream OOSGs into formal/non-
formal education through linkages with the Department of Education. Sakhi-Sahelis had
been trained to identify OOSGs in Kishori Samoohs and encourage them to get back to
school. The list of OOSGs had been sent to the Department of Education, Govt. of Karnataka
and district officers concerned have been directed by state authorities to ensure that all
OOSGs are enrolled either in formal school or in non-formal camps. School functionaries and
Education Department officials visited the AWCs on Kishori Diwas and encouraged girls to
join schools.

In most other states, school functionaries and officials from the Education Department
appeared to be involved in the Kishori Diwas celebrations that were serving as a platform to
motivate girls to rejoin school. In Andhra Pradesh, a total of 88,576 AGs were listed as
OOSGs and CDPOs reported that they were coordinating with Mandal (Block) Education
Officers (MEOs) and District Education Officers (DEOs). We were also told that Mandal
Level Special Officers, District Officers, MEOs and NGOs visited AGs and motivated them
to join school. In Assam, groups of girls were being counselled at the AWCs about benefits
of schooling and figures indicate that 12,782 girls have already been mainstreamed. Further
the State Education Department has been requested to devise a mechanism to mainstream the
OOSGs through existing programmes like SSA, bridge schools and open schools. In Tripura,
out of a total of 59,443 AGs identified as OOSGs, 41,785 girls have been motivated to join
school.

110
A major problem in Karnataka is that OOSGs when enrolled were either permanent
absentees or extremely irregular. (KII)

Key informants from Uttar Pradesh underscored that linkages have been established with the
Department of Education. The DPOs, CDPOs were regularly visiting the AWCs to promote
OOSGs to join school. According to informants from Haryana, 1151 AGs were mainstreamed
on Kishori Diwas by school functionaries who attended the function and motivated girls. In
the neighbouring state of Punjab, 12,137 girls were reportedly mainstreamed over the last
three years. During the same period, in Odisha, 506 AGs had been mainstreamed while in
Bihar, the state government was in the process of signing a Memorandum of Understanding
(MoU) with the Bihar Board of Open Schooling for mainstreaming of girls. Interviews from
Rajasthan reveal that convergence meetings were regularly being held and directions and
information was being sent to field functionaries through Sabla modules. In Block meetings,
officials from the Department of Education were regularly given lists of OOSGs who were to
be enrolled. The PRIs in Rajasthan were taking keen interest in enrolling girls in schools.
They were actively involved in the motivation and monitoring process. These efforts had
resulted in mainstreaming of 28,246 AGs in the state. Specific information was not available
from other states regarding OOSGs.

We motivate them to join school …


CDPO, Dharwad, Karnataka

It (mainstreaming of girls) is one of our main aims and we do whatever we can


in this regard.
DPO, Dharwad, Karnataka

111
Convergence with Youth Affairs

Sabla recognizes the importance of peer groups and LSE and seeks to leverage these through
Kishori Samoohs and Sakhi-Saheli training programmes. AGs chosen as Sakhis and Sahelis
are trained in under the LSE extended by the Department of Youth Affairs utilizing the funds
earmarked for the same. The National Programme for Youth and Adolescent Development
(NPYAD) and the existing youth / teen clubs that have been started in two blocks of selected
64 districts across the country under the Adolescent Health Development Project of
Department of Youth Affairs and Sports are involved to create awareness for Sabla in
overlapping districts. No specific details about LSE were provided by the states. All
counselling was reported as a combined figure.

Convergence with Labour and Employment Department


Enhancement in employability is one of the most desired outputs in any youth empowerment
programme and more so when AGs are concerned as it directly addresses financial
independence and opens up other possibilities. However, a large number of OOSGs,
especially in rural areas and urban slums lack access to skill development that severely
reduce and limit their employability. Sabla beneficiaries are eligible for training under
Modular Employable Skills (MES) of Skill Development Initiative Scheme (SDIS). MES
seeks to provide employable skills to school drop-outs, existing workers, ITI graduates and
others.

Sabla beneficiaries are eligible for vocational training provided by various Vocational
Training Providers (VTP) under Central and State Governments, Public and Private Sector
and Industrial establishments. An amount of Rs. 30,000/‐ per project per annum has been
earmarked to partly compensate the fee component charged under the training programmes.
The objective of this convergence is to create an atmosphere that enables AGs to enhance
their information base and skills and seek suitable livelihood options to lead more
empowering lives.

112
The implementation of convergence in the delivery of the vocational training component29
showed varied observations across States. In Andhra Pradesh, 3,994 villages have VTPs
within a radius of five kilometres which could train 1.2 lakh eligible AGs. However, there
were 1.6 lakh eligible Sabla girls across 4652 villages unreached by VTPs. Most NGOs/
Private training Centres were reluctant to impart vocational training free of cost. State ITIs
provided training for individuals over the age of 18 years of age, and the Sabla beneficiaries
were ineligible as per their existing norms. In neighbouring Karnataka, 1410 VTPs and in
Tamil Nadu, 9557 VTPs have been identified. In Tamil Nadu, 32 Government ITIs and 53
VTPs had been approved under NSDP. In Karnataka, KVT and SDC were providing training
through VTPs. NSDI and private institutes had also been involved. From our KIIs we learnt
that while on one hand private ITI and Polytechnic fees were too high to fit the meagre
allocation of Rs 30,000, on the other, even when arrangements were made girls did not attend
the training regularly. From the demand side, irregular attendance was also a major problem
in Tamil Nadu.

KIIs reported that when the Sabla officials in Maharashtra approached ITI as per State
Government directions, they were informed that the ITI could not take the AGs as they failed
to meet various ITI eligibility criteria such as the attainment of 18 years of age required by
some courses. One of our key informants at the district office, Amravati added that as the
DPO did not have permission to approach any other NGO they were unable to implement the
vocational training component. In Odisha, 3513 VTPs had been identified within the five
kilometres radius range and 18604 AGs were found in the villages covered by these VTPs.
Girls were being trained in batches of 15 for a period of four months in various trades. Sabla
functionaries reported that they had established convergence with Handicrafts and Cottage
Industries Department to involve DICs in the provision. The amount earmarked by Centre
was clearly insufficient and KIIs reported that Rs 50,000 were being spent in each block on
the vocational training component through contribution from the State government. Despite
such efforts from the State Government, there were AGs who were irregular to these training
programmes. According to the ICDS supervisor of Sritadganj in Mayurbhanj, one reason for
low motivation among AGs could be that they received no stipend to attend the training.
Those AGs in paid employment felt reluctant to forego their wages to attend sessions. The
training, though, beneficial did not automatically translate into jobs and often the girls had no

29
Much of this information was provided to us during April-May 2013 after our reference period by state
governments. We have included this in the discussion here to ensure the continued relevance of the report.

113
money to invest in entrepreneurial ventures of their own. All these factors contributed to low
attendance and irregularity in the training sessions.

We approached the ITI but our girls don’t meet their criteria because they are
not 18 years old and so don’t get admission. We don’t have orders to
approach NGOs so our hands are tied.
KII, Amravati District Office , Maharashtra

We are trying to install some small machines in our AWCs and hire lady
trainers trained by ITI, but the problem is that we do not have much
autonomy at our level.
DPO, Ambala, Haryana

In Bihar, steps were being taken to impart vocational training through the Bihar Board of
Open Schooling and Education (BBOSE). Punjab reported identification of 540 VTPs to
train 4724 AGs. In Haryana, 397 VTPs have been selected and 1718 girls have been listed
eligible for vocational training. Meetings were been held in Haryana to ensure effective
convergence. The DPO of Ambala reported that ITIs did not impart training at the village
level, and parents in Haryana were reluctant to send their daughters outside the village. This
presented a significant challenge in implementing the vocational training component. Sabla
functionaries in the district of Ambala had organised beauticians’ and tailoring courses, and
were in the process of organizing training on Arts and Crafts and making folk toys. “These
small training programmes work as they can be organized at the village level and we can
show parents what we are doing. In our state, they do not send girls out,” remarked the DPO
of Ambala. She added, “… we are trying to install some small machines in our AWCs and
hire lady trainers trained by ITI, but the problem is that we do not have much autonomy at
our level.” POs and CDPOs cannot hire local individuals to impart vocational training as per

114
the scheme’s guidelines. A key informant in the DPO office, Amaravati added that the
budget was low “…thread and material costs amount to nearly Rs 20,000 and what can we
do with just Rs 30,000 a year!”

Assam also did not have any VTPs at the village level and the government approached ITI,
Girls Polytechnic and VTPs at the district level to impart training. Non-availability of VTPs
was a major problem in several states especially in the North East. Tripura also faced a
similar problem and only five villages with VTPs within a five kilometre radius, leaving 4617
villages. About 207 girls have reportedly been trained in Tripura. Convergence meetings
were being held with Department of Labour and Employment to discuss solutions. In
Rajasthan, 5,954 Sabla villages had VTPs in a five kilometre radius, but 11,559 villages with
1.7 lakh AGs were unreached. The State Government was collaborating with RKCL,
Swavlamban and other NGOs. Fifty-five girls have been linked with the NSDP at Jodhpur.
Shortage of VTPs that fulfil the criterion and selected girls not specifying their trade
preference were the main problems for Sabla functionaries in this state. Uttar Pradesh had
only 139 villages with VTPs within the five kilometre radius.

The problem of large numbers of Sabla beneficiaries unreached by VTPs on the supply side,
and reluctance on the part of parents to allow their daughters to attend off-site training on the
demand-side combine to create a significant barrier in ensuring the skilling of adolescent girls
for economically productive activities. Creative solutions such as village-level vocational
training through the use of local or mobile providers, involvement of NGOs, and other
models need to be explored.

Involvement of PRIs
Involvement of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) in creating awareness for Sabla and to
mobilize the community around adolescent girls’ concerns is crucial. PRIs can also help
resolve infrastructure shortcomings in some cases. Scheme Guidelines (p.19) recommend that
the DPOs and the CDPOs establish coordination with PRI members in areas where the AWCs
have inadequate infrastructural facilities for the AGs and use spaces like Panchayat Bhavan
and Community Hall for Sabla activities, and involve them in Kishori Diwas celebrations and
IEC activities. Interviews with key informants including PRIs indicate that in the state of
Rajasthan the PRIs are taking interest in Sabla and attend review meetings and convergence
meetings are being conducted in the state with Nodal officers of concerned departments.
115
Events like “Meri Niti Meri Awaz” was celebrated on International Girl Child Day in 2012.
Girl Child Week and Women’s Day are also being celebrated on a regular basis. Information
from other states was not as detailed.

Involvement of NGOs and SHGs


Examining the involvement of NGOs in different states, we found that in Assam, NGOs were
involved in implementation of both nutrition and the non-nutrition components. NGOs
supplied THR for the state which included supply of dal, green peas, fuel and condiments. An
MoU has also been signed with 37 selected NGOs to train Sakhi-Sahelis and impart LSE and
NHE locally across the state. In Andhra Pradesh, NGOs are involved in the implementation
of the non-nutrition component. In West Godavari District, NGOs supporting Sabla include
Social Service Organisation in Eluru, World Vision in Narsapuram, Kavuri Foundation in
Kovvuru, and SPARK in JR Gudam. All these NGOs were involved in imparting Sakhi-
Saheli training, LSE, Guidance for Family Welfare, Guidance for Child Care Practices and
Home-Management, NHE and ToT of field functionaries. Government organisations like
Telugu Bala Mahila Pragati Pranganam (TBMPP) monitor and supervise the functioning of
these organisations. The Sabla Kit for Andhra Pradesh has been developed by the Durgabai
Deshmukh Andhra Mahila Sabha NGO based in Hyderabad.

In Karnataka, four NGOs namely MYRADA, Karnataka Health Promotion Trust, Vidyaranya
Education and Development Society, and Sneha Education and Development Society were
involved in the delivery of Sabla and in imparting training to Sabla girls on LSE, ARSH,
NHE and on accessing public services. In Tamil Nadu, only two private organisations had
been involved in Sabla, namely, CSE Computer Centre, and Brindhambigai Industrial
Training Institute for vocational training, while other components were being implemented
with the support of government departments. Both organizations imparted training in basic
computer skills, embroidery, tailoring, nursing and catering. Support was also being rendered
by the ITI in the field of vocational training.

In Maharashtra, NGOs had been involved on a pilot basis in 2011-12 in some districts, and in
the following year, all capacity building activities were undertaken by concerned departments
of the State government or resource persons. ICDS supervisors were trained as per this plan
and developed as master trainers. Odisha also reported employing different NGOs in
116
different districts. In Mayurbhanj, RDHE was delivering ARSH training. In Hoshiarpur
district of Punjab the Shahid Bhagat Singh Krantikari Society, and National Youth
Development Centre (with support from Nehru Yuva Centre) are involved in capacitating
training of trainers. Local resource persons, retired government lecturers and officials from
relevant Government departments were engaged to provide guidance on health, nutrition and
education related matters. In Tripura and UP no NGOs were reportedly involved in
delivering the non-nutrition Sabla component. In Rajasthan partnerships have been
established with NGOs like Swaasthya for capacity building of field functionaries in sector
meetings, and to design Sabla Kits (Chetna, NGO).

Financial Performance

The financial allocations for Sabla Scheme over 2011-12 was 80,486 lakh rupees, out of
which 84.3% (67,854 lakh rupees) was allocated for the nutrition component, while a
significantly lower 12,637.6 lakh rupees or 15.7% was allocated for the non-nutrition
component. The following year, the overall allocation was Rs. 76,245.7 lakh rupees
(excluding Lakshadweep, for which figures are not available), out of which nearly 89%
(67,708.2 lakh rupees) were for the nutrition component, and the remaining 8,537.4 lakh
rupees was for the non-nutrition component. The overall allocation for the scheme appears to
have reduced by about 5.6% while the allocation for the non-nutrition component appears to
have been reduced by nearly half (48%). This might be owing to the unspent balances and
savings as we see in the discussions that follow.

Table 5.3: Fund Allocation- National Overview


Financial Year 2011-12 2012-13 Increase/
Category in lakh rupees in lakh rupees Decrease (%)

Overall 80485.8 76245.7 -5.6

Nutrition 67853.9 67708.2 -0.2

Non- Nutrition 12637.6 8537.4 -48


Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

In terms of utilization, the overall utilization in 2011-12 was 64.9 % and in the following
year, 78% of the allocated funds were utilized. However, when we look at the components

117
separately, 67.6% and 82.2% of the nutrition component were utilized in 2011-12 and 2012-
13 respectively, only about half of the non-nutrition component funds were utilized at 50.1%
in 2011-12, and 44.9% funds in 2012-13. This depicts there is an overall low utilization of
the non-nutrition component funds across States.

Table 5.4: Fund Utilisation- National Overview (Total Amount)


Financial Year 2011-12 2012-13 Increase/
Category in lakh rupees in lakh rupees Decrease (%)

Overall 52226.3 59477.8 13.9

Nutrition 45895.6 55645 21.2

Non- Nutrition 6330.70 3832.73 -39.5


Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.5: Proportion of Allocation Utilised


Financial Year 2011-12 2012-13 Increase/
Category % % Decrease (%)
Overall 64.9 78.0 16.8
Nutrition 67.6 82.2 17.7
Non- Nutrition 50.1 44.9 -11.6
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of
India

Across the sampled states, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Rajasthan had the highest
fund allocations. This observation might be related to the savings or unspent balances in the
remaining states as discussed below.

Table 5.6: Fund Allocation under Sabla


Name of the State Total Allocation Total Allocation % Increase/
(2011-12) (2012-13) Decrease in Total
in lakh rupees in lakh rupees Allocation
Rajasthan 4163.6 4258.1 2.3
Andhra Pradesh 5223 4822.7 -7.7
Uttar Pradesh 15092.7 13812.0 -8.5
Odisha 3936.4 3506.3 -10.9
Karnataka 3731.3 3003.3 -19.5
Assam 2611.8 1796.4 -31.2
Tamil Nadu 3586.3 2255.7 -37.1
Maharashtra 6525.7 3397.6 -47.9
Tripura 695.4 395.8 -43.1

118
Haryana 1102.7 443.3 -59.8
Bihar 7855.5 3024.2 -61.5
Punjab 1276.1 483.5 -62.1
Source: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Figure 5.4: Total Allocation of Funds- Sample States


% Increase/Decrease in Total Allocation

10.0

0.0

Maharashtra
Karnataka
Rajasthan

Odisha

Haryana
Bihar
Andhra Pradesh

Punjab
Uttar Pradesh

Tripura
Assam
Tamil Nadu
-10.0

-20.0

-30.0
% Increase/
-40.0 Decrease in Total
Allocation
-50.0

-60.0

-70.0

Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of
India

In terms of utilization, all sample states showed an overall increase in utilization of funds,
with nearly all states showing over 100% utilisation – owing to addition of unspent balances
– except for Andhra Pradesh.

Table 5.7: Fund utilization under Sabla- Across the States


Name of the State Total Utilisation (2011-12) Total Utilisation (2012-13)
in lakh rupees in lakh rupees
Andhra Pradesh 908.9 3213.9
Maharashtra 1549.3 3397.6
Punjab 231.1 492.3
Odisha 2521.7 3850.2
Rajasthan 4283.9 4576.0
Bihar 2953.5 3114.7
Haryana 534.3 563.7
Uttar Pradesh 14212.2 13812.0

119
Karnataka 3578.4 3293.9
Tamil Nadu 3236.8 2519.8
Assam 2611.6 1944.6
Tripura 688.2 447.9
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.8: Utilisation over the Years- Across the States


Name of the State % Utilisation (2011-12) % Utilisation (2012-13) Increase/Decrease

Punjab 18.1 101.8 Increase


Maharashtra 23.7 100.0 Increase
Andhra Pradesh 17.4 66.6 Increase
Bihar 37.6 103.0 Increase
Haryana 48.5 127.2 Increase
Odisha 64.1 109.8 Increase
Tamil Nadu 90.3 111.7 Increase
Tripura 99.0 113.2 Increase
Karnataka 95.9 109.7 Increase
Assam 100.0 108.2 Increase
Uttar Pradesh 94.2 100.0 Increase
Rajasthan 102.9 107.5 Increase

Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of
India

Figure 5.5: % of Funds Utilised over the Years

Rajasthan
Uttar Pradesh
Assam
Karnataka
Tripura
Total Utilisation
Tamil Nadu (2012-13)
Odisha
Haryana Total Utilisation
(2011-12)
Bihar
Andhra…
Maharashtra
Punjab
0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0

Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of
India

120
Component-wise Fund Allocation and Utilisation for Sample States

In terms of the nutrition component, nearly all states recorded improvements in proportion of
funds utilised. Andhra Pradesh utilised 68.3% of funds in 2012-13 whereas it had only
utilised 10.9% in 2011-12. Odisha, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu
utilised 100% and above of funds allocated in 2012-13 including unspent balances, while
Tripura (98.5%) and Assam (97.7%) spent nearly the entire allocation. AP, Maharashtra
(60.9%), Haryana (49.1%), Bihar (50.3%) and Punjab (37.7%) were medium performers
utilizing between one-third to two-thirds of the allocated funds.

Table 5.9: Fund Allocation- Nutrition Component (Sample States)


allocation
Name of the state 2011-12 2012-13 % change
in lakh rupees in lakh rupees
Punjab 968.3 1281.18 32.3
Odisha 3212.5 3506.27 9.1
Maharashtra 5345.8 5578.54 4.4
Haryana 873 903.34 3.5
Rajasthan 3513.8 3594.19 2.3
Andhra Pradesh 4556.1 4378.13 -3.9
Uttar Pradesh 13633.5 12851.96 -5.7
Bihar 6852.3 6010.38 -12.3
Assam 2167.2 1839.41 -15.1
Tamil Nadu 2794.0 2256.44 -19.2
Tripura 535.8 401.86 -25.0
Karnataka 3406.4 2301.17 -32.4
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.10: Fund Utilisation - Nutrition Component (Sample States)


Name of the state 2011-12 2012-13
in lakh rupees in lakh rupees
Andhra Pradesh 498.5 2991.62
Maharashtra 1318.1 3397.64
Punjab 225.7 483.45
Odisha 2141.7 3506.27
Bihar 2284.7 3024.15
Rajasthan 3641.1 4258.11
Haryana 425 443.3
Uttar Pradesh 13756.7 13811.97
Karnataka 3406.4 3003.3
Tamil Nadu 2711.6 2255.65
Assam 2167 1796.39
Tripura 529.7 395.76

121
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.11: % of Allocation Utilised


Name of the state % utilisation in 2011-12 % utilisation in % change in utilisation
2012-13
Andhra Pradesh 10.9 68.3 524.5
Maharashtra 24.7 60.9 147.0
Punjab 23.3 37.7 61.9
Bihar 33.3 50.3 50.9
Odisha 66.7 100.0 50.0
Karnataka 100.0 130.5 30.5
Rajasthan 103.6 118.5 14.3
Uttar Pradesh 100.9 107.5 6.5
Tamil Nadu 97.1 100.0 3.0
Haryana 48.7 49.1 0.8
Tripura 98.9 98.5 -0.4
Assam 100.0 97.7 -2.3
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

122
Figure 5.6: Percentage of Allocation Utilised - Nutrition

97.7
Assam 100.0

98.5
Tripura 98.9

49.1
Haryana 48.7

100.0
Tamil Nadu 97.1

107.5
Uttar Pradesh 100.9

118.5
Rajasthan 103.6
% utilisation in 2012-13
130.5 % utilisation in 2011-12
Karnataka 100.0

100.0
Odisha 66.7

50.3
Bihar 33.3

37.7
Punjab 23.3

60.9
Maharashtra 24.7

68.3
Andhra Pradesh 10.9

0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 140.0

Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

In terms of unspent balances in the nutrition component, only north eastern states of Assam
and Tripura showed increases, whereas all other states showed a decrease in unspent
balances, which is a positive trend. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Bihar
showed higher than 30% decrease in unspent balances between the two years where as Tamil
Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan showed between 3% and 17% change.

Table 5.12: Unspent Balance- Nutrition (Sample States) 2011-12


2011-12
Name of the state Allocation Unspent Balance Unspent balance as % of
in lakh rupees in lakh rupees allocation

Punjab 968.3 742.7 76.7


Haryana 873.0 448.0 51.3
Bihar 6852.3 4567.6 66.7
Maharashtra 5345.8 4027.7 75.3

123
Andhra Pradesh 4556.1 4057.6 89.1
Assam 2167.2 0.2 0.0
Tripura 535.8 6.1 1.1
Tamil Nadu 2794.0 82.4 2.9
Odisha 3212.5 1070.8 33.3
Uttar Pradesh 13633.5 -123.2 -0.9
Rajasthan 3513.8 -127.3 -3.6
Karnataka 3406.4 0.0 0.0
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.13: Unspent Balance - (Nutrition) - 2012-13


2012-13
Name of the state Allocation Unspent Balance unspent bal as % of
in lakh rupees in lakh rupees allocation

Punjab 1281.18 797.7 62.3


Haryana 903.34 460.0 50.9
Bihar 6010.38 2986.2 49.7
Maharashtra 5578.54 2180.9 39.1
Andhra Pradesh 4378.13 1386.5 31.7
Assam 1839.41 43.02 2.3
Tripura 401.86 6.1 1.5
Tamil Nadu 2256.44 0.8 0.0
Odisha 3506.27 0.0 0.0
Uttar Pradesh 12851.96 -960.0 -7.5
Rajasthan 3594.19 -663.9 -18.5
Karnataka 2301.17 -702.1 -30.5
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.14: Unspent Balance (Nutrition) - Change over the Years and Trends
Name of the state Unspent Balance Unspent Balance change in % of Trends
as % of as % of Unspent Balance
Allocation (2011- Allocation (2012- as % of
12) 13) Allocation

Assam 0.0 2.3 2.3 Increase


Tripura 1.1 1.5 0.4 Increase
Haryana 51.3 50.9 -0.4 Decrease
Tamil Nadu 2.9 0.0 -2.9 Decrease
Uttar Pradesh -0.9 -7.5 -6.6 Decrease
Punjab 76.7 62.3 -14.4 Decrease
Rajasthan -3.6 -18.5 -14.9 Decrease
Bihar 66.7 49.7 -17.0 Decrease
Karnataka 0.0 -30.5 -30.5 Decrease
Odisha 33.3 0.0 -33.3 Decrease

124
Maharashtra 75.3 39.1 -36.2 Decrease
Andhra Pradesh 89.1 31.7 -57.4 Decrease
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Figure 5.7: Change in % of Unspent Balance as % of Allocation


Change in % of Unspent Balance as % of Allocation

10.0

0.0

-10.0

-20.0 change in % of Unspent Balance as


% of Allocation
-30.0

-40.0

-50.0

-60.0
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.15: Fund Allocation- Non Nutrition (Sample States)


Allocation- Non- Nutrition
Name of the state 2011-12 2012-13 % change
in lakh rupees in lakh rupees
Punjab 307.8 302.34 -1.8
Karnataka 324.9 290.55 -10.6
Maharashtra 1179.9 948.7 -19.6
Uttar Pradesh 1459.2 1003.7 -31.2
Andhra Pradesh 666.9 444.6 -33.3
Haryana 229.71 120.42 -47.6
Rajasthan 649.8 316.6 -51.3
Odisha 723.9 343.9 -52.5
Tamil Nadu 792.3 267.13 -66.3
Tripura 159.6 53.2 -66.7
Assam 444.6 148.2 -66.7
Bihar 1003.2 334.4 -66.7

125
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.16: Fund Utilisation - Non- Nutrition (Sample States)


Name of the State 2011-12 2012-13
in lakh rupees in lakh rupees
Karnataka 171.98 290.55
Punjab 5.46 8.84
Haryana 109.29 120.38
Odisha 380 343.9
Andhra Pradesh 410.4 222.3
Tamil Nadu 525.17 264.1
Rajasthan 642.76 317.92
Assam 444.6 148.2
Tripura 158.52 52.12
Bihar 668.8 90.55
Maharashtra 231.2 0
Uttar Pradesh 455.5 0
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

In terms of the non-nutrition component, Haryana, Odisha, Rajasthan, Assam and Karnataka
utilised nearly 100% of funds in 2012-13, and improved their performance over the previous
year, whereas Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh did not utilize any of the allocation in 2012-13.
Bihar (27%) utilised less in 2012-13 than in 2011-12 (66.7%) as did Andhra Pradesh and
Tripura. Punjab utilised only 2.9% of the allocation but still improved its performance over
1.8% utilisation in 2011-12.

Table 5.17: % of Fund Allocation Utilised- Non- Nutrition (Sample States)


Name of the State % utilisation in 2011-12 % utilisation in 2012-13
Haryana 47.6 100.0
Odisha 52.5 100.0
Karnataka 52.9 100.0
Punjab 1.8 2.9
Tamil Nadu 66.3 98.9
Rajasthan 98.9 100.4
Assam 100.0 100.0
Tripura 99.3 98.0
Andhra Pradesh 61.5 50.0
Bihar 66.7 27.1
Maharashtra 19.6 0.0
Uttar Pradesh 31.2 0.0
Source: Calculation based on Ministry of Women and Child Development Data, Government of India

126
Figure 5.8: % of Fund Allocation Utilised- Non- Nutrition (Sample States)

0.0
Uttar Pradesh 31.2

0.0
Maharashtra 19.6

27.1
Bihar 66.7

50.0
Andhra Pradesh 61.5

98.0
Tripura 99.3

100.0
Assam 100.0
% utilisation in 2012-13
100.4 % utilisation in 2011-12
Rajasthan 98.9

98.9
Tamil Nadu 66.3

2.9
Punjab 1.8

100.0
Karnataka 52.9

100.0
Odisha 52.5

100.0
Haryana 47.6

0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0

Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

In terms of unspent balances in the non-nutrition component, Uttar Pradesh showed a very
high increase whereas Rajasthan showed a moderate increase in unspent balance. Karnataka
and Assam showed no unspent balances, while Tripura, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Odisha,
Haryana, Maharashtra, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh showed a healthy decrease in unspent
balances over the two years.

Table 5.18: Unspent Balance (Non- Nutrition) - 2011-12


Name of the state allocation in lakh Unspent Balance in lakh unspent bal as % of
rupees rupees allocation

Andhra Pradesh 666.9 4057.6 608.4


Bihar 1003.2 4567.6 455.3
Maharashtra 1179.9 4027.7 341.4
Punjab 307.8 742.7 241.3

127
Haryana 229.7 448.0 195.0
Odisha 723.9 1070.8 147.9
Tamil Nadu 792.3 82.4 10.4
Tripura 159.6 6.1 3.8
Assam 444.6 0.2 0.0
Karnataka 324.9 0 0.0
Uttar Pradesh 1459.2 -123.2 -8.4
Rajasthan 649.8 -127.3 -19.6
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.19: Unspent Balance - Non Nutrition - 2012-13


Name of the State Allocation in lakh rupees Unspent Balance in Unspent Balance as % of
lakh rupees Allocation
Maharashtra 948.7 948.7 100.0
Uttar Pradesh 1003.7 1003.7 100.0
Punjab 302.3 293.5 97.1
Bihar 334.4 243.85 72.9
Andhra Pradesh 444.6 222.3 50.0
Tripura 53.2 1.08 2.0
Tamil Nadu 267.1 3.03 1.1
Haryana 120.4 0.04 0.0
Assam 148.2 0 0.0
Karnataka 290.6 0 0.0
Odisha 343.9 0 0.0
Rajasthan 316.6 -1.32 -0.4
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

Table 5.20: Unspent Balance - (Non -Nutrition)- Change over Years and Trends
Name of the state unspent bal as % unspent bal as % change in % of
of allocation of allocation Unspent Balance Trends
(2011-12) (2012-13) as % of Allocation
Uttar Pradesh -8.4 100 108.4 Increase
Rajasthan -19.6 -0.4 19.2 Increase
Karnataka 0.0 0 0.0 No unspent balance
Assam 0.0 0 0.0 No unspent balance
Tripura 3.8 2.0 -1.8 Decrease
Tamil Nadu 10.4 1.1 -9.3 Decrease
Punjab 241.3 97.1 -144.2 Decrease
Odisha 147.9 0 -147.9 Decrease
Haryana 195.0 0.0 -195.0 Decrease
Maharashtra 341.4 100 -241.4 Decrease
Bihar 455.3 72.9 -382.4 Decrease
Andhra Pradesh 608.4 50 -558.4 Decrease
Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

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Figure 5.9: Unspent Balance (Non- Nutrition) - Change over years
Change in % of Unspent Balance as % of Allocation

100.0

0.0

Maharashtra
Karnataka
Haryana

Odisha

Rajasthan
Bihar
Andhra Pradesh

Punjab

Tripura
Uttar Pradesh
Assam

Tamil Nadu
-100.0

-200.0
change in % of Unspent
Balance as % of Allocation
-300.0

-400.0

-500.0

-600.0

Source: Calculation based on figures from Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India

129
Key Issues and conclusions

All AWWs interviewed were aware of the scheme but they had not all uniformly benefited
from formal training about various dimensions of the scheme. About 75% of the AWWs
reported that the information about the scheme was covered in monthly and quarterly
reviews, for brief periods of 30 to 45 minutes. In terms of their role in ensuring awareness
about the scheme, AWWs must be given due credit, as our survey found that 100% of the
beneficiaries in our sample were aware of the scheme, and many of its components. Other
stakeholders like Panchayat members, parents, and representatives of community
organisations were also aware of the scheme, and even non-beneficiaries noted that they
knew about a scheme for adolescent girls. Among non-beneficiaries interviewed, the level of
awareness was about 69%. In all states under study, with the lone exception of Bihar,
steering and monitoring committees had been formed at state, district, block and village level
to ensure smooth implementation of the scheme. Meetings were also being held on a regular
basis. Master Trainers from across states were trained about the components of the scheme at
the regional centres of NIPCCD. But the capacity building of field level staff is still in
progress and AWWs and Supervisors expressed the need for regular handholding and
capacity support.

The Delivery of the non-nutrition non-health related components has faced challenges.
Vocational Training convergence with Labour and Employment has faced supply and
demand side barriers. Mainstreaming of girls back to school in convergence with Education
has been slow, with uneven success across states mainly because of social barriers and the
lack of sustained engagement and follow up with parents and AGs.
To compare states under Scheme Delivery, we considered reported awareness regarding
Sabla (under 33% reporting awareness; 33-66% reporting awareness, and over 66% reporting
awareness), presence of monitoring and steering committees, Reported receipt and use of
Kishori Cards (under 33% reporting receipt and use; 33-66% reporting receipt and use, and
over 66% reporting receipt and use), Convergence with Health department (health Check-ups
and IFA tablets availability reported), Convergence with Labour Department (vocational
training), and Funds Utilised Trend (increase, no change, decrease). We found that Odisha,
Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka performed well on all these
parameters except for Convergence with Labour and Employment (Rajasthan was poor,
Tamil Nadu was good, but Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab, and Odisha were medium

130
performers. In addition, Karnataka and Punjab reported shortages in Kishori Cards. While
Convergence with Health was good in these two states, vocational training and convergence
with Labour was below average. All states did well on increasing the utilization of funds over
the two years. All states except for Bihar had set up Sabla Monitoring and Steering
Committees at village, block, district, and state levels and were holding meetings, particularly
at the village level. In Assam and Bihar, the awareness about Sabla was below 33%, and
below 66% respectively, and the shortages in Kishori Cards were reported by more than 66%
beneficiaries at the time of the survey (this has subsequently been rectified at the end of
2012-13). Bihar did not have any committees set up, but had extended vocational training.

131
Chapter 6. SCHEME OUTPUTS – INSIGHTS FROM THE SURVEY

This chapter presents findings on the delivery of various scheme inputs including nutritional
and non-nutritional components and the beneficiaries’ perceptions of quality of each service
Adolescence is considered an intense period of curiosity adventure, uncertainty and risk, and
a period of both, increased potential and greater vulnerability. Among needs and concerns
identified as unique to their life-stage are the need to develop an identity, however they might
suffer from restrictive gender norms and roles; the need to manage emotions and cope with
stress given that sex hormones secreted during puberty lead to sexual and emotional changes
reflecting feelings of anger, sadness, happiness, fear, shame and guilt that require guidance
and support; the need to establish, define and explore relationships with peers, parents, and
members of the opposite sex; and the need to cope with peer group pressure, among others.
The Report of the Working Group on Youth Affairs and Adolescents Development for 11th
Five Year Plan noted that additional concerns include their potential inability to pursue
education, as many adolescents drop out of school because of poverty or gender; there is
inadequate opportunity to continue education and upgrade vocational skills; girls may be
forced into early marriage which interrupt education, and can produce negative consequences
such as early pregnancy that can result in risks of haemorrhage, anaemia, and low birth
weight for the baby, miscarriage and even the death of the mother; lack of information on
sexual and reproductive health that can lead to unwanted / early pregnancy, STDs/RTIs/HIV.

A host of factors may inhibit young people from achieving good sexual and reproductive
health. Many are structural, such as poverty and malnutrition, patriarchy, early marriage and
inadequate educational and health systems, and, in turn, influence risk and protective factors
at the individual level. Lack of information also prevents young people from achieving good
health and exercising informed choices. However, sex education in schools is not
widespread, and adolescents have limited access to reproductive health services. Even when
they do access these services, the attitudes of health service providers towards unmarried
adolescents may not be positive and supportive. Adolescents are also vulnerable to sexual
exploitation and gender-based violence.
Keeping in view these concerns and barriers, Sabla seeks to address the knowledge and
counselling needs of adolescent girls in addition to their nutritional, health, and educational
needs, and vocational preparedness. In this chapter, we present our findings regarding

132
nutritional and non-nutritional components and the beneficiaries’ perceptions of quality of
each service.
The need for the scheme and many of its components like mainstreaming in schools and
vocational training were endorsed by the community in our FGDs. For example, during an
FGD in UP, members expressed the following:

Moderator (M) - So what are the major concerns of adolescent girls?


Respondent (R1) -Getting education.
R2- Current problem is security of girls. In present situation they are fearful in the
society. They have hesitation. They are introvert. They cannot express themselves
freely. This is due to pressure from their family, from the society…

R3- Many bodily changes come. They face problem in going to various places. They
face problem in their monthly periods.
M-Do adolescent girls face any other problem apart from periods?
R3-They eat less and become weak. Their appetite becomes less.
M-What more problems do adolescent girls face?
R4-Their marriage takes place at an early age.
M-What happens due to that?
R4-When they get married early, they and their children get malnourished.
M-Any more problems that adolescent girls have to face?
R1-They face problem in their education. If they have to go anywhere for getting
educated, they cannot go.

The findings in this section are organised around the various ouputs provided by the scheme
– how many received the inputs, how they received them, and how satisfied they were with
the inputs.

Nutrition Component

The awareness of the provision of supplementary nutrition services under Sabla is high
among AGs. During interviews, most respondents surveyed noted that one of the key factors
that motivated them to visit the Anganwadi and enrol in Sabla activities was to access the
nutrition component.

R - “We were told by the ‘teacher didi’ – ‘You will get food to eat. You will be healthy
and your next generation will also become healthy.’” (Bhilwara, Rajasthan)

In another interview, beneficiaries shared their views on the importance of nutritional


services under the scheme.

133
M - How important is the nutrition (THR/ HCM) for you and your household?

R - Nutrition (THR) is very important for us because of, we get nutritious food (Rice, Dal,
and soyabean [sic]) etc. for eating. We distribute these things to our family.

Adolescence is a period of rapid growth: up to 45 % of skeletal growth takes place and 15 to


25 % of adult height is achieved during adolescence. During the growth spurt of adolescence,
up to 37 % of total bone mass may be accumulated. The physical and physiological changes
that occur in adolescent girls place a great demand on their nutritional requirements and make
them more vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies.30 In 1993, the Ministry of Human Resource
Development announced a National Nutrition Policy for which the Department of Women
and Child Development published a document. It highlighted the importance of a multi-sector
approach in combating maternal and child under-nutrition by encouraging different ministries
to incorporate a nutrition focus in implementing their programs and policies. It also highlights
the importance of building capacity and skills for implementing nutrition specific programs.31
Investing in young girls’ nutrition/health and development shall help not only in breaking the
intergenerational cycle of malnutrition but will also empower these girls for making
nutrition/health related decisions for themselves and their family, especially the children.

From the beneficiary perspective, our findings show that of the total OOSGs sampled, 97.4%
reported to be aware that they should receive food supplement under the scheme. In Andhra
Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab and Rajasthan, all the respondents reported
being aware about the food supplement that should be provided to them.

30
Adolescent Anaemia Control Programme: UNICEF
31
India Situational Analysis: Transform Nutrition

134
Table 6.1 : Sample Awareness of Supplement Component
State Awareness %
Andhra Pradesh 100.0%
Assam 88.3%
Bihar 100.0%
Haryana 100.0%
Karnataka 100.0%
Maharashtra 100.0%
Odisha 98.5%
Punjab 100.0%
Rajasthan 100.0%
Tamil Nadu 97.0%
Tripura 94.4%
Uttar Pradesh 88.3%
Total 97.4%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

98% of the sampled OOSGs reported having received the food supplement under the scheme.

Table 6.2 : State-wise Sample that received Food & Supplement


State Percentage
Andhra Pradesh 100.0%
Assam 97.5%
Bihar 100.0%
Haryana 98.5%
Karnataka 97.5%
Maharashtra 98.0%
Odisha 99.6%
Punjab 100.0%
Rajasthan 99.1%
Tamil Nadu 95.5%
Tripura 94.4%
Uttar Pradesh 94.7%
Total 98.0%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Among the total OOSGs who received the food supplement, above 80% reported receiving it
in the form of ‘Take Home Ration’ or THR (83.1%) and around 14.9% received some form
of ‘Hot Cooked Meal’ or consumed a meal at the AWC or their schools. Andhra Pradesh,
Assam, Tripura, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and Bihar provide nutrition in the

135
form of THR. Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura also provide additional supplements
at the AWC. In Maharashtra, in Melghat province, hot cooked meal is being provided to
ensure that adolescent girls belonging to ST groups supplementary nutrition at the AWC. In
Tripura, AGs are given THR; but also receive HCM when they attend training programmes
as part of Kishori Samooh for 10-12 days every quarter. Three to four AWCs collaborate on
such activities. In Andhra Pradesh, AGs receive eggs one to two times a week at the AWC.

Table 6.3 : Form of Nutrition received


State/Form of Nutrition HCM THR
Andhra Pradesh  (supplement) 
Assam 
Bihar 
Haryana 32

Karnataka 
Maharashtra  (selective) 
Odisha 
Punjab 
Rajasthan 
Tamil Nadu 
Tripura 
Uttar Pradesh 
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

At the time of the survey, Andhra Pradesh was providing both HCM and THR. Since then, a
decision was taken to provide only THR starting 2013-14.33 The CDPO of Peddapadu project
noted that there is less stigma attached to receiving THR compared to HCM. For parents to
send their pubescent daughters for a meal outside the home was expressed as a matter of
embarrassment. THR hence is more locally acceptable, they felt. In addition to THR, on
Tuesdays and Fridays, AGs are given boiled eggs along with other beneficiaries. The THR is
supplied by NCCS. In Andhra Pradesh, adolescent girls reported receiving eggs, upma and
pongal. As per the guidelines, the items are required to be high in protein content. Daliya,
eggs, pongal which are provided are all protein-intensive and nutritious.

32
Haryana provides THR to beneficiaries. However as the majority of our sample in Haryana were In-school
Girls, our response survey shows that beneficiaries reported receiving meals (mid day meal) in schools.
33
(Interview with State staff, Assistant Director, DWCWD, April 2013).

136
Table 6.4 : Utensil in which Hot Cooked Meal received
State A. Our Own Utensil B. Utensil at the AWC
Andhra Pradesh 36.2% 63.8%
Maharashtra 66.7% 33.3%
Punjab 50.0% 50.0%
Total 74.5% 21.9%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

More than two-thirds of the OOSGs receiving the HCM reported taking it in their own
Utensil (74.5%). Around 21% of the AGs received the meals in the utensils already available
at the AWC that were being used for providing nutrition to beneficiaries from other schemes.
Progress reports from these states show that no amount has been spent on procuring utensils.
99.2% rated the hygiene of the meal received as clean or very clean and a similar proportion
(99.4%) found it tasty.

More than 30% of respondents reported receiving rice, wheat, dal, various forms of local
protein sources (soyabean, peas, eggs) (33.9%). In Andhra Pradesh, girls were given 1520
grams of rice, 705 gms of green gram dal and 375 gms of palm oil. In Sardar-5 Project,
Patna, Bihar, the nutrition component was rolled out in March 2012 and nearly 6400 girls (an
average of 40 girls in 160 AWCs) in the age group of 11-18 benefitted from the scheme. In
March, beneficiaries were given the cumulative ration for first three months of 2012 -
January, February and March. Food was given in the form of THR. Sabla beneficiaries were
given three kg rice, one-and-a-half kg Masoor dal and 300 gms soya nuggets procured at the
rate of Rs 15/kg of rice, Rs 40/kg Masoor Dal and Rs 60/ kg of soya nuggets. Lists of
beneficiaries were sent to higher officials and based on these lists, the State Government
released funds that the AWW accessed to procure supplies for distribution. In every AWC,
they had formed procurement committees that comprised of beneficiaries and Anganwadi
staff.
In Baripada, Mayurbhanj, Odisha, under this component, 500-600 girls are given nutritious
food. In Sritadganj, the food is given in the form of THR. Adolescent girls are given 5 kgs of
‘chhatua’34 every month through the AWCs. 2.5 kgs are given on the 1st of every month and
the remaining is given after 14 days. The CDPO informed us that the ‘chhatua’ was supplied
in their sector by three SHGs from Mayurbhanj. The girls made porridge with the ‘chhatua’
and even made pancakes with it. Reportedly, the AWWs went on home visits to ensure that

34
Roasted Chickpeas/ Satua

137
the THR was being used properly. When asked whether the girls consumed the THR, the
CDPO informed us that in many families they shared it with their younger siblings.
All beneficiaries reported receiving the THR at the Anganwadi centre, and all the sampled
OOSG reported receiving their Take Home Ration at the AWC from the AWW. More than
25% of the respondents reported receiving the ‘Take Home Ration’ once in a month (33.2%),
four times in a month (29.5%) and twice a month (27.2%). The guidelines do leave open the
room for local level variations in distribution. All the respondents from Haryana and
Karnataka have reported receiving THR once in a month, followed by 95.7 % respondents in
Maharashtra. In Rajasthan (61.4%), Uttar Pradesh (61.8%), and Tamil Nadu (82%) over 60%
of the respondents reported receiving their THR four times in a month. The THR was
distributed on a date decided by the State Government in Bihar.
The case of Amravati is different from others as the implementation of nutrition component
of the scheme slowed down since January 1st 2013 resulting from an order from the Hon’ble
Supreme Court with regard to purchase of THR for AGs from local SHGs. There are many
ongoing disputes in the district related to THR under ICDS. As Sabla is implemented using
the ICDS platform, its nutrition supplementary services are affected by the same. The THR
in Amravati amidst this challenge consisted of packets of Sattu, Sheera and Rawa Upma of
2.5 kg each for each girl per month. The list of beneficiaries was sent to higher officials by
the 15th of every month and procurements were readied a week before month end so that
THR could be distributed on the first day of the month at the AWCs.
Table 6.5 : Frequency of receiving Take Home Ration (per month)
State 1 2 4
Andhra 77.3% 7.0% 0.0%
Pradesh
Assam 59.6% 19.9% 5.1%
Bihar 91.4% 6.9% 0.0%
Haryana 100.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Karnataka 100.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Maharashtra 95.7% 0.0% 0.0%
Odisha 0.4% 99.6% 0.0%
Punjab 48.5% 15.2% 3.0%
Rajasthan 4.8% 23.7% 61.4%
Tamil Nadu 2.4% 0.8% 82.0%
Tripura 64.7% 32.4% 0.0%
Uttar Pradesh 7.9% 5.6% 61.8%
Total 33.2% 27.2% 29.5%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

138
Among the OOSGs receiving the THR, more than 50% reported “Sharing the Take Home
Ration with the Family” (57.3%), more than 40% reported “Consumed by Me” (42.4%) and
less than 1% reported selling the Take Home Ration (0.2%).

Many parents and officials during FGD and KIIs expressed that THR was a key incentive for
parents to send girls to the AWC and to participate in scheme activities. At the same time,
the objective of the nutrition component is for adolescent girls to consume the nutritional
package themselves and improve their nutritional status.
Figure 6.1: Consumption patterns of Take Home Ration

Share with
friends Other
0.2% 0.1%

Consumed
by me
Share with 42.4%
family
57.3%
Consumption Patterns of Take
Home Ration
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Out of the sample, 98% felt nutrition was an important component of the scheme.

In order to look at the outcome of the nutrition component, the study attempted to examine
the BMI data obtained from the AWCs. However, there was no consistency. The tables
below are compiled from the MPRs of two districts included in our sample. In the first
district, the proportion of malnourished girls is less than 0.5% of the total beneficiaries
covered; in the second sample district, the proportion of malnourished girls is around 4-7%.
More than 90-95% of the beneficiaries is reported as showing normal BMI in the district
report. Besides, we also do not know whether the same girls are visiting the centre for BMI
measurement. No further analysis could be done on the basis of this data. NFHS-3 reports
that 44.7% of women (NFHS-3) age 15-19 have a BMI less than 18.5 (p. 93, table 56). On
the basis of this secondary data, we concluded that the BMI data maintained at the AWCs

139
cannot be considered reliable for analysis. A larger study measuring the BMI of beneficiaries
is required. In addition, our findings on the self-reported consumption pattern of the THR are
inadequate to arrive at any conclusions about whether adolescent girls are consuming the
THR and getting the required nutrition.

Table 6.6: Monitoring of BMI: Sample District-1


Normal Girls (BMI Malnourished Girls (Below Month/Year
18.5-23.5) BMI 18.5)
94953 324 April, 2012

94953 324 May, 2012

N/A N/A June, 2012


83318 324 July, 2012
83318 304 August, 2012
83364 278 September, 2012
83382 382 October, 2012
83116 526 November, 2012
83129 513 December, 2012
83141 501 January, 2013
Source: MPR and QPR Received from District, 2013

Table 6.7: Monitoring of BMI: Sample District 2


Normal Girls (BMI Malnourished Girls (Below Month/Year
18.5-23.5) BMI 18.5)
2102 9 March, 2011
5025 23 April, 2011
5018 22 May, 2011
3635 523 June, 2011
3635 525 July, 2011
3635 505 August, 2011
3724 299 September, 2011

3753 308 October, 2011


3755 310 November, 2011

3755 310 December, 2011

Source: MPR and QPR Received from District, 2013

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Health Check-up & Referral

Adolescents face numerous risks and problems relating to reproductive and sexual health,
including sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, violence and
injury, nutritional, psychological and behavioural problems relating to the rapid physical and
emotional changes during the period of adolescence. Access to health services are a critical
service under the scheme, and include a general health check‐up of all AGs at least once in
every three months on Kishori Diwas. In the event that an AG is diagnosed with a problem
requiring further treatment or attention, the Medical Officer will refer the AG to the District
Hospital / PHC / CHC / Maternal & Child Health (MCH) Sub–Centre.

As per the AWWs and Supervisors surveyed, the health Check-ups of the AGs should be
conducted ‘once in 15 days’, ‘once a month’, once in a quarter’ and ‘once a year’. It was
reported that ‘Health Check-Ups’ were not conducted in Assam projects. The platform for
health Check-ups as reported by the AWWs and the CDPOs is the AWC or the local Sub-
Centre/ PHC/ RH Clinics. Our findings show with reference to Health Check-up component
of the scheme, more than 60% reported having attended Health Check-up Camps from the
south zone (60.5%) and North zone (64.2%). At least 45% of the beneficiaries from the East
zone (45.2%) and West (47.5%) attended health Check-ups. North East zone (18.7%) ranked
lowest among the other zones in terms of number beneficiaries attending health Check-up
camps.
Figure 6.2: Number of Beneficiaries who attended the Health Check-up Camps (By Zone)

% Beneficiaries who attended the


Health Check Up Camps
64.2%
60.5%
53.1%
45.2% 47.5%

18.7%

East North North East South West Zone Total


Source: ASCI Survey 2013

141
Among the states, Rajasthan (95.7%) and Tamil Nadu (98.1%) have over 95% of
beneficiaries attendending health camps. Less than 20% of the beneficiaries have attended
health camps in Assam (15.4%), Uttar Pradesh (16%) and Karnataka (5.1%). No beneficiaries
have reported attending health camps in Bihar. In Mayurbhanj, Health check-ups were
conducted on a regular basis. These were done in Kishori Swastha Melas that were conducted
on the VHND. The ANM checked the girls and those with serious health problems were
advised to see doctors. They were only advised on cleanliness and hygiene related issues.

Figure 6.3: Number of Beneficiaries who attended the Health Check-ups (By state)

% who have attended health camps


95.7% 98.1%

70.3%
55.1%
49.2% 47.5%
33.3%
23.5%
15.4% 16.0%
0.0% 5.1%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

25 % of the respondents reported attending health Check-up camps 3-6 months earlier to the
time of the survey. Within the zones, only the West zone reported a higher number of
respondents (58%) attending health camps in that time frame. The remainder 10% of the
total respondents have reported attending health camps at least six months earlier.

142
Figure 6.4: Frequency of Health Check-upCamps

Frequency of Health Check Up Camps


100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0% 6 - 12 months
50.0%
3 - 6 months
40.0%
0 - 3 months
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%
East North North East South West Zone Total
Source: ASCI Survey 2013
Out of the total respondents who attended health check-up camp, only 6.5% (116) AGs were
diagnosed with some problems. In Assam (48%) and Maharashtra (35.4%), at least 35% of
the number of AGs who attended health camps were diagnosed with problems. In Karnataka
(25%), Uttar Pradesh (13.3%), Andhra Pradesh (13.9%) and Haryana (10.3%) more than ten
percent were diagnosed with some medical problems.

Figure 6.5: Incidence of Diagnosis during Health Check-up Camps (N=78)

% who were diagnosed with any problems

48.0%

35.4%

25.0%

13.9% 13.3%
10.3%
3.8% 2.3%
0.0% 0.7% 1.5% 0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

143
Among the total number of respondents who were diagnosed with problems (n=116),
Maharashtra (29%) has the highest number of AGs who were diagnosed with any problems,
followed by Assam (21%), Haryana (17%), Rajasthan (9%), Andhra Pradesh (8%) and Tamil
Nadu (7%). In the remainder states fewer (less than 5%) AGs were diagnosed with any
problems.

Figure 6.6: State Wise Distribution of Beneficiaries who were diagnosed with a problem

% beneficiaries who were diagnosed with a problem


Tripura Uttar Pradesh
Tamilnadu 0.0% 3.4%
6.9%
Andhra
Pradesh
8.6%
Punjab Rajasthan
1.7% 8.6% Assam
Odisha 20.7%
1.7%

Maharashtra Bihar
29.3% 0.0%
Haryana
17.2%

Karnataka
1.7%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Among the problems diagnosed, 44% were anaemia or menstrual related, followed by fever
(28%) and ENT related problems (13%). The remaining problems diagnosed were related to
other illnesses (15%).

Most of the AGs diagnosed with health problems in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttar
Pradesh were Anaemia or menstrual related. In Haryana, fever and minor ailments comprised
of 80% of the total number of health problems diagnosed among AGs who were referred to
further treatment at health camps. Andhra Pradesh has an equal reporting of minor ailments
and fever (40%) and Anaemia/menstrual related (40%) illnesses. Rajasthan reported at least
60% of Anaemia/menstrual related and 40% of ENT related problems among the total
respondents who were diagnosed with any problems.

144
Figure 6.7: Reasons for Referrals during Health Check-up Camps (n=78)
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
Other illness
40%
30% Fever
20% ENT
10%
0% Anemia/menstrual related
Assam

Karnataka

Odisha
Bihar
Haryana

Punjab

Tamilnadu

Total
Tripura
Rajasthan
Maharashtra

Uttar Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.8: Problems diagnosed

Problems diagnosed

Other
illness
15% Anemia/menstr
ual related
44%
Fever
28%

ENT
13%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Among those diagnosed with any medical problem, 67.2% (n=78) were referred to a health
centre or a hospital for treatment. All the respondents from Maharashtra and Odisha, who
were diagnosed with a medical problem during their visit, were referred to other hospitals or
health camps for further treatment. Similarly, at least 75% of the total respondents who were
diagnosed in Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan (80%) and Haryana (80%) were referred elsewhere for

145
treatment. None of the AGs, (who attended the health camps) in Punjab, Tripura and
Karnataka were referred to any further treatment. Bihar has no reporting of any AGs
receiving health referrals.
Figure 6.9: Beneficiaries who were referred to a hospital or health centre

% referred to a hospital or health centre


100.0% 100.0%
80.0% 80.0% 75.0%

50.0%
40.0%
25.0%

0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

Source: ASCI Field Survey 2013

More than 95% of the AGs felt that health check up being provided under the scheme is
necessary (97.3%). Less than three percent felt it was not a necessary component (2.7%). In
all the states at least 90% of the respondents felt the need for a health check up to be provided
under the scheme.
Figure 6.10: Beneficiary Perception about Health Check-up Camps (n=9222)

% who think that the health check up provided


under the scheme is necessary
99.3% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
98.7% 99.0% 99.2%
95.7% 96.8%
94.6%
93.1%
89.1%

+Source: ASCI Survey 2013

146
Exposure to Public Services

One of the most debilitating aspects of adolescent girls’ lives in India is their restricted
mobility upon attaining puberty. We know from the literature that this is a significant factor
in their dropping out of school at the secondary level. In addition, restrictions on mobility
curtails the kind of information and exposure they could otherwise receive on general social,
economic, knowledge-related, financial, and other key domains. In our discussions with the
community too, the restricted mobility of girls especially after puberty was mentioned as a
major impediment for them to break out of their routine and explore other activities that
interested them. Against this, there was a great deal of enthusiasm and interest among the
girls regarding exposure visits organised as part of the Sabla scheme.
In an FGD in Hoshiarpur, beneficiaries discussed the importance of the exposure visits thus:

M: - So, what do you think that, how it will help you?


R: -In case of theft we can go and case FIR, in case of medical urgency we can
go to doctor and can tell the problem by our self. By knowing about these
things we will not dependent on others in case of need we can resolve the
solution of the concerned problem by ourselves.
M: - Tell me about bank.
R: -We can go to bank and can deposit money by itself. It will help us a lot to
accessing ATM card and all.

Out of the total OOSG (3358), 45.3% reported going on exposure visits organised under the
scheme.

Table 6.8 : Exposure Visits attended by Beneficiaries


Code Place of visit Number %
Went on Exposure Visits 1522 45.3%
Have not gone on exposure visits 1836 54.7%
Total 3358 100%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

147
Figure 6.11: Person who organised the exposure visit

Person who organised the exposure visit


Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan % AWWs
Punjab
Odisha % ASHA

Maharashtra
% School Teachers
Karnataka
Haryana % ICDS Functionaries(CDPO,
SUPV)
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh

0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0%


Source: ASCI Survey 2013
A majority (92.5%) of the exposure visits were organized by the AWWs with the exception
of Karnataka, where all the visits were solely organised by the school teachers. In some of the
other states ASHA workers and ICDS functionaries, including the CDPO and Supervisors,
were involved in organizing the exposure visits for the AGs.
Figure 6.12: Places of Exposure Visits

Places of Exposure Visits


Other
1%

Panchayat NGO
office 2%
18%
Health Centre
28%
Police station
10%
Post-office
17% Bank
23%

Collectorate
1%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

148
Out of all the exposure visits made, 28% AGs visited health centre and 23% visited a Bank.
At least 10% visited a Panchayat office (18%), Post-Office (17%) and a Police Station (10%).
NGO and Collectorate office were some of the other places visited during the exposure visit.
Out of the girls who were part of an exposure visits (1522), 73% visited up to three public
places and the remainder visited between four and six public places. In Tamil Nadu (41.1%),
Rajasthan (39.5%) and Punjab (25%) at least 25% of the AGs visited up to six public places.
Respondents from Bihar did not report attending an exposure visit.
Figure 6.13: Frequency of Exposure Visits

No. of public places visited


Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab
Odisha
% 1-3 visits
Maharashtra
% 4-6 visits
Karnataka
Haryana
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%


Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.14: Beneficiary Experience of Exposure Visits

% who enjoyed the exposure visits


Yes%
100.0% 100.0% 92.3% 97.1% 100.0% 100.0% 99.2% 90.0% 100.0% 97.2%
85.7%

25.0%
0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

149
Most of the girls said they had enjoyed the exposure visits. Across all the states that
organised the exposure visits, at least 90% of the participants enjoyed the visit, except in
Assam, where 25% stated that they liked the experience.

In terms of the importance of these exposure visits, our interviews and FGDs with
beneficiaries revealed that the girls recognized that these exposure visits gave them a unique
opportunity to gain insight into different public institutions. One of the respondents from
Bihar said thus:

Moderator: Is it important for girls to learn about public services just like boys?
Respondent: Yes. It is most important for girls to learn about public service just like
boys.
M: If yes, what will you do with this knowledge?
R: Yes, girls learning about public service same to boys learning is important. By
learning it, I can take part in public services just like boys and not be burden on any
one.

Table 6.9: Learning from the exposure visits


State How these places are Where the How can I make use Nothing, it was
function place is located of the service, if just a fun trip
required
Andhra Pradesh 42.9% 11.4% 54.3% 2.9%
Assam 83.3% 25.0% 16.7% 8.3%
Bihar
Haryana 40.3% 19.3% 47.1% 14.3%
Karnataka 100.0% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0%
Maharashtra 38.5% 35.9% 69.2% 2.6%
Odisha 47.1% 35.3% 67.6% 5.9%
Punjab 40.0% 25.0% 40.0% 0.0%
Rajasthan 78.0% 58.3% 87.9% 1.3%
Tamil Nadu 98.9% 91.3% 73.8% 2.7%
Tripura 80.0% 80.0% 30.0% 0.0%
Uttar Pradesh 40.0% 20.0% 20.0% 0.0%
Total 73.2% 57.8% 69.6% 4.2%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

150
Figure 6.15: Learning from the exposure visit

Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu How these places function?
Rajasthan
Punjab
Where is the place
Odisha
located?
Maharashtra
Karnataka How can I make use of the
service, if required?
Haryana
Bihar Nothing, it was just a fun
Assam trip
Andhra Pradesh
0.00% 100.00% 200.00% 300.00%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Of the girls who participated in the exposure visits, at least 60% reported they were now
aware of where these public places where located. 73% claimed to understand to understand
the functioning of the places visited and 70% felt comfortable about using these services
when required. Only about four percent felt that the trip was solely a fun trip. Overall, the
AGs seemed to have positively benefitted from their exposure visits.

In order to understand any shift in their knowledge or attitude towards public services, we
compared the responses of 630 non-beneficiaries with a systematic sample of 630 drawn
from beneficiaries surveyed. Means, standard deviation and percents were calculated for the
scores from the knowledge, attitude and food habits sections. Pearson's correlation coefficient
were used to assess the correlation between nutrition knowledge, the attitude and practices of
college athletes; and analysis of variations was used to evaluate knowledge and attitude, and
an independent t-test was used to compare knowledge and attitudes between them. Statistical
results were considered to be significant at p = 0.05. While non-beneficiaries recognized the
need to be able to use public services (81%), they did not report possessing knowledge of
how they could open bank accounts, or lodge police complaints. Beneficiaries described in
the qualitative discussions, the way to open bank accounts, the requirement of identity
documents, and the procedure to file a police complaint. A majority of them expressed the
willingness and confidence to own bank accounts (71.1%), and lodging police complaints
(79%). Undoubtedly, the assumption that there is a direct relationship between knowledge
and behaviour may be oversimplified. Several studies have, however, shown that knowledge

151
is only one factor influencing treatment-seeking practices, and in order to change behaviour,
health programmes need to address multiple factors ranging from socio-cultural to
environmental, economical, and structural factors, etc. (Balshem 1993, Farmer 1997,
Launiala and Honkasalo 2007). There is yet value and benefit in understanding and
interpreting these statements to gain an insight into the level of confidence or willingness of
the AGs to use services. Sabla is still in its inception phase of implementation, and
counselling and other services are yet to be regularised and stabilised; in order to probe
improvements in knowledge and shifts in attitudes, a study further down the line would be
advisable. Looking at knowledge and attitude changes at this stage is meant to provide a
quick, surface measure, and the evaluation is more revelatory on the process aspects of
implementation rather than impact.
Figure 6.16: Beneficiary's attitude towards public services

Beneficiary Attitudes - Public Services


I can visit a police station/hospital/bank/post… 74.8%

I will vote 86.0%

I will have my own bank account 71.1%

I will lodge a police complaint if my legal rights… 79.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013


Figure 6.17: Non- Beneficiary's attitude towards Public Services

Non Beneficiaries - Public Services


It is important to use public services
whenever required
It is important to vote

I know how to open a bank account

I know how to lodge a police complaint

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
It is important to use
I know how to lodge I know how to open a
It is important to vote public services
a police complaint bank account
whenever required
%Disagree 7.6% 10.2% 11.7% 4.8%
% Can't Say 78.7% 81.9% 4.4% 14.3%
% Agree 13.7% 7.9% 83.8% 81.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

152
Vocational Training

In Isopur, UP, one community member noted that “Vocational training is very important to
girls… Because of [this], when she became married, then they can take up employment.”
In UP, in an FGD, community members noted that ‘Unnayan prashikshan’ (Vocational
training) for girls is organized in schools. There is also an empowerment scheme for
adolescent girls (Kishori Sashaktikaran Yojna) which is organized once in three months.
This scheme is organized sometimes in schools where there are more than 60% girls.
R- Scheme should be educative. It should be such that girls profit from it. Scheme should
be such that they get economic gain from it. There should be some vocational training in
that scheme.
M- What do you do in ‘Nehru Yuva Kendra’ for adolescent girls?
R- There is sewing programme. There is programme for preparing ‘murraba’. In Nehru
Yuva Kendra, girls’ talent is nurtured. And if any girl is expert in any field she can work
as a trainer.

Most of the anganwadi workers we interviewed said that they had counselled or advised the
girls on all components. Around half (44.1%) of the eligible girls in the age-group 15-18
years had received any information about vocational training. Only in Andhra Pradesh
(73%), Rajasthan (70.5%), Haryana (60.7%) and Odisha (51.1%) more than half of the
eligible AGs received counselling on vocational training. Assam is the only state where 96%
of the AGs did not receive any counselling.

Table 6.10: Information on Vocational Training


15-18 year old OOSG Received Information on
surveyed Vocational Training
Andhra Pradesh 222 162
Assam 152 6
Bihar 56 6
Haryana 326 198
Karnataka 112 20
Maharashtra 160 52
Odisha 372 190
Punjab 54 10
Rajasthan 210 148
Tamil Nadu 384 128
Tripura 38 16
Uttar Pradesh 78 18
Total 2164 954
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

153
Figure 6.18 : Beneficiaries counselled about Vocational Training

% who received any info on VT


73.0% 70.5%
60.7%
51.1%
42.1% 44.1%
32.5% 33.3%
23.1%
17.9% 18.5%
10.7%
3.9%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

At least 93% of the OOSGs (15-18 years old) who had received any information about
vocational training (954), stated AWW as the main source of information on the vocational
training. ITI/ Training institute was stated as another source of information.

Figure 6.19: Source of information on vocational training

Beneficiaries reported source of info on


Vocational Training
100.0%
80.0%
60.0%
40.0%
ITI/Training Institute
20.0%
0.0% AWW

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

In terms of actual attendance, we asked how many girls had attended and completed
Vocational Training under Sabla – At least 52% of the total number of OOSGs who received
any information on vocational training, attended the training classes. In Karnataka and

154
Punjab, all the girls who received information on vocational training had attended some
classes. In Odisha (97.9%) and Andhra Pradesh (65.4%) majority of the AGs could not
attend any vocational training in spite of being informed about it. None of the girls attended
vocational training in Tripura. In the remaining states at least 65% of the AGs attended
training classes.
Table 6.11: Number of girls attending vocational training classes
Out of those who received Number who reported attending any
information on Vocational vocational training class
Training
Andhra 162 56
Pradesh
Assam 6 4
Bihar 6 4
Haryana 198 166
Karnataka 20 20
Maharashtra 52 34
Odisha 190 4
Punjab 10 10
Rajasthan 148 112
Tamil Nadu 128 82
Tripura 16 0
Uttar Pradesh 18 12
Total 954 504
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.20: Girls attending vocational training classes

% who have attended any vocational


training classes (n=504)
100.0% 100.0%
83.8%
75.7%
66.7% 66.7% 65.4% 64.1% 66.7%

34.6%

2.1% 0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

155
There were many challenges to the implementation of this component. Parents are less likely
to permit daughters to attend such training. At the same time, in FGDs, the AGs discussed
that group travel not only helped continue the building of social connections within the
group, and in some cases, could also reduce the apprehensions of parents. In addition, there
were eligibility criteria like 18 years of age and completion of 10th standard for some courses
at ITIs that excluded the Sabla girls who were under the age of 18 years. In Amravati, the
CDPO explained that this was a major barrier to enrolling beneficiaries for vocational
training, and as they did not have the option of approaching an NGO to provide this service,
they were unable to address this component.

About 45% of the respondents attributed family's apprehension as a major obstacle to


attending the training and about 42% attributed the venue location as a primary reason. In
Uttar Pradesh and Assam, distance to the venue was the only obstacle in the way of attending
training, while in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, at least 60% of the girls identified
family's apprehension as a primary reason.

Figure 6.21: Problems faced in attending training

Problems faced in attending the training


Uttar Pradesh
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Maharashtra Family Didn't send

Haryana Venue Far Away

Assam
Andhra Pradesh

0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0%


Source: ASCI Survey 2013
Among those who did not avail of the opportunity to attend vocational training, the major
reasons 42% stated that there were no training programmes conducted in their area, about
37% could not attend because their parents did not allow them to go outside the village, about
21% stated they had no interest in the training programs. A small percentage claimed to have
no access to information on the training (3%) or that the programs were not organised in the
same village (3.6%). Among those who claimed that no training programs were organised,

156
respondents from Odisha comprised of over 80% of the total respondents (88.4%). Among
those who expressed no interest in the programs, a majority of the respondents were from
Andhra Pradesh (51%), followed by Tamil Nadu (16.3%) and Odisha (10.2%). Andhra
Pradesh constituted a majority (45.2%) among those who responded that their parents
disallowed them from going outside the village for training.

Figure 6.22: Reasons for not attending training

Uttar Pradesh
Tripura No training Conducted
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan Not interested
Punjab
Odisha
No information
Maharashtra
Karnataka
Haryana Parents don't allow outside
Bihar village
Assam Not Local
Andhra Pradesh
0.0% 50.0% 100.0% 150.0%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Table 6.12 : Place of conduct of Vocational Training


State A: In our village B: Outside Village
Andhra Pradesh 85.7% 14.3%
Assam 50.0% 50.0%
Bihar 100.0% 0.0%
Haryana 94.0% 6.0%
Karnataka 90.0% 10.0%
Maharashtra 100.0% 0.0%
Odisha 100.0% 0.0%
Punjab 100.0% 0.0%
Rajasthan 82.1% 17.9%
Tamil Nadu 2.4% 97.6%
Tripura N/A N/A
Uttar Pradesh 83.3% 16.7%
Total 75.4% 24.6%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Despite many challenges, some activity had taken place. The CDPO of Peddapadu told us
that had also arranged vocational training in Computer skills for girls in Eluru at the end of
2012-13 (outside our reference period). Thirty adolescent girls were trained by a computer

157
training institute in computer skills; five among them had received employment in Eluru.
Eluru was chosen for training given its central location in the project. They had not thought
of any other training but were happy with the small success stories they had created through
APTECH training. She proudly shared one of these with us. A girl from the Thangellmudi
Panchayat underwent a two-day DTP training at in Eluru under the Sabla scheme which
helped her get the job of a data entry operator at a clinic at Eluru. She now earns Rs 4000 per
month. She hails from a backward caste and her father works as agricultural labour. Her
income has provided the family much-needed financial support, a potential that Sabla can
offer all adolescent girls.

Table 6.13: Beneficiaries attending Vocational Triaining


State Number of those who completed VT Total attending VT
Andhra Pradesh 48 56
Assam 2 4
Bihar 4 4
Haryana 130 166
Karnataka 18 20
Maharashtra 30 34
Odisha 4
Punjab 8 10
Rajasthan 100 112
Tamil Nadu 72 82
Uttar Pradesh 10 12
Total 422 504
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

158
Figure 6.23: Number who pursued Vocational Training completely

% who have completed the training


out of those that attended
Andhra Pradesh 85.7%
Assam 50.0%
Bihar 100.0%
Haryana 78.3%
Karnataka 90.0%
Maharashtra 88.2%
Odisha 0.0%
Punjab 80.0%
Rajasthan 89.3%
Tamilnadu 87.8%
Tripura 0.0%
Uttar Pradesh 83.3%
Grand Total 83.7%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

In Bihar, of all the girls who attended the classes around four AGs completed the vocational
training. In the remaining states atleast 50% of the girls successfully completed the training.
The only exception being Tripura, where none of the girls completed the training.

Table 6.14: Vocational Training programmes Imparted across Sample States

Grand Total
Uttar Pradesh
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab
Beauty Parlour
Odisha
Tailoring
Maharashtra
Candle Manufacturing
Karnataka
Computer training
Haryana
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh

0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% 140.0%


Source: ASCI Survey 2013

159
More than 50% of the training was given on tailoring (53.2%), beautician services (14.3%),
Computer training (12.3%) and a few of the girls were trained in candle manufacturing
(2.0%). All the girls who attended vocational training in Assam and Odisha learnt tailoring,
whereas in Punjab they only learned beautician training. In Maharashtra about 30% were in
Tailoring and Beautician related training. Karnataka is the only state that provided training in
candle manufacturing and covered at least 50% of the total AGs who attended vocational
training. Computer Training was provided in Andhra Pradesh (32.1%), Tamil Nadu (41.5%) ,
Uttar Pradesh (33.3%) and Bihar (3.6%).

Across all the states, 46% of the girls attended the training more recently, under three months
ago, while 38% attended the training about three to six months, the remaining 12% attended
the training at least six months ago. Karnataka, Haryana and Andhra Pradesh conducted most
of their training more recently, about 0-3 months ago. All of the training reported in Bihar
was between three to six months before the interviews.

Figure 6.24: Training Sessions

When was the training held?


Grand Total

Tripura

Rajasthan
0-3Months ago
Odisha
3-6Months ago
Karnataka 6-12Months ago

Bihar

Andhra Pradesh
0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

The training was provided in different states by different organisations including ITIs
(Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu), Computer Institutes (Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu),
and individuals providing tailoring training (Assam).

160
The most popular training was in tailoring and computer skills. Many of the girls who
received training were unable to translate their new skills into sources of income. Some of
the barriers to finding jobs or making money were mentioned during in-depth interviews. In
particular, girls cited their inability to assert themselves enough to get paid for their services
or their difficulty finding full-time or piece-meal work.

No one pays. I make things for free, without earning anything. … (18 year old
beneficiary)

I don’t speak much about this [my new skills?] at school..(16-year-old beneficiary)

Most AGs expressed the desire to set up their own business or be self-employed using their
vocational skills (49.6%, n=250)). About 30% of the girls wanted to use them later (29.4%)
or try for a job (29%, n=146). AGs from Haryana were highest at 25% among those who
expressed the desire to set up their own business, followed by Tamil Nadu (23%), Andhra
Pradesh (19%), Maharashtra (12%) and Rajasthan (10%). About 57% of the girls who wished
to use their skills later belonged to Rajasthan. At least 30% of the girls who want to try for a
job belonged to Haryana (30.9%) and Andhra Pradesh (30.1%)

In FGDs, the AGs expressed that being self-employed would help them manage the economic
demands and demand on their time with family and childcare much better in the future. They
asked for more skills training, and also for information on loans and bank accounts. At the
same time, families and scheme functionaries also mentioned that boys would benefit from a
scheme like Sabla and some of its components given that they also require vocational
training, confidence building and awareness of reproductive health matters.
Table 6.15: Beneficiary Attitude towards skills learnt from the training
Will Try for Job Will Set up Business Skill to be used later
Andhra Pradesh 44 48 0
Assam 0 4 2
Bihar 2 2 0
Haryana 48 62 22
Karnataka 8 8 4
Maharashtra 4 30 0
Odisha 0 0 0
Punjab 2 2 2
Rajasthan 28 26 84
Tamil Nadu 10 58 30
Tripura 0 0 0
Uttar Pradesh 0 10 4
Total 146 250 148
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

161
Figure 6.25: Beneficiaries who intend to use their skill later

% who will use their skill later


Assam
Uttar Pradesh Haryana
1%
Tamilnadu 3% 15%
Karnataka
20% 3%
Punjab
1%

Rajasthan
57%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.26: Beneficiaries who will try for a job post Vocational Training
% who will try for a job
Tamilnadu
6.8%

Andhra
Pradesh
Rajasthan
Punjab 30.1%
19.2%
1.4%
Maharashtra
2.7% Bihar
Haryana 1.4%
Karnataka 32.9%
5.5%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

162
Figure 6.27: Beneficiaries who intend to set up their business
% who expressed wish to set up their own business

4% Andhra
Assam
Pradesh
2%
Tamilnadu 19%
Bihar
23% 1%

Rajasthan
Haryana
10%
25%

Punjab
1% Maharashtra Karnataka
12% 3%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

IFA Supplementation

The increase in the lean body Box 1: Why weekly iron and folic acid supplementation?
mass, the expansion of the
A significant number of studies have been completed around
total blood volume and the the world - including three research studies in India - on the
efficacy and effectiveness of intermittent iron supplementation.
onset of menstruation
A meta-analysis of these studies concluded that weekly
translate into a significant supplementation of children and adolescents was as effective as
daily supplementation if delivered under supervision and
increase of girls’ iron compliance ensured. However for pregnant women, weekly
requirements making them supplementation was found to be less effective than daily
supplementation.
more susceptible to anaemia. Thereafter, in 1997, the Government of India organised a
consultation on anaemia recommending that “adolescent girls
Anaemia during adolescence on attaining menarche need to consume one IFA tablet
affects the growth and containing 100 mg of elemental iron plus 500 μg of folic acid
once a week. This should be accompanied by appropriate
development of girls, dietary counselling. “Considering the large size of the
adolescent girl population and the financial and operational
diminishes their concentration constraints associated with a large scale programme, it was
in daily tasks, limits their recommended that district level pilot projects be undertaken
using the above strategy. As a result, the initial phase of the
learning ability, increases Adolescent Girls Anaemia Control Programme with weekly
iron and folic acid supplementation was launched in selected
their vulnerability to dropping
districts in eight states of the country.
out of school, causes loss of
Source: Adolescent Anaemia Control Programme: UNICEF
appetite resulting in reduced
food intake and irregular menstrual cycles, and reduces physical fitness and future work
productivity. Moreover, anaemia during adolescence influences women’s entire life cycle

163
since anaemic girls will have lower pre-pregnancy iron stores. As pregnancy is too short a
period to build the iron stores required to meet the needs of the growing foetus, women who
enter pregnancy anaemic are at an increased risk of giving birth to children with a low birth
weight (below 2,500 grams), delivering pre-term newborns, and/or dying while giving birth.
Additionally, children born to anaemic women are more likely to die before the age of one
year and be sick, undernourished and anaemic, thus perpetuating the intergenerational cycle
of maternal and child under-nutrition. Hence, investing in preventing anaemia during
adolescence is critical for adolescent girls themselves as well as for the survival, growth and
development of their children later in life.

Our survey showed that in all states, more than three-fourths (77.9%) of respondents reported
having ever received IFA tablets.

Figure 6.28: Receipt of IFA Tablets under the Scheme


% who reported receiving IFA tablets

Uttar Pradesh 16.0%


Tripura 97.2%
Tamilnadu 94.4%
Rajasthan 92.6%
Punjab 86.5%
Odisha 100.0%
Maharashtra 93.1%
Karnataka 94.9%
Haryana 90.4%
Bihar 56.9%
Assam 3.7%
Andhra Pradesh 71.9%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

However, state variations are significant – in all the states at least 85% of the respondents
received IFA tablets, except Andhra Pradesh (71.9%).Odisha is the best performer at 100%
while Bihar is at an average 56.9%. However UP and Assam present a worrisome picture
with only 15.9% and 3.7% having even received IFA tablets. More than 89% respondents
across the states except Uttar Pradesh (75%) felt that consuming IFA tablets is important.
Overall 94.9% felt it was important.

164
Figure 6.29: Beneficiaries who agree that taking an IFA suplement is important

% who agree that taking an IFA supplement is


important
96.1% 90.7% 89.7% 96.4% 97.5% 89.1% 99.6% 94.6% 97.0% 98.5% 97.2% 94.9%
75.5%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Out of those who affirmed receiving it, most reported receiving it weekly (65%) and a little
over one-fourth reported receiving it monthly (28%). Only about six percent received the
tablets quarterly.
Figure 6.30: Frequency of receiving IFA tablets
Frequency of receiving IFA tablets
Quarterly
Infrequent
6%
1%

Monthly
28%
Weekly
65%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Among the states, Rajasthan (88.7%), Tamil Nadu (93.7%) and Bihar (81.8%) receive the
IFA tablets more frequently; at least 80% claimed to be receiving them weekly. Most of the
respondents from Assam (100%) and Karnataka (98.7%) stated that they received their
tablets only a monthly basis. At least 25% of the respondents in Haryana (27.5%) and
Maharashtra (25%) received their IFA tablets less frequently (on a quarterly basis).

165
Figure 6.31: Frequency of receiving IFA tablets

Frequency of receiving IFA tablets


Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab
Weekly
Odisha
Monthly
Maharashtra
Quarterly
Karnataka
Infrequent
Haryana
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%


Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Over 40% reported receiving up to 10 tablets at a time, except in Maharashtra and Andhra
Pradesh where a little more than 50% received between 11 and 30. Over 60% in Bihar, and
Rajasthan received up to 4 tablets. In Haryana over 25% of the beneficiaries received above
60 IFA tablets.

Figure 6.32: Number of IFA Tablets received

No. of IFA tablets received


above 60
31 to 60 4%
2%
11 to 30
21% 0 to 4
33%

5 to 10
40%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

166
Figure 6.33: Number of IFA tablets received (by Zone)

No. of IFA received


West

South

North East

North

East

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%


Less than 10 11 to 30 31 to 60 Above 60
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.34: Number of IFA tablets received (by State)

No. of IFA tablets received


Grand Total

Tripura
0 to 4
Rajasthan
5 to 10
Odisha
11 to 30
Karnataka 31 to 60

Bihar above 60

Andhra Pradesh
0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

167
Figure 6.35: Person who gives IFA tablets to the beneficiary

Teacher CDPO
4% 0.1%
ASHA
4.0%

AWW
92%

Person who gives the IFA tablets


Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.36: Person who gives IFA tablets to the beneficiary ( by State)

Person who gives the IFA tablets


Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab AWW
Odisha ASHA
Maharashtra
Karnataka Teacher
Haryana CDPO
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh
0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

More than 80% of the beneficiaries reported that they received their IFA tablets from an
AWW, except in the case of Karnataka where 60% of the beneficiaries have received their
IFA tablets from the school teachers. Apart from the school teachers, less than five percent of
the beneficiaries have received their IFA tablets from ASHA. CDPO provided the tablets to
less than one percent of the total beneficiaries.

Around 75% of the total respondents received their tablets at home. In the East Zone, there is
an equal proportion of those who received IFA at the AWC and at home. A small percentage

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of the beneficiaries in the West zone (1.1%) and North Zone (0.7%), received their IFA at the
venue of Kishori Diwas.
Figure 6.37: Place of receiving the IFA Tablets
0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%

East
North
At the AWC
North East
At home
South
West
Grand Total

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.38: Where does the beneficiary receive the IFA Tablet?
Where does the beneficiary recieve the IFA tablet?

Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab
Odisha
At the Kishori Diwas
Maharashtra
At the AWC
Karnataka
Haryana
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1


Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Overall, atleast 60% of the beneficiaries received their tablets on a weekly basis. In Haryana,
over 75% of the beneficiaries received their tablets on a monthly basis. All the respondents in
Assam, received their tablets on a monthly basis.In Uttar Pradesh about 60% received their
tablets less frequently- on a quarterly basis.

169
Figure 6.39: Time of receiving the IFA Tablets

When do you get the supply of tablets?


Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab Weekly %
Odisha Monthly %
Maharashtra
Karnataka Quarterly %
Haryana Others %
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh
0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.40: Place where the IFA tablet is consumed

At the
venue of
kishori
At the
diwas
AWC1%
24%
At home
75%

Where do you consume


the tablet?
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

170
Figure 6.41: Place of consumption of the IFA tablet (by State)

Where do you consume the tablet?


Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab
Odisha At the AWC
Maharashtra At home
Karnataka
At the venue of kishori diwas
Haryana
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Most of the respondents (75%) consume their tablets at home and around 24.5% took it at the
AWC. Odisha reported the highest compliance with this recommendation at 60.8%. The
scheme guidelines recommend that in order to ensure compliance, the IFA tablet should be
taken in front of the AWW. Again, Odisha (64.5%) along with Punjab (65.6%) and Tamil
Nadu (66.2%) reported higher levels of compliance.

Figure 6.42: Place of Consumption of the IFA Tablet


0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%

East

North

North East At the AWC


At home
South

West

Grand Total

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

171
Table 6.16: Whether IFA Tablet was consumed in front of AWW (OOSG)
Q1 Yes % Yes No
Andhra Pradesh 130 59.1% 88
Assam 12 100.0%
Bihar 24 36.4% 42
Haryana 200 56.2% 152
Karnataka 2 1.3% 148
Maharashtra 20 10.6% 164
Odisha 342 64.5% 188
Punjab 42 65.6% 22
Rajasthan 84 19.7% 342
Tamil Nadu 334 66.3% 170
Tripura 10 14.3% 60
Uttar Pradesh 8 26.7% 22
Total 1208 46.2% 1398

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Our qualitative investigation with the AWWs revealed that the IFA tablets were supplied at
long intervals (one to two times a year in some cases) to AWCs or supplied in inadequate
numbers in Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, and Assam. Hence distribution to the AGs was
irregular. AWWs, Supervisors and CDPOs from Andhra Pradesh reported receiving IFA
tablets only once since the time of scheme implementation (as on December 2012). As
mentioned by the AWWs, the number of IFA tablets to be issued to the AGs varied from 48 –
365 tablets per year which indicates that they also might require more training about the
scheme. Sabla guidelines allow the State to provide IFA tablets as per health situation of
AGs among the population.

Counselling Components: NHE, ARSH and Family Practices, and Life-Skills Training

Most family planning and reproductive health services in India, target adult women.
Consequently these services have neglected a critical subpopulation - adolescents. Despite the
fact that as many as one-fifth of India’s population are adolescents (10-19), their health
(including reproductive health) needs are poorly understood and ill served. Adolescent
marriage and adolescent fertility rates are disturbingly high. Early marriage continues to be
the norm despite laws to the contrary. Once married, there is tremendous pressure on young
wives to bear children. According to a study by Jejeebhoy (TISS, Mumbai, 1996), 36% of
married adolescents (13-16) and 64% of those adolescents aged (17-19) are already mothers

172
or are pregnant with their first child. This corresponds to 17% of all adolescent females aged
13-19 years. However, not much is known about adolescent fertility. Adolescent sexual
behaviour, sexual awareness and attitudes remain poorly explored topics. AGs own
knowledge about health and hygiene, including reproductive health remains poor, rendering
them with poor negotiation skills and decision-making power in relationships.

Sabla is unique in its approach to provide comprehensive counselling on various sexual and
reproductive health, body, childcare, and self/family care knowledge parameters. Our survey
found that 71.6% of the respondents had ever attended counselling. Although we queried
different components of counselling – NHE, ARSH, LSE separately, the AGs treated these as
a single service and responded in a manner that combined them. Hence we represent the
information received and responses in a combined form. The highest attendance was
reported in Rajasthan (96.5%), Tamil Nadu (95.5%) and Odisha (92.1%). The lowest was in
Karnataka at 10.1%, Assam at 16.7% and Bihar at 29%.

Table 6.17: Counselling sessions attended at AWC under SABLA


Have you ever attended any counselling sessions at the AWC under Sabla?

States Total OOSGs Yes % No %


Andhra 306 250 81.7% 56 18.3%
Pradesh
Assam 324 54 16.7% 270 83.3%
Bihar 116 34 29.3% 82 70.7%
Haryana 394 328 83.2% 66 16.8%
Karnataka 158 16 10.1% 142 89.9%
Maharashtra 202 112 55.4% 90 44.6%
Odisha 530 488 92.1% 42 7.9%
Punjab 74 54 73.0% 20 27.0%
Rajasthan 460 444 96.5% 16 3.5%
Tamil Nadu 534 510 95.5% 24 4.5%
Tripura 72 42 58.3% 30 41.7%
Uttar Pradesh 188 74 39.4% 114 60.6%
Total 3358 2406 71.6% 952 28.4%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

173
Figure 6.43: Attendance of Counselling Sessions under the Scheme

% who attended counseling sessions at


the AWC under Sabla
Andhra Pradesh 81.7%
Assam 16.7%
Bihar 29.3%
Haryana 83.2%
Karnataka 10.1%
Maharashtra 55.4%
Odisha 92.1%
Punjab 73.0%
Rajasthan 96.5%
Tamilnadu 95.5%
Tripura 58.3%
Uttar Pradesh 39.4%
Grand Total 71.6%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

The counselling sessions were mostly held was at the Anganwadi Centre (AWC) across the
country. In terms of the usefulness of the sessions, 96.4% reported that the sessions were
useful or very useful.

Table 6.18: Usefulness of Counselling sessions


State Useful % n
Andhra Pradesh 232 92.8% 250
Assam 50 92.6% 54
Bihar 34 100.0% 34
Haryana 314 95.7% 328
Karnataka 16 100.0% 16
Maharashtra 90 80.4% 112
Odisha 482 98.8% 488
Punjab 50 92.6% 54
Rajasthan 438 98.6% 444
Tamil Nadu 510 100.0% 510
Tripura 42 100.0% 42
Uttar Pradesh 64 86.5% 74
Total 2322 96.5% 2406
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

174
Around 80% of the beneficiaries attended one and two sessions, with North and South zones
showing higher values. The beneficiaries in the Eastern zone reported ever attending around
four sessions. Over 85% ever attended over four sessions in Odisha (86.1%) and about 87%
attended at least two sessions in Karnataka.

Figure 6.44: Number of Counselling Sessions per month (NHE, ARSH, LSE combined)

Grand Total
Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan 0
Punjab 1
Odisha
2
Maharashtra
Karnataka 3
Haryana 4 and above
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

In FGDs too in Bhilwara, Rajasthan, for instance, beneficiaries reportedly understood the
value of counselling in improving their health.
“Because of poor sanitation and improper food habits we practice we may get some
disease so they provide some information about health care and other relevant
things.”

FGDs elicited that the kinds of sessions that appealed to the girls; and also the fact that
counselling was an important input for them. In Hoshiarpur they expressed:

R: They also told some general knowledge things like after marriage when we [go] to
husband’s home then we will not [have] any problem there.
M: - How do you think this scheme helps you?
R: -Here teacher told us good things and told how to live [in future]. If someone is
teasing you then they [tell us to tell our parents] and share it with [them] also…
M: - Means this increase your general knowledge, you tell about this?
R: -Teachers teach us about education, about diseases and how to overcome disease
and how to behave with others...
M: - Ok they told about education, nutrition, good touch/bad touch and all.
R: - Yes.

Each respondent had ever attended an average of 4.1 sessions overall. Across the states,
respondents attended an average of 10.9 session in Rajasthan. In Odisha and Karnataka, the

175
respondents attended an average of 7 and 6 sessions respectively. Respondents in Assam have
reported the lowest number of sessions attended, with an average of 1.8 sessions.

Figure 6.45: Number of Counselling Sessions Attended

Average No. of Sessions Attended by


Each Girl
10.9

7
6
3.8 3.7 4.1
2.5 2.5 2.5 3.2 2.6 2.9
1.8

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

In terms of topics, there was a huge range covered in the counselling sessions. Personal
Hygiene and sanitation, nutrition, physical exercise, first aid and family planning were the
highest attended topics.

Interviews with AWWs and officials as well as trainers from NIPCCD and other institutions
revealed that counselling was an invaluable part of the scheme. The AWWs were required to
be well-versed with nutrition, health, physiological knowledge. It is vital that there is shift in
attitudes of functionaries at the grassroots towards AGs concerns.

176
Figure 6.46 : Percentage of Beneficiaries attending Specific Counselling Sessions

% Beneficiaries attending Counseling and Life-


skills classes by topic
A - Personal Hygiene and Sanitation 73.0%
B- Physical Exercise 46.3%
C - First Aid 35.4%
D - Nutrition 70.2%
E - Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation 24.3%
F - Breastfeeding and Child Care Practices 20.3%
G - Reproductive and Sexual Health 17.4%
H - Family Planning 33.8%
I - My beliefs and values 25.3%
J - Gender Sensitivity 16.5%
K - Decision Making 17.6%
L - Communication 13.6%
M - Legal Rights 10.8%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Majority of beneficiaries attended counselling sessions on personal hygiene and sanitation


and nutrition as these were topics on which AWWs routinely spoke. Physical exercise, first
aid, and family planning, mainly focused on contraception and the need for small families.
FGDs in Hoshiarpur reveal that there is learning from the counselling. For instance, one
respondent noted that the mother’s health during pregnancy would affect the health of the
infant.

M: - Now I will ask you about reproductive health. How important it is for you? What
do you think about training and counselling?
R: -It is very important. If we [are] healthy then our baby will also be healthy …
M: - Is this training and counselling useful to you?
R: -It is useful to us but due to timing we do not attend this.

177
Figure 6.47: Knowledge about the Nutrition Health Hygiene

Knowledge - Nutrition Health Hygiene

I know about HIV/AIDS 70.9%

I know of various methods of contraception like


57.7%
IUD, condoms and oral pill

I know about reproductive and sexual health 67.9%

I know of my legal rights like voting, education,


84.5%
freedom

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Studies note that adolescents, in general, tend to be poorly informed about the physiological
changes associated with their development (Joseph et al., 1997; UNESCO, 2000; VNESI,
1999). In school settings, where programmes on population, family life and sex education
exist, they focus more on biological and scientific information than broader issues of
sexuality (Chakrabarti, 2003). Young people are also unlikely to be aware of services
available to them or of their right to avail these services. Under Sabla, there is counselling
provided by the AWW on nutrition, health and hygiene, pertaining largely to menstrual
health, and self-care during menstruation, use of napkins, and so on. There was also
counselling on HIV/AIDS. In our study, 70.9% respondents surveyed reported having some
knowledge about HIV/AIDS, and a smaller proportion, i.e. 57.7% could describe some
method of contraception. But as NACO National Behavioural Surveillance Survey finds,
although 90 % of young men and 80 % of young women aged 15-19 had heard of HIV/AIDS,
this awareness did not translate into in-depth knowledge of symptoms, modes of transmission
or methods of prevention (NACO and UNICEF, 2002).

In terms of health seeking, a majority of the respondents, 87% claimed they would visit a
doctor when they were pregnant, and 93.2% expressed positive attitudes toward seeking
medical help when they needed it. Again, as reflected in the NACO National Behavioural
Surveillance Survey, care-seeking among this group of married and unmarried youth is not
universal. Fewer than half of all young men and about one third of all young women sought
medical care for their symptoms (NACO and UNICEF, 2002). Factors impeding use of

178
services by unmarried youth are poorly studied in India, but as in other settings are likely to
include a range of provider- and facility-based obstacles –limited accessibility, high costs,
lack of privacy and confidentiality, poor counselling skills, threatening provider attitudes and
indifferent quality of care (Senderowitz, 1999).

The need to provide ‘accessible’ and ‘friendly’ services to youth is acknowledged. Lessons
learned from a similar experience in Thailand suggest that hospital settings may not attract
young people however friendly the services; rather there is a need to house services at more
acceptable locations such as department stores, youth centres and colleges (Poonkhum,
2003). A study that sought the views of adolescent girls reports that girls did indeed express
the need for a separate clinic for young people that would be served by female providers
(Joseph et al., 1997). Sangath’s adolescent and family programme in Goa is one example of
services provided to adolescents in a safe and private setting. Services are based on the
recognition that educational needs, access to appropriate services and parental
communication are key to healthy adolescence, and are delivered in ways that accommodate
young people’s stated priorities. A study of Sangath’s programme (Godinho et al., 2002)
found that young people found their centre to be a welcoming facility where they could drop
by and express themselves with privacy, and where they were taken seriously.

Figure 6.48: Beneficiary attitude towards Nutrition Health Hygiene

Attitudes - Nutrition Health Hygiene


I will visit a doctor when I am pregnant 87.0%

I will seek medical help whenever required 93.2%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

179
Figure 6.49: Beneficiary's Practices (Nutrition Health Hygiene)

Practices - Nutrition Health Hygiene


I take care of my menstrual hygiene 95.4%

I do some physical exercise everyday 62.1%

I confidently interact with my peers 71.8%

I am good at initiating group activities 78.0%

I have learnt to use the public services 64.4%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Regarding reproductive health talks and information sharing, our investigation found that
there was a greater focus on family planning topics and HIV/AIDS rather than sexuality-
related topics. Based on our qualitative findings during the pilot, we framed the knowledge
and attitudinal questions around the topics covered. When beneficiaries and non-
beneficiaries, were compared don’t find a very large difference as the figures below show.
For instance, 72.7% non-beneficiaries noted that it was important to plan one’s family; 82.4%
beneficiaries expressed their desire to do so. While these numbers point to the value that AGs
place on planning their families, it is also subject to other social structural factors.

180
Figure 6.50: Knowledge of Reproductive Health among non-beneficiaries

Non-beneficiaries Knowledge of
Reproductive Health
It is alright to have a second baby
immediately after the first
A woman can have a child whenever
she wants
It is important to plan one’s family %Disagree
It is alright for a woman to have a % Can't Say
baby at any age
% Agree
It is important to visit a doctor when a
woman is pregnant
It is important to seek medical help
whenever required
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.51: Beneficiary's attitude towards adolescent reproductive and sexual health

Beneficiary Attitudes - Adolescent


Reproductive & Sexual Health
It is alright to have a second baby immediately after
20.5%
the first
I am entitled to not have a child if I want to 60.8%
I will be able to ensure spacing between my
87.4%
deliveries
I will plan my family 82.4%

It is alright for a woman to have a baby at any age 30.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Although attitudinal statements do not in themselves constitute impact, they can be seen as
indicative of the beginning of a evolving understanding among the AGs. Also when
confronted with a survey question, respondents tend to give socially acceptable answers.
When taking into account the adolescent girls’ congenial interaction with AWWs, ANMs, the
media, and possibly NGOs and women’s groups working in their village, it is possible that
the beneficiaries may opt for favourable agreeing answers. For example 87.4 % responded

181
with “strongly agree” or “agree” to the statement: “I will be able to ensure spacing between
my deliveries.” Whether and how much control these young women will have on their
fertility remains to be seen, but this statement was formulated on the basis of qualitative
findings that it is covered under counselling. But we also know that the AGs know that this
is what they are supposed to be able to answer, and it would require a lot of courage from the
young women to disagree with this statement even if they thought otherwise. Other studies
(Cleland 1973, Hausmann-Muela et al. 2003) have suggested that researchers should be very
cautious regarding the interpretation of results related to attitude measurement
Lastly, there was also the problem of courtesy bias, or the condition where respondents
produced answers which they believed that the researchers wanted to hear. This may cause a
problem of courtesy bias, as reported in many studies criticising the use of surveys
(Bhattacharyya 1997, Stone and Campbell 1984). The courtesy bias could have been further
worsened by the fact that most respondents continuously assumed that this survey had
something to do with AWW or the scheme’s components, which may have made them worry
about what type of treatment they would receive if they were critical towards the services.

Mainstreaming

An important contribution of Sabla is to bring OOSGs into formal and informal education
systems. There needs to be coordination with the Department of Education to get AG into
school. Sabla’s focus is on motivation – counselling out of school girls to meet girls who are
in school, counsel them through the Anganwadi teacher, counsel parents about the
importance of girls’ education, and facilitate their re-enrolment.

Our survey found that at least 48% OOSGs (3358) reported being counselled on joining
school. Across the states, at least 60% of the respondents reported receiving counselling on
joining school in Rajasthan (72%), Andhra Pradesh (66.7%), Tamil Nadu (66%),
Punjab(63.9%) and Odisha (61%). In Bihar only 12% reported receiving any such
counselling. In Karnataka, none of the OOSGs queried reported that they were approached by
anyone urging them to join school.

Overall, at least in 60% of the cases, the AWW provided the required information and
counselling or advice on entry into schools. Around 30% received counselling from parents
and the remainder (3.5%) received counselling from the school teachers. More than 85% of

182
the respondents were counselled by AWW in Bihar (100%), Punjab (100%), Andhra Pradesh
(90.3%) and Rajasthan (85.2%). More than half of the respondents in the North East zone;
Tripura (50%), Assam (50%); and Odisha (70.3%) were counselled by parents.

Table 6.19: % Respondents Reporting Receipt of Counselling On Entering School


0 10-30% 30-50% 50-75%
Karnataka Assam (29%) Rajasthan (72%)
Maharashtra (19%) Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh
(49%) (66.7%)
Bihar (12%) Tripura (42%) Tamil Nadu (66%)

Punjab (63.9%)
Odisha (61%)
Haryana (56%)
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.52: Respondents reporting Counselling on Entering school


% respondents reporting counselling on reentering school
72%
66.70% 66%
61% 63.90%
56%
49%
42%

29%
19%
12%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

183
Table 6.20: Person Who Counselled About Entry Into Schools
State AWW School Teacher Parents
Andhra Pradesh 90.3% 2.9% 4.9%
Assam 47.9% 0.0% 50.0%
Bihar 100.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Haryana 49.1% 0.9% 33.3%
Maharashtra 66.7% 11.1% 0.0%
Odisha 25.8% 5.8% 70.3%
Punjab 100.0% 0.0% 0.0%
Rajasthan 85.2% 4.5% 4.0%
Tamil Nadu 61.2% 0.6% 35.4%
Tripura 25.0% 12.5% 50.0%
Uttar Pradesh 58.3% 8.3% 27.1%
Total 61.7% 3.4% 30.0%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.53: Person who counselled about Entry into schools


Person who counselled about re-entry into schools

Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab
Odisha AWW
Maharashtra School Teacher
Karnataka Parents
Haryana
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh

0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00%


Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Out of the total number of girls who were out of school and received counselling or advice on
joining school, only 2% tried and re entered school. About 68% could not get back to school,
in spite of making attempts to go back to school. In Bihar over one fourth of the respondents
could join school. Overall, 29.3% of the girls reported that they did not try to join into a
school.

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Table 6.21: Respondents Who Reported Trying to Enter School
State Yes & Entered Tried but could not No
join
Andhra Pradesh 6 170 30
Assam 6 56 34
Bihar 4 12
Haryana 4 168 44
Karnataka
Maharashtra 6 30
Odisha 8 154 148
Punjab 24 24
Rajasthan 152 188
Tamil Nadu 326 30
Tripura 28 4
Uttar Pradesh 84 12
Total 34 1204 514
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

When we queried how they tried to enter school and why they did not succeed, one
respondent from Mayurbhanj said, “I had failed in my 8th and then after didi said, I tried to
take the exam, but I did not feel like studying...” Given that the majority of OOSGs are also
not employed for wages, their involvement in household labour and sibling care appear to be
strong barriers that keep them out of school, in addition to low motivation.

Figure 6.54: Respondents Who Reported Trying to Join School

Grand Total
Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu
Rajasthan
Punjab Yes & Entered
Odisha
Yes but could not
Maharashtra
No
Karnataka
Haryana
Bihar
Assam
Andhra Pradesh

0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%


Source: ASCI Survey 2013

185
Table 6.22: Class joined into post counselling
State 7th 9th 10th 11th 12th
Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard
Andhra Pradesh 2 1 1
Assam 3 3
Bihar 2 2
Haryana 4
Maharashtra 1 1 2 2
Odisha 2 6
Total 5 6 13 6 2
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Only 32 girls among the respondents had joined school. Given the low delivery of this
component, we asked the AGs how they felt about its value as a service under the scheme,
and 84% felt it was very good or good. A majority of the respondents in Karnataka (69.6%)
and Maharashtra (75.2%) did not appreciate the mainstreaming component. In our qualitative
interviews one respondent from Dharwad Urban district expressed that “it was not important
as there is no use... if we work, we can support our families...” Another said, “if we fail, we
feel ashamed, and I don’t feel like going to school.” Advise and counselling support are
required for the AGs to feel positive about schooling.

Figure 6.55: Respondents who rated mainstreaming component as good

% Rated Mainstreaming component Good

94.8% 95.4% 94.0% 96.6% 94.4%


87.0% 84.5% 91.3%
84.0%
73.0%
63.8%

30.4%
24.8%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

FGDs revealed that respondents were convinced of the importance of education, but faced
family restrictions and access problems.

186
M: Do you think that it is important that girl child should go to school?
R: Yes it is.
M: And completing of school education is also compulsory?
R: Yes very important.
M: Please explain. Why did you think so?
R: Education is important; being educated, we [can] get jobs and will earn something
to help our parents. We will not be depend[ent] on any other [person]. We will get
self dependent. We can write application…

R: - if they will not study they will remain illiterate. They cannot imagine about future life.
Being educated girl if she will get any problem she can solve it easily.

In an FGD in West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, the respondents explained the financial
barriers they faced.

M: Is it important for girls to complete school? Why or Why not?


R: …yes, but conditions and need for money will not allow [us] to study …

Indeed, financial problems were the major problem reported (49.1%) followed by disinterest
in studies (18.3%), and distance of the school from their residence (15.7%). Less than five
percent of the respondents stated that their parents did not allow them to get back to school;
financial problems and family restrictions were found to be overlapping conditions.

Figure 6.56: Reasons for not joining School after SABLA

Reasons for Not Re-joining School


Financial Problem 49.1%

School Too Far 15.7%

Don't Want to Study 18.3%

Others Incl. Family did not permit 3.4%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

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Kishori Samoohs and Sakhi-Saheli Experience

A key mode of delivery of Sabla is through the organisation of girls’ groups or Kishori
Samoohs.

Figure 6.57: Awareness of Kishori Samooh and Attendance

Awareness/Attendance in KS More than two-thirds of the total


respondents were aware of Kishori
75.2%
70.6% Samooh and attended them as well.

Awareness of KS Attended KS

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.58: Awareness of Kishori Samooh and Attendance (by State)

% Aware of Kishori Samooha Among Out of


School Girls
94.9% 100.0% 98.9%
79.7% 81.9% 75.2%
71.2% 73.3%
62.2%
47.2%
36.2%
26.5% 32.8%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

75.2% of respondents were aware of Kishori Samooh. The highest levels of awareness were
in Rajasthan (100%), Tamil Nadu (98.9%) and Karnataka (94.9%). Considerably lower
levels of awareness were found among beneficiaries in Bihar (32.8%), Uttar Pradesh (36.2%)
and Assam (26.5%).

188
Figure 6.59: Respondents who ever attended Kishori Samooh
Attendance Out of those (2524) who were aware, Ever Attended
Kishori Samooh

99.1% 98.1% 100.0% 98.2% 100.0% 100.0% 93.9%


91.3%
73.7% 74.3% 73.5%
58.8%
37.2%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Table 6.23: Attendance Out of those (2524) who were aware, Ever Attended Kishori Samooh
State Yes No Total Total Aware % Ever Attended
Andhra Pradesh 216 2 428 646 218 99.1%
Assam 32 54 930 1016 86 37.2%
Bihar 28 10 660 698 38 73.7%
Haryana 308 6 396 710 314 98.1%
Karnataka 150 606 756 150 100.0%
Maharashtra 110 38 554 702 148 74.3%
Odisha 426 8 588 1022 434 98.2%
Punjab 42 4 656 702 46 91.3%
Rajasthan 460 540 1000 460 100.0%
Tamil Nadu 528 186 714 528 100.0%
Tripura 20 14 502 536 34 58.8%
Uttar Pradesh 50 18 652 720 68 73.5%
Total 2370 154 6698 9222 2524 93.9%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Out of 2524 girls who knew about the Kishori Samooh, 93.9 % had ever attended a Kishori
Samooh meeting. The highest meeting attendance was reported in Karnataka, Rajasthan and
Tamil Nadu (100%) and Andhra Pradesh (99.1%), while the lowest was reported from Assam
at 37.2%. In Andhra Pradesh, the kishori Samooh meetings were attended by 15-18 year olds
largely, as there were not many out of school 11-14 year olds. In Peddapadu, a Kishori

189
Samooh was formed in 150 out of 244 AWCs. In others they were yet to be formed. The
meetings were conducted by AWW and 1 Sakhi and 2 Sahelis in each of the AWCs. When
asked about the attendance of girls in Baripada, Mayurbhanj, the CDPO reported that it
varied from 20 girls in some AWCs to a little more than 100 in others. However, a major
struggle in implementing the scheme was motivation of girls from economically
disadvantaged families. As these OOSGs were engaged in paid employment either in the
forests or in constructions, they were often hesitant to attend the Saturday sessions at the cost
of one day’s income.

The most recent Kishori Samooh meeting reported by AGs ranged from 1 week prior to the
interview by 59.2%, 2 weeks earlier by 31.9% and more than 2 weeks earlier by 8.7%.
Assam at 6.3% and Bihar at 14.3% were the lowest numbers reporting any meetings in the
prior one to two weeks. Overall, 70% of the girls reported ever attending at least five
meetings and about 16% reported attending between six and ten meetings. In Haryana, at
least ten per cent of the girls attended more than 20 meetings. In Karnataka more than 50%
attended up to ten KS meetings.

In Mayurbhanj, Odisha, 20 Kishori Samoohs were operational in Sritadganj sector. One


Sakhi and one Saheli was chosen from each Samooh and trained to train her peers. Often
literate AGs were chosen for this task so that they could easily understand the training and
impart it to others. The Supervisor reported that Kishoris in her sector had been trained in
family planning and ARSH by an NGO, RDHE. RDHE was the only external agency that
did all the Sabla related training in her sector. The training was given using visual aids on
family planning. The Supervisor added that many AGs, while enthusiastic during the classes,
forgot the information given to them after a few days as she and her staff were not always
able to provide sustained support and inputs due to limitations of time. Despite operational
challenges and the relative newness of the scheme, she said she has seen attitudinal change in
some girls as they appeared bolder and more enthusiastic. However, she admitted that she
was unable to spend much time in the field as she was overburdened with work. She had to
submit a daily report on each of the schemes. She lamented that being in charge of the 24
AWCs, she barely had any leisure time left for family. At times she also had to work at home.
Thus, while field staff are enthusiastic about work and investing the time required to build the
kishori Samoohs, they are burdened with managing multiple tasks and schemes. Strategies

190
such as incentivisation, capacity building on time management might be required to motivate
and support field level staff.

Figure 6.60: Number of Kishori Samooh Meetings Attended

No. of KS Meetings Attended


100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0% 11-20 meetings
30.0%
20.0% 6-10 Meetings
10.0% 1-5 Meetings
0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6.61: Last Kishori Samooh meeting attended by the respondent


Last KS Meeting Held
100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
More than 2 Weeks earlier
60.0%
50.0% 2 Weeks Earlier
40.0% 1 Week Earlier
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

191
Table 6.24: Last Kishori Samooh Meetings Attended
State 1 Week Earlier 2 Weeks Earlier More than 2 Weeks
earlier
Andhra Pradesh 30.6% 68.5% 0.9%
Assam 6.3% 12.5% 81.3%
Bihar 14.3% 35.7% 50.0%
Haryana 50.0% 42.9% 7.1%
Karnataka 48.0% 49.3% 2.7%
Maharashtra 10.9% 29.1% 56.4%
Odisha 62.9% 29.6% 7.5%
Punjab 66.7% 33.3% 0.0%
Rajasthan 91.7% 8.3% 0.0%
Tamil Nadu 67.4% 28.4% 4.2%
Tripura 50.0% 50.0% 0.0%
Uttar Pradesh 20.0% 36.0% 44.0%
Total 59.2% 31.9% 8.7%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Kishori Divas observation:

75.2% had ever attended a Kishori Divas out of the total number of girls. The highest
number of girls reporting KD attendance was in Punjab and Rajasthan at 100%.

Figure 6.62: Respondents who attended Kishori Divas

% who Attended Kishori Divas


100.0% 100.0%
89.8% 94.9% 92.9%
79.2% 80.4% 75.2%
67.3%
53.4% 52.1%
36.1%

4.3%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Nearly one-third (30%) of respondents reported attending a Kishori Divas about one month
earlier (before the survey), 51.4% 1 week earlier, and 12.6%, three months earlier. In Assam
and Maharashtra, more than 30% of the respondents reported to having attended a KD more

192
than three months earlier. In Karnataka, 97 % of the respondents attended KD a week prior to
the interview.

Figure 6.63: Last Kishori Divas attended by the respondent


Last KD attended
100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0% 3 Months Ago
60.0% 1 Month Ago
50.0%
40.0% 1 Week Ago
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

90.3% said that they had had a health check-up at the Kishori Divas. The variation across the

states was between 69.4% and 99.2%. Out of these 69% reported having both, their height

and weight checked. Over 75% of all the respondents across all the states, who attended a

health Check-up at Kishori Divas, had their height checked. Similarly more than half of the

respondents had their weight check-up as well, however in Bihar and Tripura less than 30%

had their weight examined.

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Figure 6.64: Health Check-up Conducted at Kishori Divas

Whether Health Check Up at Kishori Divas


98.7% 100.0% 99.2%
91.0% 90.6% 86.5% 92.3% 90.2%
82.5% 85.7% 78.8%
69.4%

9.7%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Sakhi Saheli Experience


The scheme conceptualises an important leadership role for adolescent girls through the
concept of Sakhi and Saheli. They are peer-leaders meant to be groomed for development of
leadership abilities, team spirit, motivating others, understanding democracy at a very
fundamental level, and providing information and guidance to peers. Sakhis and Sahelis are
eligible for training to perform their role and to go on to participate in regular activities of
AWC, like providing pre‐school education and supplementary nutrition, and other activities.
They may also accompany the AWW for home visits, which will serve as training ground for
future. Awareness of Sakhi Sahelis (SS) was reported by 58.7% girls with very low levels of
awareness reported in Karnataka (12.7%), Maharashtra (13.9%), Bihar (19%), and as high
levels as 88.2% in Rajasthan and 97.4% in Tamil Nadu.

194
Figure 6.65: Knowledge of Sakhi Saheli Concept

Awareness of Concept of Sakhi-Saheli


97.4%
88.3%

59.4% 63.8% 58.7%


56.2% 54.1%
38.9% 39.4%
27.8%
19.0% 12.7% 13.9%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Table 6.25: Respondents who are either currently Sakhi or Saheli


Sakhi Saheli
Andhra Pradesh 52 110
Assam 20 6
Bihar 6 14
Haryana 82 116
Karnataka 14 4
Odisha 58 76
Punjab 10 16
Rajasthan 30 236
Tamil Nadu 114 168
Tripura 12 10
Uttar Pradesh 26 24
Total 424 780
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

All AGs who were or had ever been Sakhis or Sahelis reported that they liked being Sakhi
and Saheli. 96.4% reported motivating others girls, while 89.4% reported helping conduct
activities including maintaining registers (72.6%), distribution of THR (82.1%),
accompanying AWW on home visits (77.9%), helping organise Kishori Divas activities
(82.9%), and helping conduct activities at Kishori Samooh meetings (89.5%).

195
Figure 6.66: Responsibility of Sakhi/ Saheli

As a Sakhi/Saheli ……
Help organize the Kishori Divas activities 82.9%

Accompany the AWW on home visits 77.9%

Assist in distribution of THR 82.1%

Assist the AWW in maintaining the registers 72.6%

Help conduct activities at Kishori Samooha 89.5%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

State-wise, in Andhra Pradesh, they were involved in all activities, whereas in Assam they
were mainly involved in assisting in distribution of THR; in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura and
Rajasthan they were mainly involved in facilitating Kishori Samooh meetings, whereas in
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Haryana, they were involved in all activities. In Maharashtra,
there were no Sakhis and Sahelis among the AGs interviewed.

Table 6.26: State-wise, Sakhi-Sahelis Reporting on Functions Performed


State Help with KS Assist Assist in THR Accompany on Help with KD
AWW Distibution Home Visits

Andhra Pradesh 87.1% 74.1% 89.4% 62.4% 70.6%


Assam 85.7% 64.3% 92.9% 64.3% 71.4%
Bihar 100.0% 30.0% 40.0% 30.0% 60.0%
Haryana 89.9% 80.8% 80.8% 84.8% 91.9%
Karnataka 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Odisha 78.1% 50.7% 67.1% 63.0% 69.9%
Punjab 92.9% 92.9% 85.7% 100.0% 100.0%
Rajasthan 81.4% 65.0% 72.9% 66.4% 71.4%
Tamil Nadu 99.6% 88.7% 96.5% 96.1% 98.3%
Tripura 92.3% 23.1% 76.9% 61.5% 61.5%
Uttar Pradesh 75.0% 25.0% 35.7% 60.7% 64.3%
Total 89.5% 72.6% 82.1% 77.9% 82.9%
Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Overall, 35.5% received training to be a Sakhi or a Saheli. Zone-wise, East Zone (16.4%) and
North East (3.5%) have a smaller proportion of girls who were trained to be a Sakhi-Saheli.
Karnataka, Punjab and Rajasthan have successfully trained over 90% of girls chosen as

196
Sakhis or Sahelis. In Peddapadu, 150 Sakhis and 300 Sahelis had undergone training in life-
skills and other topics by an NGO called Social Service Centre. They were also able to use
the 16-item Sabla kit. The training was conducted in sector headquarters like Duggirala,
Lingaraogudem, Vatluru, Thangellmudi, Pedavegi and others, where about 15 girls were
trained at a time. Choosing a Sakhi or Saheli was based on level of activity, involvement,
communication. Around one-third, or 30.6% Sakhis and 31.3% Sahelis in Peddapadu were
from SC community.

Figure 6.67: Training received to be a Sakhi- Saheli

% who received training to be a Sakhi-Saheli


100.00%
92.90% 92.90% 89.10%
84.70% 86.90%
80.00%
61.60% 60.70%

30.80%
21.40%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

From the tables below, it is clear that many positive views about oneself and a sense of
confidence could be captured among girls who had been Sakhis and Sahelis. 85.2% reported
a sense of ownership of the function as they note that they were responsible for helping with
Sabla activities. 54.1% expressed a sense of leadership; 89.2% reported that they felt they
should help other girl; 89.8%% reported having learned new things as Sakhis and Sahelis.
Many felt they could help others (91.3%), while 80.8% felt they were important and
influential in their peer groups. 85.7% felt a sense of pride, a sense of usefulness and purpose
(87.3%), and 86.4% felt their family was proud of them.

197
Figure 6.68: As a Sakhi & Saheli, I am responsible for conduct of SABLA activities

Being a Sakhi/Saheli …..


My family is proud of me 86.4%

I feel useful to others/ society 87.3%

I am proud of the work I do in the Kishori Samooha 85.7%

I feel that others listen to me because I am


80.8%
important

I feel like I can help others 91.3%

I have learned many new things 89.8%

After becoming a Sakhi/Saheli,

I should help other girls 89.2%

I am a leader 54.1%

I am responsible for helping with Sabla activities 85.2%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Key Issues and Conclusions

In terms of impact of the nutrition component, the absence of a baseline has made it difficult
to assess the scheme’s impact on the health status of the beneficiaries. In addition, due to
poor tracking of BMI at the programmatic level, and inadequate monitoring (and reliance on
self-reporting by beneficiaries) of the consumption of the Take Home Ration, it was not
possible to examine its direct impact on the AG’s nutritional status.
In the health-related components, among the low number of respondents diagnosed with any
medical problem, 67.2% were referred to a health centre or a hospital for treatment.
Similarly, at least 75% of the total respondents who were diagnosed with a problem in Tamil
Nadu, Rajasthan (80%) and Haryana (80%) were referred elsewhere for treatment. None of
the AGs diagnosed with problems in Punjab, Tripura and Karnataka were referred to any
further treatment. Bihar has no reporting of any AGs attending health camps. Among the
total number of problems diagnosed, 44% were anaemia or menstrual related, followed by
fever and other minor ailments (28%) and ENT related problems (13%). The remaining

198
problems diagnosed were related to other illnesses (15%). Most of the respondents (75%)
consume their IFA tablets at home, while only 24.45% took it at the AWC. Odisha reported
the highest number complying with this recommendation at 60.75%. The scheme guidelines
recommend that in order to ensure compliance, the IFA tablet should be taken in front of the
AWW. Again, Odisha (64.5%) along with Punjab (65.6%) and Tamil Nadu (66.2%) reported
higher levels of compliance.

Our survey found that at least 48% (1612) OOSG reported being advised on joining school.
Across the states, at least 60% of the respondents reported receiving counselling on joining
school in Rajasthan (72%), Andhra Pradesh (66.7%), Tamil Nadu (66%), Punjab (63.9%) and
Odisha (61%). In Bihar only 12% reported receiving any such counselling. In Karnataka,
none of the respondents were approached by anyone urging them to join school. Our survey
found that 71.6% of the respondents had ever attended counselling. The highest number of
reported attendance was in Rajasthan (96.5%), Tamil Nadu (95.5%) and Odisha (92.1%).
The lowest was in Karnataka at 10.1%, Assam at 16.7% and Bihar at 29 %. The number of
sessions per month for 80% was between one and two, with North and South zones showing
higher values. The Eastern zone saw up to four sessions. Over 85% attended over four
sessions in Odisha (86.1%) and about 87% attended at least two sessions in Karnataka. Each
respondent attended an average of 4.1 sessions overall. Across the states, respondents
attended an average of 10.9 session in Rajasthan. In Odisha and Karnataka, the respondents
attended an average of 7 and 6 sessions respectively. Respondents in Assam have reported
the lowest number of sessions attended, with an average of 1.8 sessions. Greater proportions
attended counselling sessions on personal hygiene and sanitation and nutrition as these were
topics AWWs routinely spoke to AGs and pregnancy and lactating women about. In terms of
topics, there was a huge range covered in the counselling sessions. Personal Hygiene and
sanitation, nutrition, physical exercise, first aid and family planning were the highest attended
followed by other topics. In terms of the usefulness of the sessions, 96.4% reported that the
sessions were useful and very useful.

Around half (44.1%) of the eligible girls in the age-group 15-18 years had received any
information about vocational training. Only in Andhra Pradesh (73%), Rajasthan (70.5%),
Haryana (60.7%) and Odisha (51.1%) more than half of the eligible AGs received
counselling on vocational training. Assam is the only state where 96% of the AGs did not
receive any counselling on vocational training. Only 422 of the total 3358 OOSG
199
respondents had completed vocational training. There were many reasons for the poor
performance of this component. Given that the training is conducted through the department
of Labour’s vocational training cells, they are more often than not carried out at the district or
block/mandal headquarters over 2-3 days. Parents are less likely to permit daughters to
attend such training. At the same time, in group discussions, the girls talked about how group
travel not only helped continue the building of social connections within the group, and in
some cases, could also reduce the apprehensions of parents. In addition,. There were
eligibility criteria like 18 years of age and completion of 10 th standard at ITIs that excluded
the Sabla girls who were under the age of 18 years.

100% of girls who were or had ever been Sakhis or Sahelis reported that they liked being
Sakhi and Saheli. 96.4% reported motivating others girls, while 89.4% reported helping
conduct activities including maintaining registers (72.6%), distribution of THR (82.1%),
accompanying AWW on home visits (77.9%), helping organise Kishori Divas activities
(82.9%), and helping conduct activities at Kishori Samooh meetings (89.5%). Many positive
views about oneself and a sense of confidence could be captured among girls who had been
Sakhis and Sahelis. 85.2% reported a sense of ownership of the function as they note that
they were responsible for helping with Sabla activities. 54.1% expressed a sense of
leadership; 89.2% reported that they felt they should help other girls; 89.8% reported having
learned new things as Sakhis and Sahelis. Many felt they could help others (91.3%), while
80.8% felt they were important and influential in their peer groups. 85.7% felt a sense of
pride, a sense of usefulness and purpose (87.3%), and 86.4% felt their family was proud of
them.

Under Scheme Outputs, we considered the responses to our beneficiary survey for those
reporting receipt of nutrition component and IFA tablets (under 33% reporting receipt, 33-
66% reporting receipt, and over 66% reporting receipt), Health Check-ups (under 33%
reporting completion, 33-66% reporting completion, and over 66% reporting completion),
Health Referrals as a separate activity (among those who were diagnosed with a problem, the
proportion referred for treatment (0-33%, 34-66%, and above 66% reporting the same),
Vocational training availed (under 33% reporting completion, 33-66% reporting completion,
and over 66% reporting completion), counselling attended ((under 33% reporting completion,
33-66% reporting completion, and over 66% reporting completion), and sakhi-saheli training
conducted (under 33% reporting training, 33-66% reporting training,, and over 66% reporting
200
training). We found again that Odisha, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka,
and Andhra Pradesh reported good performance, while Bihar reported medium performance
figures, performing poorly on health Check-ups, health referrals, vocational training, and
counselling attendance. All states performed poorly on health referrals according to the
respondent survey. Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tripura and
Rajasthan performed poorly in terms of completion of vocational training. Assam, Bihar,
Karnataka, and Maharashtra reported low figures for counselling attendance. All states did
well on Sakhi-Saheli training except for Tripura, Maharashtra and Assam.

201
Chapter 7. CONCLUSIONS AND WAY FORWARD

Sabla is a uniquely designed comprehensive scheme for the empowerment of adolescent girls
in India. It combines a range of components addressing the social, health, psychological and
economic concerns of adolescent girls aged 11-18 years under its nutritional and non-
nutritional components. The mechanisms to implement the Nutrition Component of Sabla
are already streamlined as it is based on the existing ICDS platform. The non-nutrition
component has been more challenging to implement given that it consists of multiple pivotal
activities for AGs that require multi-stakeholder involvement and partnerships. The health-
related components such as health check-ups and distribution of IFA tablets are being
delivered effectively. VT and Mainstreaming OOSGs require more focused interventions,
especially at the field level. Personal Hygiene and sanitation, nutrition, physical exercise,
first aid and family planning are only some of the topics on which the AGs are receiving
information and counselling. They are also encouraged to undertake activities like painting,
theatre, singing, dance, games, and are receiving exposure to public services. The outreach of
the scheme has been vast in ensuring awareness of not only the scheme’s components, but
also raising awareness about adolescent girls’ concerns. Kishori Cards are being maintained
and used in most AWCs. The qualitative findings from the study elicit that there is a gradual
and empowered perception among in the AGs through the Scheme. In particular, Sakhis and
Sahelis expressed positive feelings about themselves, and displayed a sense of confidence
and purpose.

Overall, the implementation machinery is gradually falling into place. The scheme’s design
is comprehensive and implementation mechanism well-defined. However, functionaries have
reported that implementing the scheme’s many diverse components and ensuring
convergence with various stakeholders and departments as challenging. These challenges are
causing delays in implementation of all components. Some key issues in implementation
included the fact sustained counselling for girls, especially with regard to vocational training
and school mainstreaming, and follow up on these components and health referrals are not
adequately provided by field functionaries. One of the main reasons for this was that AWWs
and Supervisors feel overburdened with the number of tasks required to deliver all
components of the scheme, in addition to their other responsibilities and delivery of other
schemes.

202
Despite these many challenges, government officials from Social Justice, Social
Development, Women and Child Development and Health and Education departments among
others queried and functionaries (including State Nodal Officers, Project Directors,
Supervisors, and AWWs) saw the scheme as extremely important to ensure that AGs were
supported to grow into healthy and empowered women. All other stakeholders including
Panchayat Members, non-beneficiaries, officials, communities, and families were found to
unanimously be very positive about the scheme and its benefits.

The challenges to implementation of the non-nutrition component are multiple from both
demand and the supply side. As detailed in the findings the focus from the Central and State
Governments to decentralize and innovate at the grassroots is vital to the success of the
Scheme. On the supply side, efforts to improve social promotion and acceptability among the
families of the AGs are equally imperative. Barriers to the VT component, in particular,
showed how demand and supply side factors combine to inhibit implementation: while 45%
of the respondents attributed family's apprehension as a major obstacle to attending the AWC
and VT, and about 42% attributed the location of the VT – away from the village of residence
in residential institutes – as an inhibiting factor. As Sabla is a relatively new scheme and is
unique in its design, there are bound to be challenges and barriers.

203
Strengths and Barriers

Strengths
1) Among all stakeholders, the study found positive feelings about the importance of Sabla
and that it addresses an underserved population that requires special attention.
Beneficiary-respondents reported high levels of satisfaction (>90%) with all its
components.
2) There is high awareness of Sabla among all stakeholders, including non-beneficiaries who
were aware of a scheme for adolescent girls.
3) The Nutrition Component is being well-implemented on the ICDS platform.
4) The scheme is comprehensive in its design and through its various components, addresses
the social, health, psychological and empowerment needs of adolescent girls.
5) In its implementation, there is strong convergence with the Health Department as evinced
by the smooth conduct of health check-ups and distribution of IFA tablets. There is also
some reported improvement in knowledge among girls of health and hygiene, nutrition,
reproductive health, and use of public services.
Challenges
1) There have been some challenges in the implementation of the Non-Nutrition
Component, particularly VT and school mainstreaming.
2) Capacities of Anganwadi Workers and in some AWCs is limited in implementing the
scheme’s many components, motivating the AGs to utilise the scheme’s services, and in
monitoring and reporting on delivery. AWWs, Supervisors, and CDPOs felt
overburdened in managing the scheme alongside other schemes and activities.
3) Reporting and Monitoring on the scheme presented a challenge to the functionaries.
4) Fund Adequacy needs to be reviewed for the various components keeping in mind price
indices and the amount required to ensure delivery of components like VT.
5) Information on consumption of THR Component by AG is difficult to confirm. A
suitable mechanism is required to understand the impact of this component.

204
Table 7.1: Evaluation of the Scheme: Input and Output Parameters
Parameters Examined Good Average Poor

Scheme Awareness regarding Sabla 


Inputs/Delivery Monitoring Committees 
Receipt and Use of Kishori Cards 
Convergence with Health 
Convergence with Labour and Employment 
Funds Utilisation Trend 
Field Functionaries Capacity including Workload 

Scheme Nutrition Component Receipt 


Outputs IFA Tablets 
Health Check ups 
Health Referrals 
VT 
Counselling Attendance 
Sakhi Saheli Training 
Coverage (NC) 
Coverage (NNC)

Mainstreaming in Education 

Source: Based on Analysis of Secondary Data and Primary ASCI Field Survey data, 2013

Performance of Sampled States

Overall, all sampled states have covered AGs well under the nutrition component, and have
all to improve in extending vocational training. In particular, Odisha, Punjab, Haryana,
Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh have covered large numbers of
adolescent girls and improved their coverage over a two-year period. While most states were
struggling with the vocational training component, these states increased the number of girls
receiving vocational training in absolute numbers. Bihar and Assam were average, while
Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh covered less than one-third their target population.

205
Table 7.2: Performance of Sampled States

Regarding Sabla
Coverage (NNC)
Health Referrals

Coverage (NC)
Health Check-

Kishori Cards
Formation of
beneficiaries
Sakhi Saheli

among Non-
IFA Tablets
States and

Committees
Counselling
Component

Monitoring
Attendance

Issuance of
Awareness
Vocational
Nutrition

Training

Training

Use and
Parameters

Receipt

ups
Odisha Good Good Med Poor Poor Good Med Good Med Good Good Good

Punjab Good Good Good Poor Poor Good Good Good Med Med Good Poor

Haryana Good Good Med Poor Med Good Good Med Good Good Good Good

Rajasthan Good Good Good Poor Med Good Good Med Good Med Good Med

Tamil Nadu Good Good Good Poor Med Good Good Good Good Good Good Good

Karnataka Good Good Poor Poor Med Poor Good Good Good Good Good Poor

Andhra Pradesh Good Good Poor Poor Poor Good Good Good Good Poor Good Med

Bihar Good Med Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Good Good Med Poor Poor

Tripura Good Good Poor Poor Poor Med Poor Good Good Good Good Med

Assam Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Good Med Poor Good Poor

Maharashtra Good Good Med Poor Poor Poor Poor Med Med Med Good Poor

Uttar Pradesh Good Poor Poor Poor Poor Poor Med Good Poor Poor Good Poor
Source: Based on Analysis of Secondary Data and Primary ASCI Field Survey data, 2013

206
Under Scheme Delivery, Odisha, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka
performed well on most parameters except for Convergence with Labour and Employment.
While all 12 states did well on increasing the utilization of funds over the two years, the
overall utilisation of nutrition funds was at a higher rate than that of non-nutrition fund
allocations. All states except for Bihar had set up Sabla Monitoring and Steering Committees
at village, block, district, and state levels and were holding meetings, particularly at the
village level.

Under Scheme Outputs, Odisha, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and
Andhra Pradesh did well on all major components. Health referrals and vocational training
were low in all states. Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, and Maharashtra reported low figures for
counselling attendance. Sakhi-Saheli training was imparted by all states except for Tripura,
Maharashtra and Assam.

It is clear that States and functionaries need continuous support and guidance on
implementing Sabla’s various components to ensure better outcomes. This may include
greater decentralisation, evolving mechanisms to involve more stakeholders, and motivating
AGs to enrol, benefit, and monitor the scheme, and ensure that families and communities set
aside their apprehensions and become advocates and champions of Sabla for the potential it
holds for their daughters’ well-being and empowered futures.

Way Forward

Improve Coverage
 Multi-level stakeholder interactions during the study explicitly brought out that the
Sabla scheme is holistically conceived and its scaling up of implementation across all
districts of India should be contemplated. In this context it was also mentioned that
the scheme is already showing positive outcomes in terms of usefulness to the
beneficiaries in its implementation span of two years.
 The analysis provides an insight that the nutrition component of Sabla has an already
streamlined mechanism in place and is being implemented well in all States, whereas
the non-nutrition component needs further emphasis and improvement in
implementation. The States need to foster decentralization, flexibility and innovation

207
in implementing the non-nutrition components. Knowledge sharing exercises to
exchange best practices in implementation should also be encouraged.

Reviewing Financial Allocations


 The amount of allocation for supplementary nutrition needs of AGs may be reviewed
and increased as per the restructured ICDS norms for pregnant and lactating women.
 Considering the number of AWCs and number of beneficiaries per block, the current
budgetary provision (which is Rs 3.8 lakhs per block per annum) for the non-nutrition
component must be reviewed and revised upwards. This is important for the
successful delivery of diverse services under non –nutrition component, especially for
cost incurring yet essential ones such as vocational training.
 The Vocational Training component is an essential activity under the scheme and
needs a strong emphasis in implementation. The study reveals in the current scenario
there is a shortage of VTPs coupled with the challenge of inaccessibility of VTPs by
AGs. The parents of AGs in most cases were reluctant to let them go to distant VTPs
due to safety issues. Thus budgetary provisions may be made within the Scheme for
providing training at the village-level itself for AGs. The vocational training need not
be compulsorily through the VTPs, but can be imparted through any other
organisation capable of imparting such training programmes.
 Most of the States have not adequately used the flexibility in utilisation of funds under
various heads of the non-nutrition component of the Scheme. This aspect of the
scheme should be given due importance by the Ministry by issuing instructions to the
States from time to time. States may ensure awareness among district level officers of
the flexibility available in the Scheme.
 There is inadequate space in AWCs to carry out activities under the non-nutrition
component and gatherings for AGs under the Scheme. Budgetary provision needs to
be made for extension of AWCs for exclusive space to carry out activities for AGs
enrolled in Sabla. Till such provisions are made, budgetary provisions for hiring
school buildings or community halls to carry out activities for Sabla enrolled girls
must be allocated within the scheme.
Scheme Delivery and Capacity
 Campaign involving various community stakeholders and sustained motivation and
engagement with AGs to motivate them to attend AWC should be planned.

208
 Operational limitations such as shortages in weighing machines, involvement of
ANMs in AWC activities must be addressed.
 In a few blocks in the studied Sates (e.g.: AWC in Patna Sardar-5 Block, Bihar), the
CDPO has formed procurement committees that procure the rations for the AWCs.
This may be studied further for replication as it involves the beneficiaries in
monitoring and quality control of nutrition component.
 Given that AWWs and Helpers are overburdened with various government works in
addition to her core duties, it is recommended that they should be given additional
honorarium as an incentive to implement Sabla scheme.
 AWWs, Supervisors and CDPOs need to be trained adequately for effective
implementation of non-nutrition component.
 For effective delivery of the scheme, additional personnel who can facilitate and
support implementing officers at various levels are required. Exclusive scheme
management units at the central, state, district and block level is recommended.
Monitoring and MIS:
 As a comprehensive scheme, Sabla has multiple parameters to be monitored. The
inputs from various stakeholders and delays in submission of reports by the
States/Districts suggest there is a need for digitization of monitoring of the Scheme.
There is a need to develop a Management Information System (MIS) for tracking
inputs, outputs and outcome levels of indicators which shall assist in taking informed
decisions regarding the future development of the Scheme.
Partnerships:
 A more inclusive role must be envisioned for the civil society organisations in the
delivery of the non-nutritional component. The selection of NGOs, wherever
required, for imparting training or allied services, could be done at the District level
by forming required committees at that level. This approach shall expedite the
selection as well as service delivery processes. NGOs with experience of working
with adolescent populations, women, and on education, empowerment, livelihoods
and health may be prioritised where available.
 LSE and ARSH counselling needs to be delivered through specialised resource
persons.
 While state governments are increasingly providing THR, there has to be an intensive
and sustained engagement with AGs and their families through social participation to

209
ensure that AGs get to consume the rations. Sakhi-Sahelis could be trained to monitor
this aspect of the programme.
 A combination of THR and Nutritional Supplement at the AWC for beneficiaries is
the model that is being followed in few blocks (e.g. Peddapadu, West Godavari,
Andhra Pradesh). Such best practices must be shared with other states.
 ANMs and Medical Officers must receive written instructions to ensure Health Check
Ups and Health Referrals of AGs.
 Mainstreaming of girls into schools needs to be reviewed, and stronger convergence
with Education Department and NGOs working on children’s education must be
ensured. Non-formal education, migrant children’s school, hostels are models that
already exist and can be used for mainstreaming out of school girls.
 Kishori Divas must be organised separately from VHND to ensure AGs receive
focussed attention from health officials and AWWs.
 Role of Sakhi-Sahelis must be expanded not only in assisting AWWs in service
delivery, but also in monitoring the scheme. While they are on village committee,
they should be capacitated to represent their interests. Training of Sakhi-Sahelis
should be monitored and tracked.
 FGDs with AWWs elicited that there is a need for adolescent boys to be included for
support and services. It was suggested that a similar scheme for adolescence boys
might be initiated, which would focus on the nutrition, health and life-skill needs of
adolescent boys and in turn make them responsible and productive citizens.

210
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220
Annexure I: Tools

I Beneficiary Schedule
Section 1 : Background Information
Section 2 : Awareness Of Scheme- For Both In-School And Out Of School Girls
Section 3 : Implementation Of Sabla
Section I : Only For Out Of School Girls

Nutrition Component

Health Check-Ups &Referrals

Exposure To Public Services

Vocational Training – Girls Of 16 To 18 Years Were Asked

IFA Supplementation

Counselling Sessions

Mainstreaming

Services At AWC

Sakhi-Saheli Experience

Section II : Outputs Of The Scheme

Section III : Attitudinal Statements

Section 4 : For In-School Girls


Section 5 : Barriers To Accessing Services
Section 6 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions

Ii Non Beneficiary Schedule


Section 1 : Background Information
Section 2 : Awareness Of Sabla
Section 3 : Barriers To Accessing Services
Section 4 : Attitudinal Statements
Section 5 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions
Iii Sabla Key Informant Interview
A. Sabla Key Informant Interview Cdpo
Section 1 : Demographics
Section 2 : Knowledge On Sabla
221
Nutrition
IFA
Health Check-Ups
Counselling Sessions
Vocational Training
Section 3 : Practices
Section 4 : Attitudes
Section 5 : Barriers To Providing Services
Section 6 : Training
Section 7 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions
B. Sabla Key Informant Interview, District Project Officer
Section 1 : Demographics
Section 2 : Knowledge On Sabla
Nutrition
IFA
Health Check-Ups
Counselling Sessions
Vocational Training
Section 3 : Practices
Section 4 : Attitudes
Section 5 : Barriers To Providing Services
Section 6 : Training
Section 7 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions
C. Sabla Key Informant Interview, Project Director
Section 1 : Demographics
Section 2 : Knowledge On Sabla
Nutrition
IFA
Health Check-Ups
Counselling Sessions
Vocational Training
Section 3 : Practices
Section 4 : Attitudes
Section 5 : Barriers To Providing Services
222
Section 6 : Training
Section 7 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions
D. Sabla Key Informant Interview, State Nodal Officer
Section 1 : Demographics
Section 2 : Knowledge On Sabla
Nutrition
IFA
Health Check-Ups
Counselling Sessions
Vocational Training
Section 3 : Practices
Section 4 : Attitudes
Section 5 : Barriers To Providing Services
Section 6 : Training
Section 7 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions
E. Sabla Key Informant Interview Supervisor
Section 1 : Demographics
Section 2 : Knowledge On Sabla
Nutrition
IFA
Health Check-Ups
Counselling Sessions
Vocational Training
Section 3 : Practices
Section 4 : Attitudes
Section 5 : Barriers To Providing Services
Section 6 : Training
Section 7 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions
F. Key Informant Interview Questions- Anganwadi Worker (Jan28)
Section 1 : Demographics
Section 2 : Knowledge On Sabla
Nutrition
IFA
Health Check-Ups
223
Counselling Sessions
Vocational Training
Section 3 : Practices
Section 4 : Attitudes
Section 5 : Barriers To Providing Services
Section 6 : Training
Section 7 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions
F. Key Informant Interview Questions- Anganwadi Worker (May 22)
Section 1 : Demographics
Section 2 : Knowledge On Sabla
Nutrition
IFA
Health Check-Ups
Counselling Sessions
Vocational Training
Section 3 : Management Practices
Section 4 : Attitudes
Section 5 : Barriers To Providing Services
Section 6 : Training
Section 7 : Overall Ranking And Suggestions

Xi. Focus Group Discussion Guide: Beneficiary


Xii. Focus Group Discussion Guide: Out Of School Non-Beneficiaries
Xii. Focus Group Discussion Guide: Community, Family

Annexue II: Detailed Key Informant Interviews

224
State Level
No State Level Interviews were conducted in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana,
Karnataka, Maharshtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Tripura
Bihar (1 Interview)
1. Statistical Officer, ICDS Directorate, Patna

Odisha (1 Interview)
1. AD cum Under Secretary

Uttar Pradesh (1 Interview)


1. State Incharge, Sabla Scheme

District Level (DPOs and CDPOs)


Andhra Pradesh (2 Interviews)
1. CDPO, Peddapadu, West Godavari
2. CDPO, Kovvuru, West Godavari

Assam (1 Interview)
1. District Social Welfare Officer, Darrang

Bihar (3 Interviews )
1. District Project Officer, Patna
2. CDPO, Phulwari Sharif, Patna
3. CDPO, Patna Sardar 5, Patna

Haryana (1 Interview)
1. DPO, Ambala

Karnataka (3 Interviews)
1. DPO, Dharwad
2. CDPO, Puttappanavar
3. CDPO, Hubli (Urban)

Maharashtra (2 Interviews)
1. DPO, Amravati
2. Statistical Assistant, District Project Office, Amravati
3. CDPO, Chandurbazar, Amravati

225
Odisha (7 Interviews)
1. DPO, ICDS, Cell 5
2. DPO, Mayurbhanj
3. District Social Welfare Officer, Mayurbhanj
4. CDPO, Baripada
5. CDPO, Shamakhunta
6. CDPO, Bheden
7. CDPO, Padmapur

Punjab (2 Interviews)
1. DPO, Hoshyarpur
2. CDPO, Hoshyarpur

Rajasthan (2 Interviews)
1. DPO, Bhilwara
2. CDPO, Bhilwara

Tamil Nadu (2 Interviews)


1. District Project Officer, Cuddalore
2. CDPO, Melbhuvanagiri

Tripura (1 Interview)
1. District Social Welfare Officer, Dhalai

Uttar Pradesh
1. DPO, Lalitpur
2. CDPO, Lalitpur

Supervisors
No Supervisor Interviews were conducted in Assam, Haryana, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and
Tripura.
Andhra Pradesh (1 Interview)
1. AWS, Kovvuru, West Godavari

Bihar (4 Interviews)
1. AWS, Patna
2. AWS, Patna

226
3. AWS, Patna
4. AWS, Patna

Karnataka (2 Interviews)
1. AWS, Dharwad
2. AWS,Dharwad

Maharashtra (2 Interviews)
1. ICDS Supervisor and Master Trainer, Chikaldara, Melghat, Amravati
2. AWS, Achalpur, Amravati

Odisha (3 Interviews)
1. ICDS Supervisor, Sritadganj, Maurbhanj
2. ICDS Supervisor, Mayurbhanj
3. ICDS Supervisor, Mayurbhanj

Rajasthan (4 Interviews)
1. AWS, Badgaon, Udaipur
2. Lady Supervisor, Udaipur
3. Lady Supervisor, Udaipur
4. Lady Supervisor, Udaipur

Uttar Pradesh
1. Supervisor, Lalitpur

Annexure III: Number of AWWs Interviewed

227
Name of State Number of AWWs Name of State Number of AWWs
Interviewed Interviewed
Andhra Pradesh 100 Odisha 43

Assam 73 Punjab 84

Bihar 60 Rajasthan 75

Haryana 60 Tamil Nadu 48

Karnataka 75 Tripura Nil

Maharashtra 90 Uttar Pradesh 75

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

228
Annexure IV: Description of Non- Beneficiaries

Figure 1: Non-Beneficiary: Religion


Non-Beneficiary: Religion

Uttar Pradesh
Tripura
Tamilnadu Hindu%
Rajasthan Muslim%
Punjab Christian%
Karnataka Sikh%

Bihar Buddhist/ Neo Buddhist%


Other %
Assam
Andhra Pradesh
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 2: Non – Beneficiary (Religion) - Overall

Non-Beneficiary : Religion (All States)

Buddhist/ Neo Other %


Buddhist% 1%
1%
Christian%
1% Sikh%
6%

Muslim%
13%

Hindu%
78%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

229
Figure 3: Non- Beneficiaries- Caste Profile (Across states)
Non-Beneficary: Caste

Uttar Pradesh

Tripura

Tamilnadu
BC
Rajasthan
FC
Punjab
NO
Karnataka SC
Bihar ST
Assam

Andhra Pradesh

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 4: Caste Profile- Non- Beneficiaries (Overall)

Non-Beneficiary: Caste (All States)

ST
8% BC
31%
SC
34%

FC
22%
NO
5%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

230
Figure 5: Number of Brothers (Non-Beneficiaries) - Across States
Family Size: No. of Brothers of non-beneficiaries(all states)

39.05%

27.62%
21.27%

5.71% 3.81% 1.90% 0.63%

0 1 2 3 4 5 7

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 6: Number of Sisters (Non- Beneficiaries) - Across States


Family Size: No. of Sisters of non-beneficiaries (all states)
41.90%

21.90%
19.68%

10.48%

3.81%
1.90%
0.32%

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

231
Figure 7: Type of work done by Non-Beneficiary's Mother
Type of Work of Non-Beneficiary's Mother

Agricultural Labour
15%

No response Own Cultivation


32% 13%

Only House wife Wage labour –


Others other
1% 23%
13%
Salaried
3%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figuren 8: Type of Work done by Mother's of Non-Beneficiaries (Across States)


Type of Work of Non-Beneficiary's Mother

100.00%
90.00% Others
80.00%
70.00% Only House wife
60.00%
50.00% Salaried
40.00%
30.00% Wage labour –
20.00% other
10.00%
0.00%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

232
Housing Conditions

Figure 9: Housing Conditions - Non Beneficiaries


Condition of Non-Beneficiary's home
1%

Kaccha

44% Pucca

55%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 10: Housing Condition of Non- Beneficiaries - Across States

100.00%

80.00%

60.00%

40.00%
Kaccha
20.00% Pucca
0.00%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

233
Figure 11: Education Levels of Non Beneficiaries (Overall)
Non-Beneficiary: Education level (state level)
53.0%

31.1%

8.3%
1.3% 2.5% 1.6% 2.2%

Never 3rd to 5th 6th to 9th 10th 11th 12th Dropped out
Attended Grade Grade

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 12: Educational Attainment of Non-Beneficiaries (Across States)

100.0%
90.0%
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
40.0%
30.0% 10th
20.0%
12th
10.0%
0.0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

234
Figure 13: % of Non-Beneficiaries who dropped out of School
% Non-Beneficiaries who dropped out of School

100.0%
84.3%
75.0%
57.4%
42.1%
19.4%
7.4%
0.0% 0.0%

Figure 14: Employment Profile of Non-Beneficiaries


Type of work involved in after non-beneficiary discontinued school

TAILORING 0.32%

NOT DOING ANYTHING 39.68%

NON AGRICULTURE WORK 0.95%

LABOUR WORK 5.40%

HOUSE HOLD WORK 0.63%

GOAT SHEPARD 0.32%

AGRICULUTURE LABOUR 0.32%

AGRICULTURE WORK 5.40%


46.98%
HELP WITH HOUSEWORK…

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

235
Figure 15: Duration of Paid Employment among Non-Beneficiaries (Across States)
Duration of Paid Employment
40.0%

35.0%

30.0%

25.0%

20.0% >1 Year


7 months to 1 year
15.0%
Less than 6 Months
10.0%

5.0%

0.0%
Andhra Assam Punjab Rajasthan Uttar State
Pradesh Pradesh Total

Source: ASCI Survey 2013


Data was not available for the other states of Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Tripura.

236
Barriers that stop girls from being Sabla Beneficiaries
Figure 16: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: AWC Far Away
Barriers to accessing services: AWC is far from home
100%
90%
80%
70% % Agree
60%
% Can't Say
50%
40% %Disagree
30%
20%
10%
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 17: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: Parents Disallow

Barriers to accessing services: Parents don't allow me go to AWC


100%
90% % Agree
80%
70%
60% % Can't
50%
Say
40%
30%
20% %Disagree
10%
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

237
Figure 18: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: Unsuitable Timings
Barriers to accessing services: Timings for AWC centre don't suit me
100%
90%
80%
70%
60% % Agree
50%
40%
30% % Can't
20% Say
10% %Disagree
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013


Figure 19: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: Not been motivated

Barriers to accessing services: No one has called me to the Centre


100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50% % Agree
40%
% Can't Say
30%
20% %Disagree
10%
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

238
Figure 20: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: No Knowledge

Barriers to accessing services: I don't know about scheme for girls


100%
90%
80%
70% % Agree
60%
50% % Can't Say
40%
30% %Disagree
20%
10%
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013


Figure 21: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: No Time

Barriers to accessing services: I have no time


100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
% Agree
40%
% Can't
30%
Say
20%
%Disagree
10%
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

239
Figure 22: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: Don’t feel like Attending

Barriers to accessing services: Don't feel like going to AWC


100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50% % Agree
40%
30% % Can't
20% Say
10% %Disagree
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

Figure 23: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: Disapproval

Barriers to accessing services: Village People dissaprove of attending


sessions at AWC
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
% Agree
50%
40% % Can't Say
30%
20% %Disagree
10%
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

240
Figure 24: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: Work

Barriers to accessing services: I have work so I can't attend school


100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50% % Agree
40% % Can't Say
30% %Disagree
20%
10%
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013


Figure 25: Non-Beneficiary Barriers: Household Chores

Barriers to accessing services: Have household chores to be regular


at AWC
100%
90%
80%
70%
60% % Agree
50%
% Can't Say
40%
%Disagree
30%
20%
10%
0%

Source: ASCI Survey 2013

241