Study on Bioremediation of Water Contamination Caused by Nargis Cyclone around Mawlamyinegyun Area, Ayeyarwady Delta
Myo Thant Tyn1,2,*, Kyaw Myint Oo1,2, Kyaw Nyein Aye2,4, Than Oo2, Aung Myo Thaik2, Tin Than2, Win Maung3, Aye Pe3, Thazin Lwin3, Tun Aung3, Myint Aung3, Nyein Nyein Hlaing3, Bay Dar3, Aye Aye Myint3, Kay Lwin Tun3, Yee Yee Nwe3, Naung Lwi3 and Myint Lwin5 Abstract
On 2 and 3 May 2008, Cyclone Nargis struck the coast of Myanmar and moved inland across the Ayeyarwady Delta and southern Yangon Division, causing many deaths, destroying livelihoods, and disrupting economic activities and social conditions. Apart from these catastrophic disasters, the cyclone left the Delta with losses of natural habitats and environmental pollution. In order to solve these problems, the application of EM (Effective Microorganisms) Technology for the remediation efforts has been employed in the disaster struck areas by a concerned group called Envir-Klean Technologists’ Associates (EKTA). During May to August in 2008, the EKTA visited the sites located in Mawlamyinegyun Township, which are among the severely hit areas to conduct microbiological and physico-chemical investigations on water samples from the selected Nargis Cyclone affected areas. The levels of water contamination were surprisingly found to be beyond the maximum contaminant level (MCL) that the total plate count (TPC) for preliminary on site data shows, in the range of 7.5 x 109 to 17.5 x 109 cfu/ml for the selected points tested within a month after the cyclone. After monthly visits to the study areas, the microbiology and physico-chemical contaminations were reduced to a certain extent due to natural effects, environmental factors and biotreatment by effective microorganisms. With the EM application, the total plate counts were not always lower because the bacteria may have come from applied microbes. However, the pathogenic bacteria were significantly reduced by effective microorganisms. Physico-chemical properties such as organic constituents and heavy toxic metals were also checked before and after EM treatment and the results show a wide range of effectiveness. The overall investigation on microbiology and physicochemistry has proved that the bioremediation attempt was successful as a counter measure to water contamination caused by tropical cyclone Nargis around Mawlamyinegyun area, Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar. Key Words: Bioremediation, Effective Microorganisms, Heavy Toxic Metals, Mawlamyinegyun, Nargis Cyclone, Organic Constituents, Water Contamination

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Myanmar Academy of Arts and Science, Ohndaw Hall, Hlaing University P.O., Hlaing Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Envir-Klean Technologists’ Associates, Room 21, Building 3, Pan Hlaing Housing, Kyeemyindine Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Yangon University, University P.O., Kamayut Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Yangon Technological University, Insein Road, Gyogone, Yangon, Myanmar. Yezin Agricultural University, Yezin, Naypyitaw, Myanmar.

* Corresponding Author: Email: myotyn@gmail.com

As the cyclone swept the delta. EKTA visited the sites . many freshwater sources and fertile soils were mixed with sea water. Fresh water is extremely important as a source of drinking water. EM has been used in modern natural disaster management such as in the successful mitigation of foul odors and elimination of pathogens in late 2004 when a Tsunami affected Asia (Higa. specifically at selected sites in Mawlamyinegyun Township. the success paved the way for EM to be used in environmental management. During May to August 2008. Lakes and rivers provide microbial environments that are different from the larger oceanic systems in many important ways.2 Introduction The cyclone Nargis that struck several areas around Ayeyarwady Delta on May 2 and 3. In many locations the contamination of surface and subsurface waters by natural and man-made disasters causes environmental problems. while the storm surge and flooding that followed the cyclone led to the salination of many community rainwater ponds. This has left many farms. the effective microorganisms were utilized in Bioremediation of Nargis affected Ayeyarwady Delta.5 billion.. 2003). This can lead to the spread of infectious diseases like malaria and other waterborne diseases. 2008). with extreme salinity. Envir-Klean Technologists’ Associates (EKTA). The technology of EM has been developed since early 1980s. The destruction of housing during the cyclone led to the loss of many household rainwater harvesting systems. Apart from agriculture. both in solids and liquids. 2005). conducted a Bioremediation Project alongside the rehabilitation work being done by Nargis victims. The contamination took place in the areas for several months. The damage and losses in the water sector resulting from Cyclone Nargis are estimated at around Kyats 8. especially water. the application of EM (Effective Microorganisms) Technology for the remediation efforts can be employed in the disaster struck areas. Microorganisms are constantly mixing and being added to the water. which is affiliated with Myanmar Ceramic Society (MCS). There was much foul odor emanating from decaying bodies a few months after the cyclone. such as rice and shrimp farms. affecting up to 43% of ponds in Ayeyarwady Division (PONJA. 1996 and APNAN. In order to solve these problems. 2008 in Myanmar has left losses and damage to natural habitats and living things causing environmental pollution. A critical adaptation of microorganisms in aquatic systems is the ability to link and use resources that are in separate locations or that are available at the same location only for short intervals such as during storms (Prescott et al. in the search for natural alternatives to agrochemicals.

The objectives of the present study are to investigate the microbiological and physico-chemical parameters of the water bodies in the selected areas and to study the effectiveness of bioremediation on water contamination caused by Nargis cyclone around Mawlamyinegyun area. The water samples were collected at 38 points around the villages on 30th May. which are among the severely hit areas. 2008. On 13th August. Taunggyi. Triple Sugar Iron (TSI). Culture media The following culture media were used in this research to culture the bacterial isolates for identification. these sites were sprayed with EM. . there was a drinking water purification system at Kyonlamugyi village where two additional samples were taken before and after purification. Mehtyl-Red-Voges-Proskauer (MR-VP). Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose (TCBS) agar. Urea broth. lactic acid bacteria and yeast were used in the present study. on the 9th July.3 located in Mawlamyinegyun Township. a third trip was made to conduct water sampling and to find out the extent of effectiveness of the treatment. In addition to the contaminated sites. 2008. The microbes had been cultured in molasses as Bio Feed and were provided by Golden Taunggyi Bio Product Group. During that trip. the Alkaline Peptone Water (APW). Ayeyarwady Delta. and Sulphide Indole Motility (SIM) medium (HiMedia Manual. Salmonella-Shigella (SS) agar. Bio Feed was applied in the wastewater and targeted ponds at the ratio of 1: 5000 to 10000 according to the extent of the contamination. Plate count agar. 2003). Myanmar. Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) agar.02 x107 cfu/ml which may consist of photosynthesis bacteria. Simmon’s Citrate (SC) agar. The first visit was to conduct a preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in those sites during the fourth week following the cyclone. Nutrient broth. The second visit was made to take water samples and to carry out bioremediation at the most contaminated 12 sites selected from the 38 original points. Materials and Methods Materials Effective Microbes (EM) containing a total plate count of 8. 2008. MacConkey agar.

1. Kyonlamugyi. Ye-gyaw-tain creek. Ayeyarwady Delta . Fig. Aung Thu Kha. Myinkakone. Thankhanauk and Mawlamyinegyun jetty (16˚ 9΄ N to 16˚ 2΄ N and 95˚ 11΄ E to 95˚ 17΄ E. Kyar-hone creek. Kyetshar. Fig 1). Water samples from the river. Kyunchaung. These studied areas included Nathmu.4 Sampling Methods Sampling was done according to Salle (1999). creek. Sampling sites in Mawlamyinegyun Township. ponds and other sources were collected around Mawlamyinegyun area.

is one of the indirect count methods for the enumeration of bacteria. Sample Preparation for Microbial Tests The sample bottles were shaken vigorously at least 25 times to obtain a uniform distribution of organisms. where one ml of sample was diluted into 10 fold serial dilution. Atlas. the colonies growing on the surface of the agar plates were examined for colonial morphology and Gram stain. After counting. one loopful of inoculum was streaked onto the surface of EMB agar. Bisen and Verma (1998) and HiMedia (2003). The plates with 10-1 – 10-8 dilutions were used for viable count. MacConkey agar and TCBS agar plates. Gram staining nature and biochemical tests studied during the work were compared with those described by Breed et al. 2002). Yangon University and the Quality Control Laboratory. After incubation. 1995 and Dubey and Maheshwari. 1992) was used to get a pure culture of respective bacteria. (1995). Ministry of Livestock Breeding and Fisheries. The samples were kept in an ice box during transport to the Microbiology Laboratories of the Zoology and Botany Department. Confirmation of bacteria by biochemical reactions was based on the methods as given by Collins et al. Isolation of Bacteria and Identification One ml of water sample in 9 ml of Nutrient broth and two ml of water sample in 8ml of alkali peptone water were prepared for isolation of Vibrio spp. The streak plate method (Bradshaw. Union of Myanmar. These tubes were incubated at 37°C overnight. According to the streak plate method. 1995) were used to enumerate the contaminated bacteria. Department of Fisheries.5 The water samples were collected in clean. sterile 500 ml screw-cap bottles. Characteristic features of the isolates like colonial morphology. the probable number of bacteria per ml in the original sample was calculated by multiplying the number of bacterial colonies by the reciprocals of dilution and of the volume used (Atlas. One ml from each dilution was used in pour plate culture. 1995. These plates were incubated at 37°C overnight. (1957) and Cowan (1975). After incubation overnight at 37°C the colonies were counted. SS agar. Serial dilution and pour plate culture methods (Collins et al. Standard plate count (Heterotrophic plate count) Method Viable count. . also called standard plate count method.

hardness. (Collins et al.P. Cl-. Cr.13 x 104 cfu/ml. Co. all samples were regarded as contaminated and most of the sample sites were found to be higher than the maximum contaminant level (MCL: the highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. Germany.) inorganic constituents (Na+. According to EPA drinking water standards (2008).8 x 103 cfu/ml. Mn. Fe. Cu. Zn. The count values of the remaining sites were relatively low and no remarkable differences were found among them (Table 1). Montaser. Ni. IV C). Results and Discussion Microbiological Investigation Viable counts of bacteria before treatment Among the samples collected from 14 sampling sites. Cd. the highest bacteria count was found in the sample from the site of Aung Thu Kha pond water (III B) which had been contaminated by decaying bodies (4 x 105 cfu/ml). 2008). 1992).H. alkalinity. 7. and dissolved oxygen. The count values of the samples from the sites from Thankhanauk and Kyunchaung villages (IV B. DOC) were investigated for each study site (A. Myanmar and the Research Centre of Karlsruhe. Mg2+. Kyonlamugyi creek (VA) and Water purifying system (VB) were 1. Ca2+. HCO3-.. Chapman.. biochemical oxygen demand. COD. total dissolved solids. nutrients (NH3-N.6 x 104 cfu/ml and 7. As. and organic constituents (chemical cxygen demand. NO2-N. K+. U). All chemical and instrumental analyses were performed at two Institutions: the Chemistry Department at University of Yangon. . NO3-N and PO4-P). 1987. 2008.6 Microbiological organisms such as Coliform and E. and dissolved organic carbon.66x103 cfu/ml respectively. Sn. 2. 1995) Physico-Chemical Investigation Physico-chemical properties such as physical and aggregate properties. BOD. MCL of the Heterotrophic Plate Count = no more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter) (EPA.coli were detected and enumerated using the multiple tube method based on the most probable number (MPN) technique. and SO42-).A et al. Pb. (pH. metallic constituents (B.

H2S production. therefore. Salmonella – Shigella agar. were recorded in all samples except those from the sites Kyar-hone creek and Kyunchaung drinking water pond (IIC and IVC). were used to culture the respective bacteria and record the existing species. Kyonlamugyi creek and Water purifying system (VA and VB). were variable in different media for the isolated bacteria. The results were obtained from testing with the isolates using oxidases. from ponds) showed variable counts decreasing after treatment whereas both increased and decreased counts in flowing water were observed probably due to the nature of the running condition. margin surface etc. elevation. the EM treatment should be carried out but chlorination or boiling treatment should also be recommended prior to drinking. Therefore. The EM was. Thiosulphate Citrate Bile salt Sucrose agar and Eosin Methylene Blue agar. Salmonella species was found only in the sample from Thankhanauk pond water (IVB) (Table 1). The viable counts of bacteria after treatment from site Nathmu creek (IB) and Kyonlamugyi river water (IIB) were higher than those before treatment. The count values of the samples from site of Nathmu drinking water tank (IA) recorded before and after treatment were nearly the same. not directly into the drinking water. sprayed only around the concrete tank. Determination of bacterial isolates before treatment The specific selective media. citrate utilization. .7 Viable counts of bacteria after treatment The viable count values of the all sampling sites were not remarkably different from those of before EM treatment except for the sites at Kyetshar (IIIA). Methyle red. and this may be due to the increase of Proteus species as detected in the laboratory experiment (Table 1). sugar fermentation and urease.Proskauer.. Vibrio spp. Voges. Although they were treated by EM. indole formation. 2008). the viable counts from some sampling sites were found to be higher than drinking water standard values (EPA. and is tightly covered to protect the water from contamination. MacConkey agar. Site IA is a concrete tank where rain water is stored for drinking. The samples from still water (i. The bacteria under the group of Enterobacteriaceae. catalase.e. gelatinase. Colony morphological features like colony shape.

(2003) mentioned that aquatic environments can serve as reservoirs and transmission routes for disease-causing microorganisms.. Aerobacter etc. recorded in the sample from site of Ye-gyaw-tain creek (IIIC) was not found after treatment. were not detected in all the studied sites after treatment except for Kyonlamugyi creek (Table 1). (4) Proteus group. .5 x 109cfu/ml four weeks after cyclone Nargis hit. (6) sporeformers of genus Bacillus and (7) pigmented and non pigmented cocci (Micrococcus). (1995). etc. A major goal of aquatic system management is to control pathogen survival and transfer. and Proteus spp. (2) chromogenic rods. The pathogenic species.8 Determination of bacterial isolates after treatment The bacteria E. However. During the field trips to Mawlamyinegyun Township.). Salle (1999) reported that the majority of bacteria found in water belong to the following groups: (1) fluorescent bacteria (Pseudomonas. Alginomonas. Aeromonas spp.). were recorded. were found in most of the samples. The bacteria Proteus spp. according to interviews with local people. the samples were immediately checked for their bacterial counts on site. coli. the Total Plate Count of water samples were found to be in the range of 7. The test method in the field was done as described by Collins et al. (Xanthomonas etc. 4 weeks after cyclone Nargis hit the selected study sites.. where Pseudomonas spp. The Vibrio species was recorded in the samples from site Thankhanauk pond water (IVB) before and after treatments. and these species were assumed to be fish pathogenic bacteria. Vibrio spp. The report of Salle (1999) was in agreement with the present findings. and Pseudomonas spp. Yangon University. was found in the samples from the site of Kyar-hone creek (IIC) and Aung Thu Kha (IIIB). most of which are pathogenic species.). showing the effectiveness of the EM. The water samples were also sent to the quality control laboratory of Department of Fisheries and the results revealed contamination was highest in May. It is suggested that the occurrence of Vibrio species after treatment may be the result of unskillful application of EM by local villagers. the foul odor of the sewage pond was significantly reduced three days after EM treatment.5 x 109 to 17. Pathogenic bacteria were not detected in the samples from sites of Kyunchaung drinking water pond (IVC) and Purification system (VB). Escherichia spp. With the courtesy of Department of Botany. (3) coliform group (Escherichia. Prescott et al. (5) non-gasforming nonchromogenic non-spore-forming rods.

58 x 102 Proteus 1.08 After 13. 8.9 x 102 E. coli 2 2. coli 2.08 14.43 x 102 Proteus 7 x 102 E.08 Viable count Tentative genera cfu/ml 1.8. Klebsiella E. Yangon University) * Results adopted from those tested by DOF Quality Control Laboratory .95 x 103 Vibrio.6 x 10 E.7. coli 1.08 14.45 x 102 E.8.08 After 13. 2. 1.08 After Before After Before After Before After 14.08 After Before 11.08 After 14. E. coli 8 x 102 2 1 x 10 E.42 x 103 4 7.coli.43 x 10 Aeromonas 6.9 Table. Salmonella.8 x 103 Proteus 5. Kyonlamugyi creek water (Water-purifying system Inlet) 14.13 x 104 1.66 x 103 Klebsiella 2. 4. 6. Zoology Department.8. 5.5 x 102 - Sampling Site Nathmu concrete drinking water tank Nathmu creek water Myinkakone river water* Kyonlamugyi river water Kyar-hone creek water Kyar-hone pond water Kyetshar drinking water pond Aung Thu Kha pond water Ye-gyaw-tain creek water Mawlamyinegyun jetty* Code IA IB IIA IIB IIC IID IIIA IIIB IIIC IVA IVB IVC VA VB 11.08 Before 11.7.25 x 10 Aeromonas 3. 7.08 Before 11.08 After 13.3 x 102 E. Klebsiella 1. coli 2.08 Before 10.08 Before 11.08 Before 11.08 Before 11. 9. 3. 1 Viable count and diversity of isolated bacteria genera in the collected water samples around Mawlamyinegyun Area (Before and After treatment of EM) Sr No.08 10.08 14. Thankhanauk pond water 12.08 11.8 x 102 E.8.8.7. Kyunchaung drinking water pond 13. 1.8 x 103 Vibrio. Klebsiella 0.5 x 102 E.08 After 14.8.9 x 102 2 1.8.08 After 13.08 After 14. E. coli 6. Water-purifying system (Outlet) (Courtesy of Microbiology Laboratory.08 After 14. 9 x 102 Vibrio. Proteus 2.08 11.15 x 102 Pseudomonas 4.7.08 Before 11.coli. Before 11.7.coli.6 x 102 Salmonella. 10 Treatment Date of Sampling Before 10. 4 x 102 Pseudomonas 7. coli.5 x 102 Pseudomonas 4 x 105 E.08 Before 10.58 x 102 Proteus 2.08 After 14.

and that may be due to the increase of some bacteria species other than E. of cfu/m 4 3 2 1 0 IA IB II A II B II C II D III A III B III C IV A IV B IV C Samples Coliform E. Comparison of Total Plate Counts in different sampling months (Analyzed by DOF QC Laboratory) E.2). which were recorded as <1 cfu/ml after treatment. 2008) (Fig. of TPC 5 4 3 2 1 0 IA IB II A II B II C II D III A III B III C IV A IV B IV C VA VB Samples 30-May 9-Jul 13-Aug Fig. Total plate count (TPC) values varied among the sampling sites. coli counts were detected to be <1 in all the samples by Quality Control Laboratory test in July and August. 2. coli counts of the samples from selected sampling sites (4 weeks after cyclone) (Analyzed by DOF QC laboratory) TPC (cfu/ml) for 14 samples on different sampling months 6 Log No. 3). The global standard for E.10 Coliform and E. .coli th Fig. 1995). coli on 30 May 2008 6 5 Log. The count values after treatment were higher than those of before treatments in some study sites. The E.coli and coliform bacteria. Coliform and E.coli and coliform bacteria were detected in the selected samples before treatment (May. and remarkable differences were not found between before and after treatments (May and August. 3. No. 2008) (Fig. 200 MPN / 100 ml (for swimming) and 2000 MPN / 100 ml (for boating and recreation) (Collins et al.coli count is 0 to 1 MPN/ 100 ml (for drinking water).

It is suggested that these metal concentrations are pre-concentrated in other seasons (i. The high DO values may enhance the survival of the marine and biological communities in aquatic systems (Cunningham.suggests that the water bodies of the studied areas are more under the category of temporary hardness. 1986). whereas BOD measures the biochemically degradable organic matter. 2008). The presence of metallic constituents is important for the physiological function of living tissue and regulates many biochemical processes. or percolate into groundwater aquifers. these make water unpalatable and therefore. The increased concentration of SO4= can arise from atmospheric precipitation. rainy) (Thazin Lwin. BOD. The highly toxic metals detected together with other metals (Table 3 and Fig. winter) and become more or less dispersed or transported in the studied season (i. 4) were found to be higher than the guidelines of EPA standard (EPA. in some cases. are carried by runoff into rivers. K+) obtained are possibly due to the sewage and industrial effluents and run-off from agricultural land. the determinant values (Table 2) were found to be more or less within the assimilative capacity as recommended by EPA standard values (2008). it is much higher than the allowable limits. Myanmar's cyclone-devastated Ayeyarwady delta is now facing high risks from some toxic metals in river water and ground water that could cause cancer and other diseases in residents. However. But. DOC) representing the organic matter contaminated in surface waters in all study sites. it can cause severe toxicological effects in human and aquatic ecosystems (WHO.. unfit for human consumption (Hammer. most of the parameters (Table 2) were higher than permissible levels of EPA-guidelines (EPA.e.11 Physico-chemical Investigation For physical and aggregate properties of all sampling sites. 5). The high values of COD are indicative of organic materials which can be oxidized by a strong chemical oxidant.is also due to the sewage pollution and the soil condition in the studied areas. 2008). For inorganic constituents.. COD are greater than BOD and DOC (Table 3 and Fig. 1998). 2008). Thus. The increased concentration levels of the monovalent cations (Na+. It is indicative that the studied areas are in the threshold of pollution. 2008). Pollution stress of the water body was also supported by the presence of nutrients (Table 3) which are known to be above the guidelines of EPA standards (2008). These toxic metals are released from rocks by weathering. rather than permanent hardness as once anticipated. in the case of DO. processing. Mg2+. The nitrate rich waters encourage algae growth which indicates eutrophic conditions. As organic constituents are directly related to the microbial content in the water. The high concentration of phosphate may be due to the dissolving of fertilizers and run-off from agricultural lands. accidental industrial discharge and the alluvial soil condition and high content of Cl. . The presence in the form of Ca2+. HCO3. leaching of sulphate minerals.e. For the major parameters (COD. The higher levels than natural background levels are due to mining. the results from microbiology determination can be comparable to the BOD values. using and discarding of minerals.

3 33.8 6.9 9.6 36.5 25.8 460 415 10.9 29.3 IID 7.5 25.4 7.9 39.5 460 390 11.5 500 410 11.5 6.3 35.9 7. Inorganic Constituents) in the water samples collected around Mawlamyinegyun area Parameter Sampling (ppm) Month (2008) pH (no unit) TDS July August July August July August July August ClJuly August SO4= July August Sampling Site IA 7.4 29.5 480 450 11.4 460 380 11.3 6.6 9.3 6.5 480 430 10.8 7.9 34.1 6.6 500 450 11.8 5.3 31.4 7.8 32.8 32.1 9.5 IIB 7.4 28.4 465 410 11.5 3.5 7.8 5.9 6.5 31.7 6.3 6.4 IVA 7.4 30.7 7.6 500 390 11.5 32.8 9.5 8.5 32.3 6.4 31.3 IVB 7.9 4.7 7.4 30.9 Standard EPA Value (2008) 6.4 510 48 10.4 6.9 IIA 7.9 6.9 450 430 10.3 6.7 6.3 6.3 23.4 30.4 6.8 24.5 6.5 9.4 6.9 34.2 – 8.3 33.9 32.2 8.4 26.4 34.5 IIIA 7.4 490 460 11.5 IB 7.4 34.5 33.8 7.6 7.9 33.3 38.6 39.3 IIC 7.4 33.2 9.5 24.4 9.4 39.8 9.4 39.7 7.9 33.3 24.1 38.9 IIIC 7.1 39.9 470 410 10.8 7.8 IVC 7.8 IIIB 7.7 490 420 10.6 VA 7.4 < 600 DO 4-6 HCO3- 30.5 30.7 6.1 32.6 7.1 6.4 38.3 33.6 29.4 9.1 VB 7.9 6.1 6.1 6.8 7.4 30.3 38.8 6.4 6.1 36.9 8.7 9.2 9.8 .5 25.5 7.2 37.5 7.4 25.4 37.2 30.7 7.5 23.5 30.12 Table 2 Variations of the quality parameters (Physical and Aggregate Properties.0 35.

92 4.67 3.23 4.32 5.11 4.03 5.003 IID 1.23 3.21 0.01 0.08 4.23 7.14 0.03 5.07 0.003 IVC 1.006 0.90 4.05 0.008 0.89 5.10 4.23 5.89 3.12 9.43 1.008 0.23 9.74 4.49 1.002 IIB 1.29 4.5 4.06 0.04 0.35 0.05 COD 9.98 9.32 4.54 7.34 1.87 3.06 0.92 5.04 1.25 7.49 0.51 7.14 5.54 4.11 4.006 0.38 5.36 0.31 7.12 4.42 4.93 0.002 VB 1.96 9.005 Cr 6.47 9.40 0.1 5.05 5.04 5.23 1.86 4.08 4.39 1.03 5.10 4.004 0.34 0.24 9.001 IVB 1.007 0.23 5.29 0.007 0.23 1.44 4.11 4.008 0.48 1.84 5.07 0.47 0.54 7.05 5.02 0.23 0.12 4.34 1.2 .13 Table 3 Parameter (ppm) Sampling Month (2008) July August July August July August July August July August July August DOC July August Variations of the quality parameters (Metallic Constituents.86 5.32 0.08 0.23 7.39 0.76 9.001 IIIB 1.06 0.06 4.41 4.03 5.002 IVA 1.23 7.24 5.32 5.84 7.12 4.86 0.28 0.94 5.39 4.34 0.82 7.23 4.23 1.48 9.05 0.05 6.34 5.002 IIIA 1.91 3.28 3.36 4.005 Pb 0.05 As Cd 0.02 6.25 5.003 VA 1.04 6.00 0.007 0.001 IIC 1.12 4.04 10 BOD 5 4.12 9.35 3.40 0.29 4.01 5.41 5.31 0.06 3.59 3.86 4.49 1.004 0.23 4.08 0.39 1. Organic Constituents) in the water samples collected around Mawlamyinegyun area Sampling Site IA 1.54 7.23 4.23 4.42 4.08 0.005 0.39 0.00 IIIC 4.001 Standard EPA Value (2008) 0.39 0.42 9.59 4.003 IIA 1.14 0.89 5.35 3.14 4.06 0.32 4.21 0.74 1.004 IB 1.19 4.49 4.34 7.81 3.23 9.74 0.86 4.23 3.08 0.02 7.08 0.05 5.006 0.11 1.76 9.23 0.10 0.23 0.04 5.39 7.48 4.38 0.29 0.14 4.98 9.

8 1.009 0.1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sampling Site July 0.09 0.07 As (ppm) 2 1.1 0.6 1.004 0.008 0.005 0.14 8 7 6 Cr (ppm) 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sampling Site July 0.5 1.05 0.007 0. 4 Elemental distribution of metallic constituents in the water samples collected from 14-sampling sites around Mawlamyinegyun area (Locations cited in Table-1) .2 1.03 0.01 0.06 0.003 0.3 1.9 1.4 1.04 0.006 0.01 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sampling Site July August Cd (ppm) Pb (ppm) 0.002 0.001 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Sampling Site July August August 5 August Fig.02 0.08 0.7 1.

15 10 COD (ppm) 9 8 7 6 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 COD Sampling Site July 6 5. 5 Variations of organic constituents in the water samples collected from 14-sampling sites around Mawlamyeingun Area .5 4 3.5 4 3.5 BOD (ppm) 5 4.5 DOC (ppm) 5 4.5 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 DOC Sampling Site July August Fig.5 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 August BOD Sampling Site July August 6 5.

Thanks also go to Myanmar Academy of Arts and Science. By implementing microbiological treatments. It is concluded that the microbial contamination with pathogenic bacteria can be effectively controlled by beneficial bacteria that are already known to environmental engineers who are experts in multiplication and application of this technology. This should also be supported by a strong environmental awareness campaign to help the people in these rural communities to participate positively in efforts to protect and manage the quality of their water resources. especially in the Nargis cyclone affected Ayeyarwady delta region. Myanmar Shrimp Association.16 Conclusion The present study clearly indicates that the cyclone affected areas are more or less suffering environmental pollution stresses. This study shows bioremediation may also be a preventive measure against environmental problems that can occur in the future and assist in preparing for natural disasters in these regions. Nargis Action Group. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank to the Ministry of Progress of Border Areas and National Races and Development Affairs. Many thanks also go to the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation for their continuous support. in order to make effective use of the water bodies as quality water resources it would be advisable to develop cost-effective and efficient water treatment and monitoring processes located near the affected areas. Department of Fisheries. The results from the bioremediation action on the environmental pollutants shows the effectiveness of beneficial microbes (EM) is satisfactory at selected sampling sites. to show how bioremediation actions and pollution control have been undertaken. Pale Nadi Company. Sustainable and extended objectives need to be proposed and developed so as to provide quality water bodies to be used for all purposes. heavy toxic metal contamination in the water body can also be reduced while biohazards are lowered. Last but not the least. Shwe Taunggyi Bio Product Group and other helpful organizations who cannot be listed here. This is mainly confirmed by physico-chemical and microbiological results obtained during the four months of the study. and to confirm to a certain extent that the effectiveness of EM has been achieved. the focal ministry of Mawlamyinegyun area who sponsored all the field visits to the study area. It is hoped that the present work will be "a primary source of information". EnvirKlean Technologists’ Associates (EKTA) primarily aims to preserve the natural environment and to protect its degradation as well as to remediate the polluted sites. Hence. the organization that encouraged to do such remarkable bioremediation activities when our nation was in need. . Myanmar Fisheries Federation. the EKTA and authors of this paper extend their gratitude to Asia-Pacific Nature Agriculture Network (APNAN).

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