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Fiber-reinforced composites and filled plastics used in a wide range of products use

thermoset polymers as the key matrix. The applications include consumer items, auto
body panels, aerospace structural components like the Space Shuttle payload bay door,
jet engine cowls and ducts, and costly, high-performance sports equipment. Thermosets
are mainly used as moulding compounds, adhesives and surface coatings, including
protective solder masks for PCBs.

Thermosets versus Thermoplastics and Elastomers


Thermoplastics are processed in the molten state, their final shape and internal structure are
established by cooling, and they can be softened and reshaped by reapplication of heat and
pressure. Also after moulding, their polymer chains, whether branched or linear remain

Thermoset Polymers

Thermoset polymers usually undergo three stages are:

A–stage known as a resole, wherein the resin is still fusible and soluble.

B-stage is the stage wherein the thermosets are almost insoluble but are thermoplastic. They
can remain in the molten state for only a short period as the temperatures promoting flow cause
cross-linking of the material.

C-stage – This is the final stage of polymerization wherein the cross linking reaction takes
place at the time of molding the product under controlled impact of heat and pressure over

Hence, the final structure of thermosets is constructed during processing, creating a 3D internal
structural network of highly crosslinked polymer chains. The final product cannot be thermally
reformed and is insoluble.


Elastomers share the properties of both thermosets and thermoplastics. They are first
thermoplastic polymers with distinct chains that afterward develop a covalent crosslink
network. However, the difference between elastomers and thermosets lie in the fact that the
crosslink network is formed in a distinct vulcanization step known as post polymerization.
The glass transition temperature Tg is another factor that differentiates the three polymer
classes. This is the temperature at which polymers reversibly transmute between glassy and
rubbery states. The glass transition temperature is below ambient temperature for elastomers,
and for thermosets and thermoplastics, it is above the ambient temperature.

Studying the Crosslinking Reaction

Figure 1 shows the formation of a thermoset crosslinked network. By using rheological

analysis, which is the measurement of shear modulus, damping and resin viscosity, this process
can be understood better. In thermoset polymer research and development, rheological
testing has become a suitable supplement to chromatography, DSC and wet chemical analysis.
This is because of the nature of the processes involved and rheological changes in them.

Thermoset Processing - Multistage Processing

Thermosetting resins are processed in two or more stages. For instance, consider those used for
fabricating fiber-reinforced laminates. First, a laminating varnish is developed from curing
agent, resin monomer, other functional additives and a solvent. The varnish is then applied to
a reinforcing fabric made of high modulus fibers or glassfiber. The solvent is then removed
and the resin reacts partially to form a prepreg.

At the B-stage, the prepreg is partly soluble and is a low-melting thermoplastic solid consisting
of unreacted monomer, adduct and higher molecular weight oligomers. Adduct is a re-action
product in which the ratio of resin to curing agent is 1:1.

Certain resins like epoxies need to be secured from moisture and refrigerated to forestall
“advancement”, that is, continuation of the reaction. For product fabrication, a multilayer
sandwich of prepreg is created, placed in an autoclave or a press, and heated to “cure”.

Several things need to be achieved at this stage – the fibers must be thoroughly wetted with
resin, the laminate needs to be consolidated to the required thickness, excess resin must be
removed, trapped air, and moisture and solvent need to be vented out to avoid porosity, and the
cross-linking reaction is advanced to the preferred level.

With a rise in temperature, prepreg melts and the viscosity drops precipitously, after which it
levels and then climbs again. The viscosity behaviour is due to the intervention of a competing
situation – the rising temperature triggers additional reactions among monomers, oligomers
and curing agent improving the viscosity of the prepreg. The multi-functional reactants cause
crosslinks to rapidly form between the polymer chains in all directions. The system gels and
flow stops suddenly. The matrix is solid at this point and the shape and thickness of the
composite are constant. Additional heating is needed, however, for the matrix to form the
balance of its potential crosslinks and to develop, for the most part, its ultimate level of
stiffness. To accomplish this, an additional out-of-mold post-cure step is generally used.

Single-Stage Processing

Thermosets are also processed in a single stage method known as reaction injection molding
(RIM). RIM has gained popularity for a range of recreational and automotive application. RIM
is similar to thermoplastic injection molding. The main distinction is that RIM uses
polymerization in the mold instead of cooling to enable formation of a solid polymer.

Rheology of Thermosets

Polymerization is also used by other reaction molding processes for solidifying the molded
piece. In thermoset injection molding, reactants are subjected to heat of 200°C for reaction
activation. In RIM, the reactants are combined at a considerably lower temperature as
impingement mixing activates the reaction, not the external heat.

In the RIM process, complicated plastic components are rapidly produced directly from low
viscosity reactants. Two or more liquids are impingement mixed at low pressures and
temperatures when they are introduced into the mold. Phase separation of segmented block
copolymers forms a solid polymer, and parts can now be ejected from the mold within a minute.
Figure 1. Schematic representation of structural development during thermoset curing: (A)
unreacted monomers; (B) formation of small branched molecules; (C) the gel point: a path of
covalent bonds exists across the sample; (D) the cured, cross linked polymer with some
unreacted groups and reactants.

Process Rheology

Thermoset structural development involves various rheological changes. The transformation

of the resin occurs from a low melting thermoplastic solid to low viscosity liquid to a stiff solid.
Hence, the properties are very important for successful processing. Resin flow has an impact
on porosity, dimensional uniformity of the cured part and process economics.

Resin flow properties influence the uniformity of etched circuit encapsulation, final press
thickness and copper-to-epoxy adhesion in multilayer printing boards. Hence, at each stage of
the process, the rheological state should be known to employ these materials economically and
Thermosetting resin rheology can be studied using both dynamic oscillatory tests and steady
shear. The first section of the viscosity range of a thermoset can be characterized with steady
shear measurements. There is a rapid increase in steady shear viscosity close to the gel point
and it becomes unmeasurable. The stiffened sample eventually tears or fractures.

As the reaction advances to the gel point and beyond, the resin’s viscosity measurement can be
performed until the resin becomes a stiff solid. This is feasible as the measurements can be
made at a strain amplitude that is low enough to prevent gel structure disruption during its

Figure 2 shows the comparison between steady shear viscosity data and dynamic viscosity data
for a curing epoxy resin. It is important to be able to measure viscosity throughout the thermoset
curing reaction though it offers only a partial picture of the phenomenon taking place. Elasticity
data are required to complete the characterization due to viscoelastic nature of the material.
These are acquired in a dynamic test concurrent with viscosity measurement.

Figure 2. Measurement of the viscosity of a curing epoxy resin

The storage (G’) and loss (G”) moduli and complex viscosity η* determined at the time of an
epoxy molding compound cure is shown in Figure 3. Other than offering minimum viscosity
data, the cross-over point of the two modulus curves offer an estimate of the time at which a
resin starts gelling. This is however only an approximate gel point.
Figure 3. Measurement of the minimum viscosity and approximate gel point for a curing epoxy
molding compound.

The issue is that as the transient gel network structure is forming and stress relaxation also
occurs simultaneously. Therefore, unless gelling system measurements are made rapidly, the
precise gelation time will be obscured by changes because of stress relaxation. It has been
observed in a recent study by H.H. Winter that the cross-over point of loss and storage modulus
curves is not the true gel. Instead, the gelation point is when the critical gel shows power law
stress relaxation, and tan δ becomes frequency-independent momentarily. It is possible to
identify this point by performing a number of frequency sweeps simultaneously.

As observed in Figure 4, there are dynamic oscillatory measurements of tan d simultaneously

made at three frequencies on a crosslinking polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) resin. The three
curves traverse via a single point and define the instant of gelation unambiguously. These
measurements are made readily using a rheometric rheometers with the MultiWavemode.
Figure 4. The precise gel point of a curing resin is identified by the intersection of tan δ curves
generated in several simultaneous frequency sweeps

Product Performance

It is important to avoid both under cure and over cure to obtain the optimum performance from
a thermoset resin. The drawback of an under cured matrix is that it shows creep and creates
heat when vibrated while an over-cured matrix exhibits performance issues at room
temperature. Cooling causes internal stresses to build up in the glass polymer as it cools causing
stress cracks to develop.

To show the extent of thermoset resin cure, Tg or the glass transition temperature determined
during TGA and DSA is used. For instance, when compared to a completely cured control
sample of known good performance, a lower glass transition temperature shows under cure.
However, it cannot be implied that a higher Tg indicates over cure. The distinction between
complete cure and over cure cannot be concluded by determining the Tg.

A high glass transition temperature may occur from exposure to temperatures more than those
of cure or post cure. If the prepreg is cut and subjected to a high relative humidity, the glass
transition temperature can be lower. So, it is clear that Tg alone is not sufficient.
Glass transition is a temperature-induced morphological change in a polymer between a brittle,
glassy state and a viscous, rubbery state. The temperature at which this occurs is the glass
transition temperature. Since in just a short span of temperatures, the material undergoes a
significant change, the glass transition is key to decide if a polymer meets the desired
requirements. Dynamic rheological testing is most suitable.

The impact of glass transition can be observed while measuring moduli (G’, G”) and damping
behaviour (tan δ) of a polymer at a specific oscillatory frequency over a significantly wide
temperature range. Glass transition is determined as a sudden and significant change in the
elastic modulus and an attendant peak in the tan δ curve. Other than being a more precise
technique for determining Tg, DMRT reveals a significant amount of data about the material
before and after glass transition as DMRT determines the rubbery plateau modulus. This is
essential as at high thermoset cure levels the rubbery plateau modulus exhibits higher
sensitivity than Tg itself for detecting, for instance tiny variations in the cure level of a
thermoset polymer.

Also termed as the transition, glass transition is related to crank-shaft movement of key chain
segments. Other transitions termed as b, g, etc. in order of the descending temperature of
occurrence are caused due to rotations and vibrations. Impact resistance and material toughness
correlate with the magnitude of tan δ at the secondary (β, γ) peaks. For a number of materials,
with an increase in the dynamic oscillatory frequency, transitions take place at higher
temperatures. Certain transitions shift certain amounts based on their degree of frequency

This helps in identifying certain transitions in multiphase resin systems in case one component
shows more frequency dependency than the other does. In the event of shifts in the b peak and
the glass transition temperature, the b-peak shows the impact of compounding or process
changes on product performance. Generally, the secondary transition temperature shifts more
than the glass transition temperature with an alteration in frequency.

The technique of using dynamic mechanical testing for studying the crucial factors of thermoset
rheology during resin curing and solid state finished product performance is explained below.

Sample Selection and Preparation

If the immediate application involves use of resin the tests must be conducted on material in
that form. If prepreg are used tests must be made on the staged resin extracted mechanically
from the prepreg or directly on laminate die-cut samples. The diameter of the parallel plates to
be used for the dynamic mechanical tests decides the die size.

For tests that cause curing of the resin, disposable plates must be used as resin can strongly
stick to the plates. In order to reduce its bulk and hold the plies together, the sample needs to
be pressed, preferably under vacuum.

In order to prevent slippage, the test needs to be started at a temperature when the resin is tacky.
Powdered resin samples need to be pulverized, dried and pressed in a mold creating a wafer of
size comparable to the test plate’s diameter.

Generating Viscosity Profiles

The most crucial stage for a thermoset polymer is to develop the right curing level. To ensure
that under curing and over curing are prevented, a thermoset cure cycle can be obtained from
measurements of the curing resin’s dynamic viscosity profile as a function of time and

The design of the rheometers is such that these kind of measurements are possible. In eight
distinctly controlled zones, test temperatures can increased at rates of 1° to 5°C/min using a
time cure mode. It is possible to program each zone for a total time, measure time, ramp rate,
percent strain and final temperature. It is therefore possible to conveniently sample any cure
cycle. Rheometers have a MultiWave mode offering highly accurate measurement of the gel
point by determining tan d in a number of simultaneous frequency sweeps.

From several measurements at a range of temperature ramping rates mostly 1° to 5°C/min, the
storage (G’) and loss(G”) moduli and the complex viscosity η* are obtained and the following
data is acquired:

 Initial viscosity
 Minimum viscosity
 Gel point
 Optimum heating rate

Initial Viscosity
The onset of matrix melting is indicated by the initial viscosity, which is the first point of the
viscosity profile and this is not impacted by heating rate. It indicates the degree of resin
advancement for quality control.

Minimum Viscosity

The time period and the temperature range over which resistance is lowest is signified by the
minimum viscosity.

Gel Point

The time or temperature at which the first sequence of covalent bond link across the sample is
termed as the gel point and the molecular weight becomes very large. The gel point is key in
determining the time and temperature at which pressure needs to be applied.

Optimum Heating Rate

It is important that the heating rate be optimized as the time required for attaining the minimum
viscosity is impacted and also the time and temperature intervals over which the minimum
viscosity extends. A rapid heating rate may result in unwanted temperature differentials within
the component, porosity issues and irregular curing all through the piece. The impact of heat-
up rate on the viscosity profile transition is shown in a sudden and significant decrease in the
storage modulus with an attendant peak in the tan δ curve in Figure

Figure 5. Measurement of the viscosity profile of a curing thermoset resin as a function of

heat-up rate

Isothermal Scans

Once the gel point and the minimum viscosity have been determined, a sequence of isothermal
scans are performed at temperature intervals starting from the minimum viscosity temperature
and continuing up to the gel point temperature at about 10°C intervals.

Using the Viscosity Profile

A dynamic mechanical viscosity profile offers excellent utility in all phases of thermoset
polymer technology such as product development, research, process development and control
and quality control.


Dynamic mechanical testing is used widely in thermoset composite research for offering the
required material properties for finite difference and finite element analysis. Dynamic viscosity
profiles also offer important information for research on cure reaction kinetics, advanced curing
concepts like gas diffusion control and process modelling with expert systems. Diffusion
control brings down gas bubble nucleation in the curing matrix by inducing hydraulic pressure
in the resin during the cure cycle’s gas volatilization stage.

Figure 6. Isothermal scans at various temperatures are used to help decide on the time interval
and temperature at which to impose isothermal holds during a thermoset resin production cure

A typical matrix resin cure cycle with diffusion control superimposed on the viscosity profile
is shown in Figure 7.
Figure 7. A thermoset resin production cure cycle in which hydraulic pressure is induced in
the resin to reduce gas bubble nucleation in the cured matrix

Product Development

Viscosity profiles are used in thermoset product development for instance in the following:

 fiber types, weaves and finishes

 novel or distinct resin formulations
 materials from alternative suppliers
 functional additives

In Figure 8, it is shown how the viscosity profile is capable of evaluating during cure, at a
standard screw barrel temperature the advantage of adding 1% zinc stearate to a phenolic
injection molding compound. The zinc stearate brought down the viscosity significantly
without influencing the curing time.
Figure 8. The addition of zinc stearate lowers resin viscosity at the injection mold barrel
temperature without affecting the cure time

Process Development and Control

Developing Production Cure Cycles

A dynamic mechanical viscosity profile offers the rheological data required for developing a
production cure cycle. A typical cure cycle created for a graphite/epoxy laminate is shown in
Figure 9.
Figure 9. A graphite-epoxy production cure cycle

In most cases, particularly with bismaleimides and polyimides, there is a need for a post-cure
step. The laminate is heated for an extended time exterior to the mold to improve the crosslink
density and increase the glass transition temperature of the matrix, hence enhancing functional
properties. Figure 10 shows a typical post-cure cycle in a circulating air oven for a polyimide
resin composite used for a jet engine part.
Figure 10. The cure and post-cure cycles for a polyimide resin

Quality Control

The most crucial element in thermoset processing is the cure stage. Therefore, maintaining
stringent quality standards on the incoming materials, particularly the prepreg is critical. Two
key concern are the impact of moisture and the degree of resin advancement.

Prepreg Advancement

Prepreg are partly worked on by the supplier to different degrees to create certain characteristics
such as tack, stiffness and drape required for specific applications. The reaction advancement
degree in the B-staged prepreg is controlled by stoichiometry and storage conditions, along
with humidity, duration and temperature.

It is important to store prepreg for only a short duration and then kept in cold and dry
conditions. If there is any lapse on the supplier side in quality control, it may cause
advancement of the reaction and modify the response of the material in a standard cure cycle.
By testing prepreg samples before use, it is possible to find out advancement level differences
in order to adjust the cure cycle. Viscosity profiles of an epoxy resin at three distinct levels of
minimum viscosity and the reaction rate is shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11. B-stage resin advancement alters the viscosity profile of a curing thermoset resin

Moisture Effects

Moisture adsorption at the time of inaccurate storage of a prepreg may result in quality issues
in thermoset processing by modifying reaction kinetics and modifying the prepreg’s viscosity
profile. In addition, matrix porosity may occur due to trapped moisture. It is possible to prevent
or at least minimize moisture-related cure problems by testing prior to use. Moisture effects
can be reversed so the material can be used again by drying prior to curing. The viscosity
profiles of a dry epoxy resin and the same resin after storing for an extended period in high
humidity is shown in Figure 12.
Figure 12. Viscosity profiles of a dry epoxy resin and the same resin after extended storage in
a high humidity

Evaluating Product Performance

The cured resin’s modulus and the glass transition temperature are key factors in thermoset
polymer product performance. The dynamic moduli (G’, G” or E’, E”) are directly determined
on solid samples with or without fiber reinforcements at a specific frequency as a temperature
function. Tan δ is automatically determined from these measurements. The glass transition is
determined as a sudden and significant decrease in the storage modulus and an attendant peak
in the tan δ curve. The temperature at which this transition takes place is denoted by the symbol

The Solids Analyser measured the tan δ and storage modulus curves, the glass transition and
secondary transition of an epoxy- graphite sample measured in bending. These curves are
shown in Figure 13. The glass transition temperature does not remain constant, so one must be
careful during the measurement to prevent misleading data.
Figure 13. Temperature sweep on a cured epoxy-graphite composite. The glass transition is
manifested in a sudden and considerable decrease in the storage modulus with an attendant
peak in the tan d curve

Tests can also be performed in bending or compression. For doing valid comparisons, the glass
transition temperature must be approached from the same direction to prevent hysteresis during
the test. Hence, data from test samples must be compared to data from tests performed under
the same conditions, including oscillation frequency on high-performance control samples.

Figure 15 shows the impact on the glass transition temperature of advancing from low to high
temperature and then repeating test as the sample cools using cured and a cured plus post-cured
sample of PMR-15 polymimide.

Figure 16 shows the impact of a number of different curing agents on the glass transition
temperature of an epoxy resin. The data in figures 14 through 16 were acquired in torsion and
bending. Figure 15 shows the glass transition temperature as a function of cure level determined
in tension as per the procedure explained in ASTM D5026.
Figure 14. Different values of the glass transition temperature are obtained if the transition is
approached while the sample is being cooled compared to when the sample is being heated

Figure 15. Temperature sweeps are an effective means for detecting the effects of different
curing agents on the viscoelastic properties of thermoset resins
Figure 16. The cure level of a thermoset polymer as a function of cure temperature measured
in torsion.