Report 149

ISSN: 0889-3144

Analysis of Plastics

Martin J. Forrest

Volume 13, Number 5, 2002

Rapra Review Reports
Expert overviews covering the science and technology of rubber and plastics

A Rapra Review Report comprises three sections, as follows: 1. A commissioned expert review, discussing a key topic of current interest, and referring to the References and Abstracts section. Reference numbers in brackets refer to item numbers from the References and Abstracts section. Where it has been necessary for completeness to cite sources outside the scope of the Rapra Abstracts database, these are listed at the end of the review, and cited in the text as a.1, a.2, etc. 2. A comprehensive References and Abstracts section, resulting from a search of the Rapra Polymer Library database. The format of the abstracts is outlined in the sample record below. 3. An index to the References and Abstracts section, derived from the indexing terms which are added to the abstracts records on the database to aid retrieval.

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Item 1

33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83 EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han Akron,University The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and ether-based commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.

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Hodge.Brockbank. Building Research Establishment. Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd.L. Roberts.M.S.G. Rapra Technology Ltd. Cox. University of Surrey. Designing with Plastics. Polycarbonates. Methven. and BIP Chemicals Ltd.W.T. D. Consultant.A.A. Brown. Quality Today in Polymer Processing. P. Gale. W.N.P. Hotpoint Ltd. Kefford. General Electric Plastics BV.J. R. Kemmish. International Committee for Plastics in Agriculture. The Open University. Robinson. Kirby. Green. Processing and Applications. J.W. M. D. A. Nova Petrochemicals Inc. Senter for Industriforskning.K. A. S. 3M United Kingdom Plc and 3M Belgium SA. New Jersey Polymer Extension Center at Stevens Institute of Technology. Reinforced Thermoplastics . Biomedical Applications of Polymers. Plastics in High Temperature Applications. National NDT Centre. Non-destructive Testing of Polymers.J.M. Adhesives for Structural and Engineering Applications.K. H. Tooltex. Materials Handling in the Polymer Industry.F. Lawson. Cook and M.W. A. J. Bayer AG. Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing. Brown. Corrosion Monitoring Consultancy. Agricultural and Horticultural Applications of Polymers. Friend.A. Andreassen. L.J. Daniels.R. Loctite (Ireland) Ltd. Engineering Thermoplastics. Developments in Additives to Meet Health and Environmental Concerns.Britton. G.R. J. Elliott. Cox and R. A. E. J. Polymers in Marine Applications. Spratling. T & N Technology Ltd.M. Arnold Nutt & Co. Pira Packaging Division. Rapra Technology Ltd.A. R. D. P. Conductive Polymers II. Injection Moulding of Rubber. J.F. Wright. Chronos Richardson Ltd. C. Queen Mary College. RAE. Pakull. Lovegrove. Kelleher.R. Sebborn. D. Cure Assessment by Physical and Chemical Techniques. Chemical Analysis of Polymers. Liquid Crystal Polymers. Cattell. Allen. Rapra Technology Ltd. Larsen and E.A. Du Pont (U. University of Manchester.H. Rapra Technology Ltd.K. D. Thomas. C. J. Exxon Chemical International Marketing. Offshore Applications of Polymers. G. Report 33 Report 34 Report 35 Report 36 Report 67 Report 68 . D. Consultant. ICI. S. Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions. Plessey Research (Caswell) Ltd. Cellcom Technology Associates. Consultant. S. Report 56 Report 57 Report 58 Report 59 Report 60 Volume 6 Report 61 Report 62 Report 63 Report 64 Report 65 Report 66 Food Contact Polymeric Materials. Failure of Plastics. Gebelein. L.G. Engelmann & Buckham Ancillaries.) Ltd. Joining of Plastics. University of Surrey.G. Fluoroelastomers . Extrusion of Rubber. Rapra Technology Ltd. Polymers and Their Uses in the Sports and Leisure Industries. R. Hollaway. Hollaway. Djordjevic. Halliwell.C. International Automotive Design.T. M. Wheelans. Materials. ICI. A. Pultrusion. Polyetheretherketone. Wilton. Methven. J. N. Polyimides .Composition.J.G. Maxwell. Plastics in Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulation. R. Youngstown State University / Florida Atlantic University. K. Norway.Properties and Applications. Physical Testing of Rubber.N.F. Garnaud. UMIST. R. J. Composites .Winnan. Wade. Williams and T. Forrest. Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources.H. Freitag. B. Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry. R.Tooling and Component Processing. Polyurethane. Lewis. Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil Engineering. Electronics Applications of Polymers. Cattell Consultancy Services.P. Weathering of Polymers. Hawley. Polyamides.W. Hardy. Consultant. Turner. M. Report 15 Report 16 Report 17 Report 18 Volume 5 Report 49 Report 50 Report 51 Report 52 Report 53 Report 54 Report 55 Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics. Klöckner ER-WE-PA GmbH. and J. Polymers in Household Electrical Goods. Evans. Grigo. I. R. M. Processing and Applications. Cavendish Laboratory. J. Plas/Tech Ltd. Trego and H. Consultant. Nutt. Rapra Technology Ltd. London School of Polymer Technology. Silicone Rubbers. Leicester Polytechnic.Previous Titles Still Available Volume 1 Report 3 Report 4 Report 5 Report 8 Report 11 Report 12 Advanced Composites. Decorating and Coating of Plastics. Recycling and Disposal of Plastics Packaging. City University. Coextrusion. Brain. British Telecom. W. University of Surrey. Report 19 Report 20 Report 21 Report 22 Report 23 Report 24 Volume 3 Report 25 Report 26 Report 27 Report 28 Report 29 Report 30 Report 31 Report 32 Foams and Blowing Agents. Reynolds.L.W. Processing and Applications. Polymers in Chemically Resistant Applications. CAD/CAM in the Polymer Industry. Cambridge Applied Technology. Fox.A. Lynn. Extrusion.Alvey. Communications Applications of Polymers. O’Reilly. B. Sandland and M.C.M. Woods. Harwell.G. Recent Developments in Materials for Food Packaging. U. V. C.J. Cousans.Goosey. N. Willoughby. P. Farnborough. FMC Corp.Materials. Dow Corning Ltd. University of Cambridge. Whelan. P. van de Grampel. Å.W. Report 39 Report 41 Report 42 Report 43 Report 44 Report 45 Report 46 Report 47 Volume 4 Report 37 Polymers in Aerospace Applications. G. Flammability and Flame Retardants in Plastics. Rapra Technology Ltd.T. Hinrichsen. MRM Engineering Consultancy. Physical Testing of Thermoplastics.L. Process Control in the Plastics Industry. Coulson. R. S. Volume 2 Report 13 Report 14 Injection Moulding of Engineering Thermoplastics. Wilton. Sidwell. D. Automotive Applications of Polymers II. H. Barrie.

University of Bradford. M. Université Pierre et Marie Curie.R. Theves. Fardell. Edward Mackenzie Consulting. Brown. J. Dickten & Masch Manufacturing Co. Crowther. T. Processing and Applications. Report 101 Solvent-Free Adhesives.J. Report 117 Rapid Prototyping. Hepburn. Wood.C.Need. J. Hamerton. Hydro Polymers Ltd. Moore & S. Prentice. Mulhouse. IRC in Polymer Science and Technology. Rapra Technology Ltd. Theory and Innovation. Brydson. Rapra Technology Ltd. R. Meehan. P. Bonding. deV. Stafford.J. Building Research Establishment.P. Report 90 Report 91 Report 92 Report 93 . Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene . C.C. Rotational Moulding. C. PVC . Rapra Technology Ltd. B. Hepburn. T.A. J. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie. R. Saunders. Report 102 Plastics in Pressure Pipes.Compounds.Need. National Research Council Canada. Pearson. Tangram Technology Ltd. England and D. Volume 7 Report 73 Reactive Processing of Polymers. Rubber Mixing.F. St Clair (Polymers) Ltd. Gas Injection Ltd. Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins.Synthesis. Dierkes.R.J. Rubber Compounding Ingredients . M. Coates and A. Forrest and J. Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics. Schissel. Shipley Ronal. Goosey. Russian Academy of Sciences. University of Hamburg. D. Rolando. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers. R. Thermal Analysis of Polymers. Holding and E. Manuel and W.Properties and Applications. Throne. The Smart Chemical Company. Fouassier. Imperial College of Science. Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes.J. University of Texas at Austin. R.M. M. Properties and Applications.J.A Practical Guide. Fire Retardants. Rapra Technology Ltd. Structures and Separation Performance. H. Applications and Implications. Advances in Tyre Mechanics.E. Goodyear Technical Center.E.D. Adams. Report 111 Polymer Product Failure.J. CRL Ltd. The Nottingham Trent University. Theory and Innovation. Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing. P. Crowther. Tunghai University. Report 105 Rubber Extrusion Theory and Development. Hague and P. P. Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology. C. High Performance Engineering Plastics.R. Victrex Ltd. Lewis. Report 103 Gas Assisted Moulding. Brown. N. Polymer Membranes . Plastics and the Environment.A. Lindsay. Part II: Processing.A. University of Surrey. R. M. Boustead Consulting Ltd. Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization. Thermoplastic Elastomers . Pritchard. Buckley. Hill. A.Synthesis.R.L. Speciality Rubbers. Continuous Vulcanisation of Elastomer Profiles. Hickman. Meteor Gummiwerke. V. Antidegradants and Particulate Fillers for General Purpose Rubbers. Part I: Vulcanising Systems. Lee. T.G.Report 69 Report 70 Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire. A. J.M. J. D. B.A. Sepe. Wang. Keskkula. Report 104 Plastics Profile Extrusion. Y. Report 110 Long-Term and Accelerated Ageing Tests on Rubbers. J.G.T. PEKK and Other Polyaryls.P. Rapra Technology Ltd. W. Wünsch. W.Industrial Materials Institute. Tooling and Manufacturing.P. Ridha. T. Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials. Kent. Reeves. Econology Ltd. Recycling of Rubber. The Open University.J. Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders. Oxford Brookes University. J.Materials. H. Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation. Soutis. Rapra Technology Ltd.W. Andres Garcia-Rejon. Naylor. J. M. Report 80 Report 81 Report 82 Report 83 Volume 10 Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding . T. Sherwood Technologies Inc.N. P. Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK. and Polymer Laboratories Ltd. Forrest and G. Colborn. Forrest. I. Johnson. R. Fuller Company.Theory and Applications. Report 94 Compressive Behaviour of Composites. Wilson. H. Fire Research Station. G. BASF AG.P.L.Nanopolyacetylene. Technology and Medicine. D. J. M. Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers. Rapra Technology Ltd.C. Kingston University. I.J. J. Maier. Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric Polysulfides. Coates.J. Report 98 Report 99 Report 74 Report 75 Report 76 Report 77 Report 78 Report 79 Report 100 Photoinitiated Polymerisation .J. Report 112 Polystyrene . University of Ulster.P. Production and Applications.R.B.A. Advances in Biodegradable Polymers. M. Soulagnet.A. Rubber to Metal Bonding. Brydson.Selection.S. Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food. Sidwell. Kobryanskii.F. R.A.A. Spassky. P. Advances in Thermoforming.E. University of Ulster. Cubbon. Crawford. Kaminsky. M. Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II. General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center. Boustead.E. The Queen’s University of Belfast. Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres. P. Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers . Vredestein Rubber Recycling B. Advances in Injection Moulding. Ryan. P.M. G.Leadbitter.V. Plasticisers . Day. The Open University. Report 95 Report 96 Report 71 Report 72 Volume 9 Report 97 Rubber Compounding Ingredients . Lewis. S. Kemmish.R. C. Report 84 Volume 8 Report 85 Report 86 Report 87 Report 88 Report 89 Ring Opening Polymerisation.

Lambert and F. Flexsys BV.Adhesives.B.N.J. R. Volume 13 Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding. C. R. Yushin Inc. J. The University of Warwick Report 147 Rubber Product Failure. Datta. Evans.C. Love. D.D.J. National Research Council Canada. P. Singh.A. The University of Warwick. Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems. C.M. Wright. BIP Ltd. Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins. Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation. Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams. Rapra Technology Ltd. Case Western Reserve University. Page. Huntsman Polyurethanes. Mirau. Brown Report 148 Plastics Waste – Feedstock Recycling. P.C. Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack.B. S. Lucent Technologies. Guidant Corp. Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications. Jerschow. Tukker. Kumho European Technical Centre. Report 136 Radiation Curing. Consultant. Hercules Incorporated.C. Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications. M. Loughborough University. and W. Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry. Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics. Utracki. Mallon. Roger P. R.J. Wacker-Chemie GmbH. DavRad Services. Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers. University of Exeter. M. Institute of Surface Science & Technology. Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation.N.-W. Tang. Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins. Professor R. Report 139 Rubber Analysis . Khon Kaen University. Compounds and Products. H. Rolando.. Brown. Goodship and J.N. R. Mathieson.E. Koenig. D. H.Volume 11 Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials.S. Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers. Werner.N. Rudd. Goodship. B.A. Wright. Fuller Company. Report 123 Polymer Blends. Rogers. J. Brewis and I. Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers.S. Davidson. A. Clariant Huningue SA. University of Nottingham.D.C. I.Polymers. Love and V. Report 137 Silicone Elastomers. V. Kröhnke and F.L. Volume 12 Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection Moulding.P. Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure. Forrest.C. Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR. TNO . Rothon. Chaiear. D. D. Cheng. Coatings and Processes. Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan University. Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling. L. Wright. Chemical Recycling and Incineration. T. Pascoe. N. J. Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance. Report 122 Flexible Packaging .


Analysis of Plastics Martin J. Forrest (Rapra Technology Limited) ISBN 1-85957-333-9 .


......................2 Viscosity ...........................1......................................................1 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) ....................4 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) .............3............................... 4 2........................... 22 1 ............................................................................... 7 Thermal Techniques ......1 Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) ...............................................................................................1.... 19 Determination of Fillers ...........................................3.................................................................................................................................................5 2...................... Determination of Polymer Type ......................................... 19 5............... 15 Monomer Types and Microstructure .6 2...........1.........................2 Ultraviolet Light Spectroscopy (UV) .......................................................................................................................................................2 Gas Chromatography (GC) .. 5 2.................................. 12 2...............6 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) ............................3.............................................................. Determination of Stabilisers in a Plastics Compound ... 6 2.......................1..................................................................... 5............................................ 15 Determination of the Plasticiser and Filler in a Plastic Compound ...............2.......................2 UV Stabilisers ....... 19 5.......................................... 7 2................... 13 3......................................................................................................................... 20 6...................................................... 6 2.......................................... 6 2..................................................................... 5 2.......................................................................................................................................... 4 2................3.3....................................2 Wet Chemistry Techniques .............................6 Raman Spectroscopy .........4 Light Scattering ........ 21 Antioxidants .. 12 3.......................................2............................................4.............................................................. 7 2.. 6 2....................1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) .............................. 3 Spectroscopic Techniques .................... 4 2.................................. 3 Analytical Techniques .............................................. 5 2......................1 5.................................. 12 Microscopy Techniques ...........................................................Analysis of Plastics Contents 1...............................................................................................................1........2 Dynamic Mechnanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) .................................................. Determination of Molecular Weight and Microstructure of Plastic Polymers ..............................................................3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) .4 Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) .....................................2 Determination of Plasticiser ....................................................................................... 14 3................................................2........................... 4 2..............................................3 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) ..........................................................................................................................................................3 2...................................3 Osmometry ................................................................1 Determination of Molecular Weight .4.................................................3....................................... 9 Elemental Techniques .......2 4...................................................1 6...............................2..........................7 3............................................ 2..................1 Particulate Fillers ...................3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) ................................................................5 Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) ................ 3 2............................... 14 3...........................................................2 Fibrous Fillers ...1 2.......................................................................... 12 3.............................2..............5 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) .............................5 Other Methods ................2...... 12 Miscellaneous Techniques .. Introduction ................... 5 Chromatographic Techniques ..........................................2.. 4 2.................................2.... 19 5. 15 3...........................................4.......1 Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) .............................................................4 2........................................... 21 6....................................... 8 2............................................................................... 14 3.................................

.......................... Specific Gravities of Plastics and Compound Ingredients ........................................ 39 Appendix 1................................ 34 11.................................................................................................................................................................. 36 12...................... 45 Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database .................... Determination of Stabilisers in PVC .................................1 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) .................................. 37 12................................. 29 Specific migration and residual monomer tests.................................3 7......................................................................................................2 Environmental Stress Cracking ................................................................................................ 28 8........ 30 9.................................................. 43 Abbreviations and Acronyms ............................................... 28 8....................................................................................................................... 36 12.................................................... Solubility Parameters of Plastics.........................1 7................................................................................................................... 34 11........................................................................................... 31 10....................................................................................... 41 Appendix 2.................................. 26 Blowing Agents.......................... Determination of Functional Additives ................ 133 The views and opinions expressed by authors in Rapra Review Reports do not necessarily reflect those of Rapra Technology Limited or the editor............................................................... 24 Slip Additives .............. 34 11..................................................................................................... 25 Crosslinking Agents and Co-Agents................................................................................................................ 47 Subject Index ..........2 Global Migration Tests ........................................................................................ Conclusions ............................1 8............ 28 Impact Modifiers................................................... Failure Diagnosis ................................................................................ Surface Analysis of Plastics .............2 7.................................................... 24 7..............................................................................6 7.........2 Laser Induced Mass Analysis (LIMA) ..........4 7....................................................... 37 12..............................................................................................................................................5 7...............................1 Common Compositional Problems ................................................8 Process Aids and Lubricants ....3 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) ....................7 7...................... 36 12... 38 Additional References .....................................................................Analysis of Plastics 7..................................................................................... 27 Flame Retardants ......................... 2 ..... 25 Pigments ....................... 37 13............................................................ 32 11...............4 Odour and Emissions Problems ............................. 25 Antistatic Agents ....................................................................................... The series is published on the basis that no responsibility or liability of any nature shall attach to Rapra Technology Limited arising out of or in connection with any utilisation in any form of any material contained therein....................................................................................................................................................................................................... Analysis of Plastics for Food Contact Use ................... Plasticisers and Typical Solvents ......................................................................................3 Contamination Problems ....................................................................... Analysis of Plastic Laminates and Fibres ..........................................

In other words. or ion chromatography can be used to quantify the chloride ion.1 Wet Chemistry Techniques Before the advent of modern instrumental techniques. The plastics analyst has therefore to bear in mind the possible complexity of the system that confronts him and the potential interferences that may be brought into play. as fully as is possible within this format. Appendix 1 gives solubility parameters of a range of materials. in order to have a full understanding of the principles behind and surrounding the analytical methods and approaches it is vital to have an understanding of plastic technology itself. although even some of these can employ an instrumental technique to provide the final answer. allowing fine tuning of a compound to fit a number of design criteria and product requirements. When reverse engineering a plastic compound a considerable number of elemental. but satisfying. The objective of this review is to present. Once the volatiles have been trapped there is a choice of analytical method. The oxygen flask method (ISO 6528. spectroscopic.1-1992 and BS 7164 Section 23. This is mainly due to the fact that a number of manufacturers produce very similar. One such method is the oxygen flask combustion method. to investigate the failure of plastic products.Analysis of Plastics 1 Introduction Plastics present chemical analysts with one of their most difficult. it should be possible for the analyst to successfully elucidate a formulation. A titration can be performed. There is a very wide range of polymer types available and in some cases they are blended together. The technology of plastics is therefore a mature one. although a consistent request. With respect to the last category.1-a7). the plastic matrix can be tailor made by the bringing together of a wide range of polymers and additives. The appendices provide useful additional information. Appendix 2 lists the specific gravities of a range of plastics and compounding ingredients. To assist in the acquisition of this knowledge opportunities have been taken within the text to not only detail the analytical methods. Relevant books and academic papers are cited throughout the review. Commercial confidentiality can also restrict the ability to use the analytical data to identify a particular manufacturer’s product as a significant amount of compositional information may not be disclosed. chromatographic and thermal techniques have to be used in an integrated and structured approach in order to accumulate and cross check the data necessary for an accurate result. 199. 2 Analytical Techniques 2. In order to obtain useful products that perform under a variety of demanding conditions. is however rarely possible. if not identical. The choice of materials available means that plastics can be used in many applications. a. 0. Armed with this knowledge they can work much more efficiently and obtain better results. With sufficient experience and access to the necessary instrumental techniques. which can be used on PVC products to determine the amount of PVC in the formulation by quantifying the chlorine present. but provide examples of the species that they may be used to detect and quantify.05M potassium hydroxide. but there are also a number of general texts which will provide useful further reading (79.2 ml of 30% hydrogen peroxide and 10 ml of distilled water. There are some tests which can still be grouped under this heading. challenges. products or that the material has been specially compounded for a particular purpose. 3 . 315. and from mundane products such as disposable cutlery to highly specialised components in electrical and aerospace products. ranging from replacement windows to packaging materials.1993) uses an initial burn in oxygen (although the sample is trapped between two platinum gauge ‘flags’) and trapping of the volatile products in an absorbing solution comprising 1-5 ml of 0. the analyst’s job when characterising ‘unknowns’ is always made much easier if at least some information is available on the sample and the types of species that may be present in it. plastic analysis relied on a sequence of wet chemistry reactions to determine information such as the generic polymer type of a material. 377. an introduction to the techniques and methods that are used to characterise and carry out quality control work on plastics. The amount of wet chemistry carried out in the modern polymer analysis laboratory in the 21st Century is minimal. 398.1. The determination of the particular ‘grade’ of plastic. and to deformulate plastic compounds. 387.

Analysis of Plastics 2. The proton NMR solvents can be used for carbon 13 experiments.2 Ultraviolet Light Spectroscopy (UV) Although not as universally used as IR. with the other.2.g.2. 70 °C) are also common.2-Tetrachloro-deuterated ethane Carbon 13 NMR Orthodichlorobenzene Trichlorobenzene Aliphatic hydrocarbons. IR can also be used to identify specialist additives such as fire retardants. Table 1 gives examples of solvents used for NMR.. particularly antioxidants and UV stabilisers. Although not often required it can be of use in the analysis of flame retardant systems. heptane 4 . PET) solvents such as trichloroacetic acid have to be used.2.. It is a very good. such as the one published by Rapra Technology. whereas for the less soluble semi-crystalline plastics (e. chloroform) at room temperature to record infrared spectra from films cast from solution. It is used in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of additives. Of the conventional instruments.g. IR analysis of an ash of the compound obtained by heating at 550 °C can help to identify inorganic fillers. analysis of plastics.g. fluorine 19 NMR can be used. Some plasticised plastics products (e.. polypropylene/talc kettle bodies) will require a pyrolysis technique where a pyrolysis condensates infrared library. UV is another spectroscopic technique which has a role to play in the Table 1 Examples of solvents used in NMR work on plastics Proton NMR Deuterated chloroform Trifluoroacetic acid Deuterated benzene 1. The spectrum was obtained at 90 °C in a solution of orthodichlorobenzene.2. It is at its most sensitive when used on analytes in solution. In this case a solvent such as dimethylformamide is employed. 2. It is also possible with amorphous plastics that are soluble in conventional solvents (e. e.2. where additives such as antimony trioxide and zinc borate have been used..g. minor peaks being due to polyethylene.. both proton and carbon 13 instruments have been used in plastics analysis. are used where it is necessary to quantify metals in a plastic compound. 2. needs to be available. 2. Products that are filled (e. The major peaks at 21.2 Spectroscopic Techniques 2. Combinations of two solvents can be used to achieve a good degree of solubility and elevated temperatures (e. Amorphous plastics. and the related inductively coupled plasma (ICP).3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) NMR is a powerful tool for the determination of polymer structure.. methanol) first to remove the plasticiser. relatively quick technique for the determination of the polymer present in a plastic product. it is normally possible to record infrared spectra directly from the plastic sample using either a surface technique (e. attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy) or in transmission through the sample from a film produced by pressing a specimen above its glass transition or melting point.4 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) This technique. such as polystyrene can be dissolved in deuterated chloroform.1 Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is used extensively in the analysis of plastics. This approach has the drawback that all the solvent needs to be removed from the film if interference bands are to be avoided. in the analysis of polyvinylidene fluoride.1..g.g.. Unlike rubbers.g.. Techniques are available for work on a specific plastic type.g. The 13 C NMR spectrum for a polypropylenepolyethylene copolymer is shown in Figure 1. Analysis of the solvent extract obtained to prepare the plastic sample for an IR technique can be used to identify the plasticiser present in a compound. PVC or nylon 11) will need to be extracted with a solvent (e.g. where the majority of compounds contain additives such as carbon black and plasticisers that can interfere with the infrared data obtained. e. 27 and 46 ppm are due to the polypropylene. but the reverse is rarely the case.

antistatic agent and. The advent of the Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman technique in 1986 significantly reduced data acquisition times and also brought the technical advantage of suppressing any laser induced fluorescence within the sample.2.2.3 Chromatographic Techniques 2. When it comes to analysing small samples. The technique is usually used in conjunction with IR.6 Raman Spectroscopy Until 1986 Raman spectrometers were either dispersive long focal length double monochromators or shorter focal length triple monochromators and required highly trained scientists to obtain good quality data.Analysis of Plastics Figure 1 13C NMR spectrum of polypropylene-polyethylene copolymer 2.5 X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) This technique is very useful for obtaining semiquantitative elemental data from plastic compounds and their ashes. 2.1 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) This powerful. sample surfaces or contaminants in samples. It can also be used to investigate the polymer fraction within a sample when the instrument is fitted with a pyrolysis unit set at around 600 °C. The technique also plays a role in failure diagnosis by being able to provide information on odours. Among other things. This has enabled Raman spectroscopy to be used routinely for the identification of polymer types and the analysis of contaminants within polymer samples. quality instruments to be produced and 5 . It is particularly useful in identifying minor components of the sample such as the stabiliser. high performance. versatile technique can be used to obtain a significant amount of compositional information on plastic samples. and 2. have led to the development of the Raman microscope an instrument analogous to the IR microscope. low cost.3. it helps to identify inorganic fillers and pigments in samples. the crosslinking system. the scanning electron microscope (SEM)/XRF combination (sometimes referred to as energy dispersive analysis (Edax)) can be a very valuable tool. where appropriate. Further developments have enabled smaller.

plasticisers and organic flame retardants.g.Analysis of Plastics organic contaminants that may have degraded the plastic matrix.. 2.g. have proved very useful in increasing the amount of information that can be obtained in a GPC analysis by enabling IR data to be recorded on the resultant chromatogram. molecular ion minus one hydrogen) spectra. It is possible to obtain molecular weight data on both amorphous plastics and semi-crystalline plastics.e.5 Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) For this technique to be successful the sample must be readily soluble in an organic solvent. although the technique is less powerful because of the absence of a mass spectrometer. in the full scan mode the sensitivity is restricted to the low nanogram levels. This technique is also used for the identification and quantification of additives such as antioxidants and. they were complex and expensive (i. In the case of some complex plastic systems (e. However. with the correct choice of separating column.. A further complexity is that the API interface can generate either positive (i. effectively research tools only). 2. 2. molecular ion plus one hydrogen) spectra or negative (i. the development of interfaces such as the Lab Connections LC Transform.3. The particle beam interface is used to generate electron ionisation (EI) spectra and the API interface is used to generate either electrospray (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) spectra. an extract) can be analysed by GCMS.g. and it is only within the last five years or so that single quadrupole benchtop LC-MS systems have become reasonably common place due to their relative ease of use and cost. both the electrospray and APCI modes are soft ionisation techniques which leave the molecular ion (or pseudomolecular ion) intact without much fragmentation. and a pyrogram ‘fingerprint’ has to be used and a comparison made against a library of known standards.3. polystyrene).. The interface therefore offers more sensitivity and is ideal for quantitative work at low levels (e..2 Gas Chromatography (GC) This technique can also be used to obtain polymer type information by use of a pyrolysis approach.3. With semi-crystalline plastics (e. In the case of the API interface.. polymer blends can be separated and identified as well as plasticisers. 2. polyolefins). more aggressive solvents such as orthodichlorobenzene and meta-cresol are used at elevated (140 °C) temperatures. blends).e.. chloroform and toluene are used. Today.g. Hence. HPLC also comes into its own in the quantification of plasticisers such as dioctyl phthalate (DOP). The particle beam interface is very good for qualitative work because the 70 eV spectra contain a significant amount of structural information and can be searched against conventional mass spectra libraries. solution injection and pyrolysis. contamination of drug and food matrices by polymer additives/ breakdown products). In the amorphous case (e. There are a variety of ways that the sample or fractions of the sample (e. For many years development work has concentrated particular on the design of 6 . the two most popular types of interface for the benchtop single quadrupole LC-MS are the particle beam interface and the atmospheric pressure ionisation (API) interface.e. where sufficient volatility exists. the interface between the chromatograph and the detector. Although such combinations have been around for many years.3 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) HPLC can be used to identify and quantify additives that are either too involatile or insufficiently stable to be determined by GC/GC-MS. It has a wide application in the analysis of plastic samples.g. These include static headspace...4 Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) This instrument is essentially a coupling of an HPLC with a mass selective detector and as such offers a significant enhancement in performance to the polymer chemist. dynamic headspace. A mass spectrometer can be the ideal detector for liquid chromatography because it offers both universality and the required selectivity for complex analytical problems.3. the system used is set around ambient temperature (30 °C) and solvents such as THF. This is particularly the case with antioxidants such as Irganox 1010 and 1036.

6. HDPE.4 Thermal Techniques 2.e.4. A number of approaches are possible using different developing solvents and spraying agents. DSC can be used to identify a plastic from the glass transition in its thermogram. etc. with appropriate standard materials. the exothermic formation of the crystalline phase (at 156. etc. TLC does have the image of being somewhat old fashioned and it is to be expected that the market penetration of LC-MS systems will further erode the standing of this technique in the modern analytical laboratory. The glass transition (Tg) and crystalline melting temperatures (Tm) of a range of plastics are given in Table 2. polyesters.. The DSC trace of a plastic blend is shown in Figure 3. This trace shows the Tg (around 75 °C) of the material.3. It is sensitive enough to Figure 2 DSC trace for a quenched sample of PET 7 . Although not as sensitive as dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) to glass transitions. The data obtained has been compared to standards and the material has been shown to be a blend of ethylenevinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and LDPE. It is also the case that TLC can be used in a preparative way for the isolation of sample fractions for subsequent chromatographic or spectroscopic analysis. e.g. LLDPE. LDPE. In addition the EVA copolymer is thought to contain around 20-25% of vinyl acetate (VA).Analysis of Plastics 2. particularly those that are semi-crystalline . 2. PP/PE and nylon 6/nylon 6. The approximate proportions of each is EVA 15-20%/LDPE 20-25%.) from their melting points and the appearance of their melting endotherms as well as being able to detect and.polyolefins. nylons.6 Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) TLC is a relatively simple technique that can be used for both the separation and identification of additives such as antioxidants and UV stabilisers. quantify plastic blends. The DSC trace for a quenched sample of PET is shown in Figure 2. differentiate between different polyethylenes (i..9 °C) and the endotherm due to the melting of this phase (at 255 °C).1 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) DSC is used extensively in the analysis of plastics.

4. differences in molecular weight will be apparent in the melting endotherm region. The sensitivity of DMTA to glass transition temperatures (approximately 1. but very different physical properties is shown in Figure 4. but the top one is crosslinked having been prepared with a small amount of difunctional monomer and the bottom sample is the standard thermoplastic material. 2. The effects 8 . It can be seen that the crosslinked sample does not melt and the modulus does not fall away significantly until thermal degradation occurs. peroxides. in a sample.Analysis of Plastics Figure 3 DSC trace of a blend of EVA and LDPE It is also possible to use DSC to provide quality control fingerprint thermograms from which deviations in the composition of a plastic compound can be detected.2 Dynamic Mechnanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) DMTA is very useful for generating modulus versus temperature data on plastic compounds. e. Both of these samples are polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). of temperature on this important material property can be obtained over a wide temperature range (typically –150 °C to +200 °C). and to investigate the effectiveness of antidegradants and fire retardants. Using appropriate standard materials it is also possible to use DSC to quantify the level of certain additives..g. The use of DMTA to differentiate between plastic samples that have a similar chemical composition.000 times greater than DSC which measures heat capacity changes rather than modulus) is very useful in the analysis of plastics and their blends. One reason for this is that although the technique is not capable of determining the molecular weight of a plastic. DSC can also be used in thermal stability studies of the plastic compound. along with the glass transition temperature and information on thermal stability.

change the atmosphere to air and heat at 20 °C/min to 1..6 Polyethylene oxide Polypropylene oxide Polyvinyl methyl ether Polyvinyl ethyl ether Polyvinyl t-butyl ether 5 –20 24 115 52 70 80 –18 80 to 140 95 100 67 100 150 195 50 60 –55 –62 –31 160 12 0 70 32 7 22 1 Decomposes below Tg 19 0 23 0 25 6 22 5 21 5 26 6 66 65 14 4 86 250 2.Analysis of Plastics Table 2 Glass transition (Tg) and crystalline melting temperatures (Tm) of a range of plastics Plastics Type Tg (°C) Tm (°C) 105 (LDPE) Polyethylene –20 115 (MDPE) 135 (HDPE) Polypropylene Polybut-1-ene Polypent-1-ene PTFE Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) Polyvinyl alcohol Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinylidene chloride Polyacrylonitrile Atactic polystyrene Isotactic polystyrene PET Methyl methacrylate Polycarbonate of bisphenol A Polysulfone of bisphenol A Nylon 6 Nylon 6. and this can be used to detect the presence of a polymer blend of two or more components.4.g. This data can be obtained on small (e. Then. It is possible to obtain accurate quantifications of the principal compound constituents such as plasticiser. By the use of the temperature maxima at which weight events occur it is also possible to use the technique to obtain some qualitative assignments for the plasticiser and polymer. Thermal decomposition temperatures of a range of plastics are shown in Table 3. polymer and inorganic species.3 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) This technique is useful in the analysis of compounded plastic samples.000 °C. reduce the heat to 300 °C. A typical TGA programme would be: Heat from ambient to 550 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere at 20 °C/min until no further weight loss occurs. It is common to plot the weight loss derivative in conjunction with the weight loss. 10 mg) samples in a relatively short time (around 45 minutes). 9 .

Analysis of Plastics Figure 4 DMTA results for (a) crosslinked and (b) standard grades of PMMA 10 .

For example. Figure 5 High resolution TGA of polymethylmethacrylate 11 . The introduction of high resolution TGA instruments has enabled more accurate quantifications of minor weight loss events to be made. The residual monomer weight loss event peaks at 297. the use of high resolution TGA to quantify the amount of residual monomer in a sample of polymethylmethacrylate is shown in Figure 5. It is possible to interface modern TGA instruments directly to IR instruments or mass spectrometers.5 °C.Analysis of Plastics Table 3 Thermal decomposition temperatures of a range of plastics Plastic Type Polyvinyl chloride Polymethyl methacrylate Polypropylene Polyethylene Poly-p-xylene PTFE Temperature to achieve 50% decomposition* (°C) 260 327 387 414 432 509 *The temperature at which the polymer loses half its weight in vacuo at 30 minutes preceded by 5 minutes preheating at that temperature Other uses for the technique include the production of compositional fingerprints for quality control purposes and the investigation of thermal stability and the effects that additives such as flame retardants and antioxidants have on it. thus obtaining both quantitative and qualitative data in one analytical step.

.1 Determination of Molecular Weight In common with other polymers.6 Microscopy Techniques High magnification (e. carbon dioxide) that is kept in a supercritical state by a suitable combination of temperature and pressure.5 in relation to the elemental analysis of surfaces in conjunction with XRF. they can be deposited on infrared transparent substrates for analysis using an infrared microscope.2. can be determined using oxygen combustion followed by ion chromatography analysis of the products. There are a number of ways in which the molecular weight distribution of a plastic can be expressed: 2.g. LC-MS) have restricted its market penetration. The relatively expensive nature of the instrumentation and the development of other techniques (e.g. The technique of scanning electron microscopy has already been briefly mentioned in Section 2.. The success of this operation is usually dependent on the generation of high quality microtome sections of the sample.7 Miscellaneous Techniques There are a number of other analytical techniques that can be used to characterise plastic samples and many of these feature in the abstracts at the back of this Review Report. Surface analysis techniques such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). of inorganic additives (e.g.Analysis of Plastics 2..5 Elemental Techniques The determination of the concentration of certain elements can be very useful in plastic analysis work. For other spectroscopic techniques see Section 2.g. the targeting of specific elements can enable the quantity of a particular additive (e. 2050 mg) of sample. In particular. laser induced mass analysis (LIMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used for failure diagnosis work associated with such things as poor bonding to substrates and for surface characterisation work. 3 Determination of Molecular Weight and Microstructure of Plastic Polymers This section covers analytical techniques that can be applied both to uncompounded plastic resins and compounded materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be used to investigate the phase morphology of polymer blends and the dispersion of fillers. This distribution will be widest for polymers produced by free radical polymerisation (e. This is essentially a liquid chromatography technique that uses similar analytical columns to HPLC but where the mobile phase is a substance (e. 3.g. it is often necessary to determine the amount of nitrogen or a halogen such as chlorine or fluorine in the calculation of polymer content or polymer blend proportions. Sulfur and chlorine. A chromatography technique that achieved prominence in the research literature around ten to fifteen years ago for the determination of relative high molecular weight additives (e.2. These include X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify between different crystalline forms 12 . plastics have a distribution of molecular weights. rutile and anatase forms of titanium dioxide) and direct probe mass spectroscopy (for the determination of high molecular weight antioxidants). The determination of nitrogen is usually done using carbon/hydrogen/nitrogen analysers and the technique is relatively simple and uses small amounts (e.. 2.. Also.g.g. It can also be used in its own right.. With the other elements. polystyrene) and narrowest for plastics produced using specialised catalyst systems such as metallocenes. where its high magnification powers can be employed to determine the particle size of fillers and in the detailed examination of fracture surfaces.. 150x) optical microscopy can be used to examine the dispersion of fillers within the plastic matrix.. One of the benefits of the technique is that the analytes can be easily separated from the mobile phase once the chromatography has taken place so. for example. for example.g. phosphate flame retardant or titanium dioxide pigment) to be calculated. the technique will vary according to the element being quantified. antioxidants) and the study of plastic oligomers is supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC).

The weight average is always of greater value than the number average. There are a wide variety of methods that can be used to obtain molecular weights. GPC is essentially a liquid chromatography technique where the sample is dissolved in a suitable solvent (e.Analysis of Plastics Mn = Number average molecular weight = Sum nM Sum n Mw = Weight average molecular weight = Sum nM2 Sum nM Mz = Z average molecular weight = Sum nM3 Sum nM2 3. porous gel packing. These multiple detection systems provide measures of ‘true’ molecular weight by obtaining the actual Mark-Houwink parameters (in the case of the viscosity detector) for the polymer being where n = the number of molecules of molar mass M. The standard detector for GPC systems is the refractive index (RI) detector. It is possible to use it on both uncompounded resins and plastic compounds and Mn. Figure 6 shows the GPC chromatograms for two polymers that have different molecular weight distributions but similar calculated molecular weight averages. Mw and Mz values can be obtained.1 Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) This is the pre-eminent technique and has been refined and developed extensively over the past 30 years. The principal ones are as follows. particulate. but a feature of developments over the past 10 years is the development of double (RI and viscosity) or triple detector systems (RI.g. viscosity and light scattering).1. Figure 6 GPC chromatograms for two polymers with different molecular weight distributions but similar molecular weight averages 13 . The Z average is very sensitive to high molecular weight molecules within the polymer.. A measure of the breadth of the molecular distribution of the polymer can be obtained by dividing the weight average by the number average: Polydispersity = Mw Mn As the polymer tends to monodispersity the polydispersity approaches unity. THF for polystyrene) and injected into a system where the molecules are separated according to their molecular size by a column that contains a swollen.

These developments have centred around low angle laser light scattering (LALLS).g.1. The use of the LC transform module with GPC has extended its capabilities by allowing IR data to be generated on the species during the course of an analysis. From this the intrinsic viscosity is determined and hence the molecular weight. Membrane osmometry involves the use of a membrane between the solvent and the polymer solution that is permeable to the solvent molecules but not to the solvated polymer molecules.1 μl) and dilute solutions help this.4 Light Scattering Recent developments in instrumentation have led to a resurgence of this technique where the weight average molecular weight is obtained from the light scattering behaviour of polymer solutions. The time taken for the polymer solution to pass between two marks on the viscometer is compared to that of pure solvent and the ratio is the viscosity of the solution. This is done by impinging the species onto a germanium disc which is then placed into a module fitted into the sample compartment of an IR bench. Calibration is by the analysis of standards of known molecular weight and should be over the entire range of molecular weights of interest to ensure the best results. 3. This technique is very useful for plastic blends and highly compounded plastics such at PVC. This is the major restriction on the technique and means that it cannot be used for low molecular weight polymers (< approximately 50. One practical use of the latter is to determine if chemical modifiers (e. Successive dilutions give a range of concentrations and times from which the intrinsic viscosity can be calculated.000 to 10. Light scattering can produce precise data and has been used successfully on polymers with molecular weights ranging from 10.000).000. Solvent choice is also critical.1.1. The value for this is then entered into the Mark-Houwink equation: Intrinsic viscosity = KMX where K and X are constants for the particular solvent being used and are referred to as the Mark-Houwink parameters. Depending on the source of the Mark-Houwink parameters the molecular weight can be expressed as either the number or weight average.Analysis of Plastics analysed.8). IR data is collected on the entire chromatogram using continuous collection software. as it allows the polymers in the blend to be identified.3 Osmometry There are two principal osmometry techniques: vapour pressure osmometry and membrane osmometry. which enables the IR spectrum of any particular section to be viewed. as opposed to the polystyrene equivalent molecular weight from the use of monodisperse polystyrene calibrants alone. Care has to be taken to ensure that the polymer solution is clear (to reduce variability) and low cell volumes (0. Evaporative light scattering involves the removal of the solvent from the solvated polymer as it elutes down a drift tube and the isolated polymer particles then scatter light from the light source. This is done by measuring the molecular weight distribution of the modified plastic at a UV wavelength where the polymer itself does not contribute to the absorbance and comparing this to the distribution of the unmodified plastic. silane coupling agents) are bound to polymer molecules. as well as relatively high molecular weight additives such as plasticisers. MALLS detectors can provide direct information on the branching ratio of a polymer (a. 3. 3. 14 .2 Viscosity This is a standard procedure for molecular weight determinations and involves the use of specially designed viscometers to accurately measure the viscosity of a polymer solution.000. It is based on the measurement of the temperature difference between droplets of pure solvent and of polymer solution maintained in an isothermal atmosphere saturated with the solvent vapour. Vapour pressure osmometry involves the indirect measuring of the lowering of the vapour pressure of a solvent due to the presence of a solute. light scattering detectors have been developed for GPC systems. multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and evaporative light scattering (ELS).. The technique is useful for polymers that have molecular weights in the 500-50. with the best results being with solvents that have a very different refractive index to the polymer. It is also possible to use spectroscopic detectors such as infrared and ultraviolet. An inherent property of the light scattering detector is that it provides ‘true’ molecular weight data.000 range. As well as being stand alone instruments. and that are low-scattering themselves.

For those plastic compounds that contain a plasticiser and/or organic flame retardant. Some care should be taken as the relative intensities of the bands present in ATR spectra can vary 15 . The NMR technique will also provide information on the proportions of the various monomers in copolymers and tripolymers. a certain amount of preparation work is required to effectively remove the interference of these constituents. although some of the isomeric structures have relatively weak absorptions which makes detection difficult when they are at a low concentration. 4 Determination of Polymer Type One of the most basic and useful tests to carry out on a plastic sample is to determine its polymer type. Where appropriate standards are available. Providing that an extensive database of pyrolysate spectra is available (234). Another technique that can be used to obtain transmission spectra is to dissolve the sample up using a suitable solvent and to cast a film. Another technique that is very effective at identifying the monomers present in a plastic materials is NMR.1. Another method which enables the polymer type within a plastic sample to be identified is pyrolysis gas chromatography. ultracentrifugation (Mw) and. it is usually possible to carry out an infrared analysis of the plastic material in the as received state and identify the plastic by reference to a standards database. the areas under the diagnostic chemical shifts being used. the usual approach is to press a thin film of the samples using a temperature which is above the Tg or Tm and to record a transmission spectrum. Care has to be taken to remove all of the solvent by drying in an oven otherwise it can influence the data obtained. A transmission infrared spectrum of PVC produced from a film cast from a solution in THF is shown in Figure 8.1. the pyrolysis approach can be employed without using the initial solvent extraction step. In the case of blends. It is then usually possible to record the infrared spectrum using either an ATR technique or by transmission through a hot pressed film.9). A transmission infrared spectrum of polypropylene produced from a film pressed at 170 °C is shown in Figure 7. It is also possible to use IR for the latter. respectively. One of the most comprehensive databases available of plastic infrared spectra has been produced by Hummel (a. indirectly by determining glass transition temperatures. pyrolysis IR and pyrolysis GC to determine the polymer type of a plastic is covered in Section 2. it is also possible to express the results semi-quantitatively if the appropriate standards are available. If more traditional spectra are required. If the plastic only contains a filler. compared to conventional transmission spectra (historically used to compile databases) and there is a slight shifting in the absorption wavenumber value of the bands. it is necessary to pyrolyse the extracted portion of the sample and then record an infrared spectrum of the collected pyrolysis condensates. a solvent extraction is performed to remove these organic species. Due to their relative simplicity. branch points and structural isomerism. Where the plastic sample contains both a major organic additive and a filler. this method is very successful in identifying generic polymer types and polymer blends. A review of the determination of the molecular weight of polymers has been produced by Holding and Meehan (396). DSC/DTA. The advent of the single bounce attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessories for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments enables this operation to be carried out in a matter of minutes on a sample a few millimetres in size. This method can be applied to either 3.2 Monomer Types and Microstructure The use of transmission IR. In contrast to IR this information can be obtained without having to analyse standards of known monomer composition. NMR instruments can also be used to obtain fundamental structural information on polymers such as end group chemistry. it is also possible to use IR to quantify the amounts of monomers in copolymers and terpolymers.5 Other Methods Other methods include end group analysis (Mn). After milling or comminuting the sample to increase surface area.Analysis of Plastics 3. The pyrolysate infrared spectra of nylon 6 and low density polyethylene are shown in Figures 9 and 10.

Analysis of Plastics Figure 7 Transmission infrared spectrum of polypropylene produced from a film pressed at 170 °C Figure 8 Transmission infrared spectrum of unplasticised PVC produced from a film cast from a THF solution 16 .

Analysis of Plastics Figure 9 Pyrolysate infrared spectrum of nylon 6 Figure 10 Pyrolysate infrared spectrum of low density polyethylene 17 .

polyamides.06 MPa Adding a mass spectrometer into the system.g. This carbonaceous residue.25 mm. so that the technique becomes pyrolysis GC-MS. benzene... In the former case any relatively low molecular weight plasticiser elutes early on and does not have a significant influence on the pyrogram as a whole. Unfortunately. PVC) undergo two stage weight loss processes when heated and the first stage (loss of hydrogen chloride) will overlap with the volatilisation of organics (e.4 mg 600 °C Helium at 0. halogenated. As with pyrolysis IR. the easiest technique to use is TGA.g. Typical experimental conditions for pyrolysis GC experiments are as follows: Sample weights Pyrolysis temperatures 0. chlorobenzenes 18 . In reality. It is also possible to detect a blend of polymers with TGA and to often obtain a semi-quantification of the blend ratio by reference to the splitting of the weight loss derivative. Another complicating factor is that a number of plastics (e.Analysis of Plastics the extracted portion of the sample or the sample as received.. a database of standards needs to be put together and then the pyrogram fingerprints of unknowns can be matched. which may to an extent overlap with any weight loss due to a carbon black pigment.specific example using an SGE Pyrojector Weight of sample Pyrolysis temperature Pyrolysis gas GC column GC column temperature program GC carrier gas 0. ethylbenzene and styrene methylmethacrylate. GC injector temperature 320 °C Detector Flame ionisation detector (FID) at 350 °C Table 4 Diagnostic pyrolysis species in pyrograms of plastics Plastic type Polystyrene Polymethylmethacrylate Polyethylene Polypropylene PVC Species benzene. Again. a certain amount of both types of reaction take place for the majority of polymers and it is the one that predominates that determines what the major pyrolysis products will be.g. The temperature that the pyrolysis unit is set at. polyesters.g. and the design of the unit (e.1-5. plasticiser) stage. some plastic types (e. it is possible to identify and quantify blends and blend ratios. other straight chain hydrocarbons branched hydrocarbons such as 2.10 MPa 5% Diphenyl siloxane 30 m x 0. Curie point or microfurnace).0 mg 400-800 °C (microfurnace and Curie point) 800-1200 °C (platinum filament) Microfurnace type pyrolyser . With respect to the quantification of the polymer component within a plastic compound. n-pentane. will affect the pyrograms produced from a particular sample. The principal diagnostic pyrolysis species which can be detected in pyrograms of plastics are shown in Table 4.. methyl isobutyrate n-hexane. It can be seen from the above list that certain plastics ‘unzip’ to regenerate their monomers whereas other undergo decomposition reactions to generate characteristic breakdown products. toluene. It is therefore not possible to use TGA alone to determine the polymer content of these samples. further increases the usefulness of the method and the information that can be obtained. polyurethanes. has to be included in order to obtain an accurate polymer content. other heteroatom containing systems) do not completely pyrolyse during the nitrogen atmosphere region and leave a carbonaceous residue which essentially oxidises to carbon dioxide in the air region.0 μm film 2 min at 50 °C followed by 10 °C/min to 280 °C and then 10 min at 280 °C Helium at 0.4-dimethyl heptane hydrogen chloride. 1.

g. polymers that lose small molecules by heat degradation (e. Careful choice of solvent is required to ensure that the polymer itself doesn’t undergo dissolution and that the plasticiser is selectively isolated. 5. and care must be taken to ensure that these do not affect the quantification of the carbonaceous filler in the air atmosphere region.1 Determination of Plasticiser Mention has already been made in Section 4 of the isolation of plasticisers from a plastic matrix by solvent extraction. where the quantification of specific species is required. The TGA trace for an EVA cable covering filled with a conducting black is shown in Figure 11. Once the ash has been obtained.g. this is usually easier to achieve by HPLC then IR. A solvent which has been found to be useful for polymers such as PVC is methanol. It is also a useful way of differentiating between these materials and 19 . The limitation of the technique is that the total inorganic content of the plastic is obtained. in which case the carbonate will undergo quantitative degradation at around 680700 °C into carbon dioxide and calcium oxide (which remains as a residue). It is therefore common practice to complement the TGA data with a least a semi-quantitative elemental technique such as XRF in order to obtain qualitative as well as quantitative data. A useful exception to this rule is where the compound contains calcium carbonate (a relatively common diluent filler). Where the plasticisers have distinct IR spectra (e. phthalates and sulfonamides) it is possible to detect the presence of a blend of plasticisers. As mentioned in the above section.Analysis of Plastics 5 Determination of the Plasticiser and Filler in a Plastic Compound 5. with no indication of the relative proportion if a blend of inorganic fillers is present.. There is an excellent database available (399) which enables an identification to be made. carbonaceous fillers such as a conducting black (acetylene black) or graphite are added to a plastic to enable it to meet certain conductivity requirements.1. It is possible to use TGA to quantify these types of fillers. Some of the principal diagnostic IR absorption bands for inorganic fillers are given in Table 5. XRF or. The extraction is carried out under Soxhlet conditions with the weight of extract being obtained from the weight gain of the conditioned solvent reservoir flask once the solvent has been dried off at 105 °C. halogenated. ICP.2 Determination of Fillers 5.2.1 Particulate Fillers On some occasions. silica and silicates. The TGA technique can usually provide a good quantification of plasticiser content.g. This method is described in ISO 345-1 (1997) and a temperature of 500-600 °C is usually used. HCl lost by PVC) give more complicated TGA traces and will require a solvent extraction step to determine their plasticiser level.g. conventional carbon black. The fact that a number of rubbers (e.. If a quantification of the blend composition is required.. TGA is also convenient for the quantification of inorganic fillers such as barytes. Use of a high resolution TGA instrument will assist in this as it will improve the separation of the two weight loss events. The other technique commonly used for the quantification and isolation of inorganic materials (both fillers and additives such as glass fibres) is furnace ashing. the former having a maximum oxidation weight loss around 700 °C and the latter around 550 °C. though. nitrile and polyurethane) produce carbonaceous residues during the nitrogen atmosphere region has already been mentioned in Section 4. so called polymerised plasticisers) can give problems as the weight loss event due to their volatilisation can merge with the pyrolysis weight loss event of the polymer. It is therefore possible to quantity the amount of calcium carbonate in the sample from the carbon dioxide weight loss (which will represent 44% of the carbonate by mass) and the remaining quantity of residue will indicate if any other inorganics are present. Having quantified the plasticiser present by extraction it is then possible to obtain an identification by the use of transmission IR.. qualitative information on the inorganic species present can be obtained by IR (liquid paraffin mull technique). Plasticisers that have higher molecular weights (e.

Higher temperatures (above 700 °C) can cause problems as the glass will eventually reach its melting point.Analysis of Plastics Figure 11 TGA trace for an EVA cable cover compound showing weight loss and derivative weight loss curves Table 5 Diagnostic IR absorption bands for inorganic fillers Filler Silica Silicates Calcium carbonate Barium sulfate Band Broad band at 950-1330 cm which peaks at 1050-1100 cm Broad band at 850-1300 cm which peaks at 950-1100 cm 1420.g. nylon) (4) Wood flour It is usually obvious whether a plastic contains a fibrous filler from either a visual inspection or the use of a relatively low powered optical microscope.2 Fibrous Fillers In certain applications it is necessary to impart the strength required to a plastic part by the use of a fibrous fillers. The following types are among those used: (1) Glass fibres (2) Carbon fibres (3) Synthetic polymer fibres (e.. 870 and 710 cm 1080 and 610 cm 5. Confirmation that the fibres are glass can be carried out using an infrared microscope.2. Glass fibres can be isolated and gravimetrically determined by ashing at 600 °C in a muffle furnace. The IR microscope will also give the cellulose spectrum which is expected for 20 .

e. The use of an initial solvent extraction/dissolution step is common in the analysis of a plastic matrix for antidegradants.02% w/w by using an extraction with chloroform under reflux followed by analysis of the extract using a UV/Vis spectrometer. having mid-range solubility parameters) such as chloroform are good extracting solvents.. butylated hydroxytoluene) heating a sample liberates enough of the species to enable an identification to be made using GC-MS. heat and UV light). The UV stabilisers can be divided into five different groups: (a) Benzophenone derivatives 6 Determination of Stabilisers in a Plastics Compound In common with other polymer systems. In some cases (e. A thin film of the sample is produced by hot pressing at 120 °C. Once the identification has been achieved.1 UV Stabilisers There is a large range of commercial UV stabilisers for plastic materials and a number of analytical approaches can be used for their detection and quantification. however quantification will usually require removal by a solvent (to as near 100% efficiency as possible). For example. As mentioned above. by the hot stage microscope or DSC.g. along with films of virgin polyethylene containing known amounts of the stabiliser. Another technique uses the fluorescence of these compounds. and be able to detect the type of synthetic fibre (e. Where the antidegradant is not volatile enough to be identified using a GC based technique. antidegradant identified by reference to its molecular ion and a database. A number of methods use the UV absorbing properties of the UV stabiliser.8 and 16. The absorbance maxima of the diagnostic band between 15. The stabiliser will remain in the solvent phase. If the type of organic antidegradant in a compound is completely unknown.. direct probe mass spectrometry or LC-MS can be used and the (b) Salicyclic acid esters (c) Resorcinol esters (d) Benzotriazole compounds (e) Coumarin drivatives In a number of cases specific methods have been developed to determine a particular stabiliser within a particular polymer. a quantification can be carried out using a preferred method and a validated procedure if available..g.. by use of their melting point. The ultraviolet absorption peak at 355 nm is used and a calibration curve produced by dissolving known amounts of Tinuvin 326 in chloroform. In the case of DSC. the determination of 2-hydroxy-4n-octoxybenzophenone in polyethylene) the stabiliser has distinctive diagnostic bands and the relative simplicity of the infrared characteristics of the polymer matrix enables it to be quantified using transmission infrared spectroscopy. synthetic polymeric fibres can be identified by the IR microscope once sufficiently isolated or. Uvitex OB can be detected in a chloroform 21 . as these species may not be volatile enough to be removed by heating the sample. Analysis of the extract can then be carried out by HPLC. Another common approach is to dissolve up the sample in a suitable solvent and then add a nonsolvent to precipitate the polymer.g. Tinuvin 326 can be detected in polypropylene down to 0.5%. Relatively non-specific solvents (i. In some cases (e.02% w/w with an accuracy of +/. 6.2 microns in the standard films is used to produce a calibration curve from which the amount of stabiliser in the unknown is calculated.. degradation by a number of agencies (e. UV spectroscopy. The direct probe mass spectroscopy technique can be carried out on samples in the as received state as well as sample extracts.g. The method is capable of detecting the stabiliser down to 0. The oxidation temperature of around 700 °C (instead of the 500-600 °C experienced with carbon blacks) will also provide a confirmation of their presence.Analysis of Plastics the wood flour filler type. Some representative methods are outlined next. to maintain the physical properties of a plastic compound stabilisers need to be added to stop. TGA will enable the amount of carbon fibres in a composite to be quantified. whereas LCMS is only used for extracts. or GC if the species is heat stable and sufficiently volatile. nylon or polypropylene) used from its characteristic transmission spectrum. some quantification data can be obtained from the size of the melting endotherm providing standards are available. analysis of the solvent extract by GC-MS or LC-MS is an excellent method for identification. or at least retard.

g.0 ml/min %A 90 0 %B 10 100 Mobile phase 6. This latter method has been used extensively for the determination of antioxidants but has not received as much attention in the literature for UV stabilisers. methanol) is then added and the extract analysed by HPLC using the following conditions: Injection volume HPLC column 25 μl Aqua 5 C18 ODS reverse phase column 150 mm x 3.g.Analysis of Plastics solution (0. It is also the case that the white pigment titanium dioxide provides protection against UV light and so this can be added at reasonable high loadings (e. Standard solutions at the 0. An extract of the polymer was analysed using a C18 reverse phase column with UV detection at 230 nm and a mobile phase of 70:30 methanol/water changing to 100% methanol. The sample is dissolved up using a suitable solvent at an elevated temperature if necessary.2 Antioxidants HPLC based techniques have been widely used by analysts for the determination of antioxidants in plastics and a review has been provided by Sidwell (400). A non-solvent (e..8 w/v level of virgin polystyrene and known amounts of Uvitex OB are used as calibrants. It is also possible to use gas chromatography (e. The chromatogram obtained for the determination of Irganox 1076 in an HDPE compound is shown in Figure 12. thin layer chromatography (e...0 mm (or similar) A= 75:25 Methanol/Water B= 50:50 Ethyl Acetate/Acetonitrile Time Initial After 25 min 2. Tinuvin P. Tinuvin 326. 10% or greater) to products such as window frames.g.8% w/v of polymer) of polystyrene by excitation at 370 nm and recording the fluorescence at 435 nm. Gradient Flow rate Figure 12 HPLC chromatogram of HDPE for determining Irganox 1076 22 . Tinuvin 327 and Cyasorb UV531 in toluene extracts of polyethylenes).. benzophenone and salicylic acid types in polyethylenes) and HPLC.g. There is a useful HPLC method which can be used on plastics for the detection and quantification of a wide range (20 species) of antidegradants. The amount of titanium dioxide in a plastic can be determined after acid digestion of the matrix by the use of an elemental technique such as AAS/ICP.

The capability of HPLC has been greatly extended by the commercialisation of affordable liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) instruments. with it. The mass selective detector enables unknown samples to be analysed and the antioxidants present to be identified. TLC is comparatively easy and cheap to use and it is both quick and accurate for the identification of The following antioxidants are examples of those that can be determined using this technique: (1) Irganox 1010 (2) Irganox 1098 (3) Irganox 1076 (4) Irganox 1330 (5) Butylated hydroxytoluene (6) Irgafos 168 (7) Triclosan Figure 13 HPLC chromatogram of a complex mixture of antidegradants 23 . The LC-MS technique therefore compliments GC-MS and. The wide applicability of this method is due to the mobile phase mixture. enables the complete molecular weight/volatility/polarity range to be covered.Analysis of Plastics Detection Temperature UV detector set at 270 nm 40 °C The chromatogram obtained using this method to separate a complex cocktail of antidegradants is shown in Figure 13.

Distinctive Rf values and colours can be seen for each antioxidant depending on the stationary phase. once this is achieved.10). and this value being compared to spots containing standard amounts of the analyte.g. Irrespective of the complexity of the extract composition and the amount used. in addition to being used for identification purposes. the developing solvent used and the detection agent. EVAPVC graft polymers and acrylate-methacrylate copolymers. TLC. Trimethyl silane based antioxidants. Prior to the advent of LC-MS it was very difficult to use conventional HPLC for this task because of the large range of possible compounds..1 mm x 150 mm Injection volume: 5 μl MS conditions: Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation (APCI) Positive or negative 300 °C 200-1600 amu 70 or 120 volts (The fragmentor voltage is chosen to modify the degree of fragmentation and hence sensitivity) Ion mode: Vapouriser: Scan range: Fragmentor: Antioxidants which have been identified in polyolefins using the above conditions include: • • • Irgafos 168 Irganox 1076 Irganox B225 (50:50 mixture of Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168) 7 Determination of Functional Additives 7. a technique such as NMR will be required to both detect and quantify it. However. Antioxidants which have high boiling points cannot be directly by GC but they can be analysed as derivatives such as acetates. etc. for example. unless the spectrum is very distinctive and standards of known composition are available. chlorinated polyethylene.Analysis of Plastics antioxidants in plastic extracts. quantify the antioxidant present. give good separations on standard silicone based columns (a. even rigid PVC can contain a small amount of phthalate and so it is advisable to carry out a solvent extraction to clean up the matrix first. this method can be used to give a sharp separation for identification purposes. These polymers have a similar composition to those used as impact modifiers in PVC formulations but are more compatible and so are primarily included to ensure more uniform flow and hence improve surface finish. direct analysis of the product by IR will usually indicate the presence of those that have a distinctive spectrum as no masking by plasticiser will take place. Mobile phase: A=water.7 ml/min A 15% 1% 35% 10% B 85% 99% 65% 90% Flow rate: 24 . As these are usually found in unplasticised PVC. B=acetonitrile Gradient Time Initially after 10 min or Initially after 10 min 0. can be used in a semi quantitative way. trimethyl silyl-ethers. 5 um. Gas chromatography has been used for the analysis of phenolic and amine type antioxidants. Where the process aid (e. chlorinated polyethylene) has a relatively bland spectrum. 2.1 Process Aids and Lubricants In PVC technology certain polymeric additives can be considered as process aids. MBS. trifluoroacetates. the logarithm of the spot area being proportional to the quantity of the analyte in the spot. Using the general analysis conditions shown below a number of antioxidants can be detected in toluene or chloroform extracts of plastics: Sample preparation: Around 5 mg of extract is diluted 1/20 with 80% acetonitrile/water Instrument: Column: Agilant 1100 series LC-MS Zorbac SB-C18. Benchtop LC-MS instruments are proving to be excellent tools in the analysis of plastics of unknown composition to identify and. Such process aids include ABS. methyl ethers. NMR will usually be required to quantify the other types as well.

while profiles of inorganic pigments are characterised by absorption bands at temperatures above 900 °C. A quantification of the process aid can be achieved by the analysis of the sample for the metal by acid digestion-AAS. Groups 2 and 3 present the analyst with a greater challenge as there is a very wide number commercially 7..11). Specific assignments are made with respect to temperature. they have relatively high molecular weights and so cannot be easily removed from the matrix by solvent extraction and can be thermally labile. They are used in many applications from the body of the humble plastic pen to numerous packaging applications.3 Pigments Pigments are used extensively in plastic compounds and can be of one of four main types: (1) Inorganic compounds (2) Organo-metallic compounds (3) Organic compounds (4) Carbon black Pigments such as titanium dioxide and iron oxide belong to the first group and the analysis of these is relatively easy as they are thermally stable (so can be determined in both the sample ash or in the sample in the as received state) and have a diagnostic metal atom together with a simple chemical structure. A detection limit of 0.1% was obtained.g. Carbon black is used extensively as a black pigment in products such as cable sheaths.g..g. Using the LC-MS conditions described in Section 6. 7. particularly polyethylenes. 2 g) and hence more accurate quantifications obtained. The selection of an antistatic agent depends greatly on the polymer matrix since a degree of incompatibility is vital to ensure that migration to the surface of the product occurs at a fast rate after manufacture.2 Slip Additives It is common for aliphatic amides to be incorporated into plastics. The stearate can be qualitatively detected by solvent extraction GC-MS.. The amount present is usually less than 2% and so its quantification by TGA can be difficult due to the small sample size (10 mg) used. polypropylene) it is often necessary to use a process aid/lubricant such as a zinc or calcium stearate. Thermal ultraviolet profiles of organic pigments show absorption bands between 300 °C and 900 °C. to act as slip additives.2. polyethylene) has a relatively simple infrared spectrum and if standard infrared spectra of a wide range of pigments is available. It is also possible to use GC and GC-MS to analyse these and another common slip additive oleamide in extracts from plastics as they have sufficient volatility to elute from the GC column. A relatively unknown technique (laser desorption fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy) has been used (397) to identify dyes in plastics such as polymethylmethacrylate. it is possible to detect Behenamide (mixture of two aliphatic amides of molecular weight 331 and 339) and erucamide (molecular weight 337) in solvent extracts of polyethylene and polypropylene. One technique which has been used to identify both these types of pigment and inorganic ones is vapour phase ultraviolet absorption spectrometry at 200 nm (a. particularly if the plastic matrix itself (e. Exact chemical composition information can be difficult to obtain from suppliers and so analysis for these additives can be difficult. Infrared spectroscopy techniques can be useful. which compared with a limit of 1-2% using an ATR infrared spectroscopy technique. relative intensity and width of the absorption bands. Analysis techniques used are therefore elemental methods such as AAS and ICP. 25 . In this method the samples are powdered and then directly vapourised in the heated graphite atomiser.Analysis of Plastics In the case where a relatively large quantity of filler (talc) has to be incorporated into a polymer (e.4 Antistatic Agents Antistatic agents are usually hygroscopic compounds which readily attract moisture and so inhibit the build up of a static charge on the surface of a plastic product. available. 7. The standard method to quantify the amount of carbon black in such a product is therefore the tube furnace as much larger sample sizes can be used (e. It is possible to use LC-MS to detect these types of slip additives in plastic samples.

33 s Column temperature: MS settings: 7. polyethylene glycol alkyl esters can be used. Column type: RTX5-MS 30 m x 0. In the case of the glycol esters. 3 mg) is heated in the oven of a dynamic desorption unit and the volatiles produced collected in a cryogenically cooled Tenax filled trap. 50 ml/min) Injection temperature: 320 °C Table 6 Behaviour of polymers subjected to high energy radiation Polymers that crosslink Polyethylene Polyacrylic acid Polymethyl acrylate Polyacrylamide Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymers Polymers that degrade Poly(α-methylstyrene) Polymethyl methacrylate Polymethacylic acid Polyvinylidene chloride PCTFE PTFE Polypropylene 26 . In the case of the former a useful method of sample preparation involves cryogenic grinding of 0. cable sheathing) it can be necessary to impart a degree of crosslinking into the product to achieve the requisite physical properties. The resulting extract is then analysed under the following conditions: Instrument: Carrier: Hewlett Packard 6890/5973 GC-MSD Helium @ 2.75 min.. As in a number of cases it is to be expected that LC-MS will play a role in the analysis of these additives in the future.25 μm film thickness 40 °C for 5 min. Chemical agents such as peroxides are also used. quaternary ammonium compounds are widely used and for polyethylene. These species produce diagnostic breakdown products the identification of which will reveal the type of peroxide used.5 Crosslinking Agents and Co-Agents For some plastic products (e. some polymers degrade when subjected to high energy radiation as illustrated in Table 6. There are two possible modes of sample introduction: solution injection and dynamic headspace. followed by extraction using 2 ml of diethyl ether in an ultrasonic bath for 30 minutes.25 mm. following by 20 °C/min to 300 °C and then held at 300 °C for 12 min Carrier Helium @ 0.g.07 MPa 250 °C 9 ml/min off 10:1 Injection mode: 1 μl splitless (0. 0.0 ml/min constant flow In the case of the dynamic headspace approach a relatively small amount of sample (e. 20 °C/min up to 300 °C held for 12 min 20 to 620 Daltons scanned every 0..Analysis of Plastics In the case of polystyrene. these can of sufficiently low molecular weight to be extractable by solvents such as diethyl ether and then identified by a chromatographic technique such as GC-MS.3 g of the sample. The most useful technique for this type of work is GCMS. However.g. The experimental conditions are as follows: Dynamic Headspace Instrument: Desorption temperature: Desorption flow: Perkin Elmer ATD 400 150 °C for 10 min Helium @ 20 ml/min Trap collection temperature: –30 °C Trap injection temperature: Trap outlet split flow: Trap inlet split flow: Split: GC-MS The conditions used are the same as for the diethyl ether method with the exception of the following: GC Column temperature: –30 °C to 50 °C at 5 °C/min. This can be achieved by irradiation using gamma rays.

other properties such density and expansion ration can be used to determine compound loadings. 27 .g.1-Dimethyl benzene methanol Acetophenone Dicumyl peroxide For either analytical approach. Quantification of the chemical blowing agent in an unblown product is very difficult as the polarity and reactivity (e. identification of the diagnostic cure system breakdown species is by reference to mass spectral libraries such as those produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA) (NIST). The mass spectra of the majority of species of interest are in these libraries and so. The GCMS instrument is the best choice for this and a library of typical breakdown fragments is required. nitrogen) which will create the cellular structure. (2) Physical Low boiling point organic compounds (e. styrenics.g. Even in the blown state. For laboratories that are carrying out quality control work.. 7. One problem associated with this task is that a number of peroxide curing agents breakdown to give more that one product and a number of these are common to more than one peroxide species. hydrogen bonding reactions and thermal instability) can cause problems during isolation from the compound and subsequent analysis. nitroso compounds. dichloromethane or pentane) which volatilise at the processing temperature to create a cellular structure.g. Wiley/NBS (a. In terms of reverse engineering.. Examples include azo compounds. Where it is suspected that a physical type blowing agent has been used to produce a foam. they will decompose in the injection port of a GC-MS instrument). triallyl cyanurate (TAC) or triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC)) used. these GC-MS techniques will also identify the type of co-agent (e.12) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/National Institute of Health (NIH).g.. This is demonstrated in Table 7.. the most widely used type are the physical blowing agents. This enable the expansion of the plastic to be well controlled.. and the approach that is used is to indirectly identify them by the determination of breakdown fragments.g.1-Dimethyl benzene methanol Acetophenone Tertiary butanol 1. this is unlikely to be required since the product will invariably be already blown. The reactivity of the chemical blowing agent type can make analysis difficult (e.6 Blowing Agents There are two main types of blowing agent used with polymer systems in general: (1) Chemical Chemical compounds (principally organic) that undergo chemical decomposition at the processing temperature to form a gaseous species (e. With plastics.Analysis of Plastics Table 7 Diagnostic species associated with different cure systems Peroxide curative Perkadox 14/40 Tert-butyl cumyl peroxide Diagnostic species Tertiary butanol 1. e. is it possible to use headspace GC-MS to identify it. successful attempts can be made. the Royal Society of Chemistry. It is usual to use this type of blowing agent in amorphous plastics that have glass transition temperatures around 100 °C. In addition to identifying the type of peroxide used.. providing the knowledge to reconstruct cure systems is available.1-Dimethylmethanol) benzene methanol) 1. sulfonyl hydrazide compounds and sodium bicarbonate. the high sensitivity of the technique enables an assignment to be made from the small amount of residual blowing agent that will be present.3 Di-(1.g.

The test is carried out by taking an accurately weighed sample and refluxing it in formic acid until the plastic is digested and only the rubber phase remains. A high level can convert a glassy brittle material into a ductile.this is performed on a pressed film and the relative size of the absorption bands due to styrene (700 cm) and butadiene (966 cm) are taken and compared to standards of known styrenebutadiene levels. (2) NMR . dried and weighed. but bromide types present problems for these techniques because of their relatively high molecular weights (> 900). was published in the late 1970s and this was followed ultimately by the more comprehensive Plastics Directive (90/128/EEC) in 1990. A good initial approach is a semi-quantitative elemental analysis by XRF. rubber impact modification of nylon) where the chemical properties of the two polymers are so dissimilar that solubility differences can be used to isolate and. The seventh amendment (2002/17/EC) has recently been 28 ..g.. The rubber is then washed. e. it is possible to quantify this reasonably well using TGA.8 Impact Modifiers The most commonly encountered impact modified plastic is high impact polystyrene (HIPS). under quantitative ashing conditions. or break down to produce volatile products. quantify the rubber modifier. acrylates and methacrylates are common and the normal approach is to use IR to detect the modifier and then NMR to quantify it. there has been a gradual harmonisation of European testing requirements through amendments to 90/128/EEC.g. The first European Directive (78/142/EEC). organophosphates) it may be possible to use an HPLC analysis of the extract to quantify the flame retardant. extractability. and during analysis by thermal techniques such as TGA. In the case of PVC. in this case. 8 Analysis of Plastics for Food Contact Use 7. particularly any process aid/plasticiser. but is also dependent on the size and For more than 30 years work has been going on involving food contact plastics and the effect that migrants from plastics products have on food. an accurate quantification can be obtained by carrying out an elemental analysis for the halogen (or other relevant element. which was on the vinyl chloride monomer content of food contact PVC. there are two main categories of flame retardant: organic and inorganic.7 Flame Retardants As with blowing agents. Since 1990.. (3) Classical wet chemistry . The amount and type of organic flame retardant present in a plastic compound can be determined in an analogous way to the plasticiser. If it is known that hydrated alumina is present in the sample. The extract value itself will rarely provide a meaningful quantification as other species. phosphorus) on the unextracted sample. Care must be taken over the quantification of inorganic flame retardants. Hydrated alumina loses close to 35% of its weight when it is heated to 550 °C in a TGA experiment. to see which types are present. There are some instances (e. tough product. and the size and distribution of domains is investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). since this type of flame retardant is usually similar in molecular weight and polarity and.g. In some instances (e.g. (1) IR analysis .the plastic is dissolved and the level of the two polymers determined by specific shift areas.. but there are a number of chemical tests that can be carried out to determine the level of modifier.Analysis of Plastics 7. Once the type of organic flame retardant has been determined by IR. GC based techniques can also be used in some cases. Actual impact performance is determined by physical tests such as the Charpy and Izod impact tests. The efficiency of the butadiene to improve impact resistance alone is not solely related to concentration.the butadiene level is determined in solution by reaction of a reagent with the double bonds. hence. since some of them (e. The level of butadiene can be varied according to the requirements of the end use. Other plastics which can contain rubber modifiers (or at least modifiers that have lower glass transition temperatures than the plastic phase) include PET and PVC. distribution within the matrix of the domains that contain it. The impact modification is achieved by incorporating discreet domains of a rubber (butadiene) within the polystyrene matrix. Accurate quantifications can then be obtained by precise elemental determinations. antimony trioxide) can react with the organic flame retardant present. will contribute to it as well. by making use of the water loss data.

Contact time less than 2 hours T<5 5 °C < T < 40 °C 40 °C < T < 70 °C 70 °C < T < 100 °C 100 °C < T < 121 °C T >121 °C 2 hours at 5 °C 2 hours at 40 °C 2 hours at 70 °C 1 hour at 100 °C 30 min at 121 °C In accordance with National Laws 24 hours at 5 °C 24 hours at 40 °C In accordance with National Laws 10 days at 5 °C 10 days at 40 °C Test conditions 29 .. the global migration figure for a particular plastics material is determined gravimetrically. the plastic is contacted with a food simulant but any analytical work in targeted on a specific additive and its concentration determined using an appropriate chromatographic technique.) As mentioned. Contact time > 24 hours T < 5 °C 5 °C < T < 40 °C 2. there are two types of analytical test that are carried out on food contact plastics: (1) Global migration tests .Again. Contact time between 2 hours and 24 hours T < 5 °C 5 °C < T < 40 °C T > 40 °C 3.In these. antioxidant) migration. One Table 8 Contact time and temperature for food contact testing (EC Directive 82/711/EC) Conditions of contact in actual use 1.g.g.Analysis of Plastics published and the initial requirements for testing overall and specific monomer migration have now grown to include additive (e. grades that are intended for food use have to meet certain residual monomer targets.Alcoholic beverages such as beers and lagers Distilled water 85%:Ethanol 15% . in the case of involatile food simulants such as olive oil.Spirits A solution of 3% w/v acetic acid in distilled water Acidic aqueous foods Olive oil* .Fatty foods (also isopropanol or hexane) (*Isopropanol and Hexane have been introduced as fatty food simulants to circumvent the analytical problems that can occur with olive oil due to its potential variability as a natural product and involatility. the plastic is put into contact with an appropriate food simulant under representative end use conditions and the total amount of material that has migrated into the simulant determined gravimetrically or. In general.1 Global Migration Tests The following food simulants are used for food contact plastics: Distilled water . (2) Specific migration tests . by gas chromatography. Direct analysis of these polymers is undertaken to determine the concentration of these monomers. ABS. e. In the case of certain plastics materials. 8.Aqueous food use Distilled water 95%:Ethanol 5% ..Wines Distilled water 60%:Ethanol 40% .

In a number of packaging types. Once the appropriate simulant has been chosen the contact time and temperature to use are given in EC Directive 82/711/EEC (Table 8). for plastics in contact with food for which a preservation temperature of less than 20 °C is required the test condition will be 10 days at 20 °C.0 mg/kg foodstuff 3.3 mg/kg foodstuff Cannot be used for fatty food use 30 . Specific single side migration cells have been developed (e. some examples are shown in Table 10. This limit can be expressed as 60 mg/kg of foodstuff in certain situations.5 mg/kg foodstuff 0. only one side of a plastic film or laminate may contact the food.02 mg/kg foodstuff 15 mg/kg foodstuff 15 mg/kg foodstuff 7.0 mg/kg foodstuff 0.01 mg/kg foodstuff 3.e.05 mg/kg foodstuff Table 10 SMLs for some plastic additives (90/128/EEC) Additive Adipate and phthalate esters Antimony trioxide BHT Hydrogenated hydrocarbons Conventional hydrocarbons Oleamide/stearamide SM L 1. 20 parts per billion) and this would not be obtainable on a routine basis without the benefits of modern instrumentation. the SML for acrylonitrile is set at not detectable above 0. 8. There are also SMLs for plastic additives.2 Specific migration and residual monomer tests In addition to the global migration limit 90/128/EEC also provides a number of specific migration limits (SMLs) for plastic monomers (Table 9).. by PIRA) to enable the migration from a material under these conditions to be investigated. For example. 90/128/EEC gives limits (called quantification limit-monomer (Qm)) relating to the plastic material itself. In the case of some monomers. The overall global migration limit for plastics is stated in the EC Directive 90/128/EEC as being 10 mg/dm2 (surface area of plastic). Over the years. In addition. The development of suitable methods for the detection of the wide range of monomers and additives used in Table 9 SMLs for plastic monomers (90/128/EEC) Monomer Vinyl acetate Acrylonitrile Caprolactam Formaldehyde Terephthalic acid Vinylidene chloride SM L 12 mg/kg foodstuff Not detectable above 0. vinylidene chloride has a QM of 5 mg/kg of plastic.. To be used for food contact a plastics product must meet this requirement.02 mg/kg (i.5 mg/kg foodstuff Not detectable above 0. For example. the detection of species migrating from food contact materials has advanced hand in hand with the gradual lowering of analytical detection limits brought about by the refinement of the techniques.Analysis of Plastics approach is to use conditioned glass crucibles and to dry off the simulant on a hot plate after the contact experiment has been performed under the appropriate conditions (time and temperature).g.

a nitrogen/ phosphorus detector (NPD)) or. These technological developments have resulted in a range of stabilisers being available that are appropriate for different grades of PVC. headspace methods are preferred for volatile monomers as such methods overcome a lot of the problems of sample matrix clean-up.g. for an equilibrium time of at least one hour.g.Analysis of Plastics food contact materials requires the application of state of the art analytical techniques. products and end uses. epoxidised oils and bisphenol A epoxide resins). The analyst has to bear in mind that it is common for a number of different stabilisers to be used in a PVC compound in order achieve the optimum ageing resistance.g. time. foodstuff or plastic material is heated in a sealed vial fitted with an inert septum (usually PTFE coated rubber). other chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are employed. In principle the food contact simulant. The quantity of analyte in the headspace will always be in equilibrium with the amount present in the sample. 9 Determination of Stabilisers in PVC Although it is one of the bulk thermoplastics. PVC suffers from relatively poor stability to ageing agencies such as heat and UV light.e.. LC-MS would also be applicable.. calcium and zinc) (c) Organo-tin compounds (e. In the cases where HPLC has been assigned.. palmitates. The headspace above the sample is then analysed for the presence of the analyte.. stearates. with the calibrant vials being analysed under the same conditions (i. lead stearate. lead carbonate. A summary of the analytical techniques used in food migration work is shown in Table 11. ricinoleates and octoates of cadmium.. barium. Normally. Standard addition methods are used to obtain calibration curves. GC or SFC AAS or ICP HPLC and capillary electrophoresis 31 . In order to achieve its status as an important plastic it was therefore necessary to develop a specific additive group: PVC stabilisers. The vial is heated to an accurate set temperature normally in the range 80-100 °C.g. a single ion monitoring approach. Table 11 Analytical techniques used in migration testing Analyte Vinyl chloride Styrene Terephthalic acid Ethylene glycol Acrylonitrile Butadiene Isocyanates Formaldehyde Organic acids Plasticisers Antioxidants Inorganics Polar organics Technique Headspace GC Headspace GC and HPLC HPLC Headspace GC Headspace GC with NPD Headspace GC with mass selective detector (MSD) Derivatisation HPLC Derivatisation colorimetry Ion pair HPLC or IC HPLC HPLC. dibutyltin di-isooctylthioglycollate) (d) Epoxide stabilisers (e.. To acquire sufficiently low detection limits it is sometimes necessary to use specific detectors (e. temperature and ratio of headspace to bulk material (polymer if necessary)) as the samples. For species that are too involatile for headspace based methods. Some of the main types are: (a) Lead stabilisers (e.g. in the case of mass selective detectors. lead phthalate) (b) Metallic soaps (e.

It is also possible by choosing the appropriate crystal (e. TLC of organo-tins using Kieselgel GF 254 with development using butanol/glacial acetic acid and detection with catechol violet and UV irradiation (a. The microscope also allows the thickness of each layer to be determined.. laminates are used since the application demands a number of properties which no single polymer exhibits.. One of the principle analytical techniques for the analysis of laminates is the infrared microscope. The approach is usually to prepare a section of the laminate by microtoming a section and then recording a spectrum of each layer aided by the masking off of the other layers.. • • • 32 . TLC of organo-tin thioacids and thiols using Kielselgel G plates with development with glacial acetic acid and detection with catechol violet (a. This instrument is capable of recording transmission infrared spectra from sample down to 10 square microns in size. In all these cases. titanium dioxide) can mask certain key elements (e.Analysis of Plastics It is obvious that a large number of these stabilisers contain metal atoms and so a cost effective way of achieving an initial evaluation of the type of stabiliser present is to use a semi-quantitative XRF technique on the sample in the as received state. NMR. e. Of the other types of organo-metallic stabilisers. cadmium and zinc salts of fatty acids.19).14). then AAS or ICP can be used to quantify the metal and. This could be another area of plastics analysis where LC-MS replaces the more traditional techniques.15).13). the outside layer has to be capable of being printed onto and the middle layer (or tie layer) has to be able to stick both of the other two together. paper chromatography for cadmium. Care should be taken with this as some inorganic pigments/fillers (e.g. zinc and barium stearates or laurates in PVC. especially if long chain acids form part of the compound or if the stabiliser is not pure.17) have described an alternating current polarographic method for the determination of cadmium.g.13). Titration of dialkyltin thiol compounds in benzene/ methanol extract with standard silver nitrate (in IPA medium) using sulfide coated wire electrode (a.g. The sectioning is often undertaken obliquely in order to maximise the apparent layer thickness. Mal’kova and co-workers (a. if it contains plasticiser. It is also possible to use an ATR technique to record infrared spectra of the outside layers and reserve the IR microscope for the central layers.16). 10 Analysis of Plastic Laminates and Fibres Plastic laminates are used extensively from the ordinary crisp packet to high specification products for medical and pharmaceutical use. column chromatography for barium. lead and zinc salts of fatty acids (a. IR and GC) to determine these types of stabiliser in PVC extracts have been described by Udris (a.g. the identification of the thioacid and of the alkyl groups attached directly to tin can prove more difficult. to the second. The application of a number of analytical methods (e. Taking the example of the crisp packet.g. lead and zinc salts (a. the result obtained. The organo-tin compounds are widely used and for analytical considerations it is convenient to divide them into those that contain sulfur and those that do not. Other techniques used on PVC extracts include.. mercaptoesters and mercapto carboxylates. However. This is possible because the ATR technique only penetrates a few microns into the surface of the layers. with knowledge of the compound formula. The identification of acids and alcohols present in tin stabilisers containing no sulfur and the identification of alcohols from stabilisers containing mercaptoesters presents little or no difficulty. dialkyltin carboxylates and their esters. the innermost layer must be inert to the product and provide a barrier to air. germanium. To the first group belong compounds like dialkyltin mercaptides.. If it is a case of quantifying a known stabiliser. The advent of bench top LC-MS instruments has enabled the analysis of stabilisers such as the organotin type to be re-examined and laboratories such as the Analysis Division at Rapra Technology Limited are investigating the capability of this technique in this area.18) and polarography for cadmium. cadmium). Some classic methods based on titration and TLC to determine organo-tin compounds in solvent extracts of PVC include: • Potentiometric titration of organo-tin in the extract with standard sodium methoxide in pyridine using antimony and calomel electrodes (a. The thioacid may also tend to decompose during hydrolysis procedures.

This can be useful if the layers are particularly thin. (c) polystyrene and (d) polyethylene terephthalate 33 . The use of a polarising microscope can also assist in characterising individual layers and is particularly useful when heating laminates under a microscope on a hot stage to recognize the characteristic melting temperature of the individual layers. Figure 14 Raman spectra of (a) polyethylene. As with the IR microscope. etc) to control the depth of penetration. the assignments can be refined by the use of DSC. It is also possible to use a Raman microscope to analyse the different layers that are present within a laminate. Raman microscopy and atomic force microscopy can be used to further characterise the product. further refinement of the assignment can be obtained by DSC (e.Analysis of Plastics zinc selenide. The most popular include polyamide. Other microscopic techniques. Using the knowledge gained by infrared spectroscopy of the generic polymer types present. and nylon 6 from nylon 6. Examination of the cross section of laminate samples under an optical microscope enables the individual layers to be viewed. it would be possible to differentiate between LLDPE.6. Phase contrast microscopes can aid the differentiation of layers of similar refractive index. (b) PVC. Due to the fact that laminates by their nature are often constructed of completely different plastic types.. The Raman spectra for four common polymer types are shown in Figure 14. There are a number of synthetic fibres that can be used to produce both woven and non-woven fabrics. such as optical (aspect ratio). SEM (surface morphology) and EDAX (elemental analysis). the complete structure can be analysed in one operation and the melting endotherm transitions obtained used to differentiate between various grades. Once again. polyester and acrylics and they can be used in products as varied as clothing and life rafts. the spectra obtained can be used for identification purposes. Once the generic type has been established. specific polyamide type) and.g. the infrared microscope is ideal at recording generic polymer identification spectra from individual fibres. For example in the case of a laminate which had been shown to be comprised of a polyethylene and a nylon. where a number of fibres are available GPC (molecular weight). it has the ability to isolate individual layers and. LDPE and HDPE. given a satisfactory database.

21)..2 Laser Induced Mass Analysis (LIMA) In the LIMA technique. For example.6. Three of the techniques.20. ester.g. Although small. 11. The ionised fragments in this volume are then separated and identified by means of a time of flight mass spectrometer.BE . LIMA is also referred to as laser microprobe mass spectroscopy (LAMMS). aldehyde) the oxygen is present in. general purpose techniques. Both negative and positive fragment data can be obtained. the surface of the sample is subjected to a pulsed UV laser which is sufficiently energetic to volatilise a small volume (about 1 μm cube) of material. fibres and defects in surface coatings. such charges are measurable and provide a means of studying the chemistry of the sample surface (a. if so. IR and Raman microscopy and Edax are covered in Sections 2.5 μm and the detection limit 10-100 ppm. The measured kinetic energy (KE) of an electron is given by : KE = hv .6 and 2. It can be argued that these techniques have come into being as the logical development of the original. The technique is very useful for determining compounds on the surface by means of these elements and molecule fragments.1 atom percent. the analysis depth 0. 11.. Because only electrons from the top few atomic layers will have sufficient energy to escape. Its sensitivity and surface specificity make it ideal in the detection of very low levels of contamination/ modification. Three of the principal ones will be mentioned in this section. the detection of a monolayer of silicone contamination of a plastic part that was hampering the wetting of a paint. The binding energy of a core level depends principally on the charge on the nucleus of the atom concerned and smaller changes are induced as a result of chemical bonding. It can also be used to analyse particulate impurities.1 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) In this case the surface of the sample is irradiated with soft X-rays. It is also possible to carry out quantitative work by measuring the relative intensities of the photoemission from each of the elements present.Analysis of Plastics 11 Surface Analysis of Plastics There are a number of analytical techniques that can be used to obtain data on the surface of plastics materials or products. the technique is very surface specific and results are normally obtained from between 5 and 10 nm depth at a detection limit of around 0.sigma where: hv = energy of the X-ray photon BE = Binding energy sigma = work function of the spectrometer The binding energy of a given core electron is characteristic of the element and it is this which enables the elements on the surface of a sample to be identified. 2. it can also be used to investigate surface contamination problems and to determine the composition of the fracture surfaces in adhesion failures. 34 . corona discharge) have been carried out satisfactorily. Another application is the analysis of polymers to determine if certain surface treatments (e.g. There are however a number of analytical instruments that have been developed with the specific intention of analysing surfaces..2. The analysis area is typically 3-10 mm2 and all the elements with the only exception of hydrogen can be detected. The photoelectrons generated are collected and passed to an electron energy analyser and detector.25-0. by handling without gloves) and that the representative control samples are available to assist in the interpretation of the data.g.2. The technique has the ability to detect all of the elements in a qualitative way. The analysis area in a LIMA experiment is typically 1-2 μm. a.1. In common with the other surface analysis techniques. acid. but it is very sensitive. Because of its ability to determine surface chemistry. These X-rays are sufficiently energetic to cause photoemission of electrons from the core levels of atoms present on the sample surface. what functional groups (e. and care must be taken to ensure that the surface is not contaminated (e. XPS can be particularly useful in the analysis of polymer surfaces to see if oxidation has taken place and. This ability of XPS to detect oxygen containing functional groups is shown in the narrow and broad scan spectra of PET presented in Figure 15.

Analysis of Plastics (a) (b) Figure 15 XPS spectra of PET (a) narrow spectrum (b) broad spectrum 35 .

the other is where the formulation is correct for the application. dedicated libraries are required to enable the mass spectra of the fragments to be identified (a. 12. any significant amount will reveal itself by a shift in the distribution towards the low molecular weight end. ions. Two types of SIMS experiment can be carried out: static SIMS and dynamic SIMS. that a plastic undergoes when it is reground. Most of the failures that are associated with the use of either some or too much regrind are related to a reduction in the strength properties of the plastic. leading to a product that does not meet the specification. One of the major reasons for this is an incorrect 36 . This depends greatly on the conditions (e. Analysis of the same surface by static SIMS enables the mass spectrum of the sputtered top layer fragments to be determined and the presence of m/e ions at 43. caesium.Analysis of Plastics 11. a bulk compositional analysis by TGA and a molecular weight determination. formulation of the product initially. Also. Another application of SIMS is in the study of the migration of additives (e. the surface chemistry can therefore be investigated. SIMS is very surface specific and it is possible to restrict it to a single monolayer.g. for example that the antioxidant or correct cure system has not been incorporated into the compound. then the appropriate species specific tests that have been discussed earlier can be carried out. The analysis area is typically 150 μm.. but the sputtered particles only come from the outer 2-3 atom layers. This odour is invariably due to oxygenated degradation products of the plastic and can be detected and analysed by headspace GC-MS. 5%) of reasonably high quality regrind can be hard to spot. silicate or silicone. Analysing the plastic component can be useful in failure diagnosis. In such cases. As usual with GPC. Dynamic SIMS uses high energy ions to obtain highly sensitive elemental data down to ppb levels.22). 12 Failure Diagnosis It is an unfortunate fact that plastic products fail in service. it is advisable to conduct the analysis alongside that of a sample known to be of the correct composition. but the structural information is lost.1 Common Compositional Problems If it is suspected that the composition of the product is not correct. In common with the other two techniques. In the former case. especially in packaging applications. the surface is bombarded with low energy ions and molecular and atomic fragments are produced without the experiment changing the nature of the surface appreciably.g. 73 and 147 confirm that a polydimethyl siloxane is present. It is often the case that complementary surface analysis techniques such as SIMS and XPS can be used together in order to successfully solve a failure or characterisation problem. heat and time of heating) that it is subjected to during the regrinding process. Molecular weight determination is very important in the case of plastics because of the wide use (sometimes unauthorised) of regrind material. The primary ions may penetrate several atom layers into the surface. A surprisingly large number of failure problems can be solved by carrying out a simple series of tests including a polymer identification check by IR. i. slip additives and antistats) onto the surface of plastics. and hence reduction in molecular weight and associated physical properties.e. In the case of static SIMS. These primary ions impart energy to the surface and.. the detection limit is 1 ppm and all the elements are detectable. the quality of regrind plastic can vary greatly due to the degradation. This ensures that no product specific matrix effects/interference reactions affect the data obtained and hence the conclusions reached. it could be silica.g. if a material already contains a proportion of reground material the onset of degradation can be accelerated by structural anomalies already present in the polymer.3 Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) In this technique the sample surface is bombarded by a primary ion beam (positive ions of argon. The widespread applicability of GPC to determine the molecular weight distribution of the majority of common plastics makes it the perfect technique to investigate if regrind is in a sample. but the chemical form that the silicon is in is not readily apparent. the availability of reference samples is important as the technique is mainly comparative. as a consequence of the collisions produced. but another reasonably common type of failure is odour. XPS would be used to generate quantitative information. which is a technological failing. oxygen or gallium). Although small amounts (e. but where there has been a problem in the mixing/processing side. atoms and molecular fragments (called sputtered particles) are ejected. whilst SIMS would provide qualitative clues with respect to the chemistry.. therefore.. If possible. An example of this is where XPS has successfully detected and quantified silicon on a surface which is not responding well to bonding with an adhesive. Unfortunately.

... less than 1% or at ppm levels) can sometimes be important. Once removed the microscopic techniques IR and Edax are excellent at obtaining assignment data in a cost effective way. An example of such a case is the stress cracking of ABS due to the migration of plasticiser from PVC. which is often complex. It is estimated that 15% of all plastic component failures are due to ESC.. discreet entities which makes their removal from the product relatively easy. then headspace GC-MS can be used to identify and quantify the species. because of contaminants. More often than not this contamination is in the form of solid.Analysis of Plastics 12. extruding or moulding). A particularly effective approach is dynamic headspace GC where any stress cracking fluid can be removed from the plastic matrix without the use of another solvent and long heating times enable it to be concentrated up to aid detection. manufacturing stage (e. more sophisticated techniques such as GC-MS. The high sensitivity of this technique normally makes the use of a control sample extremely important for a quick interpretation of the output. or during the The continuing drive to improve customer care and the high profile of health and safety issues. It is also possible to use a Raman microscope system for the analysis of contaminants in plastic materials (293). both aesthetically and physically. but it is often supplied by such agencies as adhesives.. 12. 1 mg).g. A review of the environmental stress cracking of plastics has been produced by Wright (315). a plasticiser). If identification problems are still occurring. a few micrometers in diameter) polymer gel inclusions within the same polymer matrix. If it is suspected that the contaminant is.e. There are a number of specific tests that automotive companies insist that plastics components manufactured 37 . cleaning agents and inks. Contamination can enter the product stream either in the ingredients used in the production. Because this type of failure is associated with relatively mobile (i.. LC-MS or HPLC) as the analysis technique. paints. for example if a product is to be used in the pharmaceutical industry. Where the liquid is relatively non-volatile and complex in composition (such as silicone oil which causes cracking of polyethylene) again a solvent extraction technique has to be performed with either infrared microscopy analysis of a cast micro-film or a liquid chromatography method (i. has led to pressure on the suppliers of plastics components to certain industries to minimise odours. A number of plastic products can suffer from solid inclusions. a metal. from their products. There are cases where stress cracking can occur due to the migration of a less volatile liquid (e. One situation where the technique is particularly useful is in the identification of very small (e. Where enough of the contaminant is obtainable (e. and volatiles in general. mixing. Where the contamination is in a liquid form.e.4 Odour and Emissions Problems 12. SIMS and LIMA can be employed. Often these gels have a higher degree of crystallinity and Raman spectroscopy with its high spatial resolution and ability to differentiate between difference degrees of crystallinity is the ideal technique to differentiate between these and contamination by a foreign material.. If the presence of an organic molecule is suspected. This is particular true of the automotive industry. low molecular weight) liquids which are normally present in small concentrations the technique of GC-MS is very well suitable to its investigation. Chemical resistance and electrical failure are less likely causes of failure as this type of contaminant is not usually present at a high enough concentration. The fluid is sometimes that for which the component was designed to contain or conduct.g. The source of stress is often that which is unavoidably processed in during moulding and so an applied stress is not a pre-requisite. a bulk composition by TGA can be obtained.g.2 Environmental Stress Cracking Environmental stress cracking (ESC) is the premature initiation of cracking and embrittlement of a plastic due to the simultaneous action of stress and strain and contact with specific fluids.g. a similar analytical regime can be used.e. An area of plastic that has not stress cracked can be used as a control. or contains. and this can be approached by the detection of phthalate in the ABS matrix by solvent extraction and then analysis of the extract using HPLC.3 Contamination Problems Plastic products can fail. then AAS can be employed. but it is probably most common in extruded products such as car door seals. Contamination of plastics products by a species at a low level (i. and if a mixture of chemicals is suspected.

33 s 13 Conclusion This review describes the analysis of plastics. plasticisers and other additives can be carried out. It is advisable to use the dynamic form of headspace sampling as this enables the volatiles from the sample to be concentrated. Limits are given as to the permissible concentrations. cure systems. Experiments which for years have had to be carried out by TLC because of the limitations of conventional HPLC instruments will now be carried out by LC-MS.25 mm. XPS and LIMA are becoming increasing routine and.. The instrument is also capable of being connected to a GC-MS via a heated interface for the chemical identification of specific features.25 μm film –30 °C to 50 °C at 5 °C/ min and then 20 °C/min to 320 °C.. The combination of these two instruments will enable the full spectrum of polarity and molecular weight to be covered and enable a quantum leap in capability to be achievable by all analytical laboratories. 0.. An example of such a test is the VW emissions test which involves placing the component in a cell of given dimensions and heating the cell for a given time and a specified temperature. for a relatively long period of time (e. This benefit is important as some chemical species can cause an odour problem at very low levels due to the specific sensitivity of the human nose.g. the Perkin Elmer ATD 400) is operated in a diffusion mode where the sample is heated at a relatively low temperature (e. For this type of work the dynamic headspace sampler (e. Rather than carry out a detailed analysis of the components liberated from the component. These devices enable fingerprints of satisfactory products to be recorded which are used as references for quality checks. which helps to ensure that additional volatile species are not generated due to degradation of the sample. In the thermal analysis field. 50 °C). cost effective for consultants to use in characterisation and failure diagnosis work and therefore an expansion of their use is guaranteed. The abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library and the additional reading references provided should greatly assist the analyst who requires more information on recent developments. This technique combines the topographical mapping capabilities of a scanning probe microscope with the ability to perform localised thermal analysis (DTA and TMA) on a micron scale. Modulating the temperature enables these techniques to deliver better. 32) of sensors based on organic conducting polymers. For the future.g. a number of developments have occurred in recent years.Analysis of Plastics by suppliers have to pass. more informative data on samples. the reduction in cost of LC-MS systems will increase their accessibility and. Work has been carried out to determine the additives which contribute the most to the overall odour of plastic products. The specific analysis techniques SIMS.. the result is expressed in terms of ppm of total organic compounds as determined by an organic vapour analyser (OVA). as a result. There are practical drawbacks to this approach. the analysis of plastic compounds and products will continue to present the polymer analyst with complex and difficult challenges.g.g. One of the most useful techniques is headspace GC-MS. 20 to 450 atomic mass units scanned every 0. plastic compounds and plastic products in as comprehensive a way as is possible within the format of a Rapra Review Report. For quality control purposes it is the case at present that human smell panels will be used in preference to instrumental analytical techniques which do not yet adequately mimic the human response. even with the development of new and more advanced techniques. GC column temperature (cryogenic cooling) MS conditions 38 . leading to a lot of research going into ‘electronic noses’ utilising a number (e. with modulated temperature forms of TGA. The odour species collected in the trap of the dynamic headspace sampler can then be analysed under the following conditions: Headspace trap injection temperature: 200 °C GC column type: SGE RTX5 MS 30 m x 0. in combination with GC-MS. Another development within the thermal analysis group is the micro-thermal analysis (micro-TA) instrument. DSC and TMA being brought out by manufacturers. in excess of 30 minutes). will greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy with which the analysis of antidegradants. It is clear that.

20 a.. J.3 a. 96. D. 1968. Wiley.17 a. 1960. J. Identification and Analysis of Plastics. Volume 2. 1999. 5. Perkin Elmer Corporation.O. 27. 272. D. 201. Analytical Chemistry.5 a. Ed. 1924. 1998. Butterworth. 234. Deutsche Farben Zeitschrift.G. L. 188.18 a.J. 1988. Carl Hanser Verlag. T. Wyatt. Wiley/NBS Registry of Mass Spectral Data.22 39 . 96. Udris. 1965.7 a. 6. 2nd Edition.8 a. G.6 a.L. Stauffer. a. Zhurnal Analiticheskoi Khimii. Zerlia. Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.14 a. 1979. Ed. 15. Sidwell.9 a. Plenum. Belpaire. Fawcett. Eden Prarie.A. A. Tittareli. Spectroscopy of Polymers. Practical Surface Analysis. Analyst.E. 1983.15 a. Ferrari.R Crompton. Willis and D. H. Koenig. Briggs and M. H. Groagova and M. 146. MN. Deutsche Farben Zeitschrift. Haslam.H. 1979 (update 1992-95).B. Simpson and B.. E. 130. 1971. T. Analyst. Plenum Press.N. P. E. 1. Derepletchikova. Lawson and J. Currell.C. 1993. Plastics and Rubber International. Wiley-VCH.13 a. Thinius. A.10 a. Vickerman. 6.4 a. T.M. Colli and G.R. 55. 1992. 515. Eds. 14. A. Zambonin. 1958. Analytica Chimica Acta. Polymer Spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry. 1989. 1971.S Conacher and B. Practical Polymer Analysis. John Wiley & Sons. 1972. Elsevier. 1983. A. A Library of Standard Static SIMS Spectra.. a. Squirrell. Manual of Plastics Analysis. 417. A. Brigg. Schroeder and K. Hummel. Atlas of Polymer and Plastics Analysis. D. Kalanin and E.C. Crompton. Sabbatini and P. 17. Lafferty and D. Brown and J. Wiley.12 F. 1993. Seah. Mal’kova.R. Revue Belge des Matieres Plastiques.2 a. J. 1984.A. Eds. 220.B. 423. F.21 a.Analysis of Plastics Additional References a. 8. 1972.11 a. Page. L. 1996.I. Schroeder and S. G. Malz. D. Journal of Chromatographic Science.16 a. John Wiley and Sons.19 a.D. 1989.. Muilenberg.M.P.1 Surface Characterisation of Advanced Polymers. P. Pribyl.

Analysis of Plastics 40 .

2 9.2 9.5 9.2 8.8 8.1 Solubility parameters of plasticisers Plasticiser Paraffinic oils Aromatic oils Dioctyl adipate Dioctyl sebacate Didecyl phthalate Di butyl sebacate Dioctyl phthalate Di 2-butoxyethyl phthalate Dibutyl phthalate Triphenyl phosphate Tritolyl phosphate Trixylyl phosphate Dibenzyl ether Dimethyl phthalate Solubility Parameter 7.0 8.3 8.3 9.8 9.5 41 .8 9.7 11.1 11.9 8.Analysis of Plastics Appendix 1 Solubility Parameters of Plastics.8-12.2 7.7 8.9 10.2 8.5-10.1 14. Plasticisers and Typical Solvents Solubility parameters of plastics Plastic Type PTFE PCTFE Polyethylene Polypropylene Poly t-butyl methacrylate Poly n-hexyl methacrylate Poly n-butyl methacrylate Poly butyl acrylate Poly ethyl methacrylate Polystyrene Poly methyl methacrylate PVC Bisphenol A polycarbonate Polyvinylidene chloride Ethyl cellulose Cellulose di-nitrate PET Acetal polymers Cellulose di-acetate Nylon 6.35 13.9 9.6 Polymethyl α-cyanoacrylate Polyacrylonitrile Solubility Parameter 6.0 10.6 8.0 8.3 10.7 8.5 9.0 9.0 8.4 9.55 10.6 14.5 8.8 9.7 8.

4 11.4 11.3 9.4 9.8 9.6 9.3 9.7 8.6 7.7 12.6 12.6 8.4 8.6 16.5 23.1 9.8 8.0 8.0 9.3 6.N-Dimethylformamide Acetic acid Ethanol Dimethylsulfoxide Formic acid Methanol Phenol Ethylene glycol Glycerol Water Solubility Parameter 6.2 8.5 14.9 13.1 9.5 14.6 11.8 8.9 9.9 10.0 10.7 9.0 10.9 12.Analysis of Plastics Solubility parameters of solvents Solvent Neo-pentane n-Hexane Diethyl ether Di-isopropyl ketone Cycohexane sec-Amyl acetate Carbon tetrachloride Piperidine Xylene Dimethyl ether Toluene 1.7 9.N-Diethyl formamide n-Butanol Cycohexanol Acetonitrile N.2 9.3 8.4 42 .N-Diethyl acetamide Acetone o-Dichlorobenzene Carbon disulfide N.1 12.2-Dichloropropane THF Ethyl acetate Benzene Chloroform Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) Trichloroethylene Tetrachloroethylene Trichloroethane Dichloromethane (DCM) Cyclohexanone Ethylene dichloride N.9 9.5 14.3 9.

37 1.07 1.01-1.41 2.Analysis of Plastics Appendix 2 Specific Gravities of Plastics and Compound Ingredients Specific gravities of polymers Polymer Low density polyethylene High density polyethylene Polypropylene Polyvinyl chloride PTFE PCTFE Polyvinylidene fluoride Polyvinylidene chloride Crystal polystyrene Medium impact polystyrene Very high impact polystyrene SAN Medium impact ABS High impact ABS MBS Polybutylene terephthalate Polyethylene terephthalate General purpose phenolic resin Melamine-phenolic resin Urea-formaldehyde Polysulfone Polycarbonate Polyphenylene oxide Acetal homopolymer Acetal copolymer Polyimide Nylon 4.06 1.6 Nylon 6.5-1.07-1.7 1.02 1.1 1.2 2.12 Nylon 11 Nylon 12 Specific Gravity 0.90 1.6 1.07 1.24 1.09 1.6 1.05 1.43 1.02 43 .18 1.06 1.96 0.42 1.6 Nylon 6 Nylon 6.10 Nylon 6.5 1.04 1.41 1.04-1.35 1.31 1.05 1.13 1.5-1.92 0.10 1.04 1.14 1.2 1.

12 2.50 2.07 1.08 2.95 0.90 0.85 2.10 5.91 0.10 1.55 1.19 9.90 1.99 2.21 2.60 1.05 1.40 1.04 4.05 2.80 3.1 1.5-5.04 4.80 0.65 5.80 0.30 2.20 2.60 2.90 4.30 3.Analysis of Plastics Specific gravities of plastic compounding ingredients Ingredient Aluminium silicate Antimony trioxide Bitumen Barium sulfate Calcium silicate Carbon black Carnauba wax Calcined china clay China clay (kaolin) Cotton fibre Diethylene glycol Graphite Iron oxide Lanolin Calcium oxide (lime) Litharge Magnesium oxide Magnesium carbonate Mica Mineral oil Oleic acid Paraffin oil Paraffin wax Rosin Silica Stearic acid Sulfur Talc (magnesium silicate) Titanium dioxide (anatase) Titanium dioxide (rutile) Calcium carbonate Zinc oxide Zinc stearate Specific Gravity 2.80 0.10 44 .

Analysis of Plastics Abbreviations and Acronyms AAS ABS amu APCI API ATR BS DCM DMTA DOP DSC Edax EI ELS EPA ESC ESI EVA FID FT FTIR GC GC-MS GPC HDPE HIPS HPLC ICP IR ISO KE LALLS LAMMS LC-MS LDPE LIMA LLDPE MALLS MBS atomic absorption spectroscopy acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene atomic mass units atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation atmospheric pressure ionisation attenuated total reflectance British standard dichloromethane dynamic mechanical thermal analysis dioctyl phthalate differential scanning calorimetry energy dispersive analysis electron ionisation evaporative light scattering Environmental Protection Agency (US) environmental stress cracking electrospray ionisation ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer flame ionisation detector Fourier transform Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy gas chromatography gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gel permeation chromatography high density polyethylene high impact polystyrene high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma infrared spectroscopy International Standards Organisation kinetic energy low angle laser light scattering laser microprobe mass spectroscopy liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy low density polyethylene laser induced mass analysis linear low density polyethylene multi-angle laser light scattering methylmethacrylate-butadiene-styrene 45 .

Analysis of Plastics MEK micro-TA Mn MSD Mw Mz NIH NIST NMR NPD OVA PE PET PMMA PP PTFE PVC Rf methyl ethyl ketone micro-thermal analysis number average molecular weight mass selective detector weight average molecular weight Z average molecular weight National Institute of Health (US) National Institute of Standards and Technology (US) nuclear magnetic resonance nitrogen/phosphorus detector organic vapour analyser polyethylene polyethylene terephthalate polymethylmethacrylate polypropylene polytetrafluoroethylene polyvinyl chloride Rf value is defined as ‘the distance from the start line on the plate to the analyte spot after development. divided by the distance from the start line to the solvent front’ and is reasonably constant for a given TLC plate type and developing solvent refractive index styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer scanning electron microscope supercritical-fluid chromatography secondary ion mass spectrometry specific migration limits triallyl cyanurate triallyl isocyanurate transmission electron microscopy glass transition temperature thermogravimetric analysis tetrahydrofuran thin layer chromatography melting temperature thermomechanical analysis ultraviolet vinyl acetate visible light X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy X-ray diffraction X-ray fluorescence RI SAN SEM SFC SIMS SML TAC TAIC TEM Tg TGA THF TLC Tm TMA UV VA Vis XPS XRD XRF 46 .

No.591-5 SPECTROSCOPIC BEHAVIOUR OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL FILMS WITH DIFFERENT MOLECULAR WEIGHTS Abd El-Kader K M. scanning electron microscopy and hot-stage microscopy.856733 Item 3 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 84. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.856878 Item 2 International Journal of Polymeric Materials 51. chemical structure shown) was added to the polymer at a concentration of 0. Optical absorption and transmission measurements were performed.4. The identification of molecular structures and assignments of energy bands were also studied using FTIR and NMR. 16 refs. Changes in the crystallisation behaviour of PETP at the different cure temperatures and the morphology of the PETP spherulites are discussed and melting data of the melt crystallised PETP at 215C are presented.315-23 EFFECTS OF CURING TEMPERATURE ON POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Al-Raheil I A Mu’tah. Sadoun T Bejaia. Djidjelli H. Yields of carbon dioxide and methane decreased with dose whereas those of phenol and 4-methylphenol increased. The photografting mechanism was thought to involve a quick photoreaction between the methylene double bond of the stabiliser and the polymer macroalkyl radicals. The photografting kinetics Accession no. PC under vacuum was gamma-irradiated using a 60Co source in the dose range from 0. 2002. p. Hebal G.%. No. This was followed by flash pyrolysis under an inert atmosphere observed by GC-FTIR-MS. Analysis of the products in this study helped to infer two main pathways for the radiationinduced scission of PC that involve carbonate bond rupture or aliphatic-aromatic bond rupture.0 MGy. Orabi A S Suez Canal.853710 Item 4 Polymer Bulletin 48. Benhamida A. 17 refs.4.Universidad Nacional Autonoma This work shows the application of quantitative pyrolysisgas chromatography coupled with infrared spectroscopy and electron impact mass spectrometry in the study of radiation-induced scission of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC). March 2002. 2000. MEXICO.3 wt. The HALS (PBH3. EUROPEAN UNION. 24 refs.853698 Item 5 Journal of Polymers and the Environment 8. including DSC. JORDAN were determined by spectroscopic measurement of the absorption band area of the stabiliser around 308 nm in the UV spectra and 1605 cm -1 in the FTIR spectra.References and Abstracts Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database Item 1 Polymer Testing 21. TGA. corresponding to benzylidene malonate and benzylidene malonic groups respectively.167-74 SENSITIVE ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY METHOD FOR DETECTION OF POLYIMIDE DEGRADATION BY © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 47 . The yields of benzene and toluene were unaffected by irradiation. Coll P.University The photografting kinetics of a hindered amine light stabiliser (HALS) containing a polymerisable double bond in low density polyethylene (LDPE) films was studied under natural weathering conditions. ALGERIA Accession no. Parallel measurements on the free PBH-3 content after chloroform extraction of the photostabiliser from the polymer matrix by UV and gas chromatography showed that in natural weathering grafting took place in the LDPE film after very short exposure times of 127 and 168 hours as indicated by UV and FTIR respectively. 30 refs. with consequent formation of polymer-bonded aminyl stabiliser derivatives. EGYPT Accession no. No. Pyrolysis of the irradiated PC gave different products depending on the dose. p.5. The curves for the photografting and the free HALS kinetics were similar. Correlations between refractive index and molecular weight were investigated.University Details are given of the preparation of PVAL films by a casting technique. FRANCE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Mexico. 2002. 23rd May 2002. p.University The effect of cure temperature over the range from 280 to 350C on PETP was investigated and changes in polymer structure analysed by various techniques.1524-32 KINETIC STUDY OF HINDERED AMINE LIGHT STABILIZER UNDER NATURAL WEATHERING CONDITIONS Kaci M.43-51 PYROLYSIS OF GAMMA-IRRADIATED BISPHENOL-A POLYCARBONATE Navarro-Gonzalez R. Oct. p.8.125 to 1. No. Aliev R CNRS. p. Boukerrou A.1.

Hong Kong.Agricultural University. Van Soom K.853552 Item 6 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. however. Paper 14. KOREA Accession no. April 2002.University.55-74 EVALUATING CURE OF A PMDI-WOOD BONDLINE USING SPECTROSCOPIC. p. A mixed culture of fungi isolated from degraded polyimides was used as the microbial inoculum and scanning electron microscopy was employed to examine fungi growing on the surface of the inoculated polyimides. 21cm. The effects of water content and anti-plate-out additives.. Honeywell.851649 Item 9 Journal of Adhesion 76. Both isothermal and dynamic methods were used to obtain kinetic parameters and a phenomenological rate equation for estimating the degree of imidisation as a function of time. Schiller M Loughborough.. No. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. UK. Nanjing. Mechanical strength.University of Aeronautics & Astronautics. May 2002.5. USA Accession no.Dept. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. No.1. p. 21cm. 2002. calorimetric and mechanical evaluation. 24 refs. Tests carried out on a PVC dry blend revealed that this analytical technique was capable of determining the degree of gelation of very small samples Accession no. IOM Communications Ltd. Gu J-D Shenyang. AUSTRIA. HONG KONG and permitted the determination of gelation at every point of the profile and weld without the need for calibration samples. 11 refs. p. Liu J. as revealed by lap shear tests. London.116-23. Rials T G Washington State. 2002. US. Low lap shear strengths and a plateau in conversion rates were detected for samples pressed at 110 and 120C.University An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method was evaluated for monitoring the microbial degradation of polyimides for electronic packaging.Forest Service The cure of polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate(pMDI)/wood bondline in a controlled saturated steam environment was monitored using micro-dielectric analysis(micro-DEA). Several components of the analysis suggested that low temperature cure could result in crystal formation. p. Chemson (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of a study of plate-out in PVC extrusion carried out using several analytical techniques. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.157-65. Zahn A Sueddeutsches Kunststoff-Zentrum (Institute of Materials) The degree of gelation of PVC window profiles and of weld beads was investigated using oscillating differential calorimetry (ODSC). 7 refs. 15 refs. did not develop until late in cure. No. UK.University Detailed kinetic studies of the thermal imidisation of polyisoimide by DSC are described. CHINA. 23rd-25th April 2002. Paper 9. including DSC. 012 PLATE-OUT IN PVC EXTRUSION Gilbert M. Interpretation of calorimetric and spectroscopic analysis revealed a high consumption of isocyanate early in cure. 30 refs.University. The degree of cure calculated from micro-DEA was a basis for further spectroscopic.2. Saturated steam environments were produced between 110 and 140C. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF GELATION BY ODSC ON PVC WINDOW PROFILES Klingenfuss H.852745 Item 8 Polymer International 51. on plate-out are discussed and mechanisms explaining the formation of plate-out are proposed. FTIR spectroscopy and laser ionisation mass spectrometry. CALORIMETRIC AND MECHANICAL METHODS Harper D P.References and Abstracts MICROORGANISMS Gu J-G. Cheng S-P.33-7 48 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.of Agriculture. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. SEM-EDX. London. The data from the microscopic analysis was utilised to further support the relationship between changes in the impedance spectra and microbial degradation of the polyimide. Son G I. EUROPEAN UNION. such as alumina and silica.852750 Item 7 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. GERMANY. leading to diffusion controlled cure. Wolcott M P. p. Kim J-H Sung Kyun Kwan. A special die and calibrator unit developed to investigate plate-out are illustrated and the reproducibility of the method evaluated.379-85 STUDIES OF CURE KINETICS OF POLYISOIMIDE BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY IN THE SOLID STATE Kim Y J. Beijing. 2001. 23rd-25th April 2002. Varshney N.University.851472 Item 10 Journal of Advanced Materials 34. BELGIUM.

the crystallisation temperature and the crystallinity values of the blends of different compositions.xiv. USA was measured from equilibrium melting point depression data. No. The effects of epoxy concentration in the blend on the cure kinetics was investigated using two blends with different molar ratios. X-ray microanalysis. CH3 and CO functional groups of PMMA.849739 Item 14 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 11. CH3 and CO functional groups of PC is made. 6 refs. p.Naval Air Warfare Center. and in situ FTIR was used to examine the Bauer mechanism.213-21 Portuguese NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYSTYRENE. HEAT OF REACTION AND VISCOSITY OF 8552 AND 977-3 HM EPOXY RESINS Ng S J.4. 21 refs.References and Abstracts DEGREE OF CURE. No. 33 refs. which was then compared with that of Hercules 3501-6. A comparison was also made of cure models developed based on neat and prepreg forms of the viscosity data. The Tg.University of Technology The objectives of this work are to investigate the cure behaviour and structure of bisphenol A dicyanate-novolac epoxy blends. To disclose the structural differences between cured cyanate-novolac epoxy blends and more traditional cyanate-diglycidyl ether systems. FTIR investigations were performed on the two kinds of blends. ISRAEL Accession no. 59 and 10 cm-1 for CH. Kawano Y Sao Paulo. and CH. prepared at different conditions were measured. and surface analysis by photoelectron spectroscopy. Fu W.849333 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 49 . BRAZIL Accession no.850061 Item 13 Chichester. and secondary ion mass spectrometry. and in situ FTIR.237-48 CURE BEHAVIOUR AND STRUCTURE OF DICYANATE-EPOXY NOVOLAC BLENDS Guo B.409. including polarised optical microscopy and interference microscopy. melting point. 50 refs. 911 MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERISATION OF MATERIALS Brandon D. including X-ray and electron diffraction. The tentative assignment of the overtone and combination frequencies is made using the curve fitting calculations and the local mode theory. Boswell R. respectively. electron energy loss spectroscopy. Kaplan W D Haifa. 1999. optical microscopy. Examples used in the book mainly involve highly ordered materials such as metals and inorganic crystalline materials. Oct.Technion Institute This unreferenced book describes the technical and theoretical aspects of a wide range of techniques for studying the microstructure of materials. A final chapter describes the derivation of quantitative structural data from the results of these techniques. p.University The heat of cure. Auger electron spectroscopy. pp. An anharmonicity correction of 57 and 58 cm-1 is obtained for CH2 and CH stretch modes of PS. transmission and scanning electron microscopy.850546 Item 12 Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics 203. Problems for the reader are included.653-62 MISCIBILITY AND CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOUR OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE/POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE BLENDS Rahman M H. 23cm.3. PMMA and polycarbonate (PC) are studied.2001. Claus S J. and 53. 2002. Qiu Q. The cure characteristics were investigated by gel time determination and dynamic DSC. Wang L South China.Instituto de Quimica The near-infrared (NIR) spectra of amorphous polymers PS. The polymer-polymer interaction parameter Accession no. John Wiley & Sons. Nandi A K Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science The miscibility of PETP and PVDF was studied./Dec. The techniques are described from sample preparation through information acquisition to interpretation of results. A tentative assignment of stretch overtone frequency of CH2 and CH functional groups of PS. INDIA Accession no. 59 and 9 cm-1 for CH3 and CO stretch modes of PMMA. degree of cure and viscosity of two epoxy resins (Hexcel 8552 and Cytec Fiberite 977-3 HM) were investigated using a modulated differential scanning calorimeter and a rheometric digital analyser.850900 Item 11 Polymers & Polymer Composites 10. Anharmonicity correction and mechanical frequency are determined from a Birge-Sponer plot. Arnold F. Jia D. CH3 and CO stretch modes of PC.4. CHINA Accession no. but many of the techniques used are applicable to polymers. POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE) AND POLYCARBONATE De Araujo S C. 15th March 2002. Maryland. Vizzini A US. No. Mathematical models were developed to correlate the rate of the degree of cure and the viscosity with the degree of cure and used to predict the kinetic behaviour of the epoxy resins. p.

SPAIN.C. THEIR RANDOM COPOLYMERS.of Polymer Chemistry. isopropyl acrylamide-methacrylic acid copolymers and their blends were investigated by DSC and TGA. Huang Y Y. 7th-11th April 2002. within the limits of detection. Washington. BarralesRienda J M CSIC The thermal properties of polyisopropyl acrylamide. p.Div. polymethacrylic acid.University. GERMANY. More degradation is observed in the valleys of the SRG. DENSITY. 56 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. GLASS TRANSITION.2667-75 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CROSS-LINKED POLYISOPROPYLACRYLAMIDE. Volume 42. 2002.187-91 RAMAN MICROSCOPY AND MAPPING AS A PROBE FOR PHOTODEGRADATION IN SURFACE RELIEF GRATINGS RECORDED ON LAYER-BY-LAYER FILMS OF CONGO RED/ POLYELECTROLYTE Constantino C J L.Massachusetts University Raman microscopy. USA Accession no. Bamford D. 2001. Li L. No. He J A. Tripathy S K Windsor.434-53 FREE VOLUME. No. Wu Y Missouri-Kansas City. p. and number density of holes and degree of branching. The state of the water was studied on the basis of DSC traces of swollen samples. Sandreczki T C.848921 50 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . Arnold M Bristol.849122 Item 16 Applied Spectroscopy 56. specific volume and degree of branching.. X-ray fluorescence and IR spectroscopy.University (ACS. 64 refs. THE CASE OF THE DISAPPEARING CONTAMINANT Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. D. 23 refs. Fall 2001.2. Number 2.40-4 THE MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 50. Mapping of the Raman signal over many periods of SRG shows that.13-4 POSITRON ANNIHILATION SPECTROSCOPY AS A NOVEL SURFACE PROBE OF POLYMERS Jean Y C. AND SEQUENTIAL INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS Diez-Pena E. Aroco R F.7. Photoinduced degradation is suggested by a decrease in the Raman bands assigned to CR with a concomitant increase in the background signal. Rodriguez-Gonzalez A. Mallon P. Quijada-Garrido I. which indicates that photodegradation of CR contributes at least partially to the SRG formation. Schade B. POLYMETHACRYLIC ACID. Kumar J.848572 Item 19 Polymer Preprints.. Stejny J. CANADA. Alam M A. Olveira O N. A report is presented on the diagnosis of the failure of a component made from a 33% glass-reinforced nylon 66 on the assembly line with the aid of DSC. 26th March 2002. ACS. Zhang J.University. Bornemann S.5. Lowell. The analytical procedures employed indicated that failure of the component could be attributed to the presence of chlorine probably arising from contamination of the process by PVC. The Tg of the same series of materials was also measured. EUROPEAN UNION.1. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Chicago. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Feb. They have no preferred orientation in the peaks and valleys of the SRG after the recording process is completed.of Polymer Chemistry) Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a special nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique for materials Accession no. ITA Institut fuer Innovative Technologien GmbH. Zucolotto Z. p. mapping and surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques are applied to investigate the degradation of Congo Red (CR) in a surface relief grating (SRG) recorded on electrostatically assembled layer-by-layer film of CR alternated with polydimethyl diallylammonium chloride (PDAC). p.References and Abstracts Item 15 Macromolecules 35. WESTERN EUROPE Item 17 Injection Molding 10. the chromophores appear to be oriented in much the same way throughout the film. No. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) indicates that the phenyl ring groups are located at the film surface.2002. In a line mapping across the SRG. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Chen H. Frutos P. thermal gravimetric analysis. p. Li Y. USA Accession no. Jan. the Raman intensity of CR bands follows the modulation of the grating.848744 Item 18 Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition 40. which correspond to the most illuminated areas.Div. Il. No. 1st March 2002. local free volume and Tg. UK. AND DEGREE OF BRANCHING IN METALLOCENEBASED PROPYLENE/ALPHA-OLEFIN COPOLYMERS: POSITRON LIFETIME. which was utilised to determine filler content and type. Huang C-M. AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRIC STUDIES Dlubek G. local free volume and degree of branching. Martin-Luther-Universitat Halle Results of the above studies are presented and are discussed with particular reference to Tg and degree of branching. Zhang R.

THE CASE OF SINGLE ELUENTS AND THE ROLE OF THETA CONDITIONS Macko T. SLOVAKIA. 2002.2-2 nm).38-40 ENHANCED DSC INSTRUMENTATION IMPROVES DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADHESIVES Cassel R B TA Instruments The use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the characterisation and development of adhesive products is discussed. The effect of variations in eluent nature on polymer retention is discussed. No. Camurati I. The thermal degradation of a thermoplastic polyimide polymer in nitrogen.847415 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 51 . The sub-nanometer defect S parameter is found to decrease with exposure time. Analysis time is also reduced. 27th July 2001. Doppler broadening of energy spectra. Applications of PAS to systems of polymers and fillers appear to be interesting to investigate in the near future. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Basell Spa Low-temperature crystallisation of ethylene-propylene copolymers was followed by DSC and solid-state NMR. helium.5. Mei-Rong Huang. No. No. another method of positron annihilation radiation.1. 2002. coupled with a slow positron beam. p421-8 THERMOGRAVIMETRY OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYIMIDE POWDERS UNDER FOUR DIFFERENT ATMOSPHERES Xin-Gui Li. In recent years. ITALY. and of pressure-sensitive adhesives is demonstrated. It’s use in curing analysis of a two-part epoxy. p. 2002. and to achieve greater sensitivity and accuracy. it is possible to measure specific-heat capacity directly in a single scan. Simionutti R. The unique repulsive force between the positron and the ion cores of materials makes the positron ideal for probing defects at the atomic and molecular levels. USA Accession no. with reference to the advantages it affords as a new and enhanced tool for improved design and characterisation of adhesives. which uses the positron (anti-electron). 41 refs. Berek D Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.References and Abstracts characterisation. 37 refs. USA Item 21 Macromolecules 35. Critical conditions were identified in some single eluents which are thermodynamically poor solvents for the polymers.University.5. Yu-Liang Yang Tongji. Fudan. PAS was developed as a useful tool to probe the microscopic properties of polymeric materials. Current results suggest that the slow positron technique is a sensitive tool for detecting degradation of polymers in a time much earlier than for any existing testing methods. polybutyl methacrylates and polystyrenes in various solvents were investigated with bare silica gel and silica C18 bonded phases.847031 Item 23 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 286. No. SLOVAK REPUBLIC. Recently. Sozzani P Milan.1797-804 LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS UNDER CRITICAL CONDITIONS.1677-84 LOW-TEMPERATURE CRYSTALLIZATION OF ETHYLENE-RAN-PROPYLENE COPOLYMERS. He Bai. Feb. 3 refs. 6 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The trans conformation fraction identifying the aggregates was detected for all temperatures independent of thermal history.University The high resolution thermogravimetry technique uses a variable heating rate response to changes in the weight loss rate to both reduce test times and improve definition. SWITZERLAND. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. especially for modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry. One of the great successes in this line of research is the direct determination of polymer free volume and hole properties at an atomic scale (0. Slovak Academy of Sciences PMMA. Positron-electron annihilation gamma-rays reveal useful information about the electronic and defect properties of materials under study. The development incorporates a new measurement principle with an additional sensor that together provide compensation for intrinsic instrument distortion of the DSC signal. It is particularly sensitive to the surface defect properties. With distortion virtually eliminated. The results of experiments on the photodegradation of polymer-based coatings induced by 313 nm UV irradiation as studied by slow positron annihilation spectroscopy are reported and correlated with gloss measurements. EUROPEAN UNION. Tianjin Customs Central Laboratory. has been developed to examine the defect profile near the surface. CONFORMATIONAL REARRANGEMENT OF SEQUENCES DURING THE FORMATION OF THE AGGREGATES Bracco S. The Q Series DSC with Advanced Tzero Technology from TA Instruments is described.7. Hunkeler D. 26th Feb. Comotti A.847946 Item 20 Adhesives & Sealants Industry 9. p. Most existing PAS studies emphasise the bulk of polymers in measuring positron annihilation lifetime.847047 Item 22 Macromolecules 35. 26th Feb.University. argon and air was analysed using both conventional and high resolution Accession no. p.

poly(ethylene isophthalate) and poly(diethylene glycol terephthalate). Shue Liu. p.References and Abstracts thermogravimetric analysis techniques.5 GPa. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Thermogravimetric analysis data for a number of polyimide polymers is tabulated. p. Jilin.846265 Item 26 Polymer 43.0-1. GERMANY. Gerlock J L Ford Research Laboratory The curing of four UV-curable clearcoats was studied by confocal Raman microscopy.12. 2002. IR spectroscopic analysis indicated that the residue consisted almost exclusively of interconnected aromatic rings.226-32 SIMPLE RAMAN TECHNIQUE TO MEASURE THE DEGREE OF CURE IN UV CURABLE COATINGS Nichols M E. 20 refs. 21 refs. CHINA Accession no.7-2. and their thermal stabilities were found to differ. From the chromatographic and spectroscopic data. Yucheng Luan. 17 refs. respectively. Hay J N Birmingham. Crosslinking occurred in the pressure range 1. CHINA state-of-the-art FTIR spectroscopy can be used. It was concluded that the thermal degradation results varied with both atmosphere and test technique with the high resolution technique providing more precise data in the inert atmosphere tests but less resolution in air. Esser E Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut The coupling of liquid chromatography with FTIR spectroscopy provides a new and interesting method for the detailed analysis of complex polymer systems. The thermal degradation of all the polyesters tested led to the formation of non-volatile residue. was studied using thermogravimetry and thermal analysisFTIR. Complete details of the test techniques are given with full discussion of the results. The application of this hyphenated technique to the analysis of polymer blends shows that it is possible to identify the different blend components by their spectral characteristics. EU. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. No. The disappearance of the C:C line near 1636/cm provided the signature for the curing of the samples. 52 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . p. WESTERN EUROPE. but quantification of the degree of cure by standard peak fitting and baseline subtraction methods did not work well because of sample fluorescence. Xingguan Guo. Seubert C M.846773 Item 24 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83. Wenfei Dong.2522-7 CRYSTALLIZATION AND CROSSLINKING OF POLYAMIDE-1010 UNDER ELEVATED PRESSURE Jun Yang. No. Dec. Kloninger C.1835-47 THERMAL DEGRADATION OF PET AND ANALOGOUS POLYESTERS MEASURED BY THERMAL ANALYSIS-FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Holland B J. contour diagrams are generated that present the molecular heterogeneity of the sample in the coordinates molar mass and chemical composition. For structure elucidation.2 GPa.846155 Item 27 Progress in Organic Coatings 43.University The thermal degradation of two commercial PET samples and two laboratory prepared polyesters. 2002.University This study looked at the structural changes to polyamide1010 (PA1010) when it was treated at 250 degC for 30 min at a pressure of 0. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. DSC and wide angle x-ray diffraction showed that PA1010 lost its crystallisation ability after treatment at pressures of 1.6. EUROPEAN UNION.1-2. Weber W H. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Institute of Applied Chemistry. A smoothed second-derivative processing approach overcame all of these difficulties and provided a simple.0 GPa or above 1.9-14 German ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL POLYMER BLENDS WITH COUPLING OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH FTIR SPECTROSCOPY Pasch H. Jingjiang Liu. Wenhui Su Changchun. it was found that diethylene glycol and isophthalate units promoted thermal degradation through increased chain flexibility and more favourable bond angles.2 GPa. all facilities of Accession no.2002. Crystals grew when the pressure was below 1.2 GPa. Rode K. The thermoplastic polyimide polymer evaluated was more thermally stable than many other polyimides.2001. Crystallised PA1010 had a greater thermal stability than crosslinked PA1010 at 400 degC. No. The commercial PET samples were copolymerised with diethylene glycol and isophthalic acid groups in different proportions. UK. Components of different chemical compositions are determined selectively and their chemical structure is analysed through well-resolved FTIR spectra. Xudong Zhao.p.846587 Item 25 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 55. 40 refs. Through a study of the thermal degradation of poly(diethylene glycol terephthalate) and poly(ethylene isophthalate).No.4.0-1. baseline shifts and overlapping peaks.

University Methods for competitive analysis. The compositional distribution was obtained by summation of the sections of the bivariate distribution which belonged to a narrow compositional range. Polialden Petroquimica SA Samples of bisphenol A polycarbonate were characterised by DSC. Cure gradients at the top of the clearcoat due to oxygen inhibition were also observed.844622 Item 32 Adhasion Kleben & Dichten 45. styrene and maleic anhydride were studied by fractionating the copolymer by size exclusion chromatography(SEC). however. USA Accession no. FTIR spectroscopy.wts. of degradation.THE ENGINEERS RESOURCE FOR TROUBLESHOOTING PRODUCT AND PROCESS PROBLEMS AND FOR COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS Ezrin M Connecticut. A model for SEC fractionation of copolymers was developed which allowed prediction of the composition and D(x) of the SEC fraction. and polydispersities were determined by SEC. 2002.Universidade Estadual. BASED ON SILICON TECHNOLOGY Narayan S. Procedures covered include FTIR spectroscopy. as received and purified. of the samples. NMR spectroscopy. analysis of failed products and analysis of polymeric formulations are discussed.. Lee R E. 9 refs. gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. No. Hallberg D. D(x) being the ratio between the number-average and the weight-average molar mass.Universidade Federal. Feb. vapour pressure osmometry (VPO) and viscometry. were determined by VPO in two different solvents. Malatesta V Great Lakes Chemical Corp.155-61 BISPHENOL A-BASED POLYCARBONATES: CHARACTERIZATION OF COMMERCIAL SAMPLES Delpech M C.References and Abstracts rapid and objective quantification procedure. 2002. Slight differences were.wts. with x being the fraction number.12. were observed. It was confirmed that the results obtained in the latter solvent were in better agreement with those obtained by the other techniques. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. observed in differential TGA curves. weight and composition of the copolymer fractions.77-9 NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR THE DETECTION OF A HINDERED AMINE LIGHT STABILIZER.40/55 PLASTICS ANALYSIS . p. 2001. Off-line SEC-MALDI measurements were performed in order to measure D(x) experimentally for the random copolymers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 25 refs.846119 Item 29 Polymer Testing 21. Coutinho F M B. collecting 30 to 40 fractions and then recording both the NMR and MALDI spectra of the fractions. p. trichloromethane and THF. TGA. size exclusion chromatography(SEC). 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. The samples exhibited the same FTIR spectrum profile and almost the same values of Tg and initial temp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2. plastics analysis. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Habibe M E S Rio de Janeiro. were obtained in trichloromethane at 25C. which could be due to the presence of additives. BRAZIL Accession no. in THF at 35C and in trichlorobenzene at 135C. Steep cure gradients through the thickness of the clearcoat. p. Relative molec. 31 refs. troubleshooting process and product problems.845139 Item 31 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 5. The most complete cure throughout the film thickness was obtained with a mixture of standard and red-shifted photoinitiators. butyl acrylate. due to screening of the bottom of the clearcoat by both the UVA and photoinitiator. The method consisted of extracting the stabiliser from the PP matrix followed by detection and quantification using proton NMR. Autumn 2001. p. No. Great Lakes Chemical Italia Details are given of the development of a novel method to detect the presence of a hindered amine light stabiliser in PP.wts. 3 refs. No. atomic force microscopy and techniques for analysing unidentified formulations. No.845967 Item 30 Plastics Engineering 58. WESTERN EUROPE average molec. based on silicon technology. Five different equations were used to calculate intrinsic viscosities and viscometric constant values. 47 refs. No.34-8 German © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 53 . surface analysis by spectroscopy. Viscometric average molec.2.5. The number- Accession no.2. Rio de Janeiro. Raman spectroscopy. bivariate distribution of chain sizes and composition maps were derived from knowledge of the molar mass.1587-97 FULL COPOLYMER CHARACTERIZATION BY SEC-NMR COMBINED WITH SEC-MALDI Montaudo M S CNR Random copolymers with units of methyl methacrylate. p.846135 Item 28 Polymer 43. USA. ITALY. In a successive step. ITALY.

SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY ELUTION BEHAVIOR OF BRANCHED POLYMERS Podzimek S. Gas-phase chromatography indicated no significant conversion to free monomers after hydrolysis. 31st Jan. and NMR tests showed that the cleavage selectivity occurred selectively at primary ester linkages.University. potential applications for this new non-destructive testing method. as with IR. The fibre must be removed from the slide and rinsed to clean off the mounting medium before preparing the fibre. SEC separation was compared with separation by thermal field flow fractionation. No..8 mu m. which were recovered and analysed.2002.5. As indicated by high performance size exclusion chromatography. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Item 34 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83. The samples do not need to be thinned or flattened. 2 refs. No.FBI Microscopical analysis by FT-IR spectroscopy has been the preferred method for obtaining additional information on the polymeric composition of a fibre.References and Abstracts NON-DESTRUCTIVE NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE CONTACT TECHNIQUE EXAMPLES AND POSSIBILITIES Hartwig A. It is illustrated that it is possible to scan through a glass coverslip and mounting medium to obtain polymeric identification of non-dyed fibres.1588-94 CHARACTERIZATION OF BRANCHED POLYMERS BY SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH MULTIANGLE LIGHT SCATTERING DETECTOR. Glass produces little response to Raman spectroscopy.Materialforschung. It allows unequivocal determination of the generic class and frequently permits sub-classification. EUROPEAN UNION. Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft. Freshly prepared simulated intestinal fluid solutions produced a high degree of hydrolysis. Johann C Wyatt Technology Corp. 3 refs.2-propylene adipate) (PPA) by digestive fluid liquids. 15th Aug. No. Thil L. USA Accession no. This article uses examples from the area of epoxy resins and thick-layer bondings to give an impression of typical.956-66 SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF POLYMERIC ADDITIVES FOR FOOD PACKAGING: HYDROLYSIS OF POLYMERIC PLASTICISERS BY DIGESTIVE FLUIDS Hamdani M. Reasons for this were explored and discussed. Vlcek T. EUROPEAN UNION.2001. p. Under simulated gastric and saliva conditions the degree of hydrolysis was less than 2%. I. GERMANY. BASF AG The safety of polymeric plasticisers capable of migrating into food was assessed by an in vitro study of the hydrolysis of poly(1. 14 refs. thus. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.7. the bulk plasticiser disappeared completely. Kleben & Dichten. Dec.University. because the photons are scattered from the surface and not transmitted through the sample. Gans G. Wyatt Technology Deutschland GmbH The elution behaviour of randomly branched PS and starbranched poly(benzyl methacrylate) with different levels of branching was studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a multiangle light scattering detector. the molar mass and root mean square radius of the eluting molecules increased with increasing elution volume.844288 Item 33 Applied Spectroscopy 55. After normal elution at small elution volumes. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Pardubice. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. This increases sample preparation time and the chance for sample loss.12. Proton NMR was used to evaluate the absolute molecular weight of the plasticisers and the hydrolysis products. CZECH REPUBLIC.. EUROPEAN UNION. it has been demonstrated that it is possible to differentiate between several generic and sub-generic classes of fibres. Silica gel fractionation of the hydrolysate gave six oligomeric fractions. Therefore. FRANCE. Bartick E G Washington G. Raman analysis of fibres can be conducted while the fibre remains mounted on a glass slide under coverslips. It has previously been shown that it is possible to scan fibres while they are taped onto a glass slide. the nuclear magnetic resonance contact technique was introduced as a new sort of method for non-destructive characterisation of polymers. Feigenbaum A E Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. The highly branched polymers showed abnormal SEC elution behaviour.2001. p.842695 54 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .1729-32 FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF SINGLE FIBRES BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Miller J V. By the same sample preparation method. p. 8 refs. FT-IR analysis cannot be conducted while the fibre is mounted due to the strong absorption of IR radiation by glass. and low molecular weight oligomers were produced within 4 hours. DECHEMA On page 25 of the November 2001 issue of Adhaesion. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. GERMANY. Raman will potentially permit measurement of microfibres used in some fabrics in the current market. The current literature contains limited reports and citations on the use of Raman microprobe spectroscopy for forensic analysis of fibres. USA. The theoretical beam width of the laser is 0.843701 Accession no. Wolter B Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Ang.842741 Item 35 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. US.

Films of polylactic acid. The solid products obtained. were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). p. The temperature. Biophy Research The wettability and the surface composition of biodegradable polymers used as drug delivery particles are determined and compared. 16 refs.117.2-3.538. Accession no.407-14 STUDY OF THE SURFACE POTENTIAL AND PHOTOVOLTAGE OF CONDUCTING POLYMERS USING ELECTRIC FORCE MICROSCOPY Barisci J N. Hongwei Xiang. polyglycolic acid and their copolymers with four different lactide.2001.842190 Accession no. and a methanol to PET weight ratio of 6-8. glycolide ratios of 85/15. pressure 9. consisting mainly of dimethyl terephthalate and small amounts of methyl-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate.Eotvos Lorand University. 28 refs. HEXCEL COMPOSITES EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. results suggesting a surface activity effect resulting in the orientation of the nonpolar segments of the copolymer chains towards the surface of the film and hence producing more hydrophobic character for the copolymer films than should be due to their bulk composition. Yongwang Li Chinese Academy of Sciences Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was subjected to methanolytic depolymerisation with supercritical methanol in a stirred stainless steel autoclave at temperatures of 523-543 deg.University. for use as the matrix in carbon fibre-reinforced composites for application in aircraft construction. and the liquid products. and the reaction time had a very marked effect on dimethyl terephthalate yield and the degree of PET depolymerisation. was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy. April 2001. 22nd Oct. pressure 8. Both the advancing and the receding water contact angles of the copolymers are higher than expected from the values obtained for the two homopolymers considering the increasing glycolide content of the copolymers. 65/35 and 50. but the effect of pressure was insignificant above the methanol critical point.C. preparation method and nature of the substrate on the surface potential (SP) of conducting polymer films is investigated. Results suggest the possibility of determining the local variations of the surface photovoltage and the photovoltaic properties of polymer films intended for use in photovoltaic devices. Yijun Lu.University The effect of the polymer composition. p.1. Spinks G M. Polythiophenes. Vargha-Butler E I Budapest. CHINA Accession no. 50 are formed by solvent-casting on polar (silicone wafer glass and silica) substrates. The depolymerisation of several PET wastes from the Chinese market was studied under the optimum conditions.841527 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 55 .0-11. potentially useful for solar energy conversion. weight ratio of methanol to PET. No. Both the average value and the distribution of SP across the polymer surface are influenced by these factors. Stella R. EUROPEAN UNION. and oligomers. mainly ethylene glycol and methanol were analysed by gas chromatography (GC).461-6 Spanish APPLICATION OF INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND THERMAL ANALYSIS IN MONITORING THE CURE OF THERMOSETTING RESINS USED IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY Sanchez-Blazquez A CASA The amine cure of Hexcel 8552 epoxy resin. Surface enrichment of the nonpolar (lactide) component in the outermost layer of the copolymer films is detected. dimers. No. 20 refs.842573 Item 37 Progress in Colloid & Polymer Science Vol. Surface analysis of the polyester films is performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at various take-off angles to get information on the depth distribution of the components. 75/25. p. This technique was validated by comparison of the results with those obtained by modulated DSC. WESTERN EUROPE Item 38 Synthetic Metals 124. No. p. 18 refs. Due T M. AUSTRALIA Accession no.185-91 STUDY ON METHANOLYTIC DEPOLYMERIZATION OF PET WITH SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL FOR CHEMICAL RECYCLING Yong Yang.5-14. Lam C N C. The optimum PET depolymerisation conditions were: temperature 533-543 K. 2001. SPAIN. Yuanyuan Xu.842093 Item 39 Polymer Degradation and Stability 75. Toronto. bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate. 2002. The wettability behaviour is in accordance with the surface composition.0 MPa.0 MPa. are used to examine the generation of lightinduced changes in SP. and a 3-8 methanol to PET weight ratio.167-71 SURFACE CHARACTERISATION OF POLYLACTIDE/POLYGLYCOLIDE COPOLYMERS Kiss E. Advancing and receding water contact angles are measured goniometrically and also by using the automated axisymmetric drop shape analysis method.References and Abstracts Item 36 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81. Wallace G G Wollongong.

p.Universidad Federal The weathering behaviour of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples obtained by bi-axial tension in the laboratory over a period of up to about 1100 hours was studied. hemp. Number 2. Verdu J Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers Physicochemical and mechanical characterisation methods were used to study the oxidation of 100 micron stabilised polypropylene films at 130 deg.43-50 ON THE USE OF THE ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE TO MONITOR PHYSICAL DEGRADATION OF POLYMERIC COATING SURFACES VanLandingham M R. No. March 2002. carbon black. as indicated by the essential work of fracture (EWF) method. ITALY. sisal and cotton are compared.123-9 INITIAL STEPS AND EMBRITTLEMENT IN THE THERMAL OXIDATION OF STABILISED POLYPROPYLENE FILMS Fayolle B. D. These structural modifications had an effect on the fracture properties. 38 refs. were tested. Bordini B.References and Abstracts Item 40 Polymer Degradation and Stability 75. jute and ramie). The ability to characterise fibres is of importance to textile conservators. Audouin L. in addition.1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1792-3 CHARACTERISATION OF PLANT FIBRES BY INFRA-RED SPECTROSCOPY Garside P. p. sisal and cotton are readily differentiated. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and FTIR. Souto-Maior R M Pernambuco. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the inherent polarisation effects of the equipment are exploited to record polarised IR spectra.g. EUROPEAN UNION.C in air. Conference proceedings. 2002. The results show that the EWF method is useful for characterising the degradation induced embrittlement of initially ductile polymers. e. titration. No.841521 Item 42 Biomaterials 23. Stabiliser consumption (UV spectrophotometry) and molecular weight decrease (steric exclusion chromatography) could be observed during the induction period.of Polymer Chemistry) The application of IR spectroscopy with respect to the characterisation of cellulosic (plant) fibres is demonstrated.Federal University. Dec. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli. but flax. 2 refs. Taddei P. The mechanical properties of films obtained from the samples having different types of UV stabilisers. Nguyen T. resulting in considerable deterioration in mechanical properties and a molecular weight decrease. and may influence the choice of treatment. Volume 41. The experimental data reported suggest that the problem of the spatial heterogeneity of the oxidation process requires further discussion. Tinti A. a triazine ultraviolet absorber (Tinivin 1577). 21 refs.923. 20th-24th Aug. Washington. The results showed that the unstabilised films were easily degraded.1. The fibres under examination are taken largely from the bast group (flax. The crystallinity of the cups was evaluated by micro-Raman spectroscopy as a function of the inner surface position. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. Wyeth P Southampton. p.6. Jute. Bologna. size exclusion chromatography. p. Martin J W US. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.841524 Item 41 Polymer Degradation and Stability 75. and the films were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy. when no carbonyl build-up could be detected by IR spectroscopy.840964 Item 43 Polymer Preprints. 2001. To complement the conventional use of these methods. p. or a TiO2/BaSO4 mixture. FT-IR microspectroscopy and ATR techniques are employed. 52 refs.. Byrd W E.No. No.National Inst. Peak ratio techniques are applied in the latter case. The triazine was the most effective stabiliser. Paraiba. hemp and ramie prove more difficult to distinguish.153-9 THE EFFECT OF ULTRAVIOLET STABILISERS ON THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Fechine G J M. BRAZIL EFFECTS OF THE STERILISATION METHOD ON THE WEAR OF UHMWPE ACETABULAR CUPS TESTED IN A HIP JOINT SIMULATOR Affatato S. as this information aids in the determination of the age and origin of the artefact from which they are taken.University (ACS.of Standards & Technology Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.C.2000.Universita Details are given of the effects of sterilisation methods on the wear and changes in physical properties of ultrahigh molecular weight PE acetabular cups. 2002.1439-46 56 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .Div. FRANCE. Rabello M S.840045 Item 44 Journal of Coatings Technology 73. Fagnano C. whereas the ultimate tensile elongation showed no significant changes. The partial least square calibration was used to correlate the Raman spectra with the crystallinity of the polymer measured by DSC. Toni A Bologna.

838755 Item 48 Polymer Degradation and Stability 74. The results confirmed the theories proposed from previous investigations using TGA. was raised and the alcoholcontaining alkylating agent gave a greater amount of crosslinking than did the dichloro compound. Barbas C.e. EUROPEAN UNION. and applications of these techniques in the molecular weight characterisation of polymers are discussed. p.345-52 Spanish ANALYSIS OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS Simo C. Devaux J. Carlier V Louvain. EUROPEAN UNION. Zapadinski B I. 2001. Activation energies were estimated for the reaction using the temperature dependence of the time constant. 40 refs.537. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. BELGIUM.University The combination of a difunctional alkylating agent.Institute of Technology. 2-ethylhexyldiphenylphosphate. No. No. i.839365 Item 45 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 40.References and Abstracts Changes in the surface properties of a model thermosetting acrylic melamine polymeric coating system similar to systems widely used as automotive clearcoats were followed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The data are correlated with those obtained for molecular mobility using a spin probe and the kinetics of radical accumulation during photocrosslinking are discussed along with the kinetics of termination of radicals. Wilkie C A Beijing. USA Accession no.321-6 XPS CHARACTERIZATION OF FRIEDELCRAFTS CROSS-LINKED POLYSTYRENE Jianqi Wang.Universite Catholique. Tikhonov A P Russia. p. Legras R.1514-22 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 57 . Hongyang Yao. SPAIN. 21 refs. USA RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY DETERMINATION OF THE THERMOPLASTIC CONTENT WITHIN EPOXY RESIN-COPOLYETHERSULFONE BLENDS van Overbeke E. 7th Nov. Results obtained with small or large Raman confocal holes were also compared. Cifuentes A Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales. McGrail P T. p. as observed by AFM. Nov. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Marquette.alpha’dichloroxylene. The applicability of the calibrations to blends containing chlorine-ended copolyethersulphone is discussed. and an amine for reaction with hydrogen chloride was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.839085 Item 47 Applied Spectroscopy 55.838285 Item 49 Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics 202.University.16. 2001. Micro Resist Technology GmbH The crosslinking kinetics of a thin polymeric layer on a prepolymer of a phthalic acid diallyl ester was studied by real-time dielectric spectroscopy. CHINA. 13 refs. Accession no. Fritz A. ICI Details are given of the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to determine the local thermoplastic content within an epoxy resin/copolyethersulphone blend. either hydroxymethylbenzyl chloride or alpha. 20 refs. p.Academy of Science. San PabloCEU. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 17 refs. The required calibration of the Raman data is presented.11. crosslinking of the polymer occurred as the temp.5.Universidad The principles of the various modes of capillary electrophoresis are examined. 2001. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology The results are reported of a study of the formation and decay of free radicals during the photocrosslinking of an oligocarbonate methacrylate filled with two types of silica differing in particle size or hydroxyapatite using ESR spectroscopy. Pfeiffer K Berlin.839176 Item 46 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81.3228-33 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CROSSLINKING KINETICS OF A THIN POLYMERIC LAYER BY REAL-TIME DIELECTRIC RELAXATION SPECTROSCOPY Schonhals A.767-81 STABILISATION OF FREE RADICALS IN FILLED OLIGOESTER ACRYLATES Kadossov E B. Jianxin Du. Carter J T. RUSSIA Accession no. March 2001. 40 refs. p. was developed and the relationship between the chemical and physical degradation of the coatings discussed. The change of the relaxation rate of the dynamic Tg with the reaction time was obtained from dielectric loss data. A mechanism for the formation of pits in the surface of the coatings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. different temperatures and various UV wavelengths and a full factorial experimental design was utilised. 2001. with PS or high-impact PS together with a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. No. The samples were exposed to a range of relative humidities. UK. Kasparov V V. No.2. Kovarski A L.

but surely becoming the detection system of choice for liquid chromatography analysis in many areas. it was concluded that the normal correlation between kinetics. UK. An overview is presented of column and mobile phase selection for LC-MS. molecular structure and molecular topology found with unimodal copolymers does not apply with bimodal copolymers as the crystal surface free energy was sensitive to topological changes resulting from architectural molecular changes. 2001. David L. 60 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. FRANCE. This article discusses the fundamentals of LC related to MS hyphenation.Research Institute for Chromatography.. Rouen.University Mass spectrometry is slowly. ion-exchange chromatography.20. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. SGE Europe Ltd. supercritical fluid chromatography.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2001. size exclusion chromatography. rising temperature elution fractionation and infrared spectroscopy. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Lynen F. 10 refs. Germain Y Institute Nationale des Sciences Appliquees. 25 refs.University.4- Accession no. Ding Y D Fudan. Li L. sol-gel material incorporating PEG or wax as a capillary column stationary phase is described. Schelfaut M Kortrijk. It was also demonstrated that the absorbed water in hydrophilic polymers develops differing hydrogen bonds in the first and second hydration layers. density columns. No. CHINA. Degoulet C.4-PHENYLENEOXY-1. Seguela R. Vigier G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.838158 Item 50 LCGC Europe 14. Chen S M.2001. WESTERN EUROPE Item 52 Polymer 42. BELGIUM. 2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.10. Zhou J Q. Day G. X-ray scattering. Nguyen Q T. Sept. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Oct.837996 Item 51 Polymer 42.837027 58 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . p. Relatively simple guidelines are advanced to successfully optimise LC-MS for several applications. Sharp G.9.564/9 INVESTIGATION OF A NOVEL SOL-GEL DERIVED STATIONARY PHASE FOR GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Cervini R. EUROPEAN UNION. Froud A SGE International Pty Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.8461-7 STATES OF WATER IN DIFFERENT HYDROPHILIC POLYMERS . Varying amounts of water were added to test samples and the samples conditioned to the sorption equilibrium state in sealed containers for 24 hours prior to evaluation. It was concluded that the potential influence of these intermolecular interactions should therefore be taken into account whenever a polymer is used with a solvent. affinity chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. 2001. p.University Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques were used to study the structure of water molecules in polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene grafted acrylate hydrophilic polymers.12. It was concluded that below a threshold water content.8/21 CONSIDERATIONS ON COLUMN SELECTION AND OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR LC-MS Sandra P.20.8425-34 PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE FOR PIPES IN RELATION TO MOLECULAR ARCHITECTURE. partitioning capability and robustness for a range of applications are presented. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. reversed-phase liquid chromatography. FRANCE. Crystallisation kinetics were studied in relation to molecular architecture using chromatography.. From the test results. BELGIUM. 25 refs. Suppl. Vanhoenacker G. PART I. Chromatograms demonstrating inertness. depending on the polymers physical and chemical structure. GERMANY. p. The effectiveness of using a novel. No.837023 Item 53 LCGC Europe 14. water molecules absorbed in hydrophilic polymer cannot form ice crystals in the polymer matrix. AUSTRALIA.1714-30 TEMPERATURE MODULATED DSC STUDIES OF MELTING AND RECRYSTALLIZATION IN POLY(OXY-1. Complete details of the experimental procedures and test results are given with extensive discussion of the background theory and results. EUROPEAN UNION. No. Dec. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. Atofina Five high density polyethylene bimodal copolymers with varying molecular architectures designed for pipe applications were tested to evaluate the relationships between structure properties contributing towards improved end use properties.DSC AND FTIR STUDIES Ping Z H. Above this threshold content. EUROPEAN UNION. the water crystallises but below zero. Ghent. normal-phase liquid chromatography. differential scanning calorimetry. MICROSTRUCTURE AND CRYSTALLISATION KINETICS Hubert L. No. Hibberd A. adapting LC to LC-MS methods.836916 Item 54 Polymer Engineering and Science 41.

UK. showing that recrystallisation continued through the final melting region. US. Sauer B B DuPont Central Research & Development The thermal and crystal morphological properties of amorphous and melt-crystallised PEEK were investigated. Warsaw.p.Universitat.1423-4 MAPPING CHEMICALLY HETEROGENEOUS POLYMER SYSTEM USING CHEMICAL MODIFICATION AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY Raghavan D.modulated DSC(TMDSC) over a broad range of annealing times and temps. Conference proceedings.2000.413-34 STRATEGIES IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF COMPLEX POLYMER SYSTEMS Berek D Slovak. Number 2. IUPAC MACRO 2000. Poland.4PHENYLENE)(PEEK) Kampert W G. Results are presented of a study of the crystal structure of three copolymers having different compositions. Gu X.2001.236-43 Spanish ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN FOOD PACKAGING Cerrada M L Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros The gas barrier properties of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers are examined as a function of ethylene and vinyl alcohol content. on polymer retention is suppressed. Recrystallisation contributions and the interpretation of TMDSC were partially confirmed by independent rapid heating rate m. Large scale methanol and water induced plasticisation was suggested by large solvent uptakes and confirmed by the observation of considerable decreases in Tg. while the high barrier properties of EVOH to hydrocarbons was maintained for fuel C containing ethanol. FUELS AND OXYGENATED FUELS IN AN ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMER USED AS A BARRIER COMPONENT TO GASES. p. Feb. No. determinations and variable heating rate DSC.Academy of Sciences The separation of complex polymer systems by twodimensional liquid chromatography is discussed.wts.835448 Item 58 Polymer Preprints. PEEK under all crystallisation conditions was found to exhibit secondary crystal melting in the low endotherm region. (World Polymer Congress. Methods are reviewed in which the effect of polymer molec. PEEK showed many similarities but generally had smaller levels of reorganisation above the annealing temp. were studied by temp. July 2000) SLOVAK REPUBLIC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Primary crystal melting broadly overlapped with melting of the recrystallised species and contributed to the broad highest endotherm. No.C. followed by melting of primary crystals superimposed with a large recrystallisation contribution. USA Item 56 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81. TOLUENE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The permeability of fuel C increased significantly when methanol was present.wt. p. bottles and other containers for food packaging is discussed. SLOVAKIA Accession no. Some arrangements for controlled sample re-introduction into the second dimension separation column are outlined. The resulting ‘one parameter separation systems’ can be on-line or off-line connected to another separation system such as size exclusion chromatography in order to provide more detailed characterisation of complex polymers. toluene. Powell A K Jaume I. 38th Macromolecular IUPAC Symposium. and their use in combination with other plastics in films. Washington. a 50/50 toluene/isooctane fuel (fuel C) and fuel C with 10% ethanol or 15% methanol through EVOH films. These could be used for increasing the concentration of sample(s) leaving the first dimension separation column.835449 Item 57 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81.2001. Two different molec. under most higher temp. AROMAS AND HYDROCARBONS Lagaron J M. TMDSC provided good resolution of recrystallisation and related events compared with standard DSC. Selected procedures for the re-concentration of diluted polymer solutions are also considered. 20th-24th Aug. 42 refs.National Inst. VanLandingham M. EUROPEAN UNION..wt. SPAIN.536. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Volume 41. crystallisation conditions.References and Abstracts PHENYLENECARBONYL-1.244-8 Spanish PERMEABILITY OF METHANOL. SPAIN.536. Feb. BP Chemicals Ltd. 11 refs.836355 Item 55 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.174. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. The higher molec. p.Howard University.836231 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 59 . The lower molec. 48 refs.wt.2001. Aug. p. Measurements were made of the permeation rates of methanol. D.of Standards & Technology Accession no. 9 refs. The broad and substantial exothermic recrystallisation in amorphous samples was also examined. Nguyen T Washington.

The chromatograms were obtained using the root mean square absorbance in the 3000-2700 cm power -1 spectral range (with FTIR serving as a concentration detector).7. In the simplest AFM modes of operation (contact and ‘tapping’).1677-90 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE) FILM AND IMPROVEMENT OF ADHESION BETWEEN EVAPORATED COPPER METAL FILM AND LDPE Ju-Shik Kong. Hsieh E T Chevron Phillips Chemical Co. mapping chemical heterogeneity in a polymer system by chemical force microscopy pose difficulties because of chain length variation and irregular packing of chains at the probe surface. Baker A A. Extensive research has been conducted to provide in-depth microstructural information of thin polymer films using analytical techniques such as small-angle X-ray scattering. Ethylene-1-olefin copolymers are used to demonstrate an SEC-FTIR method for the analysis of short chain branching distribution (SCBD) across the molecular weight distribution (MWD). EUROPEAN UNION.2001. in some cases. neutron scattering and secondary ion-mass spec trometry. With the advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM).References and Abstracts (ACS. Hobbs J K. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Blakely S T.C.Div. This technique is known as chemical force microscopy.e. A combination of tapping mode and force mode AFM techniques has been effective in mapping mechanically heterogeneous regions in multi-component polymer systems. D. McMaster T J. revealed unpredicted surface structures.of Polymer Chemistry) Interactions between a film and its external environment are strongly influenced by the surface chemistry and morphology of the film. UK. it is possible to provide direct spatial mapping of surface topography and surface heterogeneity at nanometer resolution. At higher resolution. Conference proceedings. such images have generally confirmed morphology Accession no. The spectra from individual time sections of the chromatogram were then analysed for comonomer branch levels using a chemometric method. Han-Do Kim Pusan. USA and crystalline structures deduced from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or X-ray studies. The most appropriate and widely-used of these microscopies in the study of polymer systems is atomic force microscopy (AFM). 9 refs. Aissaoui M-N Bristol.University (ACS. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.835289 Item 60 Polymer 43. Recent developments in chemically functionalised AFM tips have allowed mapping of chemically heterogeneous lithographically patterned surfaces by AFM at the molecular scale. p.835164 Item 61 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82. Dong-Jin Lee. and the error in the reported SCB content of each section was estimated. At the lamellar crystal level.National University The effects of chromic acid treatment for periods of time between 1 and 60 minutes and oxygen plasma treatment 60 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .1409-10 OVERVIEW OF STATE-OF-THE-ART SPM OF CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS Miles M J. However. Rohlfing D C. Washington. Volume 41.of Polymer Chemistry) Scanning probe microscopy is a family of a dozen or more microscopies essentially based on the concept and technology of the founding member. USA Accession no.Div. No.e. 20 refs. less than 10 SCB/total carbons and mixed branch types. these techniques lack the lateral resolution to detect and map the heterogeneity in polymer films. However. 2002. The objective is to chemically degrade one component of a model blend and then identify the degraded component by AFM. By using the appropriate training sets. p. Number 2. scanning tunnelling microscopy. p..1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. 20th-24th Aug. 14th Nov.2000.835296 Item 59 Polymer Preprints. AFM has. the resolution of the AFM can go beyond that easily achievable with TEM imaging of polymers. 26 refs. topographic images representing the surface of the polymer specimen can be obtained. No. However.1 mol percentage) in samples having relatively low SCB levels.159-70 QUANTIFYING SHORT CHAIN BRANCHING MICROSTRUCTURES IN ETHYLENE 1-OLEFIN COPOLYMERS USING SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (SEC-FTIR) Deslauriers P J. chemometric models for giving SCB versus chemometric models were constructed for obtaining SCB versus MWD profiles of enough accuracy for detecting trends resulting from catalysis and process changes in lowand high-density polyethylene samples. which in many of its modes of operation is suitable for imaging relatively soft solids such as polymers and biological materials. i. A model blend consisting of polyethylene acrylate (PEA) and PS is selected due to the difference in the hydrolysis characteristics of PEA and PS. James P J. about 0. The model was used for accurate quantification of branching levels in polyolefins within plus or minus 0. Acid is selected as the aggressive chemical medium so as to accelerate the hydrolysis of one component in the model blend film.5/1000 total carbons (i.

Marosi G. Arroyo E Nuevo Leon. All blends were completely miscible. scanning electron microscopy. scanning electron microscopy and water contact angle. p. No. 7th Nov. and iron aluminide based coating deposited by high energy density processes.3.10. differential scanning calorimetry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. characterisation of industrial coatings with atomic force microscopy.Universidade Federal Virgin and recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was blended with polyether-imide (PEI) in proportions between 0 and 50 percent PEI content and samples were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.467-70 CORRELATION BETWEEN THERMAL PROPERTIES AND CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES IN POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/POLY(ETHER IMIDE) BLENDS Ruvolo-Filho A.1382-90 PROPERTIES AND MORPHOLOGY OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) AND HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE BLEND Guerrero C. Blackening of a film sample occurred after 30 minutes treatment in chromic acid. MEXICO Accession no.References and Abstracts for periods of time between 30 and 90 seconds on the surface of low density polyethylene films were examined by attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. and subsequent UV Accession no. 2001. characterising aluminium pretreatments for structural adhesive bonding. the olefinic segment of which is compatible with HDPE. Bertalan G.831829 Item 65 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73.Universidad Autonoma Blends of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). 2001.University of Technology & Economics Examination of the ageing characteristics of high density polyethylene films containing phthalocyanine green and titanium white and other pigments with those of lightly stabilised polymer film without pigments was carried out using tensile analysis. were studied with and without a compatibiliser. Ravadits I. Crystallisation rates of PET were retarded strongly at 20 percent PEI content and above. electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA).66-7 SURFACE ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES Sudarshan T S Materials Modification Inc. BRAZIL Accession no. differential scanning calorimetry. p. but degree of crystallinity was easily determined from a linear correlation between a structural parameter measured spectroscopically and enthalpy of fusion. Adhesion of copper film initially increased with increasing treatment times. Adhesion of copper film to the treated surface was evaluated by a scratch test. The 15th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies will be held in November in Indianapolis. p. Lozano T. No. Infrared spectroscopy.2001. Gonzalez V. Oct. widely used in the soft © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 61 . Maatoug M A Budapest. The compatibilising agent was a surlyn copolymer of ethylene and methacrylic acid partially neutralized with zinc. No.832040 Item 64 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. but optimum adhesion properties consistent with tensile strength retention were established with 30 minutes chromic acid treatment followed by 30 seconds oxygen plasma treatment.834668 Item 63 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82. and the mechanical properties were used to assess the effectiveness of the compatibiliser. de Fatima Barros A Sao Carlos.2001. 29 refs. Papers include: structure and properties of HVOF sprayed amorphous polymer matrix nanocomposite coatings. as indicated by a single glass transition temperature which is dependent on blend composition. The effect of chromic acid treatment on the tensile strength of the samples was evaluated and tensile strength reduced with increasing treatment time.3. No. field experience with advanced soft-metal surfaces on carbon steel bolting materials used in gall-prone gasketed joints that operate at elevated temperatures. The early failure of the phthalocyanine pigmented sample.6. Trans conformer activation energy measurement confirmed the effects of PEI content on crystallisation of PET.834851 Item 62 Advanced Materials & Processes 159. whereas the carboxylic acid groups form hydrogen bonds with the PET carbonyl groups. This article presents a few paper abstracts and lists the titles of the sessions. resulting in lowered water contact angle.463-6 EFFECT OF INTERFACE MODIFICATION ON THE PHOTO-STABILITY OF PIGMENTED POLYETHYLENE FILMS Anna P. p. 14 refs. It was found that both surface roughness and number of polar groups on the surface increased with increasing treatment times of both chromic acid and oxygen plasma. the Air Force manufacturing technology laser peening initiative. USA Accession no. 9 refs. KOREA drinks industry.

p.831828 Item 66 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. Proceedings of a conference held June 2001.830358 62 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .46-58. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. giving a structure which is more resistant to photooxidation. Under curing conditions normally utilised for coil coating (280 degrees Centigrade for 1 minute in air). AUSTRALIA Accession no. 24 refs.University (Institute of Materials. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The unreacted HAS was found to slowly evaporate from the test film. 01.984-91 RAMAN AND INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPIC MAPPING OF PLASMA-TREATED AND GRAFTED POLYMER SURFACES Keen I. Sept. EUROPEAN UNION. Novelli S. 2001. 012 AT-PROCESS RAMAN SPECTROMETRY OF POLYMER MELTS Dhamdhere M. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 10 refs.9. Byproducts of the high temperature cure process. gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. No. SPAIN. No. April 2001. UK. Bardet M Grenoble.University Details are given of the effects of strong ionising radiations on the physico-chemical modifications of epoxy resins. ITALY.8. USA. but whilst present acted as a radical scavenger. Li J. 8 refs. The maps constructed indicated variations in crystallinity across the surface. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Deshpande B. Laurenti E. and reduce the amount of unreacted isocyanate.Universita. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Camino G..831329 Item 68 Polymers for Advanced Technologies 12.830453 Item 70 POLYMER PROCESSING ENGINEERING. 2001. Centro Ricerche Ausimont The mechanism of operation of hindered amine stabilisers (HAS) against photodegradation in perfluoro polyethers incorporated into a coating material of polyurethane has been studied by infrared spectroscopy. EASTERN EUROPE. Hierarchical Cluster analysis was employed as a pattern recognition technique to follow the natural clustering tendencies of the EVA samples. The sensitivity of the epoxy resins to radiation was determined using carbon 13 NMR.University of Technology A section of the surface of a predominantly PP substrate containing a small amount of PE copolymer and a small amount of blended EPM was characterised before and after plasma treatment and after graft copolymerisation with PS by means of Raman and ATR/IR mapping.101.References and Abstracts spectroscopic examination showed that the cause was adsorption of stabilisers onto the pigment surface. 2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.515-23 Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Rintoul L. p. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. caused by partial transformation of the HAS into -NH derivatives act as antioxidants. Hansen M G Tennessee. Fredericks P M Queensland. p. the distribution of EPM and the distribution of hydroxy groups introduced onto the surface by plasma treatment. London. the HAS was found to increase the number of urea bridges in the polyurethane network. No. 20 refs. 2001. Temtchenko T.831124 Item 69 Applied Spectroscopy 55.77-9 Spanish INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY: THE COLOURS OF HEAT ASCAMM The use of IR thermography in the study of injection moulds and injection moulded plastics parts is discussed. Vinyl acetate content in the random copolymer and melt indices of various grades of the EVA were determined and vinyl acetate content in the samples correlated using linear least squares and PLS analysis. p. Aug. 9 refs. Turri S Torino. FRANCE. HUNGARY HIGH RESOLUTION SOLID-STATE CARBON 13 NMR STUDY OF AS-CURED AND IRRADIATED EPOXY RESINS Ngono-Ravache Y. p. Foray M-F. Interdisciplinary Research Centre) In-line monitoring of EVA extrusion was carried out using in-line fibre optic Raman spectroscopy. Paper 5. and details are given of research and development projects being undertaken by ASCAMM of Spain using this technique. Patil P.387-92 MECHANISM OF PHOTOSTABILIZATION OF PERFLUOROPOLYETHER COATINGS BY HINDERED AMINE STABILISERS Luda M P.831816 Item 67 Plast’ 21 No.3. Reactive surfactant coating of pigments was shown to considerably extend the film stability by reducing their adsorbency.

WESTERN EUROPE FORMALDEHYDE NOVOLAC RESINS Markovic S. As annealing time increased in PET2 the increment of heat capacity (IHC) at annealing temperature increased and the IHC at the glass transition temperature decreased.2779-85 RIGID AMORPHOUS PHASE AND LOW TEMPERATURE MELTING ENDOTHERM OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) STUDIED BY MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Song M Loughborough. Gunderson J.2001. p. Applications for each method are discussed. 22nd August 2001. No. ITALY. Dallas.11. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 6th-10th May.Conference proceedings. and the more volatile materials being withdrawn by the side arm and trapped in a set of three impingers containing an appropriate chilled trapping solution. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Dunjic B. 54 refs. in which the extruder is part of the analytical instrumentation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Djonlagic J Belgrade.University Three similar samples of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) prepared by isothermal cold crystallisation in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) cell (PET1).7. It was deduced that the low temperature melting endotherm originated with transitions in the rigid amorphous fraction. The influences of the structure. thermal desorption and solid phase microextraction. 20 refs. 6th Sept.University The present ‘state of the art’ in direct solid sampling methods for gas chromatographic analysis of additives encapsulated in polymers is reviewed. and the influence of additives on volatile loss from a glassfilled polymer.2001. melt crystallisation at a steady cooling rate and annealing for various times in the DSC cell (PET2). USA Accession no. p. A thirdorder phenomenological equation described the curing reaction. The evolution of various rheological parameters was recorded for samples of the resins on cloth.829458 Item 74 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. p. (SPE) A method of collecting and analysing the volatiles created during extrusion is described.829381 Item 75 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. the less volatile materials condensing in the tube.1902-13 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF THE CURING OF PHENOL- © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 63 . YUGOSLAVIA Accession no. No.10. Texas.References and Abstracts Item 71 Polymer Testing 20.8. Zlatanic A.830211 Item 72 Antec 2001. which in turn carried a glass tube with a bulb near the die exit to allow for polymer swell. Techniques considered are static and dynamic headspace methods. The polymer extruded into the glass tube. paper 620 DETERMINATION OF CONDENSABLE VOLATILES DURING POLYMER PROCESSING USING AN ANALYTICAL EXTRUDER Buzanowski W C. No. 2001.Institute of Technology Thermogravimetric analysis with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used in the analysis of the thermal Accession no. EASTERN EUROPE. 23 refs. composition and physical treatment on the curing kinetics were evaluated. the influence of melt temperature on volatile loss from a polycarbonate/styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer blend.2 mm single strand die.729-40 DIRECT SOLID SAMPLING METHODS FOR GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF POLYMER/ADDITIVE FORMULATIONS Bart J C J Messina. A non-vented 19 mm (3/ 4 in) single screw extruder was fitted with a right angle 3. The trapping solutions were analysed directly. and a side arm for attachment of the sampling system. and quenching from 300 degrees centigrade to -20 degrees over a period of 5 minutes (PET3) were used to study the glass transition effects in the rigid amorphous phase and the low temperature melting endotherm using modulated DSC.2387-98 COMPARISON OF THERMAL DEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF POLY(ARYLENE SULFONE)S USING THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS/MASS SPECTROMETRY Li-Hsiang Perng Ta Hwa. Froelicher S Dow Chemical Co. 12th Sept. The equipment was used to determine the influence of extrusion time on volatile emissions from polycarbonate. No. 2001. UK. and it was noted that the glasslike transition of this fraction occurred between glass transition and melting temperatures.University Using dynamic mechanical analysis the curing reactions of typical phenol-formaldehyde novolac resins were followed. p.830052 Item 73 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. The volatiles from the glass tube were removed by rinsing and analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. EUROPEAN UNION. 6 refs.

and plots were drawn of the degradation temperatures in nitrogen and air atmospheres versus the weight changes of terephthalic acid and monovinyl terephthalate evolved from PET. odour recognition. Chang F C Taiwan. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 64 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .15.824868 Item 80 UTECH 2000.National Chiao Tung University Blends of polyvinyl phenol with polyvinyl pyrrolidone were prepared by solution casting from DMF solutions. More pyrolysis products were identified from the PSF than from the PES.C in nitrogen and air atmospheres were studied. The Tg of the blend was determined. solubility. 28th-30th March 2000. No. ROEGES N P G.. GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. 17th July 2001. common thermosets. No. 174. Accession no.826911 Item 77 Macromolecules 34. UK.2001. London.825682 Item 78 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 64. Merzlyakov M. the melting of small crystals between the lamellae was expected to yield the lowest endotherm. Vitrification and devitrification of the rigid amorphous fraction(RAF) could be directly observed. TAIWAN CHINA Accession no. The RAF of PC was established during isothermal crystallisation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. FTIR. 28 refs. EASTERN EUROPE.01 Hz appeared to be a reasonably high frequency for PC. DSC. (15 Refs) BELGIUM. a few copolymers and elastomers. DE MOOR MO KaHo Sint-Lieven This book presents an identification scheme developed over the last thirty years for thermoplastics. The effects of the atmosphere and temperature on smoke emission and composition during PET thermal degradation were considered. Jerzy Trzeszczynski Szczecin. dripping. p.549-55 CRYSTALLIZATION AND MELTING OF POLYCARBONATE STUDIED BY TEMPERATURE-MODULATED DSC (TMDSC) Schick C. nitrogen. Main headings are: Simple tests (melting. Paper 1.829337 Item 76 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. Thermal stability of ether and sulphone groups appeared similar in PES but in PSF the sulphone groups proved the more stable. The book also covers Infrared spectroscopy.2.and sulphur-test). The techniques used are based on simple tests such as the behaviour of polymers in liquids and in a flame.University. flotation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and NMR were used to investigate the hydrogen bonding and miscibility of the blend. halogen test. Rapra Technology Ltd. Thermosets.Polytechnic Institute & State University TMDSC measurements conducted at reasonably high frequencies for bisphenol-A polycarbonate(PC. 2000. Elastomers. A simple kinetic model was developed which showed good agreement between theoretical and experimental pyrolysis curves for both polymers.Technical University The less volatile compounds formed during the thermal degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) under different conditions at 200-700 deg. p. The compounds were trapped on a glass fibre filter and analysed by capillary gas chromatography using a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). USA. Netherlands. GERMANY. Moscow. 91T EASY IDENTIFICATION OF PLASTICS AND RUBBERS VERLAYE G A L. 27 refs.12. Virginia. 22 refs. Marand H Rostock. but fire retardation of PES was better due to reduction of the sulphone group by hydrogen radicals. Lexan) allowed for the determination of base-line heat capacity. burning characteristics. 0. 25cm.825045 Item 79 Shawbury. 2001.References and Abstracts degradation of polyether sulphone (PES) and polysulphone (PSF). Wurm A. Proceedings of a conference held The Hague. p. 19th Sept. No. p.4.General Physics Institute. For PC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Cellulose and starch. Evolution of sulphur dioxide and phenol from random chain scission in a one stage pyrolysis was observed in both cases with apparent initial thermal stability of the PES being lower than PSF. Recording an IR spectrum. EUROPEAN UNION. The results were tabulated. pp. Other Rigid Foam Developments Session. Thermoplastics.3064-8 TEMPERATURE AND ATMOSPHERE INFLUENCES ON SMOKE COMPOSITION DURING THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Malgorzata Dzieciol. Minakov A. POLAND Accession no. Identification flow charts.5224-8 STUDIES OF MISCIBILITY BEHAVIOUR AND HYDROGEN BONDING IN BLENDS OF POLYVINYLPHENOL AND POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE Kuo S W. RUSSIA. and high performance liquid chromatography.iv. 20 refs. Devitrification of the RAF seemed to be related to the lowest endotherm. 2001.

A comparison of the data obtained for all the phenolic resins was made as a function of molecular structure. a softwood and two semi-hard woods.824324 Item 82 Molecular Crystals & Liquid Crystals Vol. respectively. Innovations: Flexible Foam Developments Session.251-7 THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADDITIONCURED PHENOLIC RESINS Reghunadhan C P.824162 Item 83 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. Dispersion of the fibrous particles. TGA and X-ray diffraction. 2000.. No. p. phenyl ethynyland maleimide-functional resins. if the wood flour was previously esterified. gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy is demonstrated. 2001. No.823982 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 65 .2. kinetics of thermal degradation and pyrolysis of four different addition cured phenolic resins were investigated using various techniques.. 2 refs.8. 2000. 2001. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2000. London. Pannocchia P. including DSC. Fava F EniChem (Crain Communications Ltd. 012 VOC DETECTION IN POLYURETHANE FLEXIBLE FOAMS Occhiello E. Studies were carried out on Pine (Pino Eliottis). Proceedings of a conference held The Hague. 12 refs. Netherlands. NETHERLANDS.T/79-80 STUDY OF POLYMER-FILLER INTERACTION BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Gukasyan S Z The surface modification of fillers with polymeric substances is discussed with reference to improvement of the properties of filled polymers. the method of inverse gas chromatography was used using the modified filler as the stationery phase. Resins investigated were propargyl ether resins and phenyl azo-. ITALY. thermogravimetric analysis and analytical techniques were utilised.824043 Item 84 UTECH 2000. DMA. Bending and compression tests suggested some improvement in the performance of the composites. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE from different wood species was carried out. The change in thermal conductivity of the foams during ageing was also examined as was the dimensional stability of the foams under diffusion open conditions and the results obtained correlated with the K x A-values from refrigerator cabinets via the change in cell gas composition. Paper 5. Changes in the fracture surfaces due to maleic anhydride treatment of the fibres were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The particles were used untreated and chemically modified with maleic anhydride. To determine this parameter for a very low content of polymer. ARGENTINA Accession no.353. European Isocyanate Producers’ Association) The ageing behaviour of rigid PU foams was investigated using gas chromatographic quantitative evaluation of the cell gas composition in the foams. eucaliptus (Eucaliptus Saligna) and marmelero (Ruprechia Laviflora). p. When the fillers are modified with polymers. 28th-30th March 2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. For the characterisation of untreated and treated flours. Bindu R L.36) RUSSIA Accession no. the properties of both the mineral component and the modifier are altered. 12 refs. No. p. EUROPEAN UNION. NETHERLANDS. the boundary layer contains not only the matrix filler. FTIR spectroscopy. European Isocyanate Producers’ Association) The detection of volatile organic compounds in polyols and PU foams using SPME. Tavan M. The data obtained revealed that the ageing process of appliances could be simulated in a tenth of the time by measuring diffusion opened PU foams. INDIA Accession no. Reboredo M M INTEMA Preparation and testing of composites from a styrene/ unsaturated polyester thermoset matrix and wood flours Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. in addition to maximum fibre concentration (accompanied by complete wetting of the wood fibres) was dependent on the treatment and on the wood species utilised.References and Abstracts LONG-TERM ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF PUINSULATION FOR REFRIGERATION Seifert H.95-108 COMPOSITES MADE FROM LIGNOCELLULOSICS AND THERMOSET POLYMERS Aramguren M I. p. the surfaces of which were modified with latices of a copolymer of styrene and methacrylic acid. Biedermann A Elastogran GmbH (Crain Communications Ltd.4. Marcovich N E.824859 Item 81 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. pp. and when the modifying polymer interacts with the surface filler. 3 refs. The study investigated the use of travertine and tuff.5. Ninan K N Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre The thermal cure characteristics. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. but also the modifying polymer. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. One characteristic which reflects the result of polymer-filler interaction is the glass transition temperature of the modifier.

References and Abstracts

Item 85 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73, No.1, 2001, p.163-7 THERMAL, PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POROUS POLYSTYRENE-TYPE BEADS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF CROSSLINKING Yanhong Li; Yunge Fan; Jianbiao Ma Nankai,University The thermal decomposition of porous polystyrene beads with differing crosslinking degrees using divinyl benzene were evaluated using thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The test results showed that the thermal stability of the beads increased with higher degrees of crosslinking. DSC analysis revealed that the glass transition temperatures gradually increased with crosslinking levels up to 30% crosslinking by weight, but above this level beads were thermally stable as the glass transition temperature was replaced by an exothermic peak. Complete details of the testing procedures and results are given 15 refs.

Quebec,Universite Laval; Pyrovac Institute Inc.; Petru Poni,Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Vacuum pyrolysis was performed on HDPE, LDPE, PP, PS and PVC materials individually, and also on a mixed plastics sample containing the five polymers. The main gaseous and liquid products, including chlorinated hydrocarbons, were identified by chromatography, and the yields and pyrolysis products were compared for the individual and mixed runs. The results suggested that the pyrolysis yields of the plastics mixtures were similar to those calculated from the pyrolysis of the individual polymers. However, the chlorine content was lower than expected indicating limited interaction during pyrolysis. Full details of the experimental procedures are given including a detailed tabulation of all the pyrolysis products. 54 refs.

Accession no.823939 Item 88 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73, No.1, 2001, p.15-22 THERMO-OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF PP WASTE FILMS STUDIED BY IMAGING CHEMILUMINESCENCE The spread of oxidation in artificially recycled PP materials, with and without stabilisation, was monitored using imaging chemiluminescence techniques. The results were compared with estimates made using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. It was concluded that although the conventional techniques gave residual lifetimes of five cycles, imaging chemiluminescence showed that a significant reduction in oxidative stability had occurred after only two cycles. Full details of the imaging chemiluminescence technique used are given with detailed results. 12 refs. Accession no.823934 Item 89 DEVELOPMENTS IN POLYMER ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERISATION Proceedings of a conference held Shawbury, UK, 10th May 1999. Shawbury, 1999, Paper 4, p.1-15, 012 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION OF POLYURETHANES Forrest M J Rapra Technology Ltd. (Rapra Technology Ltd.) Polyurethane chemistry is briefly outlined, additives generally used in polyurethanes are indicated and the analytical techniques used to characterise the structure, composition and properties of PUs and PU-based products are discussed in a comprehensive manner. Techniques covered include spectroscopic, chromatographic techniques and miscellaneous techniques, such as wet chemistry

Accession no.823950 Item 86 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73, No.1, 2001, p.69-74 EXAMINATION OF A LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LDPE) FILM AFTER 15 YEARS OF SERVICE AS AN AIR AND WATER BARRIER Moller K; Gervert T; Holmstrom A Sweden,National Testing & Research Institute Comparisons between accelerated ageing tests and tests on polymeric materials aged in actual service conditions to identify possible degradation mechanisms appear to be the only reliable method of predicting long term service lifetimes. A low density polyethylene film used as an air and water barrier for 15 years in an exterior wall construction was characterised using tensile testing, spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. Although the mechanical properties of the film were unaffected by ageing, its antioxidant stabilisers were severely degraded. Full details of the ageing conditions, test methods and results are given. 16 refs.

Accession no.823940 Item 87 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73, No.1, 2001, p.47-67 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. PART II. PRODUCT ANALYSIS Miranda R; Pakdel H; Roy C; Vasile C


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References and Abstracts

techniques. Sections are included dealing with the characterisation of polymer structure and starting materials, molecular weight determinations, characterisation of additives and cure reaction studies. 14 refs.

Accession no.822952 Item 90 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. 169, May 2001, p.45-55 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INTERACTIONS IN POLYMER/SILICA SYSTEMS BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Voelkel A; Milczewsk K; Jeczalik J Poznan,University of Technology The inverse gas chromatography technique, (IGC) is presented as a method of characterisation of the interactions in polymer-modified silica systems. The authors propose to express the magnitude of modified filler/polymer interactions by means of the Flory-Huggins parameter. Polyether-urethane/modified silica systems containing different amounts of filler were investigated, and information relating to the physicochemical properties of oligomer and modified silicas were presented by means of the solubility factor to describe the properties of the polymer layer, and the Flory-Huggins parameter which describes the polymer-solute or mixture polymer/silicasolute interactions. These parameters are obtained from inverse gas chromatography experiments. The influence of the IGC experiment temperature, the content of modified silica, and the nature of test solute on the evaluated parameters are presented and discussed. 7 refs.

Item 92 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72, No.1, 2001, p.175-86 CHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL MODIFICATIONS OF IRRADIATED LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (LLDPE) Guadagno L; Naddeo C; Vittoria V; Camino G; Cagnani C Salerno,University; Turin,University; Montell Italia SpA Spherilene technology produced films of linear low density polyethylene which were exposed to UV irradiation to simulate accelerated weathering. Comparison was made with a set of films annealed at 60C and no irradiation. The resulting chemical structures were examined using FTIR. The findings were that the degradation is dominated by the formation of carbonyl and vinyl species. 22 refs.

Accession no.820850 Item 93 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72, No.1, 2001, p.31-45 FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADSORPTION OF STABILISERS ON TO CARBON BLACK (FLOW MICRO-CALORIMETRY STUDIES). IV. SECONDARY ANTIOXIDANTS Pena J M; Allen N S; Edge M; Liauw C M; Valange B Manchester,Metropolitan University; Cabot Corp. Using flow micro-calorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy techniques the surface activity of different types of carbon black with secondary antioxidants (aryl phosphites and phosphonites) have been examined. Both in the overall adsorption activity and the levels of probe adsorption significant differences were observed. Two factors were reported which were found to influence the behaviour of phosphite stabilisers. 29 refs.

Accession no.822644 Item 91 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80, No.8, 23rd May 2001, p.1305-11 EFFECT OF RECYCLED POLYPROPYLENE ON POLYPROPYLENE/HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE BLENDS Bonelli C M C; Martins A F; Mano E B; Beatty C I Rio de Janeiro,Universidade Federal; Florida,University A study was made of the effects of addition of recycled polypropylene on the incompatible blends of virgin polypropylene with high-density polyethylene. The characteristics of the recycled polypropylene were determined by spectrographic and thermal analysis means. The mechanical properties of the blends were determined. The 50/50 blend of the two virgin polymers benefited most from the addition of the recycled polypropylene. 9 refs.

Accession no.820835 Item 94 Polymer International 50, No.6, June 2001, p.635-42 DEGRADATION OF HIGH BARRIER ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMER UNDER MILD THERMAL-OXIDATIVE CONDITIONS STUDIED BY THERMAL ANALYSIS AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Lagaron J M; Gimenez E; Suara J J Jaume I,Universitat The thermooxidative degradation of a solution cast ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (containing 32

Accession no.821546

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References and Abstracts

mol.percent ethylene) used in barrier applications was studied at three temperatures immediately above the melting point using thermogravimetric analysis, DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. The weight loss measured by thermogravimetric analysis was fast at short times and slowed down progressively. The weight loss of about 3.6 percent measured by thermogravimetric analysis resulted from chemical alterations in the polymer. DSC showed small changes in crystallinity, melting point and glass transition and broadening of the melting endotherms in samples exposed to the more severe thermooxidative treatments. FTIR showed a transformation of the vinyl alcohol hydroxyl groups into carbonyl groups and the creation of double bonds. Changes in degradation kinetics, and possibly mechanisms, were thought to occur with increasing time. FTIR measurements indicated that transformation of the hydroxyl groups led to a weakening of the overall hydrogen bonding strength in the degraded samples so a reduction in the intermolecular cohesion, and hence the barrier properties of the copolymer, could be anticipated. 19 refs.

polymers are analysed. The author’s own modification of PGC is presented, involving the use of a pyrolysis attachment with the mobile reaction zone. Resulting data are compared with those obtained by conventional pyrolysis gas chromatography. 34 refs. Accession no.816530 Item 97 New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999, pp.xv,752 CHEMICAL SEPARATIONS- PRINCIPLES, TECHNIQUES, AND EXPERIMENTS MELOAN, C E KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY This combination laboratory manual and reference source provides a working knowledge of an array of separation methods. In forty-two chapters, it explores all major categories of separation. With an emphasis upon everyday practice rather that theory, this book explains the principles and parameters of these methods and provides 59 specific experiments to demonstrate proper procedures. These experiments feature step-by-step protocols for each separation scheme, precise instructions on setting up the apparatus, and checklists for essential chemicals and supplies. Main Headings include Separations involving phase changes; Separations involving extraction; Separations involving chromatography; Separations involving ion exchange resins; Separations involving electric fields; Separations involving flotation; Separations involving membranes; Separations involving miscellaneous techniques.

Accession no.819207 Item 95 Polymer Science Series B 43, Nos. 3-4,March/April 2001, p.105-8 TRANSFORMATIONS OF ANTIMONYHALOGEN- AND NITROGEN-PHOSPHORUSBASED FLAME RETARDANTS IN POLYOLEFINS AND THEIR PERFORMANCE Bogdanova V V Belorussian,State University Degradation products from both antimony-halogen based and nitrogen-phosphorus based flame retardants were studied using X-ray diffraction and atomic emission analysis. Evidence of the retardation mechanisms in use against combustion was obtained for each system and in each case emission of volatile combustion inhibitors at the degradation temperature of the polymer matrix was the critical factor. 11 refs

Accession no.816497 Item 98 Polymer Bulletin 46, No.2-3, April 2001, p.191-6 MISCIBILITY OF POLYETHERIMIDE AND POLYBUTYLENE NAPHTHALATE BLENDS Lin C H; Wang C S Taiwan,Kung Shan Institute of Technology; Taiwan,National Cheng Kung University DSC, optical microscopy, and SEM were performed to characterise the miscibility of a blend of polybutylene naphthalate and polyetherimide. Data were compared with theoretical predictions. 6 refs.

Accession no.818458 Item 96 Polimery 45, Nos.11-12, 2000, p.51-8 Polish PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND NEW POSSIBILITIES OF ITS USE IN THE ANALYSIS OF POLYMERS Hetper J Major conditions are formulated to ensure that pyrolysis gas chromatography yields reliable and repeatable results, particularly when non-volatile substances such as

Accession no.816205 Item 99 Journal of the National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research 8, No.4, 2000, p.149-59 Japanese POSITRONIUM FORMATION AND DIFFUSION IN POLYMERS


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taken directly from the sugarcane mills. Stael G C. Ps formed as a result of positron-electron recombination interacts with a subnanometer-size free volume hole. No. The test results showed that there was a memory effect in the polycarbonate of the quenching processes. 5A. so that the Ps formation probability depends on various factors.3.337-41 PHYSICAL AGING OF POLYCARBONATE INVESTIGATED BY DYNAMIC VISCOELASTICITY Apaki O.Cidade Universitaria Bagasse.813974 Item 103 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 286.1 nm. 10 refs. p. become thermalised and annihilate with one of the electrons of the medium into gamma rays. 29 refs. and blended with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) in proportions up to 60 wt%. ANALYSIS OF POLY(PROPYLENE OXIDE)S BY COUPLED LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AT THE CRITICAL POINT OF ADSORPTION AND MALDI-TOF MASS SPECTROMETRY Keil C. some of the positrons form a hydrogen-like bound state between a positron and an electron prior to the annihilation. EUROPEAN UNION. For all the HDPE samples. For two HDPE samples produced by the dual reactor process. The concentration of side and trans unsaturations was too low to be determined. de Menezes SMC Rio de Janeiro. This result is of fundamental importance to apply Ps as a probe for studying free volume in polymers. In polymers. Masuda T © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 69 . Baldo L.11. 68 refs.2001. The comonomer content (butene for HDPE and ethylene for PP) decreased with increasing molar mass.2120-2 SOLID-STATE NMR AND XPS STUDIES OF PVA/ SUGARCANE COMPOSITES Tavares M I B. 1st Feb. NETHERLANDS. and its diffusion length in amorphous polymers is estimated to be ca. The composites were characterised by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.814366 Item 101 Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition 39. The techniques were coupled via a robotic interface where the matrix was coaxially added to the eluate and spotted dropwise onto the MALDI target. Size exclusion chromatography and liquid chromatography at critical conditions of adsorption coupled to MALDI-TOF Accession no.814126 Item 102 Polymer 42.161-7 MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/ IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS. JAPAN Accession no. Pasch H Darmstadt. Ps is formed by recombination of a positron and one of the electrons released from the molecules in terminal positron spur. and diffuses over a certain distance before annihilation. Evidence is shown that the structure of the polymeric chain in the glassy state relaxes over larger segment scale lengths because the scale of the movable segments is related to temperature. was dried. A possibility of using Ps as a radiation chemical probe for polymers is described. The best physical interaction between the fibres and the matrix was achieved with the sample containing 60 wt% fibre. 8 refs. the samples exhibiting homogeneity at the molecular level. this decrease occurred stepwise with a constant comonomer amount on either side of the step. 13th June 2001. JAPAN Kyoto. cut to lengths of 5 mm. the amount of end unsaturations decreased with molar mass. 2001.3. p. but as equilibrium is reached then the memory becomes lost. BRAZIL Accession no.13. The influence of additives. Gorelova M M. p. 30th March 2001. Esser E. No. Horie M.5523-9 SEC-FTIR CHARACTERIZATION OF SEMICRYSTALLINE HDPE AND PP Verdumen-Noel L. No.815833 Item 100 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80. Bremmers S DSM Research A pressure transducer in combination with the size exclusion chromatography-FTIR technique was used to characterise semi-crystalline materials such as HDPE and random PP copolymers.References and Abstracts Hirata K. This bound state is called positronium (Ps). The diffusion coefficient of Ps is determined using a chemical reaction between Ps and an additive.University Dynamic viscosity measurements were used to determine the physical ageing at 110C of polycarbonate using samples quenched from the molten state. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Kobayashi Y High-energy positrons injected into condensed matter quickly lose their energy.Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut Poly(propylene oxide)s were analysed efficiently by coupled liquid chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A homogeneous copolymer covering on the surface of the fibres was achieved. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. polar groups and external field on Ps formation in polymers is discussed. Positron-electron recombination in the positron spur competes with other reactions. p. No.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Benoit H. 18 refs. Atofina. The surface Tg is shown to be lower than that of the bulk for spin-cast semicrystalline PETP films because of density variation and Tg is found to be lowered further by plasma processing.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Philadelphia. FRANCE. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. 2000. Institut Charles Sadron The separation process occurring during liquid chromatography of polymers in a gradient of composition of the eluent was examined. No. Five of these questions are addressed. and whilst there are many individual problems that need to be solved. and examples of problems are given.813967 Item 104 Polimery 45.701-6 Polish OXIDATION AND DESORPTION OF OXYGEN FROM THE UPPER LAYER OF ACTIVATED POLYPROPYLENE FILM Zenkiewicz M Photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study oxidation of biaxially oriented polypropylene film.e. 2000) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 11th-12th Oct. p.. p. This analysis was supported by experimental tests.813421 Item 107 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. Conference proceedings. i. Recent advances in analytical Accession no.State University A non-destructive technique for characterisation of the surface Tg in PETP is described which involves analysis of the variation of the ellipsometrically measured refractive index with temp. The oligomer distributions of all functionality fractions were determined. such as antioxidants. EUROPEAN UNION. after a transient regime. Suggestions are made for techniques that may be used for each question. 23 refs.. No.2667-72 SELF-FOCUSING IN GRADIENT LIQUID ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF POLYMERS Degoulet C. The technique showed the presence of diols and monools in addition to the triols in poly(propylene oxide) triols. Techniques considered include high-temperature GPC combined with FTIR spectroscopy for the analysis of chemical composition as a function of molar mass. they can be categorised. 6 refs.References and Abstracts gave useful structural information on oligomer masses and chemical composition. 13 refs. (SPE.10.Philadelphia Section) Analytical laboratories are asked to perform a variety of test methods in order to solve problems relating to the performance or otherwise of vinyl materials. Perrinaud R. This results in relatively sharp peaks and the observation that long columns were useless. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. by a relatively small number of questions.198-202 USE OF ADVANCED ANALYTICAL METHODS TO ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF VINYL MATERIALS Isner J D. Stellenbosch. p. p. Elf Atochem North America Inc. No. A simple analytical model was proposed for this self-focussing process that allowed optimal conditions of operation to be determined.8. in polyolefins. EUROPEAN UNION.2000. 10th April 2001.. Accession no. it is argued. USA. March 2001.813667 Item 105 Macromolecules 34.Vinyl Div. Institut Curie. Prost J. WESTERN EUROPE Hyun J.165. without diffusive spreading in time. GERMANY.813085 Item 108 Vinyltec 2000. ESPCI. The main feature was that. South Africa. 10th April 2001. (3rd Annual UNESCO School & IUPAC Conference on Macromolecules and Materials Science. USA Accession no.91-8 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN POLYOLEFIN CHARACTERISATION Pasch H Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut A brief review is presented on techniques for the analysis of polyolefins and additives in polyolefins. Bourrel M TotalFinaElf. Ajdari A.2395-7 NONDESTRUCTIVE MEASUREMENT OF A GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE AT SPINCAST SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYMER SURFACES 70 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . using the spectral dependence of the penetration depth of light to discriminate between surface and bulk transitions. SPE. the concentration profile tended to move as a front. Eiden R W Polymer Diagnostics Inc. crystallisation fractionation for the analysis of short-chain branching in LLDPE and of polyolefin blends and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of additives. EUROPEAN UNION. and ways in which a laboratory may answer them are discussed. Aspnes D E. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.813456 Item 106 Macromolecules 34. GERMANY.8. p. X-rays and ultrahigh vacuum associated with the method of study were found to promote oxygen desorption from the upper layer. Pa. 13 refs. Cuomo J J North Carolina.

is a very powerful an useful tool for investigation of colloidal particles and polymers near the surface and interfaces. One is the evanescent wave dynamic light scattering (EVDLS) technique and the other is the evanescent wave light scattering microscope (EVLSM). failure and performance.7.2.811310 Item 109 Journal of Materials Science Letters 20. Athens. Pissis P Kozani. commercialisation. i. Kanapitsas A. WESTERN EUROPE temperatures and frequencies were used in the investigation. dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis over a wide range of Accession no. No. A new field will be developed in colloid science and polymer science by application of the evanescent wave light scattering technique. p. It is also shown that a particle dynamics study is possible by the EVLSM technique. they can lead to noise.e. The PUR and SAN copolymer were prepared by reactive blending with polymer polyols.References and Abstracts techniques can be used to address topics such as lifetime prediction and failure analysis. UMIST Raman spectroscopy yields information about the molecular structure of materials based on the observation of scattered light spectra.6. Viras K.Technological Education Institute.3. crystalline and amorphous structure.Kapodistrian University The molecular mobility and microphase separation in blends of crosslinked polyurethane (PUR) and styreneacrylonitrile (SAN) copolymer were investigated. USA Accession no. Results showed that for the dynamic glass transition of the PUR SS microphase the characteristic time scales at the same temperature are similar for DSC. EVLSM will play an import role in colloidal interaction studies. processing effects and orientation. Questions related to identification. A study of the latter is reported. however. superimposed on the Raman spectrum from the sample. This background light can come from either the sample or from the environment around the sample. competitiveness. 40 refs. Two kinds of evanescent wave light scattering apparatuses are developed.Universidad Publica. The various techniques used were initially compared with each other. FUSION OF THE EVANESCENT WAVE AND LIGHT SCATTERING TECHNIQUES TO THE STUDY OF COLLOIDS AND POLYMERS NEAR THE INTERFACE Matsuoka H Kyoto. GREECE.257-8 COMMENTS ON A NEW RAMAN PEAK IN A HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE Rodriguez A B.1101-12 ULTRASONICATION AND MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF DEGRADATION PRODUCTS FROM DEGRADABLE © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 71 . 41 refs. the diffusion behaviour of a colloidal particle near the interface can be extracted quantitatively as a function of the distance from the interface. Delides C G. TSDC and DMTA and shorter for DRS.2001. Manchester. 7th Feb.809623 Item 112 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79. 14 refs.University The evanescent wave light scattering technique.2001. 8th Feb. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. The PUR/SAN blends are classified as fragile systems. There are numerous potential sources of external background light that lead to sharp spectral peaks. p. i. and has been used extensively in the investigations of polymer structure and composition: chemical structure and interactions. Results by each technique indicated that the degree of microphase separation of PUR into hardsegment (HS) microdomains and soft-segment (SS) microphase increases on addition of SAN. No.811165 Item 110 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80.810314 Item 111 Macromolecular Rapid Communications 22.e. p.51-67 EVANESCENT WAVE LIGHT SCATTERING.1071-84 PHASE BEHAVIOUR AND MOLECULAR MOBILITY IN POLYURETHANE/STYRENEACRYLONITRILE BLENDS Vatalis A S. By EVLSM. UK.University. SPAIN. The diffusion coefficient is smaller than those for particles in bulk. especially at a low ionic strength. As an analytical technique. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. it is not free from artefacts. JAPAN Accession no. which is produced by a fusion of the evanescent wave technique and light scattering technique. Young R J Navarra. or artefacts. EUROPEAN UNION. etc. No. If they are not excluded from the collection optics of the Raman instrument. fusion of the evanescent light and a scattering techniques. 1st Feb. apparent experimental results that are not actually real but are due to the experimental methods or conditions. p. 16th May 2001. No.2001.University. morphology. DSC. By EVDLS. One factor that may be responsible for the presence of artefacts in Raman spectroscopy is external background light. thermally stimulated depolarisation currents (TSDC) techniques. the interaction potential profile between a colloidal particle and the surface in dispersion can be directly evaluated. Athens. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. reflecting electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions.

2001. p. SINGAPORE Accession no. Extraction techniques were ultrasonication and microwave assisted extraction (MAE). The effects of crosslinking on solubility. p. Tg. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. p. SCANDINAVIA. The period studied was from 0 to 21 months.2000.1-9 CROSSLINKING AND ITS EFFECTS ON POLYANILINE FILMS Tan H H. but both were found faster than conventional (soxhlet) extraction techniques.202-8 Portuguese ETHYLENE COPOLYMERS ANALYSIS BY FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES Escher F F N. tensile strength. Benetti A Rio Grande do Sul. 9 refs. BRAZIL Accession no.Royal Institute of Technology The physical and mechanical properties of aliphatic polyesters from propanediol and succinic acid were improved by their combination with aromatic urethane Accession no. SWEDEN. elongation and Young’s modulus was examined. 1st March 2001. GPC and DSC.630-9 NEW SEGMENTED POLYESTER-URETHANES FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES Liu Y. Kocherginsky N. tensile strength. and dynamic mechanical analysis. Ranucci E. melting point. and extracted products were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. At polymer concentrations up to 3 x 10-3 g cm-3.4. 18 refs. SPAIN. Kang E T Singapore. Valencia. atomic force microscopy.1. morphology. Reproducibility of ultrasonification was found better with improved extraction of carboxylic acids and other products than MAE methods. Liu F T.5./Dec. doping characteristics and transport of ions across the films were investigated. DSC. 24 refs. The influence of the ratio of hard and soft segments on degree of crystallinity. In semidilute solutions stereocomplexes virtually do not become heavier and larger. SCANDINAVIA.2000. Pokorna V. SWEDEN. No. EUROPEAN UNION.807643 Item 116 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. Dec. p. No. Ipiranga Petroquimica SA Ethylene-butene copolymers were fractionated according to molecular size by direct extraction by different solvents and at different temperatures.References and Abstracts POLYOLEFIN BLENDS AGED IN SOIL Contat-Rodrigo L. EUROPEAN UNION. Pecka J Czech Republic.3859-66 72 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . Tables indicate the relative amounts of different extraction products and molecular weight changes in the polymer blend found over the 21-month period for both biodegradable additive types. 4th April 2001.8. 6 refs.Academy of Sciences PMMA stereocomplexes prepared at different concentration in dilute tetrahydrofuran solutions are studied by size exclusion chromatography coupled with refractive and light scattering detectors in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy. 17 refs EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Albertsson A-C Sweden. p. Characterisation was undertaken using UV visible spectroscopy. Fractions were characterised using carbon 13 NMR. Karlsson S Stockholm. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Samples were also fractionated by differences in crystallinity using DSC. A considerable increase in segment density due to complexation compared with free PMMA chain is only slightly affected by the polymer concentration in solution where stereocomplexes are formed.808057 Item 115 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80. and elemental analysis.162. Ribes-Greus A. Characterisation was carried out using proton NMR. Haider N.Royal Institute of Technology.808785 Item 113 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 10. Lindblad M S. an increase in non-uniformity of polymer complex molecular weight and size and a shift to higher values of both are observed.Universidade Federal. Molecular weight changes were monitored using high-temperature size exclusion chromatography. FTIR.808128 Item 114 Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition 39.806260 Item 117 Polymer 42.Polytechnical University Degradation in soil of samples of a polyolefin blend treated with two different biodegradable additives (a starch/iron mixture and a commercial product (Mater-Bi AF05H)) was studied using two non-conventional extraction techniques.National University Polyaniline base films with varying degrees of crosslinking were cast from methylpyrrolidone solutions at different processing temperatures. Oct. size exclusion chromatography. Neoh K G. Silva L P. Galland G B.227-33 STUDY OF POLYMER COMPLEXES BY EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH LIGHT SCATTERING IN COMBINATION WITH FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY Mrkvickova L. WESTERN EUROPE segments capable of establishing strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. No.

801052 Item 121 Polymer News 25.References and Abstracts STRUCTURE FORMATION DURING THE ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLISATION OF ORIENTED AMORPHOUS POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) FILMS Radhakrishnan J. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine pigments and extenders. e. Guerrero C Nuevo Leon.2001.804442 Item 120 West Conshohocken. JAPAN Accession no. Thermo- Accession no.National Institute of Materials & Chemical Research A study was made of structure formation during the isothermal crystallisation of oriented. but lower hydrocarbons. TEST METHOD FOR PURITY OF MONOMERIC PLASTICISERS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY American Society for Testing & Materials ASTM D 3465Version 2000. No. specific applications of PGCA and the usefulness of this method for studying the thermal degradation of acrylonitrile polymer are indicated. by systematically varying these parameters.799956 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 73 . resulting from secondary decomposition. On the basis of these results. HCN. including methyl cyanide. (SPE) Developments in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the characterisation of semicrystalline thermoplastics. 2000. 18th Jan. paper 441 THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF SEMICRYSTALLINE RECYCLATES BY DSC Cassel R B. 2000.Universidad Autonoma (SPE) Using thin films of isotactic polypropylene. amorphous PETP film from the glassy state using in situ FTIR spectroscopy.473-8 PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF POLYACRYLONITRILE Minagawa M. The techniques include stepwise DSC for the accurate determination of specific heat capacity. Ogita T. JAPAN analytical data. NALOAN ASTM D 3465-. 7th-11th May. The techniques show the influence of impurities on the glass transition temperature. MEXICO Accession no. 6 refs. the range of atomic force microscopy contact forces and the scanning frequencies required to obtain sharp and clear 3-D images of polymer surfaces was determined.2000.g. and a scanning frequency of 1. USA Accession no. starting with typical values used for rigid surfaces. 10 refs. 2000. crystallinity and crystallisation.. USA Accession no.5 Hz. The PETP films were prepared by rolling melt quenched films to a draw ratio of 2 and an evaluation made of the changes in the conformation and orientation order of the PETP chains during crystallisation along with the development of crystalline structure. 27 refs.359-60 ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT COATING BY SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY Usmani A M. diethylene glycol and adipic acid.C. which revealed that the coating was a polyurethane C type based on isophorone diisocyanate. paper 678 USE OF CONTACT-ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY IN PLASTIC MATERIAL SURFACES Reyes E. Orlando. Donley M UDC. USA Accession no. Structure organisation before and during isothermal crystallisation is discussed and a comparison made of the crystallisation behaviour of oriented with that of isotropic PETP.805686 Item 119 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79. pp. Kaito A Japan.University In the pyrolytic gas chromatographic analysis (PGCA) of acrylonitrile polymer under an inert atmosphere at 500-900 deg. rapid determination of crystallinity using the Gray-Mathot total enthalpy technique.. p. lower nitriles. Uchida H Yamagata.0-1. including mixed recyclates are discussed.10. Li L Perkin-Elmer Inc. poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polystyrene.3. were also detected.800157 Item 122 Antec 2000. Fl. Photocopies and loans of this document are not available from Rapra. p. Onuma H. including data on the relation between retention time and nitrile polarity. 7th-11th May. methane and ethylene. and analysis of crystallisation kinetics. 12 refs. The optimum values were determined to be a contact force of 88-150 nN.Conference proceedings. Oct. and the limiting yield on pyrolysis as a function of temperature were obtained. No.806185 Item 118 Antec 2000. and acrylonitrile were the main degradation products.Conference proceedings. Orlando. in situ wide-angle X-ray diffraction and small angle Xray scattering.3. Fl. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base An analysis was made of a flat aircraft coating using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Pa. 20 refs..

low friction coefficient and high thermal stability. Great Lakes Chemical Italia (SPE) A technique for the determination of HALS in polypropylene was developed.Universite de Technologie Poly (aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) was utilised as a name-sprayed coating because of its good mechanical properties. to be indirect food additives. 7th-11th May.798922 Item 126 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering Vol. Ethanol/ water solutions and food oils are commonly used as food simulating solvents when determining migration. and mass spectroscopy. 7th-11th May. p. which was subsequently subjected to direct extraction to prevent the loss which may occur during polymer reprecipitation.283. DSC AND ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY Simonin L. BASED ON SILICON TECHNOLOGY Narayan S. flame-sprayed coatings contain a large amount of porosity. Groeninckx G. Brussels. Quasi-isothermal MTDSC measurements contained information on the kinetics of demixing and remixing. Ultrasonic methods were developed. Belfort-Montbeliard. Investigation of the degree of crystallinity of PEEK coatings was carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). as determined by cloud point temps. was melt blended with the polypropylene which was then spun into fibres. RESIN OLIGOMERS. The chopped fibres were dissolved in toluene. to study the variations of mechanical properties at the surface and the defects inside the material. The lower critical solution temp. 2000. USA PHASE SEPARATION IN MISCIBLE POLYMER BLENDS AS DETECTED BY MODULATED TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Dreezen G. such as processing machinery and packaging. demixing behaviour of PEO blended with polyether sulphone(PES) and with poly(3. and the potential migration of materials into the food requires determination. McCort-Tipton M M Covance Laboratories (SPE) The FDA considers that materials which come into contact with food. with optical microscopy. Liao H CREST.1 ppm was attributed to the methyl group on the silicon atom of the HALS. paper 438 ANALYTICAL METHODOLOGIES EMPLOYED IN A COMPREHENSIVE FDA FOOD CONTACT COMPLIANCE INVESTIGATION: ANALYSIS FOR RESIDUAL MONOMERS. and the filtrate dried. A solution of the filtrate was then prepared and analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 3 refs. DSC(MTDSC). paper 439 NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR THE DETECTION OF A HINDERED AMINE LIGHT STABILIZER (HALS).Conference proceedings. Particularly suited to the observation of large defects (exceeding 50 microns) inside the polymeric materials is low-frequency microechography.1449-59 74 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . Fine polymeric powders were warmed up in oxyacetylene flame and sprayed onto a previously heated aluminium substrate.Catholic University. 2000.799954 Item 124 Antec 2000. ADDITIVES AND MODIFIERS IN SEVERAL FOOD SIMULATING SOLVENTS Eberhard J S. BELGIUM. Polypropylene pellets were also prepared containing a lower concentration of HALS. EUROPEAN UNION. based on a polysiloxane backbone with tetramethyl piperidine side chains.4. by the vitrification of a high-Tg phase formed. In general terms. USA Accession no..153-62 CHARACTERIZATION OF FLAME-SPRAYED PEEK COATINGS BY FTIR-ATR. 2001. according to the rate of cooling after the spraying process. The non-isothermal MTDSC apparent heat capacity evolution was time-dependent. Hallberg D. a non-destructive technique. oligomers. Malatesta V Great Lakes Chemical Corp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 32 refs. The HALS.2000 p.798668 Accession no. Fl. Accession no. It was influenced by the endothermic demixing enthalpy and. 19 refs. Nov. No.Conference proceedings. the polymer precipitated using methanol. The peak at 0. Lee R E. Orlando. and was used for quantitative purposes. Swier S. was in good agreement with results obtained from non-isothermal MTDSC measurements. attributed to interactions between the flame and the polymeric powders.. especially acoustic microscopy. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. emphasising the added value of MTDSC to follow in situ the diffusion-controlled phase separation processes of partially miscible polymer blends.799953 Item 125 Polymer 42. The subsequent determination of the migrating species (which may include residual monomers.. Structural modifications were revealed by FTIR-ATR.References and Abstracts Item 123 Antec 2000.4'-diphenylene ether isophthaloyl amide). in the case of PEO/PES blends. Van Mele B Leuven. Fl. Orlando. additives and modifiers) may be by liquid and gas chromatography.Free University The phase separation of two partially miscible polymer blends was studied using modulated temp.

13 refs. etc. AUSTRALIA Accession no. Volume 40.1 mol% cis amide conformers. but no MALDI/TOF/ MS study of diblock copolymers containing a polystyrene sulphonic acid block appears to be evident.Div.2000. Al-Aloush I. PSb-PtBS. 2001. the number-average molecular weight of the nylon-66 was calculated to be 30 177 g/mol.University of Alabama (ACS. SWEDEN.. ACID AND AMINE GROUPS. 30 refs.wt. PREFORMS. Steadman S J. acid and amine end groups and within cyclic oligomers. well-resolved solution carbon-13 NMR spectra of nylon-66 samples were obtained which showed several low intensity peaks which were not seen in more acidic solvents. No. molecular weight distribution.7088-92 SOLUTION CARBON-13 NMR CHARACTERIZATION OF NYLON 66: QUANTITATION OF CIS AMINE CONFORMERS.0 mol% acid end groups and 0. Jatterr W L. polydispersity indices and extents of sulphonation are obtained. The low intensity peaks were correlated with the methylene carbons near cis amide conformers.of Polymer Chemistry) Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI/TOF/MS) provides a new way to probe polymers. can be obtained based on mass information. NaPSS-b-PtBS. Polystyrene sulphonic acid and its sodium salt form have been successfully characterised by MALDI/TOF/MS. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2. Mays J W Birmingham. p.University of Technology The photooxidation of unstabilised. No. New Orleans. The chemical shift values of methylene carbons in the end groups and in cyclic oligomers was pH sensitive and thus depended on the relative concentrations of acid and amine groups in each sample.University Edited by: Davis R D. The results of such a study of amphiphilic diblock copolymers. Further information. individual block chain length and its distribution. p. Nonidez W K. Ibrahim M Accession no. August 1999.2-trifluoroethanol/deuteriochloroform solvent system. Number 2. compounds. The quantitative contents of these components for a typical nylon-66 sample were 1. No. Nov. The development of a simple and rapid microwave assisted extraction method for the systematic analysis of low molec.Royal Institute of Technology The resulted are reported of an investigation into the quality of recycled HDPE and PP separated from mixed municipal solid waste carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. EUROPEAN UNION.. USA Accession no. it can provide information on molecular weight. and their precursors.2000.5 mol% amine end groups. SCANDINAVIA. 15 refs. such as decomposition products and additives. 19th Sept. such as reactivity ratios.796627 Item 129 Polymer Degradation and Stability 70. which permitted the determination of Ziegler-Natta catalyst residue distribution throughout the PP.2. Mathias L J Using a mixed 2. Nov.794402 Item 131 Polymer Engineering and Science 40. Conference proceedings. mass of end groups and mass of repeating units.123-34 QUALITY-DETERMINATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC PACKAGING WASTE BY IDENTIFICATION OF CONTAMINANTS BY GCMS AFTER MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION (MAE) Camacho W.798428 Item 128 Polymer Degradation and Stability 71.11. No. August 1999. which initiated oxidation at sites away from the catalyst. 12 refs. 1. It was found that oxidation was heterogeneous at a microscopic scale and that a high local concentration of catalyst residues resulted in the stabilisation of the polymer in the immediate vicinity and the formation of mobile reactive species. AND CYCLIC UNIMERS Southern Mississippi.2442-55 EVALUATION OF THREE METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF CRYSTALLINITY OF PET RESINS. p. isotactic PP was investigated using Raman spectral mapping in combination with SEM/energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Al-Raqibah I. Number-average and weight-average molecular weights (Mn and Mw). AND BOTTLES Bashir Z.References and Abstracts Item 127 Polymer Preprints.1.795269 Item 130 Macromolecules 33. p. are reported. La.19. USA RAMAN SPECTRAL MAPPING OF PHOTOOXIDISED POLYPROPYLENE Blakey I. George G A Queensland. in polymers is also reported and successfully applied to the analysis of contaminants in the above recycled plastics. From end group concentrations.2000.269-75 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 75 . p. Karlsson S Sweden.1043-4 MALDI/TOF/MS STUDY OF HOMOPOLYMERS AND AMPHIPHILIC DIBLOCK COPOLYMERS BASED ON SULPHONATED POLYSTYRENE Yang A.

790059 Item 135 Polymer Journal (Japan) 32. and the dose rate. Insulated parallel plate dielectric sensors are being developed for use in the laboratory instrument with the potential for incorporation into composite production tooling. A small specimen of the sample is pyrolysed. EUROPEAN UNION. 10 refs.University. Pasch H.793608 Item 132 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 53. Deyan Shen Academia Sinica FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the conformational changes in quenched bisphenol A polycarbonate films during physical ageing. 26 refs. No.References and Abstracts SABIC R & D The crystallinity of PETP resins. p. The conformation changed gradually from the high energy trans-cis conformation to 76 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .1999. was also discussed.133-43 IDENTIFICATION OF KEY CURE STAGES IN LIQUID MOULDING PROCESSES BY PARALLEL PLATE DIELECTRIC ANALYSIS McIlhagger A T. Of the available cure monitoring methods.e. Bristol. i. Key resin cure stages are identified by an appropriate dielectric signal and correlated with data from other thermal and mechanical techniques. the total absorbed dose. Ulster. i. Using this method it is possible to identify additives quickly and reliably without separation of the polymer matrix. 2000. UK. Yong Wang.e. IMechE) The aerospace industry has recognised the major benefits associated with fibre reinforced composite materials. It is shown how thermal analysis confirms the model forecasts and in particular the existence of the ‘inversion conditions’: below them the main effect is molecular degradation. betascission. The need for on-line cure monitoring is widely recognised and this will require the development of suitable in-mould sensors. D. p.792350 Item 134 ICAC 99. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.610-5 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC AND MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDY OF PHYSICAL AGING IN BISPHENOL A POLYCARBONATE Jin Lu. EUROPEAN UNION. addition to double bonds and termination. EUROPEAN UNION. parallel plate dielectric analysis (DEA) appears to offer the greatest potential for determining the through-thickness cure state of the resin during cure. Efforts to further reduce processing time and improve part quality have focused on improved process control.10.2000. Accession no. The influence of the irradiation parameters. while above them the main effects are chain-branching and crosslinking. The more popular techniques available for composite production are the traditional wet lay-up or autoclave and resin transfer moulding (RTM). UK.5% isophthalic acid.University The molecular modifications induced in an isotactic PP gamma-irradiated in vacuum under a complete set of experimental conditions are studied by means of calorimetric analysis. 12 refs. No. GERMANY. The Engineering Composites Research Centre (ECKE) has investigated and concentrated on the specific problems encountered in the aerospace industry. By comparing the results with library data it is possible to identify unknown additives unambiguously and with high accuracy. The accuracy.7. preforms and bottles was investigated using DSC. Conference proceedings. No.University (IOM Communications Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.574/81 German DIRECT ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVES IN POLYMERIC MATERIALS BY PYROLYSIS-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY Meyer-Dulheuer T. 23rd-24th Sept. Hill B Ulster. p.2. ITALY. Oct. Geissler M Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut This article describes the direct analysis of additives by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.589-96 CALORIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF AN ISOTACTIC POLYPROPYLENE GAMMA-IRRADIATED IN VACUUM Spadaro G.. Valenza A Palermo. 2000. precision and validity of the techniques employed were evaluated and problems encountered in interpreting the results assessed. I. degraded under inert gas atmosphere. The pyrolysis products are separated by gas chromatography and ionised in the mass spectrometer by electron-impact ionisation. 47 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. has previously been analysed and a simple kinetic model based on the rates of the main reactions occurring during irradiation. Matthews S T. SAUDI ARABIA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.792613 Item 133 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 61. To date this has been based on off-line techniques. modulated DSC and density measurements. The PETP employed was a bottle-grade PETP copolymer containing 1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Brown D. A laboratory dielectric instrument is utilised to simulate RTM and autoclave cure cycles for composite structures containing non-conductive and conductive fibres and for different resin systems used in the aerospace industry.

Both dual morphology and melting-recrystallisation-remelting mechanisms were probably responsible for the observed multiple melting behaviour which was dependent on the thermal history of the PETP samples. 28 refs. No. p.2000. No.4432. Liu X M Air Products & Chemicals Inc.5. A rise in the population of crystallites melting in the region between 110 and 120 degrees Celsius. a technique previously only used in medicine. On one-step and twostep annealing. 30 refs. RESONANCE INSTRUMENTS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 31st Oct. Melt endotherms following stepwise crystallisation (thermal fractionation) detailed the effect of the addition of LDPE to LLDPE. The principles of magnetic resonance imaging are outlined and work conducted at Surrey University in conjunction with Resonance Instruments to design equipment for coatings analysis is described. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. indicating that a proportion of the lamellae in this temperature range (attributed to either LDPE or LLDPE) were shifted to a higher melt temperature. whereas rather abrupt changes occurred in the sub-glass transition temperature annealed samples. No. p.References and Abstracts the low energy trans-trans conformation on sub-glass transition temperature annealing. Jin Liu.789727 Item 137 Analytical Chemistry 72. 1st Oct.1007-13 USING SPECTROSCOPY WITH CHEMOMETRICS TO MEASURE POLYMER Accession no.789066 Item 140 Polymer International 49. p. a region was observed where as a pure component LDPE does not melt. across the temperature range 80-140 degrees Celsius. including the drying rate.560-6 CALORIMETRIC AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE MELTING ENDOTHERMS OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Yong Wang.4550-4 GPC SEPARATION OF POLYMER SAMPLES FOR MALDI ANALYSIS Hanton S D.2000. 24 refs. In-situ FTIR studies on the conformational changes of films quenched from the rubbery and sub-glass transition temperature annealed for different times were carried out while increasing the temperature through the glass transition region. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. SURREY.. Accession no. Sept. Shanks R A RMIT University Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) the crystallisation of a series of low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The energy absorbed during the abrupt conformational change represented only part of the endothermic peak observed by modulated DSC.2000 p. p. MALDI mass spectrometry was combined with GPC analysis for broad polydispersity polymers with the use of liquid chromatography interface.and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE)rich blends was examined. After continuous slow cooling DSC analysis showed a broadening of the LLDPE melt peak and subsequent increase in the area of a second lower-temperature peak with increasing concentration of LDPE. position of water and curing in waterborne coatings.1009-16 CRYSTALLIZATION OF LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. CHINA Accession no.19.789734 Item 136 Polymer Journal (Japan) 32. 2000. FTIR spectroscopy and temperature modulated DSC by examining PETP samples subjected to special schemes of crystallisation and annealing treatment at different temperatures.7. with increasing concentration of LDPE. 34 refs. to provide various information. The authors concluded that some new cohesional entanglements may be formed during physical ageing.789529 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 77 . USA Accession no. Lab Connections Inc. The results indicated that incremental changes in the population of trans-cis conformers in the quenched sample were gradual. No.789465 Item 139 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 78.9. a series of multiple endothermic minor peaks was observed. Sept. resulting from the melting of imperfect crystals during crystallisation. showing a nonlinear broadening in the melting distribution of lamellae. Deyan Shen Chinese Academy of Sciences The multiple melting behaviour of PETP was studied using DSC. is discussed.25-6 WATCHING PAINT DRY Middleton J The development of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. A decrease in the crystallite population over the temperature range where LDPE exhibits its primary melting peaks (90-110 degrees Celsius) was noted.AND LINEAR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE-RICH BLENDS Drummond K M.2000.UNIVERSITY. CHINA Item 138 Polymers Paint Colour Journal 190. Results for PMMA were compared with a blend of five narrow PMMA standards that mimic the broad dispersed material. No. Hopewell J L.

State University The influence of secondary interactions on the development of interfacial structure in composites of wood and amorphous thermoplastic polymers is not well understood. In addition. UK. The effects of flow rate of carrier gas and sample size on peak retention volume and of the amount of injection on retention volume were evaluated.State University IR spectroscopic method is developed for evaluating the porosity (concentration and size of pores) in polymers. Tabaraki R Mazandaran.2. PVC. April 2000. such as the Raman technique discussed. USA Accession no.7. Nos. This is technically attractive because optical spectroscopy is routinely used to collect process data on-line and some refineries routinely monitor and control blending using near-infrared spectroscopy. the results can be significantly affected by sample preparation. May-June 2000. osmometry. The potential of determining polymer molar mass using optical spectroscopy combined with chemometric analysis is demonstrated. The results obtained are in agreement with the data of optical and atomic force microscopy. Hadjmohammadi M R.786383 Item 144 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77. 12 refs. Chemometrics is a multivariate methodology that allows the information from entire spectra to be used. it can be considered as a maximal compression technique.References and Abstracts MOLAR MASS Shenton M J. No.1419-31 CURE MODELING AND MONITORING OF EPOXY/AMINE RESIN SYSTEMS.81-92 INVESTIGATING INTERPHASE DEVELOPMENT IN WOOD-POLYMER COMPOSITES BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Rials T G. EUROPEAN UNION. IRAN Accession no.2. 15th Aug.169-74 IR SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF POLYMER POROSITY Pakhomov P M. 15 refs. would be of potential value to many sectors of the polymer production and processing industry.786897 Item 142 Polymer Science Series B 42. p. Oregon. PMMA. WESTERN EUROPE polymethacrylic acid and polymethacrylonitrile. Stevens G C Surrey. RUSSIA Accession no. Although high quality data can be obtained by these methods.787562 Item 141 Composite Interfaces 7. Accession no.117-24 STUDY OF CRYSTALLINITY OF HIGHDENSITY POLYETHYLENE BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Ghaemy M. PE and PAN films of various porosity are prepared from the solutions in liquid and solid paraffins. light scattering and analytical gel permeation chromatography. 1. and they are often time consuming and unsuitable for real-time on-line processing. The concentration and maximum pore size in the bulk and in a surface layer of the samples are determined by IR spectroscopy in the transmission and reflection modes.University The crystallinity of HDPE (Poliran-HD0035 and Irapol5620) was investigated using inverse gas chromatography. 18 refs. 2000.2000. when coupled with chemometrics. A comparable development to monitor polymer molar masses on-line from systems already being used to measure density and melt index. The polymers are selected to provide a range of functional groups and include PS. are capable of providing molar mass and distribution information. respectively. p. In this way. No. the high loadings required for stabilisation of the less polar polymers suggest that a relatively large volume of the matrix phase isaffected by the wood filler. Herman H. It is shown that simple spectroscopic methods. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.786845 Item 143 Iranian Polymer Journal 9. the development of the interphase is monitored as a function of polymer depth on the wood surface. 20 refs. Simonsen J USDA. No. Kruglova E V.5-6. p. Conventional methods for measuring molar mass include viscometry. Khizhnyak S D Tver. This is illustrated with reference to polydimethylsiloxanes in the liquid phase. Retention diagrams and degrees of crystallinity of the HDPEs were determined and compared with those of LDPE.University The ability to determine the molar mass of a polymer is of fundamental importance to describe polymer molecular characteristics. The overall variation of the dispersive component of the surface energy and the ratio of acceptor to donor coefficients appear to group themselves into two categories based upon the polarity of the polymer’s functional groups. Extracted ‘factors’ can then be regressed against property data by using a wellcharacterised set of ‘training’ samples to produce predictive regression models. CURE KINETICS MODELING 78 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . Inverse gas chromatography is used to investigate the effect of different polymers on the surface energy of partially or fully coated white pine wood meal.

5 nm are independent of the ageing time. Bertoti I. Oct. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Universite. The apparent activation energy of PVC dehydrochlorination in the blends was calculated and experimental TGA curves compared with those predicted using the additivity rule. Atomic force microscopy and X-ray induction photoelectron spectroscopy were used for the chemical characterisation of of failure surfaces. No. HUNGARY Accession no. It is shown that the pore dimensions of the tracks forming the water trees of the order of 2. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Vrandecic N S. Hourston D J Loughborough.University An investigation using differential scanning calorimetry was carried out under both isothermal and dynamic curing conditions to determine the cure kinetics of four epoxy/ amine resins.University The glass transition temperature (Tg) advancement and the chemoviscosity development under isothermal Accession no. Carmo Lanca M.University In order to evaluate the application of modulatedtemperature differential scanning calorimetry (M-TDSC) to the study of the crystallisation kinetics of semicrystalline polymers.784242 Item 148 Polymer 41. PORTUGAL. p. It was found that the blends were heterogeneous and that addition of chlorinated PE in a specific temperature range resulted in an improvement in the heat stability of the PVC. Ille A. 1 Vabrik R. UK.2000. p. UK.8161-5 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 79 . p. theoretical and M-TDSC experimental results show that the d ln G/dT versus temperature plots are not sensitive to the noncrystalline component in the poly(e-caprolactone)-SAN blends. 6th Sept.1. p.784861 Item 147 Polymer 41. p. 2000. EUROPEAN UNION. No.T/7-T/9. II.786048 Item 145 International Polymer Science and Technology 27. 22 refs. in good agreement with the experimental results for the resin systems. These were obtained from direct measurements of spherulite growth rate by optical microscopy.784240 Item 149 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77.3. 2000.6. 11 refs.University The miscibility of PVC and chlorinated PE and the effect of the blend composition on the heat stability of the PVC were investigated using several techniques.2000. Keresztes Z. Partridge I K Cranfield. Various cure kinetic models were used to compare them with the results of the DSC results. WESTERN EUROPE APPLICATION OF MODULATEDTEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY TO THE STUDY OF CRYSTALLISATION KINETICS IN POLY(ECAPROLACTONE)-POLY(STYRENE-CO ACRYLONITRILE) BLENDS Song M. No. No. 3rd Oct. this technique allows determination of water concentration as low as 10 -4. p.10.Universidade Nova de Lisboa In PE films aged under electric field the crystallisation of water (and melting of ice) is studied by quadrupolar NMR. including TGA and DSC. The mobility of water in these water trees and in porous glass. EASTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2000. of similar pore dimensions. Oct. PVC sheet was bonded to glass using a M35R hybrid UV curable adhesive based on epoxy resin.8151-4 PORE DIMENSION OF WATER TREES IN PE: NMR STUDIES Judeinstein P.166-72 EFFECT OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE BLEND COMPOSITION ON THERMAL STABILITY Klaric I. CROATIA Accession no. Marat-Mendes J. NETWORK FORMATION AND CHEMOVISCOSITY MODELLING Karkanas P I.References and Abstracts Karkanas P I. 22 refs.22. Czajlik I.2178-8 CURE MODELLING AND MONITORING OF EPOXY/AMINE RESIN SYSTEMS. Partridge I K Cranfield. are compared. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. FRANCE. EUROPEAN UNION.89) APPLICATION OF STATE-OF-THE-ART METHODS IN ADHESION TECHNOLOGY. 2000. Portugal.785593 Item 146 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 78. Here. 17 refs. determined by M-TDSC agrees approximately with previous experimental data and theoretical values. Vig A. The temperature dependence of d ln G/dT (G =crystal growth rate). 15 refs. Kalman E The use is demonstrated of microscopic analysis techniques for the investigation of adhesive failure. Roje U Split. No. Rault J Paris-Sud. (Translation of Muanyag es Gumi. Rusnak I. No. isothermal crystallisation kinetics in poly(e-caprolactone)-SAN blends are investigated. Good fits were found.22.

Gensous F. qualitative observation of the reaction between an amine-terminated copolyethersulphone thermoplastic and epoxide was performed. SCANDINAVIA. p. Deleu C. special concern was given to the probe design and the effects of the probe location as well as practical considerations of the sampling line length. UK. Quantitative calibration and prediction methods have been constructed for different components present in smoke gases. a band appearing upon curing overlapped with the band characterising the end group reaction. Further correlation between Tg and viscosity shows that gelation. SWEDEN. defined as the point where viscosity reaches 10 4 Pas. Fardell P. Nov. Legras R Louvain. The parameters of the WLF equation are found to vary in a systematic manner with cure temperature. diameter.2000. The objective of the SAFIR project was to further develop the FTIR gas analysis of smoke gases to be an applicable and reliable method for the determination of toxic components in combustion gases related to fire test conditions. McGrail P T. p.784096 Item 151 Polymer 41.783075 Item 152 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Greenwich.2. The viscosity profiles show the typical characteristics of epoxy/amine cure. EUROPEAN UNION. Carter J T.References and Abstracts conditions are investigated for four epoxy/amine systems. 17 refs. CEMATE.Universite Catholique. Raman spectroscopy was used to follow the reaction of aromatic amines with epoxide monomers through the evolution of an amine-substituted aromatic vibration. UK. ITALY. with a very good degree of accuracy. and a lot of soot may be produced. Accession no.National Testing & Research Institute. No. which is independent of the cure conditions. Using this method. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Simonson M. Paul K. EUROPEAN UNION. Centexbel. BELGIUM. LSF SUD srl. 2000. A modified version of the WilliamsLandel-Ferry equation (WLF) is adequate to model the viscosity profiles of all the resin systems.437-43 SEMI-QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THERMAL DEGRADATION IN POLYPHENYLENE ETHER 80 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . occurs at a unique Tg value for each resin system. including commercial RTM6 and F934 resins. FTIR measurement procedures in different fire test scenarios are studied using the recommendations of this project for measurement techniques and analysis and an interlaboratory trial of the FTIR technique in smoke gas analysis is carried out to define the repeatability and reproducibility of the method in connection with a small scale fire test method. BELGIUM. FTIR offers an opportunity to set up a calibration and prediction method for each gas showing a characteristic spectral band in the infrared region of the spectrum. Le Tallec Y. UK. It is revealed that the threedimensional network formation follows a single activated mechanism independent of whether the cure kinetics follow a single or several activation mechanisms. FINLAND.. A double shift of this peak was correlated with the formation of secondary and tertiary amines. Band assignment was confirmed by the study of model compounds. Recommendations on how to deal with interferents. in the blend studied containing the curing agent. No. In the large scale. Ghent. Differential scanning calorimetry is the thermoanalytical technique used to determine the Tg advancement. Rapra Technology Ltd. nonlinearities and outliers have been provided and a verification method for the spectrometer for unexpected variations and for the different models have been described. and rheometry for determination of the chemoviscosity profiles of these resin systems. construction material and operating temperature have been specified. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. 9 refs. The optimum probe design. WESTERN EUROPE filter parameters and the most suitable sampling lines in terms of flow rate.101-12 SMOKE GAS ANALYSIS BY FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY SUMMARY OF THE SAFIR PROJECT RESULTS Hakkarainen T. Sweden. a different time-consuming procedure for each species has traditionally been used. reactions are often temperature dependent.Building Research Establishment.C. Mikkola E.784172 Item 150 Fire & Materials 24. Bajocchi C. Due to the different properties of the gas components. p. Elf Atochem SA. in the temperature range 130 to 170 deg. EUROPEAN UNION.3. the cone calorimeter.23. FRANCE. The use of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers as a continuous monitoring technique overcomes many of the problems in smoke gas analyses.8241-5 USE OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY TO STUDY THE REACTION BETWEEN AN AMINETERMINATED THERMOPLASTIC AND EPOXY RESINS van Overbeke E. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University The determination of toxic components from fire gases is difficult because the environment is hot. Laperre J. Unfortunately. The complex cure kinetics are correlated to the Tg advancement via a one-to-one relationship using Di Benedetto’s formula. ICI Plc Reactive thermoplastics are often used as toughening modifiers for epoxy resins. Devaux J. Metcalfe E VTT Building Technology. Carlier V.University. 16 refs. UK. March/April 2000. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

782763 Item 154 ACS. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. If the dimensions decrease below 1 nm. but aromatic ketone concentration was higher from the PMS and a new ketone was also identified from this source. La. It is suggested that quantitative results determined will give detailed information on flame retardance due to the understanding of rates of volatile product generation at the polymer surface.Div.782776 Item 153 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68.. micrometre-long. i. EUROPEAN UNION.e. 2000. 10 refs. Nanophases. New Orleans. while nanophases are approached when the small dimension approaches 10 nm. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999.University. Hikosaka M.References and Abstracts Kinoshita M.) Semicrystalline.. Photoproducts from both polymers were broadly similar. p. La. Conference proceedings. Volume 81. Gardette J-L Ensemble Universitaire des Cezeaux Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy were used to study the photo-oxidation of both poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PMS) and polystyrene (PS) films which had been irradiated at different temperatures and with different radiation sources under an oxygen atmosphere. Souda T. Characteristic of the microphases is the need to consider the surface properties for their description.3. It is shown that special tools must be developed to probe the nanophase structures and properties of polymers. 13 refs. flexible molecules traversing multiple phase domains. Saruyama Y Hiroshima. No. ether and sidechain links.Co. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Arita T.e.Institute of Technology The use of simple computer simulation and analysis of the thermal degradation products of differently thermally aged samples of melt processed polyphenylene ether film gave information on possible degradation routes for this polymer.1999. they may show no bulk properties. 22nd-26th Aug. 22nd-26th Aug. An increase in dimeric products was noted with increased thermal ageing.Div. Between these lamellae one can find the remaining amorphous phase with even smaller dimensions. Primary application of this technique has been the measurement of specific heat capacity and the examination of the anomaly in a relaxation process such as alpha process related to the glass transition. An application to the firstorder phase transitions of crystallisation and melting of polymer crystals has recently been suggested. Many macromolecules can.Ltd. An operational definition of the microphase is its having at least one dimension smaller than a micrometre. show an interaction between opposing surfaces. To explain the distribution of scission products found experimentally. Takeda K Koito Mfg. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999.1999. Shibaura. The method and typical results are described.321-6 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHOTOOXIDATION OF POLYSTYRENE AND POLY(ALPHA-METHYLSTYRENE) Mailhot B. Some 40 years ago it was established that well-formed crystals are often lamellar with a thickness of only about 10 nm.Institute of Technology (ACS. MICROCALORIMETRY (MC) AND TEMPERATURE-MODULATED CALORIMETRY (TMC) Accession no. Routes for formation of identified photoproducts are proposed. Jarroux N. p. Kyoto. the simple computer model was arranged to simulate cleavage rates of methylene bridge. in turn.780663 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 81 . but not in monomeric products. The oxidised films were treated with ammonia or sulphur tetrafluoride and photolysis carried out under vacuum. Some new information available by using three rather new techniques their combinations are described. the macroscopic phase description has reached its limit. so that in all their phase structures there is a strong tendency of nanophase separation. New Orleans. Nemoto T.University. polymeric materials consist usually of metastable aggregates of strongly coupled microphases or nanophases with their constituent. it was noted that both ether bridge and side chain cleavage rates were similar. however consist of alternating sequences of nanometerlength chain segments that are immiscible.) Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (T-MDSC) applies a thermal modulation in temperature to a conventional DSC run and determines a dynamic heat capacity from the relationship between the modulation components of temperature and of heat flow.. FRANCE. JAPAN Accession no. Tomita C. Oda T.780666 Item 155 ACS.242-3 ANALYSIS OF THE NANOPHASE STRUCTURE OF SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYMERS WITH ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY (AFM). JAPAN Wunderlich B Tennessee. 13 refs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ACS.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. and approximately nine times lower than cleavage rates of the methylene bridge. USA Accession no. the melting temperature depends on the surface free energy. 28 refs. Less perfect crystallisation can decrease the crystal dimensions to as little as 1-2 nm in all dimensions. p. i. Volume 81. Conference proceedings. Although results were not totally conclusive.236-7 CRYSTALLISATION AND MELTING OF POLYMER CRYSTALS REVEALED BY T-M DSC Toda A.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.

1999. pyrolysis gas chromatography. p. as they can be applied via optical fibres to the actual failure surface. to name just a few. Nefzger H Vanderbilt University. Jyvaskyla. 6 refs. Poutanen J.. molar mass and chemical composition of complex polymers. La. Paakkonen E Tampere. New Orleans. Failure surfaces of two types of adhesive joints are examined by UV reflection and fluorescence. Ghahary R German Plastics Institute The results are reported of an analysis of the functionality. 22nd-26th Aug. carboxy-terminated PS and PMMA. EUROPEAN UNION. 22nd-26th Aug. However. Polymers investigated included polyamide-12. New Orleans. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999.References and Abstracts Item 156 ACS. SCANDINAVIA.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. Sung N-H Connecticut. Sung C S P. Volume 81. Volume 81.778702 Item 160 Journal of Injection Molding Technology 4.Div.. Murgasova R. non-destructive examination of the failure surfaces as failure occurs.84-91 ANALYSIS OF STYRENE PLASTIC RESIDUES ON INJECTION MOULDING TOOLS Makinen M. methoxylated melamine-formaldehyde resin. a series of experiments on latexes containing PS and poly-n-butyl acrylate (p-nBA) blends is presented. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.776471 82 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .2. March 2000. but also may significantly affect film formation. GERMANY. Bayer Corp. FINLAND. It appears that there are other factors that not only influence distribution of individual components including distribution of surfactants. June 2000. In order to develop in situ techniques. bisphenol A polycarbonate. 8 refs. p. EUROPEAN UNION. 44 refs. complemented by FT-IR ATR studies. Dong X. using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and a combination of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography.2490-8 CHARACTERISATION OF POLYETHER AND POLYESTER POLYURETHANE SOFT BLOCKS USING MALDI MASS SPECTROMETRY Mehl J T.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. In an effort to enhance understanding of these multi-phase latex blends and their coalescence. detection reaction test of bromine.Div.11. Jeong C N. surface tension at the film/air and film/substrate interfaces. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999.University The contaminating substances formed during the injection moulding of ABS and PS parts were removed from the mould surface. Selective degradation reactions combined with MALDI analysis were applied for molecular weight determination of polyether and polyester polyurethane soft blocks.780632 Item 157 ACS. elemental analysis.780560 Accession no. USA Item 158 Analytical Chemistry 72. USA Accession no. and these findings are compared with respective copolymers. Urban M W North Dakota State University (ACS. La. The effects of SDOSS exudation by latex composition.387-8 FAILURE STUDIES OF ADHESION BY UV REFLECTION AND FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUES Kim N-J. Size exclusion chromatography was combined with MALDI to provide accurate molecular weight determination. No. Tufts University (ACS.) A series of previous studies on latex films indicates that mobility of low molecular weight species in particular surfactant molecules. No. Hercules D M. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. these techniques are not amenable for in situ. Astola J. p. Conference proceedings. The first joint studied is PU on epoxy-coated steel. Alen R. An attempt is made to identify factors affecting film formation of PS/p-nBA latex blends using multi-dimensional vibrational spectroscopic methods. IR-ATR ESCA and SIMS have been used for failure mode analysis in polymeric adhesive joints. The residues were characterised using FTIR. p. 33 refs. and subsequently. 21 refs.1999. UV reflection and fluorescence methods are evaluated.University of Technology. USA Accession no. 1st June 2000. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. compatibility and coalescence times. particle and annealing temperatures are also addressed in terms of phase separation and dynamics of macromolecular segments.267-78 ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX POLYMERS BY MALDI-TOF MASS SPECTROMETRY Pasch H. Conference proceedings.University.) Various techniques such as optical and electron microscopy.152. and different dissolving tests. by free volume of a polymer matrix. gas chromatography. The chemical composition of the contamination was clarified and suitable solvents for dissolving these products were selected. p.173-4 FILM FORMATION IN POLYMER LATEX BLENDS: MICROSPECTROSCOPIC 3D STUDIES Zhao Y. may be affected by latex glass transition temperature.778970 Item 159 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. The second is PETP/PE/PETP.

it was seen that the vitrification transition was a gradual process that extended over a large part of cure at all temps. p. UK. No. The curing reaction was monitored using pressure differential calorimetry. Theoretical vitrification times agreed well with the observed times.15. Nos. estimated from FTIR conversion data. Heatley F Crete. June 2000.775805 Item 165 Polymer 41. Results from modulated DSC measurements showed that the calorimetric vitrification times were longer than the vitrification times obtained from rheological measurements at cure temps. SLOVENIA Accession no. GREECE. EUROPEAN UNION. with phosphoric acid as the catalyst. 13 refs. No. Manchester. 13 refs. AUSTRALIA Accession no.42/50 MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 33 DETERMINING COMPOSITION Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. IV. 2000. No. p. The product mixture was analysed by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.3180-3 COMPLETE ASSIGNMENT OF PROTON AND CARBON 13 NMR SPECTRA OF POLYVINYLCARBAZOLE Karali A.University A two-pack PU coating was analysed using thermoanalytical techniques. above 100C. There are three major techniques that are particularly helpful in identifying the type of polymer used in a compound. AUSTRALIA CHARACTERISATION OF POLYURETHANE COATINGS USING THERMOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Ginic-Markovic M.References and Abstracts Item 161 Polymer 41. Each of these techniques has its strengths. Williams D R G South Australia. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 18th April 2000. Matisons J G. modulated DSC and FTIR techniques. Choudhury N R.6. Altmann N.8. or at the same time as. p. 2000.University The gelation and vitrification transitions during cure of an epoxy resin-amine system were examined using rheological. The decomposition behaviour was examined using TGA. where it occurred. 2000. and in determining the composition of the polymer. but that at lower temps.409-24 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 83 . 2000. rheological vitrification.5949-55 UNDERSTANDING VITRIFICATION DURING CURE OF EPOXY RESINS USING DYNAMIC SCANNING CALORIMETRY AND RHEOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES Lange J.11.4039-46 MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/ IONISATION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS. p.774158 Item 166 Polymer 41.1-2. The results of DMA showed that gelation was observed before vitrification at all temps. COUPLING OF SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND Accession no. rheometry and dynamic mechanical analysis. No. Froudakis G E. Dais P.University. Halley P J Queensland.National Institute of Chemistry Polyamide 6 depolymerisation was performed using microwaves as the energy source for the acid catalysed hydrolysis.University. No. 34 refs.776167 Item 163 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 59. These are DSC. p. Theoretical gelation times. 19 refs. were found to be consistently shorter than the observed gelation times. where it could be rheologically defined. The relationship between the assignments and the conformational and dynamic properties of the polymer is discussed. Krzan A Ljubljana. p.11. The magnitude of the vitrification transition. expressed either as amount of change in heat capacity or as maximum value of loss tangent.776090 Item 164 Injection Molding 8. This article focuses on the problems associated with identifying a polymer. Adelaide. the task is to highlight properties and behaviour that are distinctive. was found to decrease approximately linearly with increasing cure temp. By comparing different rheological criteria for vitrification. calorimetric vitrification occurred before.University Details are given of the assignment of the proton and carbon 13 spectra of polyvinylcarbazole by using a number of modern gradient two-dimensional NMR experiments. USA Accession no.4361-5 RAPID MICROWAVE INDUCED DEPOLYMERISATION OF POLYAMIDE 6 Klun U.776348 Item 162 Macromolecules 33. Kelly C T. TGA and IR spectroscopy.

772147 Item 171 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 76. The optimum temp. p. occurring at the glass/adhesive interface. The 1073 cm/1 amorphous band was selected for the timeresolved measurements. Martin B.773260 Item 169 Iranian Journal of Polymer Science & Technology 12. including heterogeneity of the amorphous phase above and below Tg. Merino J C. I. pressure and modifiers were varied to find the best extraction conditions. 20 refs. p. IRAN Accession no.Institute of Technology. Keil C.1999. WESTERN EUROPE Persian KINETIC STUDY OF THE AUTO-OXIDATION OF POLYURETHANE Semsarzadeh M A. CHINA. Czajlik I. located in the adhesive layer very close to the interface. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. No. A method is proposed for calculating the rigid. 2000. Accession no. No. FTIR and H NMR were used to determine the alcohol. Pastor J M Valladolid. Rusznak I. No. The quantitative extractions were significantly faster than those reported previously in the literature. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 43 refs.2. 8 refs. 11 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. The results showed that the SFE/HPLC Accession no. Salehi H Tarbiat Modarres University Gel permeation chromatography was used to study the kinetics of the auto-oxidation of polyurethane. JAPAN Accession no. Spectra were taken from different positions of the polymer track. The procedure provided details on the microstructure of the PPS.938-46 OPTIMIZATION OF EXPERIMENTAL PARAMETERS FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF POLYMER ADDITIVES USING SFE/HPLC Thilen M. Shishoo R Swedish Institute for Fibre & Polymer Research A study was conducted with the aim of extracting the antioxidants Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168 from a PP matrix by using the supercritical fluid extraction(SFE) technique and by subsequent analysis using highperformance liquid chromatography(HPLC). and also partially cohesive.3.Universidad Results are presented of a study in which confocal microRaman spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of the individual polymers present in a series of multilayer food packaging films. and pressure for extraction of these polymer additives were found to be 120 and 384 bar. Vabrik R.6.774127 Item 167 Muanyag es Gumi 37. AMCOR FLEXIBLES ESPANA SA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. PMMA and butyl methacrylatemethyl methacrylate copolymers.279-96 TIME-RESOLVED FTIR STUDY OF CRYSTALLISATION BEHAVIOUR OF MELTCRYSTALLISED POLYPHENYLENE SULPHIDE Yu J. The results are discussed in relation to the chemical nature of the interface and the failure mechanism. Braun D. Montag P. No. No. For polydisperse synthetic polymers a continuous track of matter was deposited onto the matrix surface. p. Nov. amorphous fraction in terms of the increase in the slope of the absorbance variation with temperature at the glass transition. Bertoti I. 2000. acetate and formate compounds in the auto-oxidation products.2. China.89-91 Hungarian APPLICATION OF STATE-OF-THE-ART METHODS IN ADHESION TECHNOLOGY. Data are presented for PS. Vig A. The experimental parameters of temp.773793 Item 168 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 78. with methanol as the modifier.References and Abstracts MALDI-TOF USING A SPRAY-DEPOSITION INTERFACE Esser E. The stationary state rate and the induction time were determined at various temperatures. EUROPEAN UNION.Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut Size exclusion chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was coupled via a robotic interface. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. GERMANY. Asai S. The failure mode was found to be mostly interfacial.Textile University The crystallisation behaviour of polyphenylene sulphide was studied using time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy and the results obtained correlated with DSC measurements. Sumita M Tokyo. p. p. 9th May 2000. SPAIN.541-6 Spanish STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISATION OF MULTILAYER POLYMERIC MATERIALS BY MICRORAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Sanz R. Pasch H Darmstadt.521.1-8 84 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . Kalman E Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the nature of the failure interface and the failure mechanism in a PVC film/ adhesive/glass system. Keresztes Zs. Summer 1999. Ille A.773140 Item 170 Journal of Macromolecular Science B B39.

Within this project. SAFIR. without the necessity of additional experiments.770356 Item 173 Flame Retardants 2000.Universidad Nacional Autonoma. Fire Retardant Chemicals Assn. The steric hindrance parameter. FINLAND.185-92 PRACTICE OF FTIR ANALYSIS FOR FIRE GASES (SAFIR) Mikkola E VTT Building Technology (BPF. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine whether exposure conditions used in the laboratory gravimetric etch testing of acrylic melamine clearcoats © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 85 . p. The FTIR method are shown to be a repeatable and reproducible method for the determination of the most important toxic gas components of real fires. Two of the dental polymers were shown to be mainly polyacrylic acid. No. Holubka J W.770687 Item 172 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. SCANDINAVIA. Interscience Communications Ltd. p. EUROPEAN UNION. METHODS. GERMANY. Texas. Xu L-F Ford Motor Co. while one showed the peak pattern for an acrylic acid/methyl acrylate copolymer of about 2:1 composition and one was an oligomer derived from 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. European Flame Retardant Assn. the findings of this project concerning sampling techniques are most relevant for other methods used for defining fire gases.463-81 CHARACTERIZATION OF ACRYLIC DENTAL POLYMERS Vera-Graziano R. Barcelo-Santana F. and an ‘in-can-individual-VOC method’ which determines the VOC of a liquid paint by the quantitative analysis of each volatile component. COMPARISON OF DEGRADATION CHEMISTRY IN LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTING Schmitz P J.148. 18 refs. Denton.111-8 DETERMINATION OF VOC EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINTS DURING AND AFTER APPLICATION.768669 Item 174 Surface Coatings International 83.References and Abstracts technique used in these experiments was a reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative to the commonlyused liquid extraction and analytical methods. USA. Jan. The Flory-Fox-Shafgagen and the StockmayerFixman models fitted the experimental data reasonably well and could be use to describe the molecular parameters of the acrylic polymers. EUROPEAN UNION. two practical methods in which VOC emitted in a room is measured either by the determination of the total organic carbon or by infrared spectroscopy. PERFORMANCE AND PRECISION Zeh H Wacker Polymer Systems GmbH VOC emissions from indoor latex paints during and after application is determined by four different test methods: a chamber method in which an emission chamber is combined with gas chromatography.53-61 ACID ETCH OF AUTOMOTIVE CLEARCOATS. Moreover. Palacios-Alquisira J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 8th-9th Feb. Dec. SCANDINAVIA. London. aims to further develop the FTIR gas analysis of smoke gases to be an applicable and reliable method for the determination of toxic components in combustion gases related to fire test Accession no. 22 refs. Castano-Meneses V Mexico. March 2000. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Universidad The chemical composition. No. the application rate. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. calibration and analysis for FTIR fire gas method are defined and verified under a variety of fire test scenarios. APME.1999.wt. A European project. 5 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. and therefor.. FTIR offers an opportunity to set up a calibration and prediction method for each gas showing a characteristic spectral band in the infrared region of the spectrum. VOC emission data gathered by these methods are compared with calculations from a dynamic computer model describing the time-dependence of the VOC emission in the room atmosphere. GPC.902..) The use of FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers as a continuous monitoring technique overcomes many of the problems associated in analyses of hot fire gases. 10 refs. II. optimal working conditions including sampling. Martinez-Richa A. (7th International Conference on Polymer Characterization (POLYCHAR7).768107 Item 175 Journal of Coatings Technology 72. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference proceedings. used as model compounds were studied by NMR and IR spectroscopies. dimensions and the molecular parameters of four dental acrylic polymer materials and two polyacrylic acids of different molec. offers an approach with a reduction in costs. Guanajuato.2000. p. March 2000.3. p.1999) MEXICO conditions. VOC content of the paint and the rate of air change. molecular stiffness and second virial coefficient were calculated using different thermodynamic models. intrinsic viscosity and light scattering measurements. SWEDEN. This comparison indicates that the ‘in-can-individual-VOC method’ with computer calculation allows variations in the size of the room.

References and Abstracts

simulated field degradation pathways. The surface chemistry of the field exposed panels was examined and the results compared with those for laboratory treated powders having identical technologies. Consistency in the formation of a melamine salt and ammonium sulphate upon field exposure and laboratory acid treatment indicated that the laboratory treatment conditions simulated the field exposure conditions. 7 refs.

Accession no.767768 Item 176 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 14, No.5, 2000, p.745-64 XPS ANALYSIS OF THE COVERAGE AND COMPOSITION OF COATINGS ON GLASS FIBRES Thomason J L; Dwight D W Owens-Corning Science & Technology Center The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as a method for characterising different sizings on glass fibres was evaluated. A model, based on a patchy sizing overlay hypothesis, was developed to aid in the reduction of data obtained from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. It is shown that the spectroscopic results, when combined with the weight fraction of the sizing, provide a quantitative value for the coverage of the fibre surface by the sizing. 25 refs.

The fibre-matrix interface in carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy resin composites was studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) using novel preparation techniques. The initial adsorption between uncured resin or amine curing agent and the fibre was investigated by the use of adsorption isotherms obtained by the analysis of fibre surfaces following immersion in liquid solutions of the resin. The intact interphase of a composite could be examined by ToF-SIMS following mode I or mode II failure within the spectrometer by the use of carefully designed in-situ fracture stages. 11 refs.

Accession no.765326 Item 179 Adhesion ’99. Conference Proceedings. Cambridge, UK, 15th-17th Sept.1999, p.347-50 MICRO THERMAL ANALYSIS AT INTERPHASES Hassler R; zur Muhlen E Dresden,Institut fuer Polymerforschung; TA Instruments GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd.) Details are given of a thermal analysis technique, referred to as micro thermal analysis, which combines the high resolution positioning of scanning probe microscopy with some of the quantitative analysis capabilities of conventional thermal analysis. The application of this technique in characterising the thermal properties of interfaces in aluminium/epoxy resin adhesive joints and in glass fibrereinforced epoxy resin composites is described. 7 refs.

Accession no.767755 Item 177 Polymer News 25, No.2, Feb.2000, p.56-8 POLYMER ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERISATION Garbassi F EniChem SpA Analytical techniques, such as mass spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy and atomic emission spectroscopy, for the detection of trace elements, mainly metal trace elements, in polymers, used particularly in food, are briefly considered. The disadvantages and suitability of such techniques are summarised. 10 refs.

Accession no.765322 Item 180 Macromolecules 33, No.1, 11th Jan.2000, p.120-4 BRANCHING AND CROSSLINKING IN RADIATION-MODIFIED PTFE. A SOLID-STATE NMR INVESTIGATION Fuchs B; Scheler U Dresden,Institute of Polymer Research High-resolution fluorine 19 NMR was used to investigate the structural changes resulting from PTFE electron irradiation under vacuum. A quantitative analysis of the data was used to establish the density of side groups and branches. 20 refs.

Accession no.766702 Item 178 Adhesion ’99. Conference Proceedings. Cambridge, UK, 15th-17th Sept.1999, p.369-73 INTERPHASE CHEMISTRY OF CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITE MATERIALS Prickett A C; Vickers P E; Smith P A; Watts J F Surrey,University (IOM Communications Ltd.)

Accession no.764731 Item 181 Color and Appearance Retec 1999. Conference proceedings.


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References and Abstracts

Nashville, Tn., 27th-29th Sept.1999, p. 178-87 USING MICROSCOPY AS A PROBLEM SOLVING TOOL IN PLASTICS Compton C Sun Chemical Corp. (SPE,Color & Appearance Div.) Microscopy is a valuable tool for pigment evaluation and problem solving in plastics and other applications. The organic pigments used in plastic applications are typically sub-micron in size. Pigment performance is greatly affected by how well the pigment particles are incorporated in the polymer medium. Various microscopic evaluation techniques that can be used to investigate dispersion quality, strength development and thermal stability are reviewed. In addition, various microscopic techniques for identifying contaminants are discussed. 7 refs.

drinking water in contact with PP pipes was studied. Austrian, German and International Standard methods were used for water at 23C and 60C. The low molecular degradation product 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, rather than the high molecular antioxidants, was detected in the aqueous extracts. In warm water extracts, the concentration of phenols, the total organic carbon content and the effect on odour and flavour were considerably higher than in cold. Alkaline water extracted higher amounts of phenols but acidic drinking water showed no effect. Thermal loading of PP during the extrusion process significantly increased the extractable phenols, total organic carbon content and flavour number/threshold odour. 7 refs.

Accession no.763574 Item 184 West Conshohocken, PA, 1999, pp.6. NALOAN. ASTM D 2124-. METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPONENTS IN POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE) COMPOUNDS USING AN INFRARED SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUE American Society for Testing & Materials ASTM D 2124Version 99. Photocopies and loans of this document are not available from Rapra.

Accession no.764247 Item 182 Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 31A, No.2, 2000, p.165-71 FAILURE PHENOMENA IN TWODIMENSIONAL MULTI-FIBRE MICROCOMPOSITES. PART IV: A RAMAN SPECTRASCOPIC STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE MATRIX YIELD STRESS ON STRESS CONCENTRATIONS van den Heuval P W J; Peijs T; Young R J Eindhoven,University of Technology; UMIST; Queen Mary & Westfield College Raman spectroscopy is used to study the influence of shear yield stress of the matrix on stress situations in carbon fibre/epoxy resin composites containing a planar fibre array. A mixture of two curing agents, with different functionality and molecular weights, are used to cure the epoxy resin in order to obtain a matrix with varying crosslinked density. The carbon fibres are surface treated to give good fibre-matrix adhesion. Three matrix systems are investigated in the study, each with a different yield stress. The mechanical properties of each material are measured under tension and shear conditions. 35 refs.

Accession no.760789 Item 185 Journal of Coatings Technology 72, No.900, Jan.2000, p.69-74 ANALYSIS OF EXEMPT PAINT SOLVENTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY USING SOLIDPHASE MICROEXTRACTION Bodrian R R California,Polytechnic University Acetone, methyl acetate and parachlorobenzotrifluoride have been exempted as VOC solvents by the EPA. In measuring coating VOC content, separate methods for determining exempt solvents are required. One such method utilises solid-phase microextraction to sample the headspace of solvent-based coatings to which the surrogates acetone-d6, methyl acetate-d3 and/or metachlorbenzotrifluoride have been added. The sampled exempt coating solvents are thermally desorbed and analysed using gas chromatography with flame ionisation or mass spectral detection. This paper presents the results obtained for acetone and toluene in a large number of aerosol paints. Additionally, the results from a round-robin study for acetone, methyl acetate and parachlorobenzotrifluoride in commercial solvent-based coatings are reported. 17 refs.

Accession no.763633 Item 183 Journal of Macromolecular Science A A36, No.11, 1999, p.1751-8 POLYPROPYLENE PIPES FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY Hametner C Austrian Plastics Institute The migration of phenolic antioxidants (which are typically used for the stabilisation of PP pipes) into

Accession no.760572

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References and Abstracts

Item 186 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 57, No.3, 1999, p.847-51 IDENTIFICATION OF POLYETHYLENE BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Tsukame T; Kutsuzawa M; Sekine H; Saitoh H; Shibasaki T Saitama,Criminal Investigation Laboratory; Saitama,University A forensic sample consisting of melt-recrystallised polymers recovered from the scene of a fire in a factory is identified by differential scanning calorimetry. The factory commonly used two kinds of film sheets, A and B, made by different manufacturers. It is necessary to decide whether the forensic sample related to material A or B. The forensic sample and reference samples of materials A and B are subjected to IR spectroscopy and pyrolysis gas chromatograph mass spectrometry measurements, which reveal their PE nature. The thermal behaviour of the samples is examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and they are found to be blends of two kinds of PEs, LDPE and LLDPE. The samples can be identified and distinguished from each other via the DSC measurements. 6 refs.

Toronto,University Near-infrared inline monitoring of polymer processing means using an optical fibre-assisted spectrometer to obtain spectra of the polymer melt flowing through commonly used processing equipment (an extruder). Conditions in the extruder are typically 200 deg.C and 20 MPa. The design of interfaces between the spectrometer and the molten polymer is shown. Three designs are shown, each permitting monitoring at a different location in the process: a melt-at-die interface, a melt-in-barrel interface and a strand interface. These designs are for monitoring just before the extruder exit, in the main barrel of the extruder and after the product exits from the extruder as a strand, respectively. All these interfaces protect the inserted optical fibre probe from the harsh environment within the extruder while permitting easy replacement or a probe without interrupting the process. This latter characteristic is very important because it permits easy probe repair as well as the use of other types of probes (for monitoring colour or particles, for example) to be used during a run. Examples of near-infrared spectra obtained with each of the interfaces used with an immiscible blend of PE and PP are shown. Large differences in the spectra demonstrate that the design of the interface will affect multivariate analysis directed at composition prediction. Subsequent papers are directed at using the melt-at-die interface for composition prediction and accounting for nonlinear relationships between absorbance and concentration. 6 refs.

Accession no.760331 Item 187 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 58, No.1, 1999, p.13-8 THERMAL CHARACTERISATION OF POLYURETHANE ACRYLATE RESINS Ledru J; Saiter J M; Grenet J; Yuossef B; Burel F; Bunel C Rouen,University; Rouen,Institut National des Sciences Appliquees Polyurethane acrylate resins cured by two different methods, thermally and photochemically, are investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and thermally stimulated depolarisation currents. Even if both curing methods lead to the same material from a chemical point of view, important differences exist between the thermocured resin and the photocured resin in terms of molecular relaxation behaviour. 8 refs.

Accession no.760231 Item 189 Applied Spectroscopy 53, No.11, Nov.1999, p.1403-11 THERMAL VOLATILISATION ANALYSIS: A VERSATILE PLATFORM FOR SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF POLYMER DEGRADATION PROCESSES Guo X; Huang B; Dyakonov T; Chen Y; Padron L; Vickstrom T; Kuhn J; Hodkiewicz J; Stevenson W T K Wichita,State University; Harrick Scientific Co.; Oklahoma State University; Koch Industries Inc.; ATI Instruments Thermal volatilisation analysis (TVA) and sub-ambient thermal volatilisation analysis (SATVA) techniques are described. In addition to rate profiling of the volatile product flux of thermal degradation under high-vacuum conditions through measurement of pressure in the vacuum line as a function of sample temperature, the TVA technique is shown to afford a convenient method for an on the basis of volatility under high-vacuum conditions, of product fractions of thermal degradation for subsequent spectroscopic analysis. The capacity and flexibility of TVA as a platform for these analyses are illustrated in a case study format by degrading poly(bisphenol A, 2-

Accession no.760327 Item 188 Applied Spectroscopy 53, No.11, Nov.1999, p.1412-8 IN-LINE NEAR-INFRARED MONITORING OF POLYMER PROCESSING. I. PROCESS/ MONITOR INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT Reshadat R; Desa S; Joseph S; Mehra M; Stoev N; Balke S T


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WileyVCH Verlag GmbH © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 89 .757742 Item 193 Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics 200.760230 Item 190 Analytical Chemistry 71. fractionation and high resolving power being required for adequate characterisation.References and Abstracts hydroxy propylether). 1999. The overall degradation process is quantified. HauteAlsace.758987 Item 192 Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics 200. subsequently referred to as TVA/FT-IR. The energy sites distribution plot of n-hexylamine adsorption at finite dilution exhibits a two-adsorbing-peaks curve.1999.dei Mat.4dicarboxyphenoxy)phenylpropane-2-phenylenediimide) was investigated by TGA and direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry and the pyrolysis of this polyimide compared with that of an aromatic polyamide (NOMEX). At the higher energy site. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is used as a tool to investigate the surface structure heterogeneity by calculating the surface energy of different types of probes adsorbed on the Kevlar fibre surface. SWITZERLAND. FRANCE. Donnet J-B Du Pont de Nemours International SA. EUROPEAN UNION. A glycidyl methacrylate/butyl methacrylate copolymer with a broad MWD was analysed. Prokai L. Oct. Spiegel S.Universite Kevlar fibre surface structure is primarily and directly observed in the filament configuration by the tapping Accession no. Oct.. No. According to the AFM and IGC results. Catania. composed of various types of periodical units of an average size 50 nm in a pleating appearance.2'-bis(3. Selected oligomer profiles for the sodiated oligomer ions of a narrow molec. Proof of concept and application of this new analytical technique. In contrast. p.10. is illustrated through the examination of appropriate aspects of the thermal degradation of PMMA polymers.University On-line coupling of GPC to Fourier transform(FT) mass spectrometry(MS) using a modified commercial electrospray ionisation(ESI) interface was studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Simonsick W J Florida. ITALY.2345-55 THERMAL DEGRADATION MECHANISMS OF POLYETHERIMIDE INVESTIGATED BY DIRECT PYROLYSIS MASS SPECTROMETRY Carroccio S. Peng J C M. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1999.University The thermal degradation of poly(2. 19 refs. 1st Nov. p.21. MWD data showed the advantages of coupling high-resolution MS and GPC to overcome the difficulty of analysing polydisperse polymers with MS alone. the periodical organisations exhibit the skin core-like differentiation.10. The design and construction of a modified vacuum-tight long-path gas IR cell. No. GPC/ESI/FT-MS also allowed for an unequivocal end group determination and characterisation of a secondary distribution due to the formation of cyclic reaction products. and most significant pathways of thermolysis are identified through subsequent spectroscopic analysis of products of decomposition.759794 Item 191 Polymer 40. the periodicity is more uniformly arranged by a rectangular network manner. No.4793-9 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED TO FOURIER TRANSFORM MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION Aaserud D J. p. Using the MS-generated calibration curve and the refractive index response for quantification.26.7341-50 SURFACE STRUCTURE OF KEVLAR FIBRE STUDIED BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY AND INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Rebouillat S.2205-7 COLLECTION OF SOLID-STATE CARBON-13 CP/MAS NMR SPECTRA OF COMMON POLYMERS Wilhelm M.wt. 34 refs. No. at the highly crystalline spot. Neidhoefer M.1999. a possible hydrogen bonding interaction is proposed between n-hexylamine and oxygen-containing groups formed at the less crystalline surface.Pol. 49 refs. USA mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). 32 refs. Montaudo G Istituto per la Chimica e la Tecnol. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. At the less crystalline spot on the Kevlar fibre surface. The microfibrils feature is observed with an average width of 500 nm. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. an accurate MWD was calculated and shown to be in good agreement with the value specified by the supplier. Puglisi C. as an interface allowing for the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the online analysis of volatile products of polymer degradation. a Kevlar fibre surface organisations model at the nanometer scale is proposed. Spiess H W Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung. PMMA were generated and used for obtaining a calibration curve. p. The structure of preformed oligomers from the purified polyetherimide and the structure of high temperature pyrolysis products obtained at 620C were examined and the thermal degradation pathways involved in the degradation elucidated. USA Accession no. is described. EUROPEAN UNION.

3 refs.College of William & Mary. Orwoll R A. Measurement of bulk properties showed no difference between samples exposed to heat and UV radiation. block copolymers or polymeric latices. No. GC-FID was applied to the determination of alpha-alkenes. Furthermore. Darmstadt H. Dwight D W Owens-Corning Science & Technology Center X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was applied to a study of commercial and experimental glass fibres using three different instruments. A protocol for plotting ratios of appropriate atom concentrations was developed and the plots used to estimate the surface coverage of the coating on the glass fibres and provide data on the chemical composition of the coating. Oct. antioxidants were analysed by reversed phase HPLC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. samples were analysed by both qualitative and quantitative GC-MS. EUROPEAN UNION. Global mass balance and chlorine mass balance were determined and different methods of capturing hydrogen chloride under vacuum conditions were tested. II: PRODUCT ANALYSIS Miranda R.12. 34 refs. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts A collection of high resolution solid-state Carbon-13 NMR spectra of a wide range of polymers is presented. The elemental composition..757340 Item 195 Polymer Recycling 4. p. Intensities of 1. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. so that the product of intensity and time was a constant. In order to evaluate both the feasibility of using these polymers in food-contact applications and the evolution of HDPE composition through the recycling process. 16 refs. thermogravimetric analysis. the most representative compounds as indicators of polymer matrix degradation. RUMANIA Item 196 Polymer International 48. No.Universite Laval. consisting of a virgin HDPE for food-contact applications. where one sun is the power in space at one earth-sun distance. for a time periods of 500. 1999. 1999. 2 and 3 suns. such as polymer blends. CANADA. and the total dissolution of the polymer. EUROPEAN UNION.13-25 COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS AND FEASIBILITY STUDY OF RECYCLED HDPE FOR DIRECT FOOD CONTACT APPLICATIONS Salafranca J. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 250 and 167 h. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. NASA Langley Research Center Three carbon fibre-reinforced polyimides were exposed to UV radiation at 177C.1999. 1999.756185 Item 197 Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 30A. No. SPAIN. surface properties and calorific value of the solid residue were determined.20. EASTERN EUROPE. Wylie B J.1042-5 EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION ON SEVERAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE POLYIMIDE COMPOSITES Kiefer R L. It is useful for reference purposes in case of unknown or partly unknown samples. p. Vasile C Quebec.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Vacuum pyrolysis of pure PVC was carried out at various temperatures between 220 and 520C and under a total pressure of 2 kPa. Herring K. three samples of this polymer taken after each of the three sequential recycling cycles and a real post-consumer sample were analysed. Thibeault S A Williamsburg. Roy C. Pakdel H. 15th Oct. were used. p.1. Two different extraction methods were applied: a combination of maceration and sonication. This was correlated to surface contamination by a siliconecontaining material. Institut Pyrovac Inc. Finally. GERMANY. Nerin C Zaragoza.755993 Item 198 Analytical Chemistry 71. Petru Poni. The main gaseous and liquid pyrolysis products obtained during the different stages of thermal degradation were identified and quantified by chromatographic methods.4776-80 COMPOSITION AND MICROSTRUCTURE DETERMINATION OF A LATEX SYSTEM BY PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Accession no. Cacho J. and control samples.107-25 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF PVC. at three different intensities for three different times. 43 refs.1999. p. p. No. 22 refs.757725 Item 194 Polymer Degradation and Stability 66. thermomechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis.1. Surface analysis by XPS showed an apparent decrease in carbonyl concentration on the surface of some exposed samples. The relationships between the spectroscopic data and coated glass fibre parameters are demonstrated using an overlay model and data from the three instruments are compared.10.1401-13 USE OF XPS FOR CHARACTERISATION OF GLASS FIBRE COATINGS Thomason J L. The samples were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).756660 90 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . No.University Five HDPE samples.

and also focuses on new materials many based on metallocene catalyst technology. glow discharge spectroscopy and contact angle is described. Similarities and differences between BMC surfaces and sheet moulding compound (SMC) surfaces are pointed out. Schultz J. The composition and microstructure of a polymer in the emulsion phase were identified by direct pyrolysis of the latex system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.. Polymers analysed included SCX-2660 (probably a styrene-methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate terpolymer). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. determination of molar mass and molar mass distribution.e. of this reputable text book.755818 Item 200 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 74. These demonstrate that lead stabilisers are unique compounds. including several new polyester-type materials of interest for bottle blowing and/or degradable plastics. Particular emphasis is placed on mould release agents (polymeric and stearate) on the surface which can influence future bonding behaviour. 14 refs. Mauzac C. Brydson J A The latest edition.2074-9 INVESTIGATION OF MOLECULAR DIMENSIONS OF POLYSTYRENE AS A FUNCTION OF SOLVENT COMPOSITION: APPLICATION TO LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AT THE EXCLUSIONADSORPTION TRANSITION POINT Baran K. Laugier S. Sept.3DIHYDROXYPROPYL-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS. 24cms.& SON INC.1999. determination Accession no. styrene-butyl acrylate copolymer and styrene-alpha-methylstyrenebutyl acrylate terpolymer.References and Abstracts Frank Cheng-Yu Wang Dow Chemical Co. High resolution proton and 13C NMR spectra of leadbased heat stabilisers and their reaction products. now the seventh. i. SEM. p. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. provides an overview of the scientific. 5th Dec.237-43 CHARACTERISATION OF THE SURFACE OF BULK-MOULDED COMPOUNDS Vallat M F. p. 8 refs.2432-8 CHARACTERIZATION OF BISPHENOL ABASED EPOXY RESINS BY HPLC. Similar procedures were then used to explore the composition and microstructure of the polymer in the aqueous phase. VPO.C. 12/1/00. followed by comparing the trimer peak pattern with appropriate microstructure standards. support structural assignments inferred from IR spectra. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. rather than the double salts of lead oxide found in textbooks. pp. This edition also attempts to explain the basis of metallocene polymerisation.755899 Item 199 Oxford.. The polymer in the aqueous phase was pre-pyrolysis derivatised with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide to convert the acid to its butyl ester.755647 Item 201 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. DETERMINATION OF MOLAR MASS DISTRIBUTION. p. JOHNSON S. time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. PSA Etudes et Recherches Centre Technique de Belchamp The surface characterisation of bulk moulding compound (BMC) automotive parts using complementary techniques of surface analysis. Cramail H ENSCPB Liquid chromatography was used to study PS standards at the exclusion-adsorption transition point using silica © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 91 . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Developments with condensation polymers. p. No. The commercial importance of the materials discussed is also noted.3. 011 PLASTICS MATERIALS. Kastanek A SYNPO Results of the above characterisation are presented and discussed with particular reference to determination of alpha-glycol-containing compounds.1999. No.10. AND END GROUP ANALYSIS: ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF 2. 17 refs. FRANCE. No. VISCOMETRY.148-58 NMR SPECTRA OF LEAD STABILISERS Grossman R F Halstab Corp. 1999. 7TH EDN. Accession no. 19 refs. April 1999. GPC. The composition and microstructure of polymers in a latex system were studied by pyrolysis gas chromatography.9. are also covered. USA Accession no. GPCMALLS. 1999. AND BRANCHING Podzimek S. USA of branching and determination of refractive index increment. EUROPEAN UNION.xxvii. Jacquin M Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces.4. technological and economic aspects of currently available plastics and related materials.755491 Item 202 Polymers for Advanced Technologies 10.754736 Item 203 Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics 200. obtained using the magic angle spinning technique.920. No.

A method for analysing unknown copolymers.141. SEC traces of the samples were recorded.747567 Item 207 Macplas International No. Block E. p. averages and MWD of polydisperse samples (PMMA. The oxidation level of the external layer increases as the specific energy of corona discharges is increased.1999. 35 refs. 1999. Ermel J.References and Abstracts adsorbents having differing porosities in various eluents. which involves the use of Markoffian statistics. of the fractions were determined from the mass spectrum. particularly if complemented by IR spectroscopic analysis. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. WESTERN EUROPE Item 206 LCGC International 12. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.246-54 Polish USE OF PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY IN STUDIES OF THE DEPTH PROFILE OF POLYPROPYLENE FILM Zenkiewicz M.95-101 RECENT ADVANCES IN THE ANALYSIS OF POLYMERS AND COPOLYMERS BY MASS SPECTROMETRY Montaudo M S Istituto per la Chimica e la Tecnol.Pol. EUROPEAN UNION. siloxanes. This comprehensive article supplies a detailed analysis of a study in which organic extractable from polypropylene was used as the model analyte to demonstrate how the information obtained separately from EI and API can be complementary.218-21 Polish DETERMINATION OF MIGRATION OF DIMETHYL TEREPHTHALATE AND DIMETHYL ISOPHTHALATE FROM PLASTICS Stareczek T. Bertucci M Cesap Differential scanning calorimetry is one of the most commonly used methods for characterising the thermal properties of polymers. Molec.64-70 DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING COLORIMETRY AND INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN POLYMER ANALYSIS Panarotto A. Mass spectrometry can be the ideal detector for liquid chromatography because it offers both universality and the required selectivity for complex analytical problems. No.10. also allows the nature of the materials under test to be determined.9. 1999.752269 Item 204 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. Kortylewska Edited by: Gliwice. 27 refs. 26 refs.dei Mat. and MWD values is reported.577/87 LC-MS ANALYSIS OF POLYMER ADDITIVES BY EL AND API: IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION Yu K. Progress which has been made in the use of MALDI mass spectroscopy to provide reliable molec. USA Accession no.745360 Item 208 Polimery Tworzywa Wielkoczasteczkowe 44. Seven compounds were separated and detected by both MS detectors. This method. p. The behaviour of model PS chains in solvent mixtures corresponding to the critical adsorption conditions was evaluated using viscometry and light scattering. The particle beam interface is used to generate electron ionisation spectra and the API interface is used to generate either electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation.4. POLAND Accession no. Aug. Golebiewski J Metalchem Plastics Processing Institute The physical fundamentals of photoelectron spectroscopy are reviewed and the range of applications is given.1999. No. ITALY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FRANCE. is also presented.Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry A gas chromatographic method is described for determining dimethyl terephthalate and dimethyl Accession no. p. selected fractions were analysed by MALDI-TOF and the average molec. Sept. ITALY. No. Three PP films were examined and the depth of oxidation was found to be in the nanometer range. polyesters and copolyesters) were obtained by off-line coupling of SEC equipment with the MALDI mass spectrometer. p.3.752091 Item 205 Polimery 44. The principles involved in DSC and IR spectroscopy are discussed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.wts. 20 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.747688 92 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 1999. It was found that critical adsorption conditions could be achieved if the polymer chains entered the pores of the stationary phase and that the characteristics of the elution mode could be defined with the aid of the polarity index of the eluent. Balogh M Waters Corp. EASTERN EUROPE. Kaminska G.wt. The two most popular types of interface for the benchtop single quadrupole LC-mass spectrometer are the particle beam interface and the atmospheric pressure ionisation interface.wt. EUROPEAN UNION. p. EUROPEAN UNION.

a quantitative method is described for the characterisation of polyester-based moulding compounds. 1997/1998. 1st June 1999. which was published in International Polymer Science and Technology.745025 Item 209 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 73. retention of macromolecules at this adsorption promoting ‘barrier’ depends almost exclusively on the copolymer composition and not on its molar mass. It is assumed that the copolymer species travel along the column with a velocity which exactly corresponds to that of the eluent composition. Tseng Y C Taiwan.Universidade Federal.3671-3 LIQUID ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF COPOLYMERS: MOLAR MASS (IN)DEPENDENT RETENTION Berek D Slovak Academy of Sciences Liquid adsorption chromatography with a continuous solvent gradient elution was shown by several previous authors to be capable of separating random and graft copolymers according to their chemical composition. POLAND proposed and tested liquid chromatographic elution of homopolymers under limiting conditions of desorption and takes into account the simultaneous effect of adsorption and exclusion of macromolecules onto/from the column packing. Analytical procedures are described for the quantification of fibre.221-6 EVALUATION OF EVA-PVAC BLEND BEHAVIOUR BY 1-D AND 2-D SOLID-STATE NMR De Souza C M G. © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 93 . filler and fire retardant contents in polyester moulding compounds containing calcium carbonate filler. 21 refs. Under specific conditions. Pacheco C R. The blends were prepared at a fixed temperature. rotation rate.National Cheng Kung University A study was made of the miscibility in the amorphous region of melt mixed blends composed of a novel polyaryl ether ketone (PK99) and PEEK using various methods. with their molar masses not playing an important role.742796 Item 212 High Performance Plastics Aug. and their use in packaging and automotive recycling are discussed.263-7 PROCEDURES FOR THE COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED POLYESTER RECYCLATE Bream C E. EUROPEAN UNION. Hornsby P R Brunel University In order to consider effective strategies for the recovery and reuse of plastics recyclates. EASTERN EUROPE. Miscibility between polymer chains was also studied by two-dimensional hydrogen ion/carbon-13 shift correlation (HETCOR). and translated from a Polish source.11. glass fibre reinforcement. p. SLOVAK REPUBLIC. POLAND Accession no. p. UK. 17 refs. No. EASTERN EUROPE. 1st July 1999.742675 Item 213 Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition 37. p. and aluminium hydroxide flame retardant.References and Abstracts isophthalate in food simulants. exhibiting a displacing power just necessary to prevent a fast progress of the macromolecules due to their exclusion.1485-94 GLASS TRANSITION AND MISCIBILITY IN BLENDS OF TWO SEMI-CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS: POLYARYL ETHER KETONE AND POLYETHER ETHER KETONE Woo E M. PETROBRAS Ethylene-co-vinyl acetate and poly(vinyl acetate) blends were prepared in different proportions by melting in a HAAKE Rheomix mixer. No.13. and processing time. 11th July 1999. No. This hypothesis is based on the mechanism of the recently- Accession no. High-resolution solid state NMR was used to characterise the blends with respect to structure-mobility-compatibility using magic angle spinning with cross-polarisation and high power hydrogen decoupling and measurements of the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. SLOVAKIA Accession no.743327 Item 211 Polymer Recycling 3.2. Rapid spectroscopic methods are indicated. p. p. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology.4. No. A tentative explanation of this finding is presented. 3 refs. 3 refs. Tavares M I B Rio de Janeiro. BRAZIL Accession no.1999. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The method consists in extracting DMT and DMIP from the food simulants with chloroform and analysing of the compounds by GC with the use of calibration curves and diethyl terephthalate as an internal standard.743489 Item 210 Macromolecules 32.10 IDENTIFICATION OF PLASTICS IN WASTE A review is presented of the methods used in the identification of plastics waste prior to recycling operations.

PS. Xu R. Ozaki Y Kwansei-Gakuin. Kalivas J H. Schreiber H P. The AED was very effective in monitoring halogen-containing pyrolysates after Py-GC.740338 Item 217 Journal of Coatings Technology 71.5. and is shown to justify the availability of fundamental thermodynamic interaction data to optimise performance aspects of protective coatings. It was found that Raman spectroscopy could be used to identify both HDPE and LDPE. No. JAPAN Accession no. Ninomiya T. Inverse gas chromatography analysis at very high dilution and at finite concentrations of probe injection was carried out on a series of polymers and pigments used in paint formulations. Partial least squares analysis regression was applied to the Raman spectra after multiplicative scatter correction to propose a calibration model that predicts the density of LLDPE. May 1999. Near-infrared and FTIR Raman spectroscopy were compared and evaluated for the quantitative analysis of naphtha using partial least-squares regression. 23 refs.State University The suitability of Raman spectroscopy. No. CANADA. No. Halogen-containing polymeric flame retardants in engineering thermoplastics were analysed by pyrolysis gas chromatography(Py-GC) with an atomic emission detector(AED) and a mass selective detector(MSD). JAPAN Accession no. SEM.557-64 COMPARISON OF NEAR-INFRARED AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NAPHTHA Min-Sik Ku. DSC.893. Shimoyama M.740339 Item 216 Applied Spectroscopy 53. No. Higashiyama H. Samples were physically aged in order to resolve any possible overlapping Tg’s but only one single Tg was detected over the entire composition range.551-6 FOURIER TRANSFORM RAMAN SPECTRA OF LINEAR LOW-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE AND PREDICTION OF THEIR DENSITY BY MULTIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS 94 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . HDPE AND LDPE. Plastics investigated were PETP. Tomo M. June 1999.5. USA Accession no. The type of polymeric flame retardant used in thermoplastics could be identified by peak pattern recognition through an AED halogen element Accession no. p. 33 refs.2037-45 ANALYSIS OF POLYMERIC FLAME RETARDANTS IN ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS BY PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH AN ATOMIC EMISSION DETECTOR Wang F C Y Dow Chemical Co. library searching or cyclic subspace regression. p. Values of dispersion surface energies.Prefectural Police Headquarters. Yokogawa Electric Co. No evidence for isomorphism was found and the crystal forms of the respective polymers remained distinct and unchanged by miscibility in the amorphous region. No. 38 refs. PVC. SOUTH KOREA Accession no. PP. TAIWAN Sano K. 15th May 1999. Modifications were made to the original cyclic subspace regression algorithm for modelling multiple sample properties and the adapted algorithm employed to directly compare the mechanisms of principal component regression and the PLS2 form of partial least-squares. Ohgane M. SURFACE PROPERTIES. The dispersion stability of each pigment/ polymer combination was measured and correlated with the acid-base interaction parameters of the materials.University.741260 Item 215 Applied Spectroscopy 53.6.672-81 POST-CONSUMER PLASTIC IDENTIFICATION USING RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Allen V.References and Abstracts including optical microscopy.10. p.742306 Item 214 Applied Spectroscopy 53. p. Hoeil Chung SK Corp. AND INTERACTIONS AMONG COMPONENTS OF PAINT FORMULATIONS Ziani A. June 1999. FTIR spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. 19 refs. Nippon Paint Co. Rodriguez R G Idaho. p. for computerised classification of postconsumer plastics was evaluated. 14 refs.53-60 INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. May 1999. FTIR spectra were measured for pellets of sixteen kinds of LLDPE with short branches and one kind of PE without any branch to explore the effects of the branches on the physical properties and the Raman spectrum.739845 Item 218 Analytical Chemistry 71. Kobayashi T Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal. and of acid-base interaction parameters were obtained for the materials. and pair interaction parameters were calculated from the results. when used with K-nearest neighbours. Hyogo. Watari M.

p. Visual deterioration after surgery has been attributed to cellular debris deposited on the lens surface and capsular opacification resulting from inflammation.128-9. 1999. Vienna.. 9 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The advantages and disadvantages of using the AED are also discussed. Spring 1997.) Cataracts are one of the most common causes of worldwide blindness. Thermodynamic theories for the observed results were discussed.76.University. San Francisco.432/6 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLY(METHYLMETHACRYLATE) IN DRUGS BY CURIE-POINT PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Muguruma S. Levels of PMMA adsorbent below 0.736647 Item 222 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 72. Successful visual rehabilitation is not only a function of patients’ health and the surgical technique. p.University Modulated differential scanning calorimetry was used to study miscible polymer blends. The surface characteristics (surface topography and viscoelasticity) of intraocular lenses are investigated using tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. 11 refs. No. protein adsorption. mechanical and bioperformance of the intraocular lens. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.Louis. No. Hourston D J. UK.Div. After generation of the pyrogram by Py-GC/AED. the last two containing different acrylonitrile contents. JAPAN Accession no. Grasserbauer M Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc.University. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) were compared with respect to the ionisation of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-based epoxy resins.Technical University The application of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the analysis of epoxy resins was shown in two examples..1% organic impurity in drug substances stipulated by ICH guidelines. Stephan H. In the noninteracting system (poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(methyl acrylate)). Vol. A set of thermoplastic resins containing different brominated polymeric flame retardants was studied.4763-7 MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY: 14. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the AED in the tasks of specific element monitoring and component pattern recognition. but it also depends on the optical. Ravi V N Washington. No. EFFECT OF MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS ON GLASS TRANSITION BEHAVIOUR AND INCREMENT OF HEAT CAPACITY IN MISCIBLE POLYMER BLENDS Song M. Hammiche A Loughborough.913-25 HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY OF EPOXY RESINS Fuchslueger U. Tottori. 16th May 1999. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering. demonstrating that this analytical technique can be used to monitor compliance with the limit of 0. those pyrolysates produced from polymeric flame retardants were identified by MSD analysis of a complex total ion chromatogram generated by the thermoplastic resins. 17 refs.737361 Item 221 LCGC International 12. Specific molecular interactions determined whether the glass transition temperature and the increment of heat capacity versus composition showed positive or negative deviations from linearity for the blend systems. Uchino S. 012 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY STUDY OF INTRAOCULAR LENS IMPLANTS TOPOGRAPHY AND SURFACE PROPERTIES Kowalewski T. Ca.University Curie-point pyrolysis gas chromatography was used for the quantitative analysis of residual synthetic adsorbent crosslinked PMMA used in drug purification. Conference proceedings. They are presently corrected by surgery in which the natural cataractous lens is replaced by a synthetic intraocular lens. Rissler K. the glass transition temperature and increment of heat capacity showed linear behaviour with composition. Oguri N.7. USA Accession no. Pollock H M. Lancaster.738049 Item 219 ACS. St. July 1999.. Grether H J.Ltd.References and Abstracts trace.15% in drug substances were successfully measured quantitatively by Py-GC using characteristic peaks that reflect the structure of the adsorbent.Veterans Affairs Medical Center (ACS. 12 refs. USA were poly(vinyl acetate)/poly(methyl acrylate).737604 Item 220 Polymer 40. complement activation and cellular adhesion have been implicated and believed to be influenced by the surface properties of the implants. poly(phenylene oxide)/PS and two poly(styrene-coacrylonitrile)/PMMA blends. Although the exact sequence of events that take place when an implant is exposed to the ocular environment in vivo is not known. Kiji J Japan Analytical Industry Co.17. The blends studied © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 95 . Byproducts in a typical modified solid DGEBA-based Accession no.7.

The concentration dependence of the Dc followed a linear regression law. Among the several models and equations proposed for this determination. 1999.. May 1999. The diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution obeyed a given scaling law. New York.629-45 ADHESION CHARACTERISATION OF PROTECTIVE ORGANIC COATINGS BY ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY Deflorian F.Y. EUROPEAN UNION.197207.5.1134-42 POSSIBILITIES AND LIMITS OF PHOTON CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY IN DETERMINING POLYMER MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS Faraone A. the most frequently used is the Brasher equation. N. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. SWITZERLAND. considering aluminium. Hall C J Hauser Inc.733222 96 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . with particular attention to monitoring of adhesion in an aqueous environment. The inversion of the scattered intensity autocorrelation data by the regularisation method CONTIN permitted the evaluation of the MWD function of the polymeric samples. USA Accession no. 26 refs. 22 refs. p. ITALY.I. Plastics Design Library. ITALY. Italian E. and stainless steel substrates. Maschio G Messina.. EIS. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1915. molec. USA Accession no. Villari V. Edited by: Harris R M Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become a commonplace analytical tool in the plastics industry. which may change the chemical composition of the filler. Advantages and limitations are considered as well as particle size and product form. A comparison with the results obtained by size exclusion chromatography was therefore carried out for a set of samples having monomodal and bimodal distribution functions. Most Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Item 225 Coloring Technology for Plastics.Y. 52 PRACTICAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES OF POLYMER FILLERS BY FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (FTIR) Coles B J.733531 Item 224 Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics 200. Edited by: Harris R M The identification of polymers by FTIR is often complicated by the presence of fillers.732217 Item 226 Coloring Technology for Plastics. The work presented outlines the methodology for using NIR to measure stabiliser levels in colour concentrates and natural polymer formulations. FTIR analysis should be able to identify the filler and predict its concentration using a standard curve. The resulting percentage is more reliable than a simple ash. and based upon the evolution of the coating capacitance. 2 refs.University This review describes in detail the influences on adhesion of different pretreatments or organic coatings. Plastics Design Library. EUROPEAN UNION. and temp.References and Abstracts epoxy resin and in a new weatherable crosslinker for powder coating applications were characterised and discussed. March 1999. N. Nirsberger M. which is the most detrimental for protective organic coatings. it had limited resolution power. However.wt.University The effect of concentration and polydispersity on the collective diffusion coefficient(Dc) evaluated using photon correlation spectroscopy was investigated on PMMA in acetone solutions. galvanised steel. No. Magazu S. 52 MEASURING STABILISERS IN PIGMENTED PLASTICS WITH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Solera P. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. for kaolin clay.732216 Item 227 Pitture e Vernici 75. Castillo N Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp. p. Simoes A M P Evaluation of the volume fraction of water in organic coatings in immersion is often made by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. and it was shown that the information obtained using an electrochemical approach can be used for adhesion evaluation.5. New York. the slope being fairly independent of polydispersity.S. EVALUATION OF ATTACHED AND FREE POLYMER FILMS Castela A S. p. 1999. Fedrizzi L Trento. 1999. Maisano G.734831 Item 223 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 13. NIR techniques have made quantification of many organic components in polymer processing easy and quick.5. p. 4 refs. No. AUSTRIA. Although this algorithm gave valuable information on average amounts or on the widths of the distribution. 40 refs.7-8 English. No.

314-20 CHARACTERISATION OF MIXED FIBRE NYLON COMPOSITES INCORPORATING COMPOSITE SCRAP Licea-Claverie A. were reported.Ltd. such as FTIR or SIMS. tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH). EASTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Div. Boston. A method for determining the chemical composition of natural resin shellac was developed based on reactive pyrolysis-gas chromatography(Py-GC) in the presence of an organic alkali. simultaneous DTA and TGA. (ACS. Several formulations were prepared by injection moulding and were characterised by stress-strain measurements. p. UNAM Recycling of engineering thermoplastics and their composites is discussed. Py-GC using 25% TMAH aqueous Accession no.Technical University Thermogravimetry coupled with FTIR was used to investigate the stabilising action of 3-(2. Dougal S. March 1999. A study on nylon-6.1809-14 POLYMER ANALYSIS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/ELECTROSPRAY IONISATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY Nielen M W F. including nylon composite scrap in their formulation.731446 Item 230 Polymer Preprints. POLAND Accession no.730043 Item 231 Polymer Composites 20.PVC plastisol . Tsuge S. April 1999. and compared with a virgin standard composite. Carrillo F J U. WESTERN EUROPE GENERATION SPECTROSCOPY Zhang D.. EUROPEAN UNION. MEXICO Accession no. The observed spectral changes provide strong support for the photooxidation of the aromatic ring at the PS surface. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts frequently these determinations are made with applied coatings. p.2.731759 Item 228 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 55. and monomer mass and end groups were inferred from the isotopically resolved mass spectra.7.2. Volume 40.6 based composites with mixed glass fibre and carbon fibre reinforcement. Mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting composites are presented. 13 refs. Yeganeh M S Exxon Research & Engineering Co. as observed by the dramatic decrease in the aromatic C-H vibration during photo irradiation and plasma treatment. p. density measurements and SEM.729302 Item 232 Analytical Chemistry 71. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1316-22 CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL RESIN SHELLAC BY REACTIVE PYROLYSIS-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN THE PRESENCE OF ORGANIC ALKALI Wang L.Instituto Tecnologico. thereby allowing its application for novel PVC systems with enhanced thermal stability. 26 refs.731454 Item 229 Analytical Chemistry 71. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Ohtami H. p. No. Conference proceedings.226-7.4dibromophenylazo)-9-(2. 44 refs.of Polymer Chemistry) The effects of UV light and oxygen plasma on PS surfaces is investigated using SFG spectroscopy. both applied on a metallic substrate and as a free film. 1st May 1999. Alvarez-Castillo A. although studies can be found in the literature using free films.9.University. Number 1. No. Gifu Shellac Manufacturing Co. Buijtenhuijs F A Akzo Nobel Central Research Different liquid chromatography modes in polymer analysis were successfully interfaced with electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry in a single experimental set-up: the mass spectrometry data from size exclusion chromatography/mass spectrometry of PMMA were used as absolute calibration points in the size exclusion chromatography/refractive index chromatogram. discussed. impact testing. Nakayama T Nagoya. The behaviour of a commercial coating . Ishida Y. This secondary stabiliser increased the initial temperature of hydrogen chloride evolution (the main process responsible for PVC decomposition). p. 10 refs. It is also found that the kinetics of the photooxidation of the PS surface. Ma.Instituto Tecnologico.3-epoxypropane)carbazole on the degradation of PVC. 1999. No. Castano V M Tijuana. is much faster than similar process observed by other techniques. Zacatepec. monitored by SFG. 1st April studied. March 1999. USA Accession no. NETHERLANDS. ITALY. 012 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF POLYSTYRENE STUDIED BY IR-VISIBLE SUM FREQUENCY © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 97 .559-63 TG/FT-IR STUDIED OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) BLENDS Pielichowski K Krakow.

References and Abstracts

solution permitted the highly sensitive determination of terpenic acids, aleuritic acid, several minor fatty acids and the wax components of shellac as their methyl derivatives on the resulting pyrograms with less than 2.0 % relative standard deviations without using any cumbersome pretreatment. The observed average distributions of each resin acid component determined by reactive Py-GC for shellac samples from India and Thailand showed that the average ratios among terpenic acids, aleuritic acid and the other fatty acids were about 53:24:14 for Indian shellac and 51:35:14 for Thailand shellac, respectively, suggesting a slightly significant difference. Clearer discrimination of the shellac samples from the two different countries was, however, achievable by applying principal component analysis for the mole percent distributions of all the acidic components determined by reactive Py-GC. 24 refs.

RAPRA COLLECTION OF INFRARED SPECTRA OF RUBBERS, PLASTICS AND THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS. SECOND EDITION Sidwell J A This book provides a set of transmission and pyrolysate spectra of a comprehensive range of technically important rubber and plastics materials including copolymers and blends which are in current use. Materials are indexed under both polymer and trade name. Accession no.725345 Item 235 Polymer 40, No.12, 1999, p.3479-85 INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) Al-Saigh Z Y Columbus,State University The inverse gas chromatography method was used to obtain the thermodynamic properties and the surface energy of a semicrystalline polymer, PEO. PEO was used as a stationary phase in the chromatographic column and 16 solutes with a different chemical nature were used as eluents. Alkanes showed endothermic interaction parameters and the molar heat of mixing in a temp. range of 70-130C. Acetates and alcohols showed better interactions with the PEO layer and butanol was found to be the best solvent for PEO among all solutes used. The variation in molec.wt. of PEO above 400 g/mol showed no apparent effect on the interaction coefficients. The dispersive contribution of the surface energy of PEO was measured as a function of temp., which ranged from 8.00 and 13.00 mJ/sq m, indicating a poor surface energy of PEO. 43 refs.

Accession no.727139 Item 233 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering. Fall Meeting 1997. Volume 77. Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1997, p.594-5 .012 EFFECT OF SECOND DIMENSION SAMPLING RATE AND PARTICLE SIZE ON RESOLUTION AND RUN TIME IN TWO DIMENSIONAL LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLYMERS Murphy R E; Schure M R; Foley J P Rohm & Haas Co.; Villanova,University (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) The optimisation of a two dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (reverse phase liquid chromatography/gel permeation chromatography (GPC)) system for the analysis of low molecular weight polymers is described. A test mixture of polyethylene glycols and a commercial surfactant was used. The analysis time of the second dimension, GPC, was varied by using different columns. The columns had different particle sizes and lengths, and the two dimensional resolution was compared by varying the run time in the second dimension. Following the optimisation, it was possible to complete a two dimensional analysis in the time normally taken for a normal gradient HPLC run. It was established that conventional columns could be run with higher flow rates without a significant loss of resolution. The combination of shorter and smaller particle GPC columns resulted in lower sampling periods at lower flow rates than conventional columns. The highest sampling rate into the second dimension gave the best resolution. 7 refs.

Accession no.721885 Item 236 Journal of Adhesion 68, Nos.1-2, 1998, p.117-42 QUANTIFICATION OF COATING ADHESION USING LASER INDUCED DECOHESION SPECTROSCOPY Meth J S; Sanderson D; Mutchler C; Bennison S J DuPont Co. A new technique, laser induced decohesion spectroscopy, is presented, which is capable of measuring the practical work of adhesion between a transparent polymer coating or substrate. A laser pulse directed onto the sample creates a blister at the transparent/opaque interface. The blister’s internal pressure depends on the laser pulse energy, and at a critical pressure the sample fractures, creating an annular debond similar to that obtained in the standard blister test. By measuring physical variables such as the

Accession no.726180 Item 234 Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 1997, pp.315. 220.00. 30cms. 9922


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References and Abstracts

curvature of the blister, and its radius and thickness, it is possible to deduce the practical work of adhesion. 19 refs.

Kuo C; Grieser M D; Robinson D Henkel Corp. (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) Applications are given of the use of size exclusion chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography for the characterisation of coatings systems which either use water as the major solvent or utilise low molecular weight polymers, oligomers, and reactive additives which are then reacted to produce high molecular weight and crosslinked films. 6 refs.

Accession no.721348 Item 237 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 13, No.3, 1999, p.379-91 DETERMINATION OF THE ADHESION PROPERTIES OF AN ALKYD PIGMENTED COATING BY ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY Gonzalez J E G; Rosca J C M Gran Canaria,University Impedance measurements were performed in different frequency ranges at open circuit potential for an alkyd coating with titanium dioxide as a mineral pigment in 3% sodium chloride. The most probable impedance equivalent circuit method was considered for data analysis. The interpretation of the impedance spectra permitted the determination of water permeation, the formation of blisters, swelling of the coating, and the loss of adhesion. 17 refs.

Accession no.720838 Item 240 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering.Fall Meeting 1997.Volume 77.Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1997, p.35-6 012 LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF MACROMOLECULES UNDER LIMITING CONDITIONS OF SOLUBILITY: FIRST EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS Bartkowiak A; Hunkeler D; Murgasova R; Berek D Szczecin,Technical University; Swiss Federal Institute of Technology; Slovak Academy of Sciences (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) Liquid chromatography at the critical adsorption point (LC LCS) was investigated. The solubility of macromolecules, the sensitivity of LC LCS to such variables as the injection volume, concentration injected, mobile phase flow rate and mixing between the injection zone, were investigated, using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyacrylamide standards. It is proposed that using tetrahydrofuran and n-hexane as eluents for PMMA, at the LC LCS, limited polymer insolubility or even local precipitation is combined with the size exclusion of macromolecules. 12 refs.

Accession no.721335 Item 238 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering.Fall Meeting 1997.Volume 77.Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1997, p.48-9 012 QUANTITATION IN THE ANALYSIS OF OLIGOMERS BY HPLC WITH ELSD Trathnigg B; Kollroser M; Maier B; Berek D; Janco M Graz,Karl-Franzens-Universitat; Slovak Academy of Sciences (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) The influence of the operating parameters used when operating evaporative light scattering detectors in conjunction with high performance liquid chromatography for the characterisation of oligomers was investigated, using polyether samples. It was concluded that the instrument was useful because it provided gradient elution, however, very careful calibration was required to obtain reliable quantitative data. 16 refs.

Accession no.720833 Item 241 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering.Fall Meeting 1997.Volume 77.Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1997, p.31-2 012 LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF MACROMOLECULES AT THE CRITICAL ADSORPTION POINT: PROBLEMS AND PITFALLS Berek D; Janco M Slovak Academy of Sciences (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) The role of column packing pore size in liquid chromatography at the critical adsorption point was investigating using three silica gels and a series of polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA), using toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF) or their mixtures as eluents.

Accession no.720839 Item 239 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering.Fall Meeting 1997.Volume 77.Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1997, p.46-7 012 APPLICATION OF SEC AND HPLC TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS, OLIGOMERS, AND SMALL MOLECULES USED IN COATINGS AND INKS

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References and Abstracts

Toluene strongly promotes adsorption of PMMAs on the silica surface, whereas THF suppresses adsorption. It was established that the pore size of the column packings played an important role in liquid chromatography at the critical adsorption point. The column with the smallest pores largely determined the behaviour of the whole set. The feasibility of using silica gel as column packings for liquid chromatography at the critical adsorption point is questioned. 14 refs.

Dallas, Tx., Spring 1998, p.102-3. 012 COUPLED PROGRAMMED PYROPROBE-MASS SPECTROMETRY AND THERMOGRAVIMETRIC-MASS SPECTROMETRY Carraher C E; Molloy H M; Louda J W; Baker E Florida,Atlantic University; Florida,Center for Environmental Studies; Midwest Research Institute (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) In 1977, a thermogravimetric analysis unit was successfully coupled with a mass spectrophotometer, TGMS. More recently, a coupled programmed pyroprobemass spectrophotometry system, also utilising IR spectroscopy, was employed as a means of describing degradation sequences as a function of temperature. The application of these tools as a means to define polymer structure and degradation products is described. 9 refs.

Accession no.720831 Item 242 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering.Fall Meeting 1997.Volume 77.Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1997, p.22-3 012 2D-LC OF FUNCTIONAL POLYETHERS Trathnigg B; Kollroser M; Parth M Graz,Karl-Franzens-Universitat (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) A combination of liquid chromatography under critical conditions using coupled density and RI detection in one dimension, and gradient high performance liquid chromatography in the second dimension, was used in the two-dimensional chromatographic analysis of the oligomers present in fatty alcohol ethoxylates. Full resolution was achieved. 6 refs.

Accession no.719193 Item 245 ACS Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering, Spring Meeting 1998. Volume 78. Conference proceedings. Dallas, Tx., Spring 1998, p.219-20. 012 SECONDARY TRANSITIONS IN POLYMERS PROBED BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Bertolucci P R H; Harmon J P South Florida,University (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) The use of differential scanning calorimetry to identify secondary transitions in thermoplastics is studied. The temperature and breadth of the secondary transition are related to the those of the alpha transition in a variety of methacrylate, acrylate and styrene polymers, as well as polycarbonate. The effect of thermal history and the position and sharpness of these endothermic transitions is discussed. Some comparisons are made between this technique and results obtained via dielectric analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis obtained in the laboratory. 7 refs.

Accession no.720827 Item 243 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering.Fall Meeting 1997.Volume 77.Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 1997, p.20-1 012 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPLEX POLYMERS BY COUPLED LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC PROCEDURES Berek D Slovak Academy of Sciences (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) Size exclusion chromatography alone cannot characterise the constituents of complex polymer systems. Separation selectivity and characterisation of complex systems may be enhanced with liquid chromatographic (LC) methods utilising combinations of different separation mechanisms. These are termed coupled LC procedures. The applications of a variety of coupled LC procedures are discussed. 16 refs.

Accession no.718740 Item 246 Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics 200, No.2, Feb.1999, p.413-21 THERMAL PROPERTIES AND CRYSTALLISATION BEHAVIOUR OF POLYHYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID IN BLENDS WITH CHITIN AND CHITOSAN Ikejima T; Yagi K; Inoue Y Tokyo,Institute of Technology Films of blends of polyhydroxybutyric acid with chitin and chitosan were prepared as completely biodegradable

Accession no.720826 Item 244 ACS Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering, Spring Meeting 1998. Volume 78. Conference proceedings.


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Dowling J. p.5-8 EXTRACTABLE FREE MONOMERS FROM SELF-CURED DENTAL SEALANTS RESULTING FROM DISPENSING ERRORS Vaubert V M.715972 Item 250 Analytical Chemistry 71. polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate and polybutylhydroxycyclohexyl methacrylate are compared with results from a computer simulation based on a multicomponent kinetic model. Data using polyvinylpyrrolidone. 26 refs. 39 refs.8 to 2.533-41 NMR STUDY OF COMMERCIAL POLYETHYLENE-CO-VINYL ACETATE de Souza C M G. p. p.8.95-7 CURING OF MONOMER COMPOSITES. and epoxy/PP bilayer systems and the interfacial forces responsible for adhesion. The effect of pyrolysis temp. leading to determination of the work of adhesion.1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the level of specific crosslinkers in various commercial products ranged from 1.468-75 IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF CROSSLINKERS IN CROSSLINKED POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE(PVP) BY PYROLYSIS-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY(GC)/ MASS SPECTROMETRY(MS) Cheng T M H. 13 refs. USA Accession no. IRELAND.1999. II. epoxy/PE. Crystallisation was examined using DSC. on this level varied with the crosslinkers studied.2.Polytechnic Institute HPLC experiments were performed on a series of selfcuring polybisglycidyl methacrylate dental sealants that were deliberately mismixed. No. No.Cidade Universitaria Two EVA materials with distinct vinyl acetate ratios are studied by nuclear magnetic resonance using solution and solid techniques. Data are given from FTIR and carbon 13 NMR. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2.716161 Item 249 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 13. No. 15th Jan. Bausch & Lomb Inc. p. 3. The pyrolyser regenerated and volatilised specific crosslinkers which could be distinguished from other pyrolysate compounds by either peak retention time or mass spectral release. Dec. JAPAN Accession no. McBrierty V J. Malawer E G International Specialty Products Pyrolysis-GC and pyrolysis-GC/MS were used to identify and quantify specific nitrogen-containing crosslinker compounds incorporated into the structures of crosslinked PVP polymers which appeared to be identical by FTIR spectroscopy. Douglass D C Dublin.Trinity College.N’divinylimidazolidone. These studies are made in order to obtain a © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 101 . In general.1. USA systems under elongational interactions in polymer bilayer systems under elongational deformations and changes in potential energy. Feb. The pyrolysis methodology could not distinguish the level of crosslinker which was incorporated as a pendant functionality from that portion which was incorporated through both vinyl groups. No.5% w/w. p. Details are given of a method for monitoring the realtime curing dynamics of composite monomers. USE OF NMR TO MONITOR REAL TIME CURING DYNAMICS Martin S J. 1999. Individual compounds studied included 3-ethylidene-1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone.1998. exploiting site specific information provided by high resolution NMR. Tavares M I B Rio de Janeiro. This research expands the scope of previous findings and provides a relationship between the C-H stretching vibrational energy changes for acrylic/PE. 1999.19-34 RHEO-PHOTOACOUSTIC (RPA) FTIR SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF THE ADHESION OF THERMOSETS TO POLYOLEFINS Pennington B D. 31 refs.716163 Item 248 Macromolecular Rapid Communications 20. Moon P C. 1999. The amount of extractable sealant under conditions of nonideal processing was measured. EUROPEAN UNION.3'ethylidenebis(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and N. The crosslinker content obtained by this technique correlated with the swell volume data for a specific series of crosslinked PVP samples made with a single crosslinker and having similar particle size distributions.715578 Item 251 Polymer Testing 17.716972 Item 247 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 48.References and Abstracts polyester-polysaccharide composites. Love B J Virginia. Urban M W North Dakota State University Rheophotoacoustic FTIR analysis and previously developed theory were utilised in an attempt to correlate the molecular level interactions in polymer bilayer Accession no. 7 refs. acrylic/PP. USA Accession no.

HUNGARY Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. 1997.2.477-99 APPLICABILITY OF TEMPERATUREMODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY(TMDSC) TO POLYMERIC SYSTEMS.1999.1998. Bergmann E. For polymer melting. Measurements of the band intensity ratio of the fibres were made and related to their Young’s modulus. 1998.713264 Item 255 Surface Coatings International 82. Evaluation of corrosion damage levels for three coating systems after 90 day immersion in 0. The results show that these polymers present characteristic mobilities as a function of vinyl acetate in the copolymer. EASTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No.2. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts relation between the structure-properties-mobility and this response can be utilised in order to have precise information for new applications as well as better understanding of the material behaviour.565-76 METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF THE MEASURED CURVES OF TEMPERATURE-MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY(TMDSC) INVESTIGATION IN THE MELTING REGION OF POLYMERS Schawe J E K. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Mathot V. Hendra P J Southampton. Carew J A. p. GENERAL THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION BASED ON THE FULL HEAT CAPACITY FORMULATION Scherrenberg R.713454 Item 253 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 54.University. Hasan A Kuwait.713453 102 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . as a consequence of the different commercial applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Russell A E. No. depending on the time scale and the susceptibility of the process to the temp. Fourier transform analysis was used to evaluate the data. This relationship is useful in morphological studies of PE fibres. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. 47 refs. No.1. It is demonstrated that processes studied with the aid of TMDSC can be simply classified into three distinct regimes.19. p. Winter W Ulm. p.University Raman microscopy was used to analyse a series of high modulus PE fibres. 16 refs. relating the Raman scattering anisotropy to the mechanical performance of the filaments. The DSC tests can be used to estimate extrusion conditions e.713236 Item 256 Journal of Materials Science 33.714141 Item 252 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 54. Steeman P DSM Research An overview is presented of the different aspects of TMDSC. Jan. Accession no. KUWAIT Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.g. 1st Oct. amplitude was too large. No. NETHERLANDS. using a general theoretical description based on the full heat capacity formulation. GERMANY. 1998.A12-4 Hungarian ASSESSMENT OF THE THERMAL HISTORY OF EXTRUDED UPVC Marossy K BorsodChem Rt. 10 refs. of failed products. 13 refs. No. BRAZIL Item 254 Muanyag es Gumi 34.12.AND WATER-BASED PAINT SYSTEMS Al-Hashem A.4721-5 RAMAN SPECTRA OF HIGH MODULUS POLYETHYLENE FIBRES BY RAMAN MICROSCOPY Lu S. as the quantity of vinyl acetate increases the dyads and tryads distribution and the molecular mobility in the copolymer change. It was shown that this procedure was not sufficient for quantitative discussions if deviations from the symmetric curve shape occurred in the measured heat flow curves. Thus. The paper deals with the investigation by differential scanning calorimetry of extruded rigid PVC formulations. 22 refs. the resulting information being the amplitude and the phase shift of the first harmonic of the periodic heat flow component. p. p. modulation.26-30 USE OF ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE PROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF SOLVENT.5M NaCl was performed using the EIS and visual observations. it was shown that asymmetric curves would be measured if the experimental temp. The DSC traces of processed UPVC depend on the thermal history of the melt. 15 refs. electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the corrosion protection properties of the solvent-based coatings and water-based coating systems currently being proposed for use in the industrial installations in the Arabian Gulf region.Institute for Scientific Research In this work. IFA GmbH The measured signal of the TMDSC was examined for the case of polymer melting.

AUSTRALIA. 1998. 3rd Jan. No. The differential heat capacity signal from MDSC was used to monitor the SINC process.711133 Item 257 Applied Spectroscopy 52. peak assignments. EUROPEAN UNION. Qingrong Fan Chinese Academy of Sciences The glass transition of PETP samples which were subjected to solvent induced crystallisation (SINC) was investigated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and density measurements. 1997. Jing Chen.10.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 1998. Berndt C C. The orientation of both polarised Raman microscopy and polarised attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy. p.709342 Item 261 Chinese Journal of Polymer Science 16. 15 refs.30-3 Russian BREAKDOWN OF AMMONIUM SALTS WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO WOOD-BASED COMPOSITES Vigdorovich A I. and unit cell dimensions. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 24 refs. p.1998. This procedure was to determine whether the intuitive assumption that orientation and crystallinity would be positively correlated actually holds true on the microscopic scale for these samples. Jingui Gao. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. 26 refs.332-8 DETECTION OF TG BY MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Rui Song. You-Lo Hsieh California. USA Accession no. Coatings were produced at a range of specific temperatures by varying the propane flow rate and gun traverse rate. The instrumental broadening and the background scattering is represented by a binomial. 18 refs. Heung Kim.1498-504 MEASUREMENT OF ORIENTATION AND CRYSTALLINITY IN UNIAXIALLY DRAWN POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) USING POLARISED CONFOCAL RAMAN MICROSCOPY Everall N J ICI Wilton Research Centre Polarised confocal Raman microscopy was used to measure molecular orientation in uniaxially drawn PETP films. p.3. No.1-6 MICROWAVE PLASMA REACTIONS OF IMIDAZOLE ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) SURFACES: A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY Schmitt B R.4.11. Hewitt D Stony Brook.University © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 103 . No.12. Nov. Newly created Accession no. USA Accession no. Dec. UK. Monash.1999.1873-81 PHYSICAL AND RELAXATION PROPERTIES OF FLAME-SPRAYED ETHYLENEMETHACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER Brogan J A. Xin Lin. p. Simon G P. Coatings were scanned using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. p. prepared with draw ratios from 1 to 3.771-4 CRYSTALLITE SIZES AND LATTICE DISTORTIONS OF GEL-SPUN ULTRA-HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE FIBRES Xiao-Ping Hu. A discussion is included about the diffraction trace.1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University. and the breakdown of the ammonium salts during heating was studied by differential thermal gravimetry. Efremov V N The possibility was studied of using ammonium salts as plasticisers for wood-based composites.709335 Item 262 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 71. CHINA Accession no. Urban M W North Dakota State University A closed-system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces. Crystallinity profiles were measured through the thickness of the film samples and compared with the orientation gradients existing in the films.5.710456 Item 259 Polymer Engineering and Science 38.711041 Item 258 Plasticheskie Massy (USSR) No.University A detailed method is reported for deriving the lattice distortions and crystallite sizes of UHMWPE fibres using a full wide angle X-ray diffraction patterns.1.709520 Item 260 Polymer Journal (Japan) 30. UK. No. RUSSIA Accession no. No. WESTERN EUROPE Details are given of the range of physical and chemical properties of flame-sprayed ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer following different processing conditions. EUROPEAN UNION. 16 refs. p.

USA The use of NMR to probe the in-situ curing of monomer mixtures commonly encountered in the manufacture of contact lenses was studied. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. A mechanism for the PVC-imidazole reactions was also presented. 18th Jan. EUROPEAN UNION. p.709038 Item 264 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 71. 18 refs. I. 9 refs.2. The efficacy of the overall procedure is demonstrated.Fisheries & Food PETP food packaging materials were subjected to different heating conditions (50 minutes at 120-230C). BRAZIL.1998. PETP. and spectral artifacts. 10 refs. This information can aid in gaining an understanding of the overall curing dynamics and provide important guidance in establishing suitable protocols in the manufacturing process. Dec. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. NMR CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPONENT MONOMERS Martin S J.11. and oligomers were identified by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry and used as a parameter for evaluating the thermal stability of PETP. and for secondary recycling under controlled conditions. 1998.706082 Item 267 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 52. Spectral lines were identified which monitored curing with time of individual components in the monomer mix. A relationship was developed that permits the optimal sample thickness for FT-Raman measurements to be determined by measuring the absorbance spectrum of a sample whose thickness is known. Small changes in oligomer distribution were observed only for samples heated at 230C.1998. EUROPEAN UNION. As a precursor to this goal. Ferrier D INRA Details are given of the isolation of propylene oligomers from polymer matrix by dissolution precipitation and Soxhlet methods. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. O’Brien J E. Nov. AND SEC El Mansouri H. 20 refs. HPLC.University Details are given of the determination of apparent absorption coefficients and optimal sample thickness of PE. Cooney J D. Scholler D.12. No. Phase changes associated with some of the polymers investigated may cause problems in the interpretation of data from composting degradation studies. No. Jan. and GPC.46-53 Portuguese THERMAL STABILITY OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE PACKAGING: DETERMINATION OF OLIGOMERS Freire M T de A. 28 refs. McBrierty V J Dublin. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. cellulose.Min. The PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. The results also suggested the suitability of PETP as a food packaging material for use in conventional and microwave ovens. Characterisation was undertaken by FTIR. Sommer A J Miami. UV spectroscopy. No. HPLC. UK.1. Feigenbaum A.Universidade Estadual. Surface reactions on PVC were heavily dependent on a prior thermal history of the PVC substrate. Data were used to explain their behaviour toward packaged food products in PP packaging. EUROPEAN UNION. IRELAND. p. Dowling J.706520 Item 266 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 8. FRANCE. Shaw K.3.1817-28 CURING OF POLYMER COMPOSITES. USA Accession no. sampling considerations. Castle L Campinas. No. p. Results are discussed in the context of scattering theory.709309 Item 263 Applied Spectroscopy 52.1483-7 SAMPLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR FTRAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYMERS AND SOLUTIONS Barrerra B A. several commonly-used component materials were characterised by high resolution proton and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopies.261-74 THERMAL ANALYSIS OF SOME ENVIRONMENTALLY DEGRADABLE POLYMERS Day M.1998./March 1998.708984 Item 265 European Polymer Journal 34. suggesting that PETP was thermally stable under the heating conditions employed. and cyclohexane by FT-Raman analysis. Watts J Canada. p. Reyes F G R. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Trinity College. Yagoubi N. 104 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .National Research Council The thermal characteristics of a series of degradable polymers for use in commercial composting facilities was investigated using TGA and DSC.371-5 PROPYLENE OLIGOMERS: EXTRACTION METHODS AND CHARACTERISATION BY FTIR. Bausch & Lomb Inc.References and Abstracts surfaces were analysed using ATR FTIR spectroscopy. Several biodegradable Accession no.of Agriculture.

Challis R E Keele. No. Kumosa M S Denver. The polymeric trifunctional acrylates PETIA.Institut fuer Polymerforschung Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers were investigated by simultaneous thermal analysis and pyrolysis gas chromatography. A series of FTIR experiments was performed to identify chemical functionalities formed during the degradation process of composite insulators affected by brittle fracture. It was shown that the brittle fracture process was caused by the formation of nitric acid either outside or inside an insulator leading to stress corrosion cracking of the glass/polymer composite rod material.2457-61 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE STUDY OF COMMERCIAL POLY(VINYL ACETATE) De Souza C M G. Dare D J. EUROPEAN UNION. Nitrate was detected on the composite fracture surfaces inside a 115 kV suspension composite insulator which failed in service by brittle fracture. Quantitative determination of vinyl acetate was carried out at both 500 and 700 C.705282 Item 270 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 52. EUROPEAN UNION. p.319-31 LOW RESOLUTION PULSED NMR AND ULTRASOUND STUDY TO MONITOR THE CURE OF AN EPOXY RESIN ADHESIVE Cocker R P. 19th Dec. With increasing degree of ethoxylation or propoxylation of the monomers. as measured by DMA.131-43 German © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 105 ..705241 Item 272 International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 18. To analyse the behaviour of this polymer. the TG temperature was measured. No. Friese K. and heterogeneity. p. BRAZIL DETERMINATION OF VINYL ACETATE CONTENT IN EVA COPOLYMERS. TMPTA and THEIC displayed the highest temperatures of onset of degradation.145-55 German THERMOANALYTICAL CHARACTERISING UV-CURED POLYMER FILMS Hosselbarth B.5. 17 refs. 13 refs. Both devices were coupled to a mass spectrometer. GERMANY. FACILITIES AND LIMITS OF APPLICATIONS OF MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS METHODS Haussler L.References and Abstracts polymers were observed to have melt transitions at temperatures similar to those found in a composting environment.10. 1998. No. The high crosslinking density of the films resulted in an almost temperature-independent complex E-modulus. p. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Calibration with polyvinyl acetate led to sufficient accuracy in relation to the vinyl acetate content. The average degree of curing of UV-cured epoxy films could be determined from the temperature of the maximum in the loss modulus. NMR techniques were chosen. 19 refs. low resolution pulsed NMR spectroscopy and measurement of pulsed broad bandwidth ultrasound propagation velocity and absorption changes.1641-7 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF A FIELD-FAILED COMPOSITE SUSPENSION INSULATOR Chughtai A R. Chadwick D L. Voigt D Dresden. The calibration plot was linear provided that the mass of vinyl acetate did not exceed a critical value. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Metropolitan University The cure of an epichlorohydrin-bisphenol A resin and curing agent containing a primary diamine and an amidopolyamine was studied using two complementary techniques. Tavares M I B Rio de Janeiro. Geyer W Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung eV. such as carbon-13 solution. DMA and DSC.705674 Item 268 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.12. Smith D M.University. 1998. LeipzigHalle Ltd. No. proton spin-relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter and dipolar dephasing experiment. Umweltforschungzentrum Thermooxidative and thermomechanical stabilities of radiation-cured acrylates and epoxides were examined by TGA. because of the linear calibration plot. Manchester. sample molecular mobility. magic angle spinning. The two Accession no. decreases in thermal stability and strength were found.University The type of corrosive environment responsible for brittle fracture of suspension composite insulators was established. 1998. p. p.705529 Item 269 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 52. Albrecht V.Universidade Federal The commercial poly(vinyl acetate) bulk was studied by NMR at solution and solid state to understand the behaviour of this polymer to obtain information on structure. CANADA Accession no. Pompe G.1998. cross-polarisation/magic angle spinning. USA Accession no. For difunctional polymeric acrylates and epoxides.705281 Item 271 Composites Science & Technology 58. 1998.1.1. 13 refs. 18 refs. GERMANY.

brominated phenols were first observed to evolve at temperatures slightly lower than those for the flammable product evolution from the substrate polymer PBTP.529-33 INVESTIGATION OF GLASS-IONOMER CEMENTS USING DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Khalil S K H. JAPAN Accession no. All materials underwent an exothermic setting process. USA Accession no.9. p. On the basis of the data obtained by these temperature-programmed pyrolysis techniques.Universidad Politecnica.495. but with different enthalpies of reactions and different heat capacities. there were no remaining endoor exothermic reactions after the setting of the cement. i. Kondo K. the evolution of the flame poisoning antimony tribromide formed through the reaction between brominated polycarbonate and antimony trioxide could also be monitored directly by temperatureprogrammed pyrolysis techniques. Sept. 1. it was possible to detect oxidation and chain scission reactions and variations in isotacticity which differed in the differently coloured specimens.1307-10 MULTIDIMENSIONAL SPECTROMETRY AND MAPPING Fateley W G. 14th Nov. By calculating the reduced absorption in selected spectral bands. temperature-programmed pyrolysis-atomic emission detection and temperature-programmed pyrolysis-gas chromatography. p. Deverse R A. No. Ohtani H. No. Toray Research Center Inc.704607 106 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .41-8 MECHANISMS OF THERMAL DEGRADATION OF A POLYESTER FLAME-RETARDED WITH ANTIMONY OXIDE/BROMINATED POLYCARBONATE STUDIED BY TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED ANALYTICAL PYROLYSIS Sato H. During the degradation of the flame-retarded PBTP.704884 Item 273 Polymer Degradation and Stability 62. Thermal degradation of a flame-retarded PBTP consisting of PBTP and a synergistic flame-retardant system based on brominated polycarbonate (copolycarbonate containing units from bisphenol A and tetrabrominated bisphenol A plus tribromophenoxy end groups) and antimony trioxide was studied by means of various temperature-programmed analytical pyrolysis techniques such as temperature-programmed pyrolysis-mass spectrometry. p. EUROPEAN UNION.e.University Six commercial glass-ionomer cements commonly used for various dental applications were investigated using DSC. Sato N Nagoya. 10 refs. Hammaker R M Kansas State University A new inexpensive approach is described for mapping molecular structure in polymeric materials which includes the combination of interferometers and Hadamard transform techniques to perform multidimensional spectometry and mapping.University. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Accession no.7. an initial liquid stage where short polymer chains were formed. Girona. EUROPEAN UNION. Carrasco F Cataluna. WESTERN EUROPE Item 274 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 74. The effects of ageing were quantified by Fourier transform IR spectrophotometry. p. The results obtained indicated that the cure followed distinct phases. followed by the evolution of hydrogen bromide over the whole range of degradation temperatures for the substrate polymer. Heat flow behaviour and heat capacity of the cements were measured during isothermal (at 37 C) setting reactions.255-61 Spanish FTIR SPECTROPHOTOMETRY FOR THE DETECTION OF MICROSTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN A POLYPROPYLENE/ POLYETHYLENE COPOLYMER CAUSED BY ARTIFICIAL AGEING Romeu J. 17 refs. These degradation processes were closely related to the synergistic effects of antimony trioxide on the decomposition of brominated polycarbonate in the flame-retardant system to promote the thermal degradation of brominated polycarbonate at lower temperatures than those for pure brominated polycarbonate. Furthermore. predicting cure events at the same times.References and Abstracts techniques independently gave a similar picture of the cure process.Universidad A study was made of microstructural changes occurring in blue and red samples of an ethylene-propylene copolymer exposed to artificial ageing in a Xenotest chamber for up to 5000 hours. 19 refs.702159 Item 276 Journal of Materials Science.Materials in Medicine 9. followed by a second stage where longer molecules developed. No.1998.1997. Sept. Oct. SPAIN. a third stage where crosslinking between chains occurred and the adhesive began to solidify. and a final stage when solidification was completed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 8 refs.702522 Item 275 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. the thermal degradation of the flame-retarded PBTP and synergistic flame-retarding mechanisms are discussed.1998. Pages P. UK. 1998. Atkins E D T Bristol. Tsuge S.

p. 1st April 1998.72-5 TEMPERATURE-MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY. No. No. The effects of these treatments on crystallinity and surface properties of this material were examined in the light of analytical data obtained by FTIR. which contains perfluorinated dioxole rings. Smith J R.1998. In this procedure the frequency of the temperature modulation is varied over a range of approximately one decade. Meunier M Montreal. UK.700165 Item 281 Materials World 6. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1998. DETERMINATION OF ACTIVATION ENERGIES Zhong Jiang.Ecole Polytechnique Teflon.10.1201-7 PHOTODEGRADATION OF TEFLON AF1600 DURING XPS ANALYSIS © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 107 . two different amplitudes of temperature modulation were employed.617-9 THROWING LIGHT ON FIBRES AND COMPOSITES Young B Manchester. Salafranca J Zaragoza. EUROPEAN UNION.702142 Item 277 Journal of Materials Science 33. and in good agreement with published values. EUROPEAN UNION. Sept. SPAIN.701984 Item 278 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. and that the amounts of oxygen loss were equal to those of fluorine. Nevell T G.University The use is discussed of Raman spectroscopy to monitor the stresses and strains on individual fibres in composite materials. Cox P A. Oct. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.700270 Item 279 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. to acid etching and to various tensile deformation regimes. Nevell R T. p.University Alternating differential scanning calorimetry (ADSC). EUROPEAN UNION. 15th July 1998. West of England. p. Thirty-five volatile organic compounds(VOCs) were identified in PS cups used for yoghurt packaging and 42 VOCs from yoghurt samples. and not to noise on the data. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.14. An automated and rapid system for determination of volatiles from yoghurt was developed. 18 refs. and the mid-point of the step change in the complex heat capacity is evaluated. Imrie C T Aberdeen. In these experiments. Quantitative analysis of styrene in several samples from the Spanish retail market was carried out. CANADA Accession no.3511-7 MOLECULAR ORGANISATION IN STRUCTURAL PVDF Glennon D. 7 refs. New instrumentation has caused rapid growth in the use of Raman spectroscopy for materials characterisation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Popovici D. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. type AF1600. the oxygen then forming a free radical. goniometry and a variety of microscopy techniques. DSC. UK. 36 refs. No.6.References and Abstracts All materials examined were effective thermal insulators. The degradation mechanism was significantly different to that of fluoropolymers which contain only carbon and fluorine. was used to determine the activation energy associated with the relaxation processes in polycarbonate in the region of the glass transition. p. Hutchinson J M. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.700200 Item 280 Polymer International 47. X-ray diffraction. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Cacho J. II. EUROPEAN UNION. Ripples seen on the Fourier-transformed signals are attributed to the mode of the data analysis. including the introduction of charged- Accession no.University Poly(vinylidene fluoride) containing 10% dibutyl sebacate plasticiser. Sacher E. No. 9 refs.346-54 PARTS-PER-TRILLION DETERMINATION OF STYRENE IN YOGHURT BY PURGE-AND-TRAP GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH MASS SPECTROMETRY DETECTION Nerin C. 16 refs. Oxygen could be degraded by the breaking of only one bond. The free radicals produced by scission of carbon-carbon bonds participated in reactions leading to degradation and crosslinking.University.3. 7th Nov. The results were in agreement with each other. Ewen R J Portsmouth.University Headspace sampling methods prior to capillary gas chromatography are widely used for the determination of volatile compounds present in very different types of samples.1. Rubio C. was exposed to raised temperatures for prolonged periods of time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. p. No. UK. a commercial development of temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry. It was established that oxygen was at least as twice as susceptible as fluorine.1998. Tsibouklis J. as used in the construction of flexible oil and gas pipelines. was found to suffer significant degradation when exposed to X-rays whilst undergoing investigation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

and relaxations was shown to be feasible. for example. Both substrates had the same pore size and the solvent was the same for both columns.4973-6 EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATE INTERACTIONS IN THE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF POLYMERS Kosmas M K.234-68. No. UK. The results were discussed and they showed that the polymer-surface interactions changed when the nature of the substrate was changed. EUROPEAN UNION. 7 refs. GERMANY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 55 refs. 14 refs. 1998.University) The basics of solid state NMR are outlined and the siteselective information available from multi-dimensional NMR spectra about molecular order and dynamics in oriented polymers is illustrated with specific experimental examples. The separation of complex transitions in multicomponent systems into individual parts such as melts. 1st Jan. EUROPEAN UNION. Chapman & Hall. EUROPEAN UNION. p.697739 Item 284 Structure and properties of Oriented Polymers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.10. & Packag. Franz R Fraunhofer Institute for Food Technol. The potential for use of modulated DSC in the field of epoxy resins was demonstrated using examples of the determination of Tg near the regions of enthalpy relaxation. Its use is described with reference to aramid fibre reinforced PP. No.695963 108 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . Both these developments are incorporated in the Raman imaging microscope developed by Renishaw in collaboration with Leeds University Physics Department.20. 1997. EUROPEAN UNION. 79 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY. 1997. relevant theory and experimental details described. UK.1. Analysis was performed using a rapid HPLC method with UV detection.699334 Item 282 Farbe und Lack 104. one containing a substrate of silica covered with trimethylsilyl groups and the other a substrate of pure silica. 23 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Institut fuer Polymerforschung The use of modulated DSC for improved interpretation of product characteristics under thermal effects was investigated. The principles of the techniques are outlined. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Accession no. and also holographic notch filters which are used to remove the laser line and allow single monochromators to be used.University Edited by: Ward I M (Leeds. WESTERN EUROPE London.References and Abstracts coupled device cameras which offer significant improvements in sensitivity and very low noise. EUROPEAN UNION. transition temps. could be detected in a single measurement and compared.181-233.University) The three spectroscopic techniques for studying molecular orientation in polymers described in detail use polarised electromagnetic radiation.696588 Item 286 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. Georgaka E G Ioannina. No. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which are masked by postcuring or enthalpy relaxation. and a selection of results presented.93/8 German MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Haessler R Dresden. p.697738 Item 285 Polymer 39. POLARISED FLUORESCENCE AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Bower D I Leeds. London. Tgs. p. Second Edition. 5 refs. Bokaris E P.University The elution behaviour of PMMA samples was studied through two liquid chromatographic columns. RENISHAW PLC EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Details are given of the stability of five commercial antioxidants in food simulants and in an alternative fat simulant.1998.699054 Item 283 Structure and properties of Oriented Polymers. melt and post-curing. 9 INFRARED DICHROISM. GREECE. 1998. 9 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE Speiss H W Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung Edited by: Ward I M (Leeds. Second Edition. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. Chapman & Hall. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.93-9 SYSTEMATIC STUDY ON THE STABILITY OF SELECTED POLYMER ANTIOXIDANTS IN EU OFFICIAL AQUEOUS AND ALTERNATIVE FOOD SIMULANTS USING HPLC Demertzis P G. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

GERMANY. 54 refs. the alpha-relaxation was measured in the thermodynamic equilibrium.University The temp. Multiple-pulse techniques were utilised (a) in conjunction with magic angle spinning for measuring comonomer content.Universidade Federal Failure analysis techniques allowing the determination of the chemical composition of a sample and its correlation with the observed fracture mode are examined.University Using spectroscopic methods at relatively high frequency. 15th Sept. 15th Sept.3. p. based on the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Moynihan model.694872 Item 291 Journal of Polymer Science : Polymer Physics Edition 36. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The measured property was the complex heat capacity. GERMANY. p. Gaumet S. crystallinity. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.12.7. EUROPEAN UNION.1998. 23 refs.565-9 DESCRIPTION OF THE GLASS TRANSITION MEASURED BY TEMPERATURE MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY Schawe J E K Ulm. FRANCE. extracted from data collected in a total spectrometer time of Accession no. In the caloric case this phenomenon is called thermal relaxation transition. May/June 1997. The non-equilibrium of the glassy state thus influenced the TMDSC curves.695591 Item 288 Composites Plastiques Renforces Fibres de Verre Textile No. Topics © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 109 . Cerrada M L. No. The frequency-dependent relaxation transition measured by TMDSC occurred in the temp. p.2103-9 RAPID DETERMINATION OF COMONOMER CONTENT. were determined for three ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers using solid state proton NMR measurements. range of the thermal Tg. secondary electron imaging in obtaining information on sample topography. the transition of the equilibrium (the melt) into a nonequilibrium (the glassy state) was measured. BRAZIL Accession no. A theoretical description of the influence of the non-equilibrium state on the spectroscopic curves. modulated DSC (TMDSC) technique could be used for heat capacity spectroscopy in the low frequency range.12.695308 Item 289 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 7. and criteria to be taken into account in achieving accelerated test results representative of reality are discussed. 5 refs. Results of accelerated and natural ageing tests are compared.695299 Item 290 Journal of Polymer Science : Polymer Physics Edition 36. namely.National Institute of Standards & Technology Capitalising on the superior sensitivity of proton NMR. AND LONG SPACING BY MULTIPLE-PULSE PROTON NMR IN ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMERS Perez E.1998. comonomer content. (b) in conjunction with a relaxation time measurement for determining crystallinity. No. July 1998. No.48-54 French DURABILITY OF COMPOSITES: HOW TO ACHIEVE RELIABLE ACCELERATED AGEING Siampiringue N. EUROPEAN UNION.21.1997. WESTERN EUROPE discussed include the use of SEM in studying fracture in mineral filled thermoplastics. Correa C A Sao Carlos. No. and long spacing. Vanderhart D L Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros. Using a conventional differential scanning calorimeter. Lemaire J Centre National d’Evaluation de Photoprotection The use of accelerated ageing tests and spectrophotometric techniques in studying the photooxidative degradation of unsaturated polyester resins and glass fibre-reinforced composites is examined. CRYSTALLINITY. 5 refs. Experimental evidence was the dependence of the shape of the heat capacity curve on the thermal history. and energy dispersive Xray spectroscopy in determining the chemical composition of the fillers or contaminants responsible for fracture initiation. These three parameters. and (c) in conjunction with a relaxation time-based spin diffusion measurement for determining the long spacing.19-23 Portuguese FAILURE ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS BY ADVANCED MICROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES Chinaglia C R. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. is presented. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2165-75 DESCRIPTION OF THERMAL RELAXATION OF POLYSTYRENE CLOSE TO THE THERMAL GLASS TRANSITION Schawe J E K Ulm.References and Abstracts Item 287 Colloid & Polymer Science 276. This effect is called thermal glass transition. July/Sept. backscattered electron imaging in studying filler dispersion in polymer matrices. US. p. Temperature-modulated DSC curves in the glass transition region were described using the ToolNarayanaswamy-Moynihan model. relatively rapid estimates of three parameters. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

UK. evanescent wave spectroscopy and refractive index monitoring. EUROPEAN UNION.142-8 PEROXIDE INDUCED CROSSLINKING AND DEGRADATION OF POLYAMIDE Yu Q. 23 refs. 23 refs. low-viscosity PEI and a second part moulded from PPS with proprietary additives to improve wear resistance. e. Cranfield. p. Fernando G F Brunel University. Chen M. Day 3: Chemical Analysis.g. The values of interesting properties. and solution-state NMR measurements.2. France C M.694246 Item 296 Injection Molding 6. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. together with applications of Raman imaging microscope systems to polymer analysis.692990 Item 298 Journal of Materials Science 33. Chao S-C Taiwan. A COMPARATIVE STUDY Powell G R. No. 1998. 7th-11th April 1997. No. No. Dynoresin Oy A set of resin samples was characterised by IR and carbon13 NMR spectroscopy. 9T RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYMERS Williams K P J. No.8. No. Wilcock I C Renishaw plc (Rapra Technology Ltd. The suitability of IR spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of resins was evaluated by statistical methods using the NMR reference data as calibration. 1st July 1998. 20 refs. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Rainio J. Waters D N. p.University A comparative study is presented for different types of optical fibre sensor developed to monitor the cure of an epoxy resin system. CANADA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.1623-9 THERMAL STABILITY AND CRYSTALLISATION KINETICS OF PEEK Chen J-Y. Plastics & Rubber Weekly. The importance of checking the composition of the basic material is stressed.References and Abstracts about 20 min. small angle X-ray scattering (including synchrotron). with good agreement. user-friendly equipment can be manufactured at a reasonable cost. p.56/9 MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 13. of the resins being similar to the calibration resins were predicted from the IR spectra. 1998. Advances in Raman technology have meant that robust. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. SCANDINAVIA. USA. and were compared with similar parameters obtained using more conventional DSC. UK.694268 110 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. July 1998.693205 Item 297 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 69.13.694867 Item 292 Smart Materials & Structures 7. European Plastics News) Raman spectroscopy is now coming of age as a routine analytical method.. FINLAND.2175-85 IR SPECTROSCOPY AS A QUANTITATIVE AND PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS METHOD OF PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESOL RESINS Holopainen T. Alvila L. No. 19 refs. 11 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Item 295 Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics 199. The predicted results were compared with those observed by carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy.4. The use of differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis as analytical tools in part failure determination is applied. 1998. Problems are examined in part performance of moulded 30% glass-reinforced. Shawbury. Various reaction mechanisms are proposed. CHINA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.3245-9 Accession no. Paper 4.. Pakkanen T T Joensuu. 15 refs. These advances are described. the amount of free phenol and the formaldehyde-to-phenol molar ratio.557-68 IN SITU CURE MONITORING USING OPTICAL FIBRE SENSORS. USA Accession no. p. Emphasis is given to the effect of melting temperature on thermal stability. dynamic rheological analysis and polarised light microscopy were used to assess thermal stability of PEEK. Conference proceedings.National Sun Yat-Sen University TGA.8. Zhu S McMaster University Peroxide-induced crosslinking and degradation of nylon 12 were investigated using ESR. The sensors were based on transmission spectroscopy.694712 Item 294 International Polymer Processing 13. EUROPEAN UNION.1998. Aug. Spooncer R C.University. 12th Sept. SPAIN. Crosby P A.694840 Item 293 Polymer Testing ’97. Aug. PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS: WHEN THE PELLETS DON’T MATCH THE PARTS Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.11.

692055 Item 299 Analytical Chemistry 70. (SPE) It is shown that differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) can be used to determine quantitatively the level and composition of chemical blowing agents such as azodicarbonamide (azo) in commercial formulations.Robert Gordon University X-ray photoelectron spectrometry was used to observe the changes in surface chemistry during the removal of paint from a zinc coated steel substrate using TEA-carbon dioxide laser ablation. Implications of these discovered molecular interactions are discussed. Brantley N H. 26th-30th April 1998. 1st Aug. Vanderzande D. Atlanta. Ga. Atlanta. 32 refs. Laser ablation at both plasma and sub-plasma fluences were investigated and their relative merits discussed. p. Bradley R H Loughborough. 54 refs. 012 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 111 . shorter analysis time and detection of azo concentrations as low as 1%. The changes in IR spectra of CO2 incorporated into various polymers indicate a specific interaction between CO2 and polymer functional groups. Advantages of DSC over the currently used EGA technique are ease of operation.687565 Item 302 Antec ’98. Conference proceedings. 12 refs. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference proceedings. BELGIUM. Volume II. Olesik S V. No.. The degree of cure as a function of the formaldehyde/phenol ratio. Shanker M Millennium Petrochemicals Inc. 26th-30th April 1998... Ga. p. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts XPS MONITORING OF THE REMOVAL OF AN AGED POLYMER COATING FROM A METAL SUBSTRATE BY TEA-CARBON DIOXIDE LASER ABLATION Cottam C A. indicative of the plasticisation phenomenon. styrene-methyl acrylate copolymers and functionalised PS are presented and discussed. 26th-30th April 1998. EUROPEAN UNION. DSC has the potential to detect the level of undecomposed blowing agents present in processed foam products and to qualitatively determine the degree of dispersion of the blowing agent and the activators in commercial formulations. the degree of conversion and the final structure after curing were determined on the basis of a quantitative carbon-13 solid state NMR with cross-polarisation and magic angle spinning.1860-4.State University. UK. USA Accession no. Adriaensens P. USA Accession no. Volume II.687551 Item 303 Antec ’98. The methodology for in situ spectroscopic analysis of the interactions between CO2 and polymers is described. Eckert C A Georgia. Cuesta A. 012 IN SITU SPECTROSCOPY OF CO2-INDUCED PLASTICISATION OF GLASSY POLYMERS Kazarian S G.22. 25 refs.15.5293-300 QUANTITATIVE CARBON-13 SOLID-STATE NMR AND FT-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY IN NOVOLAC RESINS Ottenbourgs B. The use of the above combination of techniques is described and results obtained for samples of PS. p.691471 Item 300 Polymer 39. Gelan J Limburg. The laser was shown to be effective in paint removal and was not impaired by ageing in the paint.1415-7.3298-303 IMPROVEMENTS IN POLYMER CHARACTERIZATION BY SIZE-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AT THE CRITICAL CONDITION BY USING ENHANCED-FLUIDITY LIQUID MOBILE PHASES WITH PACKED CAPILLARY COLUMNS Hao Yun. PMMA. Increased polymer segmental mobility is also observed. USA Accession no.University A qualitative and quantitative study of the curing behaviour of a high-ortho novolac resin with paraformaldehyde under different conditions was conducted. Carleer R.University. The spin-lattice relaxation time was measured as a probe to follow the evolution of cure. p.2114-8. 012 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENTS BY DSC Prasad A. Ga. Fourier Accession no. Volume II. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1998.Institute of Technology (SPE) In situ spectroscopy is used to study the plasticisation of glassy polymers by high-pressure and supercritical CO2. Emmony D C. 32 refs. No. p. Marti E H Ohio. 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Aberdeen.689414 Item 301 Antec ’98. WESTERN EUROPE transform-Raman spectroscopy was proposed as a qualitative tool to follow the degree of crosslinking in this high-ortho novolac. DSC can also be used to obtain the onset of decomposition temperature and the rate of decomposition of azo in the presence of group II and group IV metal salt activators. Atlanta. Ashland Chemical Co.

In this procedure. 012 PRACTICAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES OF POLYMER FILLERS BY FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (FTIR) Coles B J. No. June 1998.References and Abstracts APPLICATION OF GC/MS IN THERMOPLASTICS PROBLEM SOLVING Shaker D C. 012 MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY TO STUDY REACTING POLYMER SYSTEMS Van Mele B.Free University (SPE) Modulated (temperature) differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC or MDSC) is used to simultaneously study the evolution of heat flow and heat capacity for the isothermal and non-isothermal reactions of polymer systems. KOREA. EUROPEAN UNION. Lee W. The heat flow phase during isothermal and nonisothermal cure is always small. Alabama.. Conference proceedings. Purge and trap techniques were used to introduce the volatile. elution in TGIC is more sensitive to molecular weight alone. a material is introduced into the GC. Conference proceedings. Harville S.687496 Item 305 Antec ’98. this method provides a far superior resolution to conventional size exclusion chromatography. Volume II. GC/ MS is a hyphenated technique. Ga. Conference proceedings. which may change the chemical composition of the filler. but its evolution contains information on relaxation phenomena. 20 refs.University. p. Van Assche G. but the column temperature is varied during elution. USA Accession no.6. Ga. Mays J W.687499 Item 304 Antec ’98. 26th-30th April 1998. However for kaolin clay.. Kim H C LNP Engineering Plastics (SPE) The use of GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) in the thermoplastics problem solving area is outlined. Modelling of the (heat flow related) chemical kinetics and the (heat capacity related) mobility restrictions contributes to a better understanding of the reaction mechanism and reaction kinetics up to a high degree of chemical conversion. components are separated and sent to the MS where they are ionised.e. Gustafsson I Jyvaskyla. Hall C J Hauser Inc. The applications of GC/MS to solving complex problems are discussed through positive identification of base resins. 26th-30th April 1998. Veijanen A. BELGIUM. USA epoxy-anhydride thermosetting system is used as an example. Thus it provides an excellent route to separating branched polymer molecules of similar hydrodynamic volume but differing molecular weight. an FTIR analysis should be able to identify the filler and predict its concentration using a standard curve.687483 Item 306 Antec ’98. p. Frater D J Pohang. off-flavour components into the gas chromatograph. 012 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT INTERACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF POLYMERS Chang T. in the course of the chemical reaction. Volume II. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. contamination.2101-5. An Accession no.2037-41. 8 refs. 26th-30th April 1998. and the resulting particles are separated by mass.University of Science & Technology. The system used for analysis of volatile organic compounds was a gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric sniffing system. Atlanta. Under a suitable temperature programming. In addition. it combines the two techniques. Atlanta. Ga. Lee H C. Atlanta.2215-8. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.686400 112 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . vitrification and devitrification. Vitrification and devitrification steps are observed. Van Hemelrijck A Brussels. (SPE) The identification of polymers by FTIR is often complicated by the presence of fillers. The use of MTDSC as a tool for a quantitative construction of the vitrification curve in Temperature-TimeTransformation and Continuous-Heating-Transformation diagrams is illustrated. The resulting percentage is more reliable than a simple ash. Volume II. chromatography and spectroscopy. p. SCANDINAVIA. A very fine and reproducible control of interaction between polymer chains and the stationary phase can be achieved by changing the column temperature. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. FINLAND. 16 refs.687418 Item 307 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. odours and solvents.University at Birmingham (SPE) Temperature gradient interaction chromatography (TGIC) is a conventional reversed phase BPLC technique. Borealis AB Details are given of the addition of zeolite to HDPE drinking water pipes in an attempt to eliminate odours and to remove odour-causing compounds. 2 refs. SWEDEN.922-5 IDENTIFICATION OF OFF-FLAVOUR COMPOUNDS IN HDPE WITH DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF ABSCENTS Villberg K. i.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.456A-61A CHARACTERISING SYNTHETIC POLYMERS BY MALDI MS Kuang Jen Wu. Conference proceedings. Ibrahim M SABIC Corp. p. molecular weight analysis. No. 8 refs. and a number of examples are presented of its application to studies of the thermal properties of plastics. Tanaka K. No.684932 Item 313 Antec ’98.686392 Item 309 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 73. and its use in calibration of GPC profiles. p. Statistical experimental design was applied and a linear screening design comprising 18 experiments (fractional factorial) was utilised. p. p. humid environment for a cationic radiation cured coating of cycloaliphatic epoxy resin. EUROPEAN UNION. oxygen transmission rate of the package. 6 refs.3.487.26-31 Spanish TEMPERATURE MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY: A STEP FORWARD IN STUDYING THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS Perena J M Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros The principles of temperature modulated DSC are described. Accession no. Ga. 30 refs. and differential X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UK. Odom R W Evans C. SPAIN. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 1998. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of the delaminated surface showed that the phosphorus hexafluoride anion of the photoinitiator segregates to the interface. 1998. synthetic polymer analysis. Lowe C Surrey. scanning viscoelasticity microscopy. illumination and storage time) on the amounts of volatile compounds in the headspace of gas packages containing two chicken legs were studied. Data are given for PS and styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers. p. Rodriguez A. SCANDINAVIA. Latva-Kala K. FINLAND.217-28 EFFECTS OF PACKAGING AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN GAS-PACKED POULTRY MEAT Eilamo M. Some limitations of the technique are also examined.816-20. No. Becker Industrial Coatings Details are given of coating delamination in a hot.686119 Item 312 International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 18.Technical Research Centre Volatile compounds released by raw chicken legs packed in modified atmosphere packages were determined to develop a spoilage indicator for monitoring the shelf life of raw chicken. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. JAPAN 15.. No. 26th-30th April 1998.4665-73 SURFACE GLASS TRANSITION BEHAVIOUR OF AMORPHOUS POLYMER FILM BY SCANNING FORCE MICROSCOPY AND SURFACE SPECTROSCOPY Kakiyama T.1997. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. Al-Raqibah I. 1st July 1998. residual oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration) and three storage factors (temperature. The effects of four packaging factors (headspace volume.193-8 USE OF XPS AND TOF-SIMS TO INVESTIGATE ADHESION FAILURE OF A CATIONIC RADIATION CURED COATING ON GALVANISED STEEL Leadley S R.2. Watts J F. 35 refs.University. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The results were compared with the results of sensory evaluation and microbial determinations.University The surface molecular motion of amorphous polymeric solids was measured by lateral force microscopy. Volume I. including the ion desorption mechanism. Takahara A Kyushu. Jan.686157 Item 311 Food Additives and Contaminants © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 113 . 1998. 7 refs.686251 Item 310 Analytical Chemistry 70. Al-Alouish I.References and Abstracts Item 308 Polymer 39.13. The durability of the coating was improved by reformulation with a reduced concentration of photoinitiator. Kinnunen A. Finland. Atlanta.& Associates An review is given of the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of flight (MALDI TOF) mass spectroscopy to determine MWDs and structures of synthetic organic polymers. USA Accession no. 012 METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF CRYSTALLINITY OF PREFORMS AND BOTTLES MADE FROM PETP Bashir Z. Ahvenainen R VTT Biotechnology & Food Research.19. Volatile compounds in package headspace were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. EUROPEAN UNION.

while the final bottle should have high crystallinity (for enhancing gas barrier and mechanical properties). 1996. Monitoring crystallinity is thus important. Hongo S. Rigal G.4.2 times that obtained previously with 500 MHz SEC-NMR operated under similar conditions. of the polymer in flowing eluate was determined directly (without a conventional calibration procedure) from he relative intensity of NMR signals due to the end group and repeating units. 95. Jin M Y Pohang. differential scanning calorimetry and modulated differential scanning calorimetry to study the crystallinity of preforms and bottles. p. 21 refs. This book reviews the factors which influence environmental stress cracking.681689 Item 318 European Polymer Journal 34. The molec. 20 refs.682955 Item 317 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. Rapra Technology Ltd.University of Science & Technology.150. April 1998. The MWD determined in this manner was proved to be accurate by SEC-NMR experiments on uniform isotactic PMMAs consisting of exactly 23.00.683806 Item 316 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 12. and examines the current state of knowledge regarding specific categories of plastics.. Kong D I. No. No. Boutevin B. Investigation was also undertaken to optimise flow rate and NMR parameters for quantitative SEC-NMR measurements. The effects on thermal stability of the copper naphthenate catalyst were studied by comparing two systems with different amounts of catalyst. Accession no.References and Abstracts (SPE) PETP has established itself as a material for making lightweight.wt. Hatada K Osaka. Park C E. Korea.1998. Methods for the experimental evaluation of environmental stress are described. and interpretation problems are also discussed.University The above on-line SEC-NMR technique was used to analyse MWDs of isotactic PMMAs with Mn ranging from 3270 to 22.1 C/min to 40 C/min at temperatures ranging from 180 to 600C. Rapra Technology Ltd. JAPAN Accession no.Research Institute of Chemical Technology The adhesion strength of polyamideimide/copper joints was investigated as a function of the curing temperature and time. Dynamic tests were also performed at rates of 0. p. 40 and 80 repeating units. Feb.163-70 STUDY OF TALC-ADDITIVE INTERACTIONS BY COMBINED TGA-FTIR SYSTEM Bertin D. The applicability and appropriateness of each technique for different PETP sample types. No. pp. clear and tough bottles.200. Tests were performed isothermally at temperatures ranging from 200240C for times up to one week. 30cms.5. Fourty G 114 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . KOREA Accession no. The book is divided into three main sections Accession no. a preform with zero or very low crystallinity (for purposes of clarity) is sought.2. SAUDI ARABIA focusing on the prediction of ESC and assessment by testing.439-43 DIRECT DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION BY SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY(SEC) WITH 750 MHZ PROTON NMR DETECTION (ON-LINE SECNMR) Ute K.684613 Item 315 Shawbury. p. 1998. Results demonstrate the difficulties of extrapolating dynamic TGA data to use conditions to predict long-term thermal stability. No. 14 refs. This book is available for purchase from Publication Sales.684627 Item 314 Polymer Journal (Japan) 30.University Isothermal and dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on a polycyanurate thermosetting material. Ideally. The effects of copper oxide formed by thermal treatment and alkaline treatment on the adhesive strength of the joints were examined. The signal-to-noise ratio of 750 MHz SEC-NMR spectra was 9. 1998.5. 17 refs. Niimi R. USA Accession no. factors that influence ESC and data on specific plastics. 9511 ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING OF PLASTICS Wright D C Rapra Technology Ltd.507-21 EFFECT OF CURING TEMPERATURE ON THE ADHESION STRENGTH OF POLYAMIDEIMIDE/ COPPER JOINTS Cho J H. The locus of failure of the joints was also studied by SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.566-72 DYNAMIC AND ISOTHERMAL THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS OF A POLYCYANURATE THERMOSETTING SYSTEM Zacharia R E. p. Simon S L Pittsburgh. An attempt is made to evaluate methods of crystallinity measurement using density.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Model compounds based on epoxy. polyphenylene sulphide and vinyl ester matrices are investigated to characterise the chemical reactions at the fibre/matrix interface. II. ARGENTINA. The model compounds representative of each of these matrices demonstrate the range of possible reactions and interactions possible between the fibre and matrix.681439 Item 321 Cleanrooms 12. p. Thus. The matrix functional groups that may chemically react with the fibre surface can be separated and investigated individually. Xie M. It was used to study interactions between an additive and a filler (talc).1997. which demonstrate its value as a monitoring method in the semiconductor industry USA Accession no. mechanical interactions and topography at the fibre/matrix interface. 8(10) USING XPS TO INVESTIGATE FIBRE/MATRIX CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AT THE INTERFACE IN CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES Weitzsacker C L. polyimide. Mixtures of model compounds can be used to investigate functional groups reactions between the components.C. ROLE OF COLUMN PACKING: BARE SILICA GEL Berek D. ranging from no reaction to distinct chemical reactions. Meira G R Slovak. 15th April 1998. Bare silica gels that are the most commonly used LC CAP column packings and model macromolecules.679498 Item 322 Analytical Chemistry 70. INTEC CONICET Data are presented manifesting the role of column packings from the point of view of both their pore size and surface chemistry. test methods and references for the use of FTIR spectroscopy to generate verifiable data. polymer formulations will rapidly be optimised in various areas of filled polymers. No. VOC. viz. Direct analysis of the fibre/matrix interface by surface analytical methods such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is not trivial due to the thickness of a matrix layer over fibres and the complexity of the matrix system.Adhesion Society) With composites expanding into areas from aerospace to recreation. p. EUROPEAN UNION. This procedure also applied to analysis of degradation of other additives by talc. Indirect analysis of the matrix/fibre interface is possible using model compounds which represent functional groups where differences in results are indicative of reaction between fibre and matrix. highlighting a degradation phenomenon of additive by talc.State University Edited by: Drzal L T. Janco M. Talcs de Luzenac SA By using combined TGA/FTIR thermogravimetric analysis. SLOVAK REPUBLIC. Hilton Head Island.1563-8 POLYMER ANALYSIS BY MICRO-SCALE SIZEEXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY(SEC)/ MALDI TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY WITH A ROBOTIC INTERFACE Nielen M W F Akzo Nobel Central Research © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 115 . XPS is used to characterise both the carbon fibre surfaces and the reacted carbon fibre surfaces. No. is discussed. PFC and HFC emissions for identification and quantification in process exhaust and in clean room air. The degree of adhesion between the fibre and matrix. Reagen W 3M Co. USA Accession no. Suppl.1363-71 LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF MACROMOLECULES AT THE CRITICAL ADSORPTION POINT. The interaction and chemical reaction of functional groups in the matrix with functional groups at the fibrer surface contribute to the adhesion. Drzal L T Michigan. SLOVAKIA composites.9. The use of FTIR monitoring methods for HAP. different matrices are being investigated to tailor composites to specific uses. has been recognised as a critical factor in determining the performance of fibre-reinforced Accession no. p. Schreiber H P (US. 12 refs.S13/20 APPLICATION OF FTIR FOR MONITORING CLEANROOM AIR AND PROCESS EMISSIONS Zazzera L.681630 Item 319 Journal of Polymer Science : Polymer Chemistry Edition 36.. Results of field trials and laboratory study trials are presented.Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie. narrow PMMA. FRANCE. 4 refs. 15th July 1998. and this phenomenon depended on the structure and chemical composition of talc. p. S. Conference proceedings. accurate real time qualitative and quantitative data can be obtained for thermal decomposition of polymers. May 1998. were investigated.8. A summary is included of the various protocols. 23rd-26th Feb.681599 Item 320 20th Annual Anniversary Meeting of the Adhesion Society. and with the fibre surface.References and Abstracts Montpellier. influenced by chemical reactions. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 20 refs.Academy of Sciences.5.51921.

No. p. was investigated by DSC dynamic cooling experiments that simulated the cooling that occurs in the injection blow moulding manufacturing process. USA.1997.1998. Book 1. Feb. NETHERLANDS. 012 EFFECT OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE ON EXTRUSION STABILITY Merkley J H Eastman Chemical Co. The performance of the system is demonstrated by the characterisation of a polybisphenol A carbonate and a complex dipropoxylated bisphenol A/ adipic acid/isophthalic acid copolyester resin. Ontario. talc and calcined clay. Micrographs revealed the level of interparticle contact and alignment of anisotropic particles which gave rise to the observed differences. USA Accession no.677489 Item 326 Journal of Polymer Science : Polymer Chemistry Edition 36. CANADA Accession no. Laminations and Coatings Conference.6. An Avrami equation was used for calculation of the crystallisation kinetic parameters. Conference Proceedings. The gel content and swelling ratio were also measured. 15th March 1998. Zhou W McMaster University Peroxide induced crosslinking and degradation of PVC were investigated using an on-line ESR technique. UK. Huang S K. Conference Proceedings. 24th-28th Aug.851-60 PEROXIDE INDUCED CROSSLINKING AND DEGRADATION OF PVC Yu Q. Toronto. Rheological properties of the diluted masterbatches were evaluated over four decades of shear rate. p. 17 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 40 refs. Ontario. CANADA. Higgs R P ECC International Ltd. Jiunn-Yih Lee Taiwan. (TAPPI) A study was made of the thermal properties and melt rheology of linear LDPE masterbatches filled with calcium carbonate. Book 1. (TAPPI) Rheological techniques for following the degradation and changes in molecular weight and MWD of titanium dioxide-filled polyolefins during extrusion coating are examined. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Each spot corresponds to the 10-s elution window from the microSEC column.173-82.265-73 DSC STUDIES ON THE CRYSTALLISATION CHARACTERISTICS OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) FOR BLOW MOULDING APPLICATIONS Daw-Ming Fann. 38 refs. No. EUROPEAN UNION. peroxide type and concentration.1997. TAIWAN Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.35-44. while fine grades and talc had little effect. No. The mechanism involved in the reaction was determined base on the radical information. Coarser calcium carbonate grades gave the Accession no.674965 Item 327 Journal of Materials Science Letters 17.National University of Science & Technology The crystallisation behaviour of blow moulded PETP bottles.678858 Item 324 TAPPI 1997 Polymers. Toronto. 15th April 1998. Filler type and content did not significantly influence shear rheology at the shear rates associated with film extrusion.679150 Item 323 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. The reaction variables included temperature. CANADA. WESTERN EUROPE greatest improvement. 24th-28th Aug. 29 refs. p. Laminations and Coatings Conference. variations in viscosity versus shear rate seen in the capillary extrusion rheometer curves. 012 INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FILLERS ON THE PROCESSING OF LLDPE FILMS Ansari D M. Zhu S. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and shifts in the DMTA curves.5. which helps determine the product’s transparency. such as the ease of crystallisation from glassy and molten states and crystallinity in the products. thus yielding a narrow polymer distribution which is amenable to characterisation by MALDI mass spectroscopy.677503 Item 325 TAPPI 1997 Polymers. p. Films were prepared by extrusion blowing and temperature changes were monitored along the bubble. DSC measurements were used to obtain information on related aspects. p.2. These include measurements of the crossover point between loss modulus and storage modulus and the variation in complex viscosity versus frequency curves seen in the rotational mechanical spectrometer curves. The mineral fillers increased cooling rates and improved bubble stability.511-3 EVIDENCE OF MOLECULAR ORIENTATION IN POLY(3-BUTYLTHIOPHENE) FILMS BY ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS 116 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .References and Abstracts A report is presented on the development of a micro-scale SEC system in which the MALDI matrix solution is coaxially added to the column effluent and directly spotted onto the MALDI targets in a robotic interface. Filler distribution within the films was assessed by optical and electron microscopy.

p.975-83 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 117 . and the melting and recrystallisation processes were confirmed by optical observations./March 1998.1. The melting temperatures obtained from recrystallisation were used in the Hoffman-Weeks equation to deduce 236 C as the equilibrium melting temperature for PBTP.References and Abstracts Pawlicka A.Universidade Estadual It was demonstrated that ESR could show evidence of molecular orientation in films of poly(3-butyl thiophene). Paulista. Walmsley L.University A method was described for measuring the heat and rate of crystallisation following partial melting. Piozzi A.University. EVIDENCE FOR COPOLYMER FORMATION Weber M.1998. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The results of the different techniques were consistent if the onset temperature for the DSC experiments was taken as representative of the glass transition. 11 refs. BRAZIL Accession no. and the oxidation of PP water pipes are discussed. USA Accession no. GERMANY. p.671875 Item 330 Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 37. No. The activation energy of the glass transition process was calculated by means of a theoretical model. p.669994 Item 333 Composites Science & Technology 57. Feb. FTIR spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction. 15th Jan. 14 refs. No. Information gained by use of the analytical tool is examined.University A technique based on intrinsic viscosity measurements was developed for measuring sheath and core molecular weights during melt blowing of fibres. Shambaugh R L Oklahoma. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The results were discussed. Robertson R E Michigan.1997. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. making ESR useful to study orientation in conjugated polymers when it is wished to avoid radiation damage or for a non-destructive investigation before X-ray measurements.670478 Item 332 Journal of Polymer Science : Polymer Physics Edition 36. Aug. Roma. Heckmann W BASF AG Melt blending studies using polysulphone with different functional groups and polyamide were performed in a batch type mixer. p. AND ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY DIFFRACTION APPLIED TO THE STUDY OF THE GLASS TRANSITION OF POLY(PPHENYLENE SULPHIDE) Caminiti R.1998. GERMANY. No. The glass transition temperature was found to vary as a function of the heating rate.7970-6 DSC.133-41 NEW APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING THE RECRYSTALLISATION RATE AND EQUILIBRIUM MELTING TEMPERATURE Hong Gyun Kim. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 22 refs. All of the techniques showed the alpha-transition of the polymer. 29 refs.25. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Martinelli A. Nascimento O R Sao Paulo.2-3. No. A mathematical model is described which accounts for rapid diffusion and thermooxidation. FT-IR. EUROPEAN UNION. Experimental molecular weight measurements for PP fibres were compared with theoretical predictions. It measures the physical and chemical properties of the plastic as a function of temperature. EUROPEAN UNION. The method uses a specific sequence of temperatures with a differential scanning calorimeter. USA Accession no. p.2. 15th Dec. and case studies relating to fluctuating material quality through the use of recyclate.3. D’Ilario L.672088 Item 329 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 88. March 1998. WESTERN EUROPE SHEATH-CORE DIFFERENCES CAUSED BY RAPID THERMOOXIDATION DURING MELT BLOWING OF FIBRES Kelley S L. No.674766 Item 328 Macromolecules 30. Feb. The method was applied to poly(butylene terephthalate).670584 Item 331 Polymer Bulletin 40. No. p.227-34 COMPATIBILISATION OF POLYSULPHONE/ POLYAMIDE BLENDS BY REACTIVE POLYSULPHONES.1140-53 Accession no.1997. Faria R M.Universita La Sapienza.8.Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia The glass transition of PPS was studied by means of DSC. EUROPEAN UNION. ITALY.34-5 WHAT HAS GONE WRONG? Sass A NRW GmbH Practical case studies are used to demonstrate how useful differential scanning microscopy analysis can be for material testing and damage analysis on plastics and plastic parts. Model experiments revealed the possibility to compatibilise these blends by reactive blending techniques using functionalised polysulphones. Blends were investigated by solvent extraction and TEM. Sadun C Roma. 47 refs.

p. composite flexural strength. Microphenomena in Advanced Interfaces. dependence of crystal growth rate from TMDSC data analysis.666829 Item 336 Polymer 39. Nos. the applicability was successfully examined for the non-isothermal process. FRANCE. isoelectric point values for each treatment.11. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Changes observed in surface chemistry. Results are compared with those obtained by end-group analysis with proton NMR14 refs. Tomita C.669429 Item 335 Analytical Chemistry 70.666545 Item 338 Polymer 39. II. USA Rashidzadeh H. APPLICABILITY TO NON-ISOTHERMAL PROCESS Toda A. EUROPEAN UNION. 25 refs. Baochuan Guo Cleveland. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.131-5 USE OF MALDI-TOF TO MEASURE MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS OF POLYDISPERSE POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. modulation in an apparent heat capacity of complex quantity. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Sandner B Halle. modulated DSC(TMDSC). Saruyama Y Hiroshima.721-7 COMPARISON OF CALIBRATION WITH PPG AND PS STANDARDS IN SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY MEASUREMENTS FOR CHARACTERISATION OF OLIGOLACTONE MACROMONOMERS Schoch M.1997. two and three silanols to two different glass fibres in a molecular model. Gopp U. No. 34 refs. p. No. EUROPEAN UNION. some of the causes of mass discrimination encountered in the MALDI-TOF analysis of polydisperse polymers were investigated.2.669950 Item 334 Polymer Bulletin 39.6. Kyoto. The matrix effect as another source of mass discrimination was analysed quantitatively. It was found that detector saturation could be a major instrumental factor causing mass discrimination. micromechanics. 22 refs. JAPAN Accession no. No. 1997. Steurich S.Martin-Luther-Universitat The calibration of size exclusion chromatography measurements for the determination of the molecular weights of oligolactone macromonomers was carried out using PPG and PS as standards. (Presented at 6th Int. p. By examining the frequency dependence of the apparent heat capacity. GERMANY. A new analytical model of TMDSC was applied to the process. composite TS.State University Using PMMA samples. The results were in good agreement with the dependence determined from literature values of spherulite growth rate measured by optical microscopy. No. Surface analyses by angular-dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. chemisorption of coupling agent into glass surface. 5th-8th May 1996).Institute of Technology The non-isothermal crystallisation of PETP was examined by temp. taking account of the response of exothermic heat flow to temp. Conf. Zichron Yaacov.University.1439-43 TEMPERATURE MODULATED DSC STUDY OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE CRYSTALLIZATION. Botella P. Six J-L. 1998. Gnanou Y CNRS Details are given of the use of supercritical fluids for the fractionation of PEO. 12 refs. USA Accession no. This was due to the strong signals of matrix-related ions and low-mass oligomer ions. The micro-indentation technique was used to evaluate fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion.6-7. Matrix was polyester resin (E-701 from Owens Corning).References and Abstracts EFFECTS OF SILANE COUPLING AGENTS ON THE INTERPHASE AND PERFORMANCE OF GLASS-FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES Wu H F.1. 1st Jan. Garrabos Y.255-66 118 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . Tufeu R. p. and contact-angle measurements were used to characterise the surface coatings. Israel. Dwight D W.666765 Item 337 Polymer Journal (Japan) 29. The fractionation of a binary mixture of star and linear chains of PEO was studied. Hikosaka M. Data includes molecular models of coupling agent on E-glass surface. The method was capable of determining the temp. on Composite Interfaces. and composite properties as functions of silanol type are correlated.1998. Dec. p. Huff N T Owens-Corning Science & Technology Center A single filament model of a commercial glass fibrereinforcement manufacturing process was used to apply methacryloxy and amino silanes with one. electric-kinetic analysis. 1998. and composite interfacial shear strength before and after 3days in boiling water.910-3 FRACTIONATION OF PEO STAR SAMPLES BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS Cansell F.

Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense. Pethrick R A Strathclyde. p. the isotherms for the adsorption of n-octane and n-hexylamine on the three selected Kevlar fibres were constructed by the one peak method. EUROPEAN UNION. DIELECTRIC RELAXATION AND DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS Davis W J. Yarwood J Sheffield.665913 Item 339 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 67. The standard thermodynamic parameters. It was concluded that “thermorheologically simplicity” was probably an oversimplification for this system and that physical ageing was associated with a redistribution. The relaxation distribution changed as the glass transition temperature was approached.. Tavares M I B Rio de Janeiro. WESTERN EUROPE 67.12. Wang T K Du Pont (UK) Ltd.1998.3. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1998. such as the free energy and the adsorption enthalpy and entropy.3.Universidade Federal The combining NMR techniques in the solid state permit the evaluation of the polymeric systems homogeneity. 29 refs. In polycarbonate-polyvinyl pyrrolidone blends. Utrecht. 43 refs. p. 7 refs. BRAZIL Accession no. 13 refs. Vallat M F. FRANCE. p.University Physical ageing of PMMA was studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). of molecular relaxation processes. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. This study underlines the contribution of FTIR reflectance techniques to the understanding of adhesion mechanisms. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. with the latter allowing a unique mapping of the surface energy levels. as well as the dispersive and the specific component of the fibre surface energy. i. Olsthoorn M. No. i. No.1784-90 DEPTH PROFILING STUDY OF EFFECT OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON POLYMER/ POLYMER INTERFACES IN LAMINATES USING CONFOCAL RAMAN MICROSPECTROSCOPY Hajatdoost S. Dec. not just a shift. which complements greatly the more traditional characterisation of the highest energy sites. leading to the formation of a carboxylic diacid.1823-5 INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS AT THE STEEL/POLYMER INTERFACE BY FT-IR DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY Bistac S.1997. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FRANCE. at an infinite probe dilution and at a finite probe concentration. Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse The surface energy characteristics of three Kevlar fibres were systematically studied using two inverse gas chromatography (IGC) techniques.665698 Item 342 Applied Spectroscopy 51. EUROPEAN UNION. 18th Jan.12.e. The failed surfaces obtained after a mechanical separation of the polymer/steel assemblies were analysed.665732 Item 341 Applied Spectroscopy 51. followed by the reaction of the acid with some oxidised metallic elements present at the metal surface. Donnet J B. Rio de Janeiro. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The free volume distribution probably changed during ageing. Dec.1997. No. A twostep mechanism was proposed: the opening of the anhydride cycle by a hydrolysis reaction. A correlation existed between the free volume as measured by PALS and the changes which occurred in the DRS and DMTA data.Hallam University. the response of proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame was the determinant to obtain information on the transition when the quantity of polyvinyl pyrrolidone is close to 40 wt% and a better organisation of amorphous phase was detected.References and Abstracts INVESTIGATION OF PHYSICAL AGEING IN POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE USING POSITRON ANNIHILATION.487-500 SURFACE ENERGY MAPPING OF KEVLAR FIBRES BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Rebouillat S. Schultz J Institut de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces Interactions between a steel surface and an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer grafted with maleic anhydride were investigated by FTIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.665736 Item 340 Journal of Applied Polymer Science © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 119 .449-53 COMPATIBILITY STUDY OF POLYCARBONATE-POLYVINYL PYRROLIDONE BLEND USING HIGH RESOLUTION SOLID STATE NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE da Silva E P.e. No. but it was not possible to quantify these changes from the PALS study. 18th Jan. were determined from the retention behaviour at zero coverage of selected molecules of various polarity.University The effect of annealing temperature on molecular interactions at the interface of polymer laminates was Accession no. dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and the results obtained from these techniques were compared. at finite concentration. Using the second IGC approach. Guo H. EUROPEAN UNION.

Raman mapping of a polyacrylonitrile-polyvinyl alcohol blend was used to study the interactions between the polymers in this (disordered) system. FTIR reflectance. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. NETHERLANDS.1997. Ozden N. Depth profiling was carried out using confocal Raman microspectroscopy to study polyacrylonitrile/ polyvinyl alcohol and polyacrylonitrile/polyacrylic acid laminates. 31 refs.University Using micro-Raman spectroscopy.665695 Item 344 Applied Spectroscopy 51. EUROPEAN UNION. p.665692 Item 346 Applied Spectroscopy 51. Nov. Nov. No.44-5 MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 3.12. Spencer P Missouri. No.1593-6 RAMAN IMAGING OF DENTAL ADHESIVE DIFFUSION Wieliczka D M. 75 and 90C. Experimental and mathematical details were discussed. 1997. Dec. Kruger M B.11.1736-40 GENERALISED TWO-DIMENSIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTRAL DEPTH-PROFILING ANALYSIS Jiang E Y.665694 Accession no. The use is examined of thermogravimetric analysis as an analytical tool for the diagnosis of part failure in injection moulding. No. UK.11. Ankara. Nov. 18 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.References and Abstracts reported. p. The consistent performance of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer was evaluated and the need to separate the component parts of the material to test for the amount of vinyl acetate in the compound is discussed in order to develop a thermal history. chemical and morphological information on the dentin/adhesive interface was collected with minimal sample preparation. Nov.1741-4 CHARACTERISATION OF DENTURE ACRYLIC RESIN SURFACES MODIFIED BY GLOW DISCHARGES Suzer S. Akovali G Bilkent. No.1997. Middle East. USA Accession no. For comparison. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the measurement technique relying completely on the utilisation of the digital signal processor for data acquisition and manipulation. USA Accession no. Once this history is established.11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used to characterise the changes introduced by the glow discharge plasma.University. Crocombe R A Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc. p. 29 refs. The laminates were annealed at 65. TURKEY Accession no. NETHERLANDS. Advantages of this unambiguous analysis method in enhancing spectral as well as depth resolutions. Drapcho D L. LOT-TO-LOT VARIATION Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. Results provided direct evidence of an adhesive preparation and demineralisation depth for two adhesive systems. over conventional two-dimensional correlation and other spectral depth-profiling methods. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrogen bonding interaction between the nitrile and alcohol groups near the interfacial region changes between laminates annealed at different temperatures. were discussed. 17 refs.1997. WESTERN EUROPE Item 345 Applied Spectroscopy 51.Technical University Resin samples prepared by compression moulding using a PMMA denture base material were exposed to radio frequency glow discharges to improve the wettability of the material. No.1997. 17 refs. Both rapid-scan and step-scan photoacoustic spectroscopy (obtained by using the software-based digital signal processing technique) of multilayer samples were used to calculate generalised two-dimensional correlation maps. McCarthy W J. A new application of generalised two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in photoacoustic depth-profiling analysis.Co.665697 Item 343 Applied Spectroscopy 51. p.University.11. Akaltan F. a customer can institute an incoming QC test on the material’s composition rather than by adjusting the process for each new lot and performing product testing after the parts have been produced.1668-77 RAPID-SCAN TWO-DIMENSIONAL FT-IR: AN EFFICIENT APPROACH TO DYNAMIC INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY Steeman P A M DSM Research A new and efficient mode of operation is presented that involves a continuous rapid-scan FTIR spectrometer. EUROPEAN UNION.665691 Item 347 Injection Molding 5. Application of the rapid-scan technique was illustrated with some results for a styrene-acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymer.664180 120 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . USA Accession no.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and some of its derivatives.References and Abstracts Item 348 Polymer Degradation and Stability 57. 36 refs. Sept. INDIA Accession no. LDPE-EAA and LDPE-starch-EAA blends. Ammonium pyrrolidone dithiocarbamate-PS films were coated on glass plates for analyte preconcentration. No. Yip H H G Hong Kong.370-7 FTIR SPECTROSCOPY OF LAC RESIN AND ITS DERIVATIVES Sarkar P C. therefore. a complex natural resin of insect origin. EUROPEAN UNION. 1st Dec. hydrolysed lac.4872-7 SAMPLE PRECONCENTRATION USING IONEXCHANGE POLYMER FILM FOR LASER ABLATION SAMPLING INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY Wing Tat Chan.664073 Item 349 Pitture e Vernici 73.University The effect of ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) and plasticised starch (PLST) on the thermooxidative degradation of LDPE was examined. Shrivastava A K Indian Council of Agricultural Research.313-24 THERMOANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF EAA AND STARCH ON THE THERMOOXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF LDPE Bikiaris D. No. and the preparation of lac metal salts. Summer 1997. This method was used to evaluate the release of benzaldehyde from commercially available alpha-hydroxyketones during curing. be an effective quality Accession no.35-46 Persian APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-RESOLUTION SOLID-STATE CARBON 13 NMR SPECTROSCOPY TO POLYMERS Farahmand F G.2. 1997. but that FTIR data requires supplementing by other instrumental techniques such as FT-Raman spectroscopy and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. Morshedian J Iran. The results obtained by this method are compared with those from earlier studies that used classical methods of chemical analysis. No. Experiments include the preparation of hard and soft resins. p. 8 refs.1997. Italian RELEASE OF VOLATILE DERIVATIVES FROM INITIATORS IN RADIATION CURING Visconti M. lac acetal. EUROPEAN UNION. No.3. Li Bassi G Lamberti SpA Details are given of the development of a technique for the direct evaluation of volatile organic compounds during the radiation curing process.23. No. 32 refs.38-43 English.1997.6. ITALY. WESTERN EUROPE Item 351 Analytical Chemistry 69. p. p. dewaxed lac.662758 Item 353 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. p. No. halogenated lac. The course of oxidation was followed using TGA to monitor the weight changes during heating and DSC to study the heat changes taking place during oxidation. and variable temperature carbon 13 NMR solid state spectroscopy.3. p. GREECE. analysis of crosslinked systems. Mention is made of conformational analysis. It is found that FTIR has several advantages over classical methods. analysis of surface species. 21 refs. Gallagher T K Aristech Chemical The performance of a flexible PVC compound is often defined by its plasticiser content and composition and a simple. All blends contained cobalt stearate as prooxidant. Cattaneo M. IRAN Accession no.249-55 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF MONOMERIC PLASTICIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Kozlowski R R. rebuilt lac (rebulac). 37 refs. Three types of blend were examined: LDPE-plasticised starch. HONG KONG Accession no.University An efficient sample pretreatment/introduction technique for the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using ion exchange for analyte preconcentration and matrix separation and laser ablation sampling for sample introduction was developed. homogeneity of polymeric blends. ammoniated lac.17. Ranchi College Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was applied to the study of lac resin.Polymer Research Centre A brief review is given of the theory and applications of carbon 13 NMR to polymer analysis.663242 Item 350 Iranian Journal of Polymer Science & Technology 10. 1997. Panayiotou C Thessaloniki.663219 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 121 . p. Prinos J.662915 Item 352 Pigment & Resin Technology 26. 1997. accurate and fast method of plasticiser identification could. polymer reactions in solid state. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Perrier C.

Quet C.1997. Zhukova T I St.Pol. Kudrysvtsev V V. 13 refs.5285-9 FURTHER APPLICATION OF A PROCEDURE FOR MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION 122 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . all having a wide polydispersity index. Booth C Russian Academy of Sciences. and the result compared with determinations by small-angle X-ray spectroscopy and rheology. 1997. Bel’nikevich N G. A structural characterisation of these polymers was also performed by examining their MALDI-TOF mass spectra. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 39. Hamley I W. 29 refs.wts. 8th Sept. and the example is investigated of a 30% glass reinforced PPO which showed brittleness and for which the causes of failure were revealed by means of DSC analysis.University. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. July 1997. Buleiko V M.References and Abstracts control and benchmark performance test in new product development studies. USA MEASUREMENT OF POLYDISPERSE POLYMERS FROM THEIR MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONISATION TIME-OFFLIGHT MASS SPECTRA Vitalini D. obtained by hightemp.1387-91) RUSSIA Accession no.21.657168 Item 357 Injection Molding 5. USA Accession no. Martin J M.Institute of Macromol.119. No. The molecular weight and MWD obtained values were compared with those determined by GPC or supplied by makers. The differences in the molec. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 20 refs. Catania.University A new method is reported for locating the order-disorder transition in a diblock copolymer. Leeds. Mai S M. UK.60/2 MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 2. No. (Full translation of Vys. also for polydisperse polymers. Mineo P. p.Petersburg.317-24 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF POLYMERS USING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY/ ELECTRON ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY: THE EXAMPLE OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Varlot K.Ecole Centrale. namely high-resolution calorimetry. Ryan A J. 4 refs.6674-6 HIGH-RESOLUTION CALORIMETRY STUDY OF THE ORDER-DISORDER TRANSITION IN A DIBLOCK COPOLYMER MELT Voronov V P. Due to irradiation damage.658622 Item 356 Macromolecules 30. and with the specimen cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature. RUSSIA.10. liquid chromatography and physical observations to confirm identity. of the products of polyamic acid imidisation in N-methylpyrrolidinone and m-cresol were explained by the different characters of inactivation of the anhydride groups. BRITTLE PPO Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. a poly(ether-sulphone resin) and poly(dimethylphenylene oxide). were studied by viscometry and exclusion liquid chromatography.953-7 STUDY OF SOLUBLE POLYAMIC ACIDS AND POLYESTER IMIDES BY METHODS OF EXCLUSION LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY Nesterov V V. directly from their matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF) was applied to poly(bisphenol Acarbonate). No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Podneks V E.18.658801 Item 355 Polymer Science Series A 39. No. Liao B X. No.Soed. Fairclough J P A.Compounds The molecular and conformation characteristics of a series of polyamic acids and polyester imides.1997.1997. Kurenbin O I. Gas chromatography was shown to provide the most effective identification method and it was demonstrated that it could be complemented by IR spectroscopy.655661 Item 358 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. EUROPEAN UNION. Aug.Universita A recently reported off-line procedure to estimate molecular weight averages and MWD index. In the acquired spectra. Oct. UMIST. Gazdina N V.8. it was necessary to work at the lowest possible electron dose. p. EUROPEAN UNION. an identification of Accession no. 20th Oct. Degradation of the polymer during processing is examined. Manchester.661993 Item 354 Macromolecules 30. The use is described of differential scanning spectroscopy (DSC) as an analytical tool in the diagnosis of part failure. p.dei Mat.. imidisation of polyamic acids in Nmethylpyrrolidinone or m-cresol. CEMES-LOE Electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of PETP was performed in the analytical TEM to evaluate the possibility of chemical analysis of the polymer at submicrometre scale. ITALY. p. Kihn Y Lyon. Scamporrino E Istituto per la Chimica e la Tecnol.8.A. 1997. Svetlichnyi V M.

References and Abstracts

the different chemical bondings in agreement with X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy experiments is proposed. 14 refs.

OF POLYETHYLENE AND N-ALKANES Parker S F Rutherford Appleton Laboratory High quality inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra of randomly oriented polycrystalline PE, polydeuteropolyethylene and highly oriented polyethylene are presented and a number of new features described. 9 refs.

Accession no.653745 Item 359 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.119, July 1997, p.309-15 CARBON-13, MAGNESIUM-25 AND BORON-11 SOLID STATE NMR STUDY OF A FIRE RETARDED ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER Pecoul N; Bourbigot S; Revel B Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Lille; Centre Commun de Mesures RMN Flame retardance of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer can be achieved using magnesium hydroxide incorporated in the polymeric matrix. The adduct of a small amount of zinc borate as synergistic agent in the formulation increases the fire-proofing properties. Multinuclei solidstate NMR appears as a means to characterise materials before and after combustion. It was shown that endothermic dehydration, water vapour evolved and formation of a glassy coating provided the flame retardancy of interest to the polymer matrix. 12 refs.

Accession no.653736 Item 362 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.119, July 1997, p.157-64 INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF POLYMERS FROM CLASSICAL MOLECULAR SIMULATION Soldera A; Dognon J P CEA/Le Ripault A method is proposed to predict the IR spectra of amorphous polymers. Based on classical molecular simulation and Kramers-Kronig relations, it allows the computations of absorption and transmittance spectra of polymer films in near and middle infra-red domains with good agreement with experimental data. 22 refs.

Accession no.653730 Item 363 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.119, July 1997, p.79-87 CREEP RATE SPECTROSCOPY USING A LASER INTERFEROMETER AS ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION TECHNIQUE FOR STUDY OF RELAXATIONS Peschanskaya N N; Yakushev P N; Sinani A B; Bershtein V A Russian Academy of Sciences An original laser interferometry creep rate spectroscopy (CRS) method was developed and used as the lowfrequency and high-resolution technique for studying microplasticity and relaxations in different materials including brittle ones. New possibilities for CRS for polymers are demonstrated. 13 refs.

Accession no.653744 Item 360 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.119, July 1997, p.269-76 QUANTITATIVE ATR-FTIR SPECTROSCOPY AT POLYMER SURFACES: SORPTION AND MOLECULAR CONFORMATION Mueller M; Schmitt F J Dresden,Institute of Polymer Research Adsorption and diffusion phenomena at or within polymer systems were investigated by surface sensitive ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. For a systematic description, a study was made of (1) the competitive adsorption and desorption behaviour of proteins on polymer surfaces, (2) swelling of hydrophilic polymers by water molecules, which can be accompanied by conformational changes, and (3) induced orientational changes of hydrophobically modified polypeptides by apolar solvents. 10 refs.


Accession no.653740 Item 361 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.119, July 1997, p.227-34 INELASTIC NEUTRON SCATTERING STUDIES

© Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited


References and Abstracts

Ozaki Y; Yongliang Liu; Noda I Kwansei-Gakuin,University; Procter & Gamble Co. This review paper discusses the potential of generalised two-dimensional near-infrared correlation spectroscopy in studies of pre-melting behaviour and hydrogen bonds of nylon 12. A study on dissociation and hydrogen bonds of N-methylacetamide is also reviewed as a model compound study of nylon 12. FTIR spectra were measured over a temperature range of 30-150C where gradual weakening of inter- or intramolecular associative interactions and decrease of local order leading to the eventual fusion of nylon 12 crystals are observed. 24 refs.

g PE; and 0.125 mg dioctadecyl-beta,beta’-thiodipropionate (Irganox PS 802) /1 g PE. 23 refs.

Accession no.653220 Item 367 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.118, June 1997, p.383-8 FREE VOLUME STUDIES IN MISCIBLE POLYMER BLEND SYSTEMS Campbell J A; Goodwin A A; Ardi M S; Simon G P; Landry-Coltrain C J T Monash,University; Eastman Kodak Co. A brief review is presented of the published literature relating to the use of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy in studying the effects of miscibility on the free volume of miscible, amorphous polymer blends. Studies of a fully miscible polyvinyl phenol/PVAC blend, a partially miscible polyphenyl methacrylate/ polycarbonate blend and a largely immiscible PS/PVAC blend are reported. The results indicate that miscible blends tend to show a negative deviation of free volume size, and to a lesser degree free volume fraction, on mixing due to the intimacy of packing of the blend component macromolecules. The largely immiscible blend shows positive deviation of free volume size which is ascribed to additional free volume at the interface. 13 refs.

Accession no.653720 Item 365 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.119, July 1997, p.25-48 UNDERSTANDING POLYMERS BY VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY: SOME RECENT ADVANCES IN THEORY AND EXPERIMENT Meier R J DSM Research A rapid scan version of two-dimensional spectroscopy is introduced and applied to study the phases of an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer system. Some recent advances in the application of computational chemistry to the evaluation of vibrational spectra are presented. Some specific applications are discussed. 31 refs.

Accession no.652994 Item 368 Journal of Polymer Science : Polymer Chemistry Edition 35, No.12, 15th Sept.1997, p.2431-9 ESR STUDY ON CHEMICAL CROSSLINKING REACTION MECHANISMS OF PE USING A CHEMICAL AGENT. II. EFFECT OF PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS Yamazaki T; Seguchi T Hitachi Cable Ltd.; Japan,Atomic Energy Research Institute The effect of antioxidant on the reaction mechanism of chemical crosslinking of PE with dicumyl peroxide at high temperatures was investigated by ESR. The antioxidant reacted with the alkyl radicals in PE formed by the thermal decomposition of dicumyl peroxide above 120C and disturbed the crosslinking. 10 refs.

Accession no.653719 Item 366 International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization 3, No.4, 1997, p.369-79 HPLC QUANTIFICATION OF THIOETHER ANTIOXIDANTS IN POLYETHYLENE AFTER DISSOLUTION OF POLYMER UNDER PRESSURE IN ALIPHATIC SOLVENT Macko T; Furtner B; Lederer K Leoben,Montan-Universitat A new method is described for the quantitative determination of some sulphur-containing antioxidants in PE. The polymer matrix is dissolved in hot n-heptane/ isopropyl alcohol, 97/3 v/v at 160 deg.C under elevated pressure (0.33 MPa) and precipitated by cooling. The solution is injected directly into a normal-phase silica gel column flushed with the same solvent as used for the dissolution of the polymer. This method gives high recovery of the antioxidants, good repeatability of the analysis and a low detection limit of 0.011 mg 4,4'-thiobis(3-methyl-6tert-butylphenol) (Santonox R) /1 g PE; 0.074 mg ditetradecyl-beta,beta’-thiodipropionate (Chimox 14) / 1

Accession no.652659 Item 369 Applied Spectroscopy 51, No.8, Aug.1997, p.1176-8 QUANTITATION OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL CONCENTRATION USING RAMAN


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References and Abstracts

SPECTROSCOPY Melendez Y; Schrum K F; Ben-Amotz D Purdue,University; Maryville College Raman spectroscopy is used to quantitate the amount of polymer in solution, in particular polyethylene glycol dissolved in chloroform. For various chain lengths and polymer weight fraction ranges, it is shown that the ratios of peak intensifies in the C-H stretching region may be used to quantitate polymer weight fraction with about 1% uncertainty. For low polymer weight fraction ranges (010%), the relationship between Raman intensity and polymer weight fraction is essentially linear, while at higher ranges (0-50%) the intensity follows a nonlinear function derived from basic concentration relationships and indicates a universal scaling with polymer chain length. 10 refs.

Accession no.652414 Item 370 Polymer 38, No.17, 1997, p.4381-5 SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE BLOCK COPOLYMER Junting Xu; Linxian Feng; Shilin Yang; Yinan Wu; Yiqing Yang; Xiangming Kong Zhejiang,University; Shanghai,Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology A commercial impact resistant PP alloy was fractionated using the temperature rising elution fractionation technique and several ethylene-propylene block copolymers with different ethylene contents were obtained. The block structure of the fractions was identified by combining the fractionation results with carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy and DSC results. Some transition segments were found between PE and PP segments in the block copolymers. With increasing elution temperature, the number and kind of transition segments decreased, together with the length and melting temperature of the PE segment in the block copolymer fractions. 18 refs.

industry is explored with a view to the quantification of finishing oils in acrylic fibres by partial least-squares regression, using a rotary cuvette system for recording spectra. Calibration is performed with a set of samples that encompasses every source of variability, and the wavelength region where absorption is mostly due to the oil is used to construct several models from which that leading to the minimum relative standard error for a sample test set is selected. The results provided by various mathematical treatments used to minimise scattering resulting from the differential linear density of the samples reveal no significant differences between prediction errors. The model is used to quantify levels of finishing oil in routinely manufactured samples for a period of six months, during which time two batches show poor predictions due to a new component appearing in the product. Modification of the calibration model to account for this component substantially increases robustness and allows the accurate quantification of all batches manufactured after the model is developed. 28 refs.

Accession no.651451 Item 372 Analyst 122, No.9, Sept.1997, p.101R-15R ANALYTICAL EXTRACTION OF ADDITIVES FROM POLYMERS Vandenberg H J; Clifford A A; Bartle K D; Carroll J; Newton I; Garden L M; Dean J R; Costley C T Leeds,University; ICI; Newcastle,University of Northumbria Plastics contain many other small molecules as well as the polymer itself. These include additives to alter the polymer properties or prolong the life of the polymer, such as plasticisers, antioxidants and UV light absorbers. There may also be processing aids, residual monomers, low molecular weight oligomers and inadvertent contaminants present. It is important for the manufacturer and regulators to know the level of these materials in the polymer to ensure the product is fit for its intended purpose. Food contact plastics are regulated by maximum concentrations allowable in the plastic, which applies to residual monomers and processing aids as well as additives. There are some methods for determining concentrations of additives without extraction from the polymer, such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, UV spectrometry and UV desorption-mass spectrometry. However, in order to determine the levels in the polymer, it is usually necessary to extract the compounds quantitatively from the plastic before analysis. A review is presented of the available extraction techniques. 102 refs.

Accession no.651909 Item 371 Analyst 122, No.8, Aug.1997, p.777-81 DETERMINATION OF FINISHING OILS IN ACRYLIC FIBRES BY NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROMETRY Blanco M; Coello J; Fraga J M G; Iturriaga H; Maspoch S; Pages J Barcelona,Universidad Autonoma The potential of near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectrometry for quality control analyses in the textile

Accession no.651430

© Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited


July 1997. p.16.Co. p. pp. vol. WESTERN EUROPE chromatography.University of Science & Technology A new chromatographic method for polymer molecular weight characterisation. EUROPEAN UNION.) Rapra Review Report No. differential photocalorimetry. dielectric.University A series of aliphatic polyesters. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No.95 A review is presented of the techniques involved in the thermal analysis of polymers. A qualitative description of the changes observed in the spectra was presented. p. Techniques discussed include differential scanning calorimetry. 15th Aug.2% for plastics pellets. depending on the physical matrix characteristics. heteroterminated linear chains. 12 ins. EUROPEAN UNION.1997. SPAIN. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF POLYMERS Sepe M P Dickten & Masch Mfg. 30th June 1997. Lee H C. were a mixture of LDPE and EVA. dynamic mechanical analysis. No.7. SPAIN. No.95.650545 Item 374 European Polymer Journal 33. The method can be used to characterise binary polymer mixtures.649761 Item 377 Shawbury. p.261-5 HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY CHARACTERIZATION OF MACROMOLECULES Chang T. UK.595-600 126 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . June 1997. Fine and reproducible control of interaction between polymer chains and the alkyl chain bonded silica packing material can be achieved by varying the column temperature.3.3304-13 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PESTICIDES IN POST-CONSUMER RECYCLED PLASTICS USING OFF-LINE SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION(SFE)/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-ECD Nerin C. p. thermogravimetric analysis. and thermal conductivity analysis.650382 Item 375 Macromolecular Symposia Vol..University The SFE of several organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and two metabolites from recycled plastics was studied. electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The recycled plastics. where one component is separated by the size exclusion mechanism and the other is simultaneously separated by the interaction mechanism in a single isocratic elution.References and Abstracts Item 373 Analytical Chemistry 69.1135-42 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY APPLIED TO THE STUDY OF PVC DECOMPOSITION Beltran M. MALDI molecular weight determination was contrasted with those from GPC and NMR. characterised by asymmetric oligomer distributions. KOREA Accession no. The IR spectra were directly obtained from PVC films pyrolysed in-situ in a specially designed infra red cell. No.3781-7 CHARACTERISATION OF POLYESTERS BY MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION IONISATION MASS SPECTROMETRY Williams J B. 18th July 1997. Rapra Review Rept. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.118. Rapra Technology Ltd. were studied using MALDI. 11 1997. is described. 35 refs. thermally stimulated current/relaxation map analysis analysis. Batlle R. USA Accession no. used as agricultural soil covers. EUROPEAN UNION. 15/4/97. Marcilla A Alicante. The SFE was optimised and compared with the classical sonication and total dissolution extraction methods. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The variables affecting the whole extraction process and the results obtained in the comparison between the three extraction methods are discussed. 45 refs. and cyclic oligomers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. temperature gradient interaction Accession no.Universidad The process of PVC decomposition was studied by FTIR under dynamic conditions. Cacho J Zaragoza. Hercules D M Pittsburgh. Lee W Pohang. Structural characterisation results were compared with those from fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. 381 refs. Gusev A I.647258 Item 378 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 65.649987 Item 376 Macromolecules 30. The application of this technique to the characterisation of PS and PS/PMMA mixtures is examined. NMR and endgroup titration. 12 refs. 1997.120. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.3% for plastics films to values lower than 40% with an overall standard deviation of 7. Average recoveries of the eleven chemicals studied ranged from values greater than 90% with an overall relative standard deviation of 4. thermomechanical analysis. The plastic was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide under different extraction conditions. 23 refs.13. No.8.

EUROPEAN UNION. III.wt.. Rontree J A Astra Hassle AB.645116 Item 381 Polymer Degradation and Stability 57. CANADA Accession no. BRAZIL interpretation methods were applied to the data.wt. p. Atvars T D Z Campinas. It was demonstrated that this method induced a high dispersion of the data. mass spectrometry was regarded as a highly sophisticated technique requiring careful use of the instrument by a sole operator. I. 35 refs. reaction temperatures of 275315C were examined with reaction times of up to 48 h. was determined by the calibration constant obtained from the curve intercept. closedloop injector and stepped temperature programming. The higher activation energy was similar to the carbon-carbon dissociation energy and was associated with random scission throughout the polymer. No. 1997. the data were treated as a pseudo-first order reaction. However.645114 Item 382 Analytical Chemistry 69. SCANDINAVIA. p. The reliability and robustness of atmospheric pressure ionisation. MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION Chan J H. Micromass AB. Bu Q.2. June/July 1997. More precise values of molec. No. containing an apparent rate constant. Assano E M. Two new methods were also proposed for the evaluation of Tg from either the temperature dependence of the second moments Accession no. This new method allows the use of several probe solutes simultaneously with an automated. In a series of ampoule experiments. Edwards R R. Liao Q. of some polyethylene glycols was analysed using vapour pressure osmometry. The wide temperature range used in this work (45-580C) encompassed a change in the decomposition mechanism and this greatly limited the utility of the methods.University A kinetic model for the thermal degradation of PP was developed and fitted to MWD data obtained by high temperature size exclusion chromatography. Batt J. Huang B. CANADA Accession no.13. the fact that it is unnecessary to optimise the source conditions for each sample individually and the reproducibility of results have made API techniques the ionisation methods of choice. the ease and speed of source tuning.135-49 THERMAL DEGRADATION KINETICS OF POLYPROPYLENE. SWEDEN. To accommodate this mechanism change. Balke S T Toronto. and demanding meticulous sample preparation by the chemist. Parcher J F Mississippi.645677 Item 379 Speciality Chemicals 17. A single-parameter version of the model. Values of the parameter varied with both temperature and reaction time.2485-95 MASS SPECTROMETRIC INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY: INVESTIGATION OF POLYMERIC PHASE TRANSITIONS Panda S.5. was found to provide excellent fits of all MWDs.University An improved inverse gas chromatographic method involving the use of a mass-specific detector for determination of the Tg of polymeric materials is described. p. 47 refs. 10 refs. Yun K S. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No.University Thermogravimetric data were obtained for the pyrolysis of polypropylene. Langridge J.References and Abstracts MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS BY VAPOR PRESSURE OSMOMETRY: AN ALTERNATIVE DATA TREATMENT Sabadini E. 5 refs. 1997. of several polyethylene glycols could be directly obtained from the ratio between the curve slopes obtained for a standard and the polymer sample.113-25 THERMAL DEGRADATION KINETICS OF POLYPROPYLENE. could thus be obtained and the number-average molec. Until recently. UK. which could be minimised using a plot of difference in electrical resistance versus concentration. Balke S T Toronto. Details are given. Sellen M. p. 1st July 1997. chemist-operated systems have been reported on mass spectrometers equipped with a variety of ionisation modes. moves towards open-access. The result is a single continuous chromatogram for each probe solute over a range of temperatures encompassing the Tg. Several different methods for the exact determination of Tg from the chromatogram were investigated. Micromass UK Ltd.645281 Item 380 Polymer Degradation and Stability 57.wt.wt. The lower activation energy occurring at lower degradation temperatures was attributed to scission of the ‘weak links’ in the polymer. No. Lavold T.2. Raso R. This technique generally worked with a plot of the difference in electrical resistance/concentration versus concentration and the molec.165/70 MAKING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY MORE ACCESSIBLE Kuehler T C. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Universidade Estadual The number-average molec. and several previously published © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 127 . THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS Chan J H.

Schnabel W Slovak Academy of Sciences. USA Accession no. Volume II. Mowery D Quantum Chemical Co. The DSC thermogram of LLDPE is characterised by a broad range of melting with a lower melting peak around 106 deg. Toronto. details are given of EC directives issued. HPLC. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. Conference proceedings. 15th June 1997. Toronto. SLOVAK REPUBLIC. NMR.61 A review is presented of the current and proposed European legislation on materials in contact with food. SLOVAKIA. APPLICATIONS TO VINYL SIDING INDUSTRY Garcia D. For quality control an accurate and rapid method is required to identify the type and composition of alpha-olefin in an LDPE/LLDPE blend.1. Berek D.) Rapra Review Report No. Istanbul. Black J Elf Atochem North America Inc.61. thermal analysis and gas chromatography. 5 refs. No. Rapra Review Rept.2310-4.639927 Item 386 Antec 97. At a given weight percent of LDPE. Vol. hexene-1. A number of applications of FTIR spectroscopy mapping to the vinyl siding industry are described.640310 Item 384 Polymer Bulletin 38. (SPE) A blend of LDPE and LLDPE is widely used for blown film applications. A rapid.12. June 1997..27th April-2nd May 1997. Yagci Y. in single sample mapping experiments. No. Volume III. p. Onen A. With reference to legislation. Examples focus on determining. No. Rapra Technology Ltd. The melting point of LDPE varies with density and usually is in the range of 106 deg. pp. FOOD CONTACT POLYMERIC MATERIALS Sidwell J Rapra Technology Ltd.6.640169 Item 385 Antec 97. The most highly referenced areas were found to be IR spectroscopy. Conference proceedings. 012 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LDPE/LLDPE BLEND USING DSC AND FTIR METHODS Prasad A.638387 Item 387 Shawbury. their implementation. Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH The principle underlying the above method is described and results of its application to block copolymers consisting of methyl methacrylate and tetrahydrofuran blocks are presented and discussed. USA When coupled with an automated mapping stage. In the blend with LDPE.681-8 SEPARATION OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS FROM PARENT HOMOPOLYMERS BY MEANS OF LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AT THE CRITICAL ADSORPTION POINT Janco M.C for film grade resins. TURKEY. 1992. the compositional changes associated with capstock to substrate transition and evaluating the degradation species and level observed during weathering exposure throughout the thickness of the siding panel. 704 refs.p. Technical Accession no. raw materials and substrates since 1995.C to 110 deg. the ratio of the two endothermic peak heights changes. GERMANY.6. 4 refs. No.112. 12ins. accurate and new test method is developed which utilises DSC and FTIR techniques. as well as the latest technological advances.C to 124 deg.Technical University. USA Accession no.645093 Item 383 Analytical Chemistry 69. 30/6/97. USA Accession no. FDA regulations. The separate calibrations for butene-1. A review is presented of analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings. EUROPEAN UNION. it can offer unique evaluation capabilities.References and Abstracts of the elution peaks for probe solutes or simple inspection of the variation of elution peak height (width) with temperature.3588-92. 27th April-2nd May 1997. 128 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . p. 012 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED MICRO SPECTROSCOPY MAPPING. recycling and waste management legislation.C. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. 17 refs. (SPE) Fourier transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique capable of yielding high quality information with a spacial resolution as low as 10 microns. Fischer C H.15R-28R COATINGS Anderson D G Witco Corp.C to 112 deg. 51 refs. and octene-1 LLDPEs are developed to quantify the blend composition from DSC thermograms provided the alpha-olefin type is identified by a rapid method such as FTIR. this ratio depends on the type of LLDPE.C and a higher one in the range of 120 deg. The technique is shown to be suitable for characterisation of block copolymers with regard to the presence of homopolymer and multiblock (triblock) fractions. 1992. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

and the chemical microstructure of PETP were examined. A pyrolysis gas chromatography method was developed to determine the composition and microstructure of chlorinated PE (CPE). USA Accession no. Various methods for evaluating the molec. No.wt.97-102 CHARACTERISATION OF POLYMER BLENDS BY INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY Al-Saigh Z Y Ohio. March 1997. of the PETP component in PETP/ABS blends by GPC.634101 Item 390 Trends in Polymer Science © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 129 .637749 Item 388 Polymer 38. and methods of analysis of multilayer food contact materials.636573 Item 389 Polymer Testing 16.University A method was developed for direct determination of the molec. EUROPEAN UNION.g. 23 refs. 485 refs. Both studies were made to correlate the structure and properties.1997. dynamics and polymer reactions. Moad G. Tavares M I B CCT/UENF EVA was analysed by carbon-13 high-resolution using NMR employing solution and solid state techniques.618-22 COMPOSITION AND MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE BY PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY Cheng-Yu Wang F. EUROPEAN UNION. a study of molecular mobility was carried out.415-9 Accession no. BRAZIL Accession no. No. 15th Feb. The composition and microstructure calculation was based on the difference between the levels of ethylene and vinyl chloride trimers formed.4. Comparisons between data from inverse gas chromatography and DSC are discussed. UK.5. p. The technique was used to demonstrate that an observed deterioration in the mechanical properties.632110 Item 391 Polymer News 22.12. p. Izod impact strength.1997.2. The composition of CPE polymers used in this study was corroborated with carbon-13 NMR results and the manufacturers product specification. p. No. USA Accession no. p. p. AUSTRALIA Accession no. e. The method used specific aromatic compounds which were formed through dehydrochlorination of trimers after pyrolysis of CPE polymers at elevated temperatures.wt. Monash.629089 Item 393 Biomaterials 18. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Div.wt. March 1997. 23 refs. Willing I.15 POLYMER ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERISATION. 34 refs. No.3. 9 refs. Smith P B Dow Chemical Co. ITALY.References and Abstracts developments in food contact materials cover barrier polymers in multilayer packaging films. migration of species from food contact materials. WESTERN EUROPE 5. van Diepen G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.State University A brief review is presented of the use of inverse gas chromatography to characterise polymer blends. of PETP/ABS blends on processing could be correlated with a decrease in the molec. No. 1997.632071 Item 392 Analytical Chemistry 69. Mention is made of polymer morphology. 1997. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. interactions. p. Cook W D CSIRO. Jan.of Chemicals & Polymers. of the PETP component.1. The use of NMR spectroscopy as a means of quantitatively identifying end groups and comonomers that were present at the 1-4% level in commercial PETP was critically evaluated with reference to the stability of PETP and PETP end groups in various NMR solvents.193-8 NMR CARBON-13 HIGH RESOLUTION STUDY OF POLY(ETHYLENE-CO-VINYL ACETATE) Stael G C. No. 10 refs. New proton NMR chemical shift assignments for cyclohexanedimethanol units are presented and the reactivity of hydroxy end groups in trifluoroacetic acid mixtures is examined. SOLID STATE NMR: IS IT BECOME TRULY POPULAR? Garbassi F EniChem SpA A very brief review is presented of specific areas where solid state NMR can contribute to polymer analysis.3035-43 CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE AND POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE BLENDS Fox B. and using solid-state NMR. The analyses of this copolymer by solution NMR permitted the copolymer composition to be obtained.

No. 18/7/95.66-71 LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AT THE CRITICAL CONDITION USING ENHANCEDFLUIDITY LIQUID MOBILE PHASES Souvignet I. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. it was possible to reach the critical condition by changing the pressure of the THF/carbon dioxide mixture. Both untreated and redissolved PMMA can be characterised.wt.p.621625 Item 395 Analytical Chemistry 69.) Rapra Review Report No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE compared for THF/carbon dioxide and other common liquid mixtures. p. The calculated results agreed well with experimental results for two. The materials used to demonstrate the range of the method were PS blended with poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO).1% vs 1-2wt%) than those obtained by the best currently-available alternative method (ATR Fourier transform IR spectrometry).11. 411 refs. UK. Hammiche A. USA Accession no. Vol. Pressure variation was a more accurate and reproducible means of reaching the critical condition than temp. The use is discussed of gel permeation chromatography in combination with other techniques such as light scattering and viscometry to provide information about the molec.1st May 1988. THF/carbon dioxide mixtures were used as mobile phases at the critical condition for PS to characterise styrene-methyl acrylate copolymers. in the presence and absence of up to three dyes in a single sample. pure PPO. each with its own characteristic increment of heat capacity. a styrene-isoprene-styrene triblock copolymer (SIS). pp.University of Technology. ICI Paints A quantitative thermal method. p. Meeham E Rapra Technology Ltd. range that could be analysed at the critical condition was Accession no. changes. pure PS. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. PMMA/poly(vinyl acetate) blends and PVC sandwiched with poly(n-butyl acrylate). EUROPEAN UNION. variation. No. 44 refs. Olesik S V Ohio. 12ins.1. 1997.1. UK..Marshall A G OHIO STATE. Rapra Review Rept.and four-phase systems.State University The use of enhanced-fluidity liquid mixtures of THF and carbon dioxide for liquid chromatography at the critical condition was examined. Twophase and four-phase systems were used. 16 refs.References and Abstracts DETECTION OF PEROXY SPECIES IN ULTRAHIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE BY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Chenery D H Smith & Nephew Group Research Centre Samples of gamma-sterilised UHMWPE were examined using infra-red and Raman spectroscopies. 1st Jan. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. THERMAL CHARACTERISATION OF MULTICOMPONENT POLYMERS AND INTERFACES Hourston D J. As enhanced-fluid liquids were highly compressible. The purpose of this study was to detect the peroxy intermediates by the novel use of Raman spectroscopy to confirm that oxidation proceeded by this mechanism. 1995.9.wt. UK. 1995. the molec. 20 refs. Rapra Technology Ltd. Polymer Laboratories Ltd. based on the differential of heat capacity signal from modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 25 refs. Finally. was described for determining the weight fraction of interface and the extent of phase separation in polymer materials.357996 130 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .556661 Item 397 Analytical Chemistry 60.7.. SIS blended with PPO. The interface was modelled as discrete fractions. Lancaster. The use of solution viscosity is also examined as a valuable quality control technique.932-7 IDENTIFICATION OF DYES IN SOLID POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE BY MEANS OF LASER DESORPTION FOURIER TRANSFORM ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE MASS SPECTROMETRY Hsu A T. of a polymer and potentially significant information on the composition of copolymers and blends. Reading M Loughborough. Song M.108. For PS polymers.1997. Approaching the critical condition by pressure variation was compared with that possible with temp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.UNIVERSITY It is demonstrated that the above technique can detect and identify (by chemical formulae) dyes in solid PMMA commercial plastics at concentrations at least on order of magnitude lower (0.625483 Item 394 Polymer 38. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. MOLECULAR WEIGHT CHARACTERISATION OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS Holding S R.University.1-7 MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY: 6.No. Pollock H M.620015 Item 396 Shawbury. 83 Techniques are examined for the determination of the molecular weight distribution and molecular weight averages of synthetic polymers.

.3.BRITAIN Accession no. hardeners and blowing agents.687.24. R. 1980.280400 Item 399 Weinheim. 22/3/82.ix. Verlag Chemie GmbH.. polypropylene. fractionation. methacrylates. 91T HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY .8. Analytical Chemistry Vol.211056 Item 400 Members Rept. antistatic agents. autoradiography. 12/7/85. It is divided into eight chapters which each deal with a particular polymer or group of polymers:. 91T ANALYSIS OF PLASTICS Crompton T R This book covers all aspects of the analysis of plastics by chemical and physical methods. UK processing aids are presented.polyolefins. Pergamon Press Ltd.12.EDN.Britain RUBBER & PLASTICS RA.49 Shawbury. The techniques discussed include spectroscopy. TGA and DSC. DTA.. biostabilisers. chlorine-containing polymers. chromatography. Over 1300 IR spectra and 60 UV spectra are included. 12ins. LS.ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS IN THE RUBBER AND PLASTICS INDUSTRIES Sidwell J A Rubber & Plastics Research Assn. 91T ATLAS OF POLYMER AND PLASTICS ANALYSIS. Accession no.. pp. 1984. UV stabilisers. accelerators. 2copies. higher alkene polymers.XV. pp. flame retardants. antioxidants.ROOM. lubricants. The functions and compositions as well as the physical and chemical methods of identification of the following materials are discussed: plasticisers. 608 refs.154074 Accession no. pigments. 26/6/80. 1981.ADDITIVES AND PROCESSING AIDS: SPECTRA AND METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION.References and Abstracts Item 398 Oxford.MEMBERS REPT. fillers.50. 9ins. styrene polymers. 11 refs. 12ins. 2copies. X-ray diffraction. Scholl F The spectroscopic and chromatographic data that are required for the identification of plastics additives and © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 131 . polybutadienes. RUBBER & PLASTICS RESEARCH ASSN.of Gt. VOL. pp..049 This report details some of the high-performance liquid chromatography work carried out at RAPRA and reviews reported in the literature.445. optical brighteners. 2ND REV.OF GT. polyesters and polyethers.

References and Abstracts 132 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .

200 222 272 356 BISPHENOL A COPOLYMER. 178 BISPHENOL A EPOXY RESIN. 189 BISPHENOL A DIGLYCIDYL ETHER. 56 235 288 ALCOHOLYSIS. 178 BLEND. 281 BOILING POINT. 274 ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY. 351 AMMONIUM SALT. 56 57 86 94 168 387 BENZENE. 160 164 207 225 345 365 388 398 ABSORPTION. 39 ALKYD RESIN. 21 266 ACID. 48 125 192 278 288 299 392 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE. 18 35 60 102 200 216 BRITTLE. 32 168 202 BONDING AGENT. 6 ANTIMONY. 105 210 AEROPLANE. 199 ACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER. 36 48 130 151 161 178 272 AMMONIUM PYRROLIDONE DITHIOCARBAMATE. 245 290 328 ALUMINIUM. 95 ANTIOXIDANT. 46 198 223 232 ARAMID FIBRE. 258 AMORPHOUS. 6 AMINE. 262 BIREFRINGENCE. 399 AQUEOUS. 46 56 65 93 103 178 203 210 221 241 285 319 339 360 384 ADSORPTION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 50 97 AGEING. 11 12 15 25 47 58 60 63 64 69 72 77 91 98 107 110 112 125 137 139 146 147 151 156 186 188 193 209 213 220 228 234 246 309 331 340 347 348 363 367 375 377 386 388 390 391 394 BLOCK COPOLYMER. 172 217 348 ACRYLIC POLYMER. 37 112 267 387 BIODETERIORATION. 36 62 121 AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY. 44 56 62 67 175 202 212 236 329 AUTOOXIDATION. 237 ALPHA TRANSITION. 277 288 ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY. 382 BETA RELAXATION. 76 266 ACETONE. 43 61 69 126 257 262 301 360 AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 120 185 266 BONDING. 66 80 86 88 112 148 152 274 288 298 309 338 377 ALCOHOL. 14 54 74 78 99 117 141 170 207 213 274 283 340 362 367 ANISOTROPY. 126 168 179 223 266 ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE. 119 ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER. 30 38 44 58 59 62 108 115 118 142 145 154 167 179 191 219 277 ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY. 4 29 78 135 159 322 367 BISPHENOL DIGLYCIDYL ETHER. 185 224 266 311 ACETONITRILE. 41 62 271 289 357 363 BROMINE CONTAINING COPOLYMER. 104 BIOCOMPATIBLE. 95 177 218 273 351 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. 11 BISPHENOL A POLYCARBONATE. 273 B BACKSCATTERED ELECTRON IMAGING. 33 172 255 299 314 335 371 384 397 ACRYLIC-MELAMINE RESIN. 51 BOUNDARY LAYER. 72 110 220 345 ACTIVATION ENERGIES. 399 ACCURACY. 32 61 62 145 157 167 176 202 223 231 236 237 247 249 312 316 341 346 ADHESIVE. 262 BARIUM SULPHATE. 9 20 62 167 168 179 272 346 ADSORPTION. 81 BRANCHING. 127 193 274 354 370 384 394 BLOW MOULDING. 302 399 BLOWN FILM. 289 BAG. 44 175 ACRYLONITRILE. 65 86 93 107 132 171 183 195 286 288 366 368 372 387 399 ANTISTATIC AGENT. 56 226 297 306 374 382 ABSORPTION SPECTRA. 57 ACRYLONITRILE-STYRENE COPOLYMER. 329 BOTTLE. 281 AROMA. 42 46 246 262 BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION. 29 36 71 89 99 107 108 112 124 128 132 151 161 171 178 181 199 201 206 225 226 250 272 288 289 302 306 318 324 325 353 366 372 377 387 391 397 399 ADHESION. 13 AUTOMATION. 257 284 BISPENTAMETHYLPIPERIDYL SEBACATE. 57 131 212 266 313 323 BOUND WATER. 168 179 BONNET. 325 BIAXIALLY ORIENTED. 266 BAGASSE. 46 50 212 278 382 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION. 24 54 74 101 135 136 277 308 338 342 ANTI-STICK AGENT. 50 206 222 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY. 56 57 AROMATIC. 358 362 ACCELERATOR. 313 323 BLOWING AGENT. 13 256 324 ANNEALING. 66 BISPHENOL A. 177 ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY. 131 ACETIC ACID. 40 BARRIER PROPERTIES. 100 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 133 . 211 ALUMINIUM OXIDE. 49 75 146 169 280 288 317 328 380 381 ADDITIVE. 42 BIODEGRADABLE. 5 37 112 246 267 387 BIOMATERIAL. 126 ACRYLATE.Subject Index Subject Index A ABS. 269 ACRYLIC. 169 BAND STRUCTURE. 324 386 BODY ARMOUR.

194 CHEMICAL BONDING. 246 CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE. 7 385 BULK MOULDING COMPOUND. 66 81 86 89 96 97 105 112 119 137 141 152 171 191 194 229 235 303 304 366 375 382 384 CHROMATOGRAPHY. 288 341 CASTING. 348 COHESION. 233 375 COLUMN PACKING. 28 57 70 94 198 210 220 370 134 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . 46 67 108 173 174 214 309 COMPUTER MODEL. 56 67 CARBON 13. 226 306 CHITIN. 3 21 25 28 29 30 34 35 39 40 46 50 52 53 55 56 60 66 71 72 75 80 81 84 86 87 89 96 97 102 103 105 107 108 112 113 114 116 119 120 124 128 137 141 152 158 159 160 166 169 171 172 174 183 185 186 190 191 194 195 200 203 204 206 208 210 218 222 229 233 235 239 240 241 242 243 259 264 273 278 285 295 299 303 304 307 310 311 314 319 322 325 334 349 353 355 356 366 372 373 375 376 379 381 382 383 384 388 395 398 399 CHROMIC ACID. 37 61 202 217 277 333 343 CONTACT LENS. 94 145 167 COLOUR. 146 392 CHLORINE. 88 CHEMOMETRIC ANALYSIS. 248 367 CONCENTRATION. 17 194 373 CHLORODIFLUOROETHANE. 324 325 CAR. 325 COMPOSITE. 76 CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY. 3 208 369 382 CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS. 222 CHEMICAL REAGENT. 272 274 CHAIN SCISSION. 130 193 209 265 268 297 359 370 389 392 CARBON BLACK. 61 CHROMOGEN. 58 CHEMICAL IONISATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 324 CALCIUM CARBONATE. 9 61 64 65 74 88 133 150 154 186 290 302 305 313 354 359 CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS. 166 190 BUTYLENE COPOLYMER. 265 CONTAINER. 79 CELLULOSE NITRATE. 50 203 235 241 319 375 COMBUSTION. 8 14 77 98 114 149 162 172 190 227 276 277 285 290 310 323 328 330 337 344 362 382 390 392 394 CALIBRATION. 47 COPOLYMER COMPOSITION. 12 98 125 COATED FIBRE. 27 44 175 CLOUD POINT. 65 211 289 324 CALCULATION. 202 BUMPER. 359 COMPATIBILITY. 276 CHAIN LENGTH. 57 126 207 309 323 324 COPOLYESTER. 10 13 17 36 62 79 81 82 90 100 134 141 176 178 179 182 196 197 199 202 211 231 234 258 265 271 281 288 289 296 318 320 333 339 357 377 COMPOSITION. 25 72 80 89 103 107 146 159 172 197 198 211 213 229 232 289 318 CHEMICAL FORCE MICROSCOPY. 6 47 173 190 208 216 229 238 270 297 309 310 319 334 378 392 CALORIMETRY. 204 322 COPOLYETHERSULPHONE. 19 27 44 62 66 121 126 138 163 168 174 175 185 217 222 223 227 236 237 239 255 259 266 298 312 325 359 383 COBALT STEARATE. 55 102 105 129 130 183 197 215 224 250 262 283 300 311 317 339 353 378 CONE CALORIMETER. 1 8 12 16 25 31 47 49 51 53 56 66 68 73 77 83 89 93 98 102 103 114 130 133 140 152 158 159 164 166 168 180 200 222 228 229 243 264 268 269 274 275 277 283 284 286 291 300 301 308 310 317 318 328 331 334 337 355 356 364 365 368 370 376 382 391 CHEMILUMINESCENCE. 53 334 CHEMICAL RECYCLING. 57 298 301 311 373 395 CARBON DISULPHIDE. 168 342 CONFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS. 140 216 CHINA CLAY. 274 380 CHAR. 17 128 160 181 289 357 COOLING. 324 CLEARCOAT. 57 266 278 CONTAMINATION. 46 79 185 CEMENT. 36 178 182 196 231 320 CARBONYL GROUP.Subject Index BUCKET. 157 227 COATING. 46 50 97 CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 28 198 BUTYL METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER. 274 288 COLOURANT. 40 93 CARBON DIOXIDE. 360 CONTACT ANGLE. 144 152 174 338 COMPUTER SIMULATION. 337 CHLOROFORM. 63 90 209 331 340 COMPLEX VISCOSITY. 311 CARBON FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 94 262 367 CELLULAR MATERIAL. 102 113 C CALCINED CLAY. 39 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE. 274 288 CARBOXYLIC ACID. 150 359 CONFOCAL RAMAN MICROSPECTROSCOPY. 57 67 139 309 323 324 358 COOLING RATE. 67 BUILDING APPLICATION. 43 82 263 CELLULOSE ACETATE. 72 73 100 122 123 130 220 241 243 389 392 394 COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS. 16 288 CLAY. 181 COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHY. 80 84 85 97 302 CELLULOSE. 358 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION. 57 175 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE. 67 BUTYL ACRYLATE COPOLYMER. 179 COATED METAL.

2 48 161 CURE TIME. 4 17 34 75 87 112 128 152 175 183 194 274 279 288 DEGRADATION TEMPERATURE. 10 DIGLYCIDYL ETHER BISPHENOL A. 103 395 CRITICAL SOLUTION TEMPERATURE. 2 59 143 147 283 313 CRYSTALLINITY. 9 DISCOLOURATION. 2 9 12 13 22 24 26 52 54 57 59 74 78 107 117 122 131 136 139 147 148 155 170 246 261 295 309 323 329 332 336 386 CRYSTALLISATION TEMPERATURE. 222 288 CRYSTALLINE. 9 56 80 99 124 125 264 274 346 351 360 372 387 394 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT. 21 263 285 D DATA ANALYSIS. 241 CRITICAL POINT. 181 217 289 361 DISTILLED WATER. 67 88 126 289 329 DEFORMATION. 46 245 338 DIELECTRIC RELAXATION SPECTROSCOPY. 110 179 221 250 CROSSLINKING.Subject Index COPPER. 125 CROSS-POLARISATION. 9 27 300 377 DEGREE OF CRYSTALLINITY. 205 CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY. 10 36 269 DEHYDROCHLORINATION. 117 257 283 284 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 135 . 46 237 338 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES. 136 309 CRYSTALLITE. 363 CRESOL. 179 269 CROSSLINKED. 172 247 276 343 346 DEPOLYMERISATION. 56 99 111 224 DIGITAL ANALYSIS. 288 DISPERSION. 57 139 260 CURE TEMPERATURE. 9 DIETHYLENE GLYCOL. 255 312 DENSITY. 48 DICHROISM. 20 260 DISTRIBUTION. 377 DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY. 194 269 380 DEGREE OF BRANCHING. 56 DISTORTION. 18 52 56 106 131 168 179 216 231 261 289 313 367 DENTAL APPLICATION. 368 DICYANATE POLYMER. 2 6 7 8 10 12 15 17 18 20 22 24 29 36 41 54 56 63 64 65 74 77 78 83 88 94 95 98 101 110 113 114 122 125 126 131 133 134 136 139 144 146 147 149 154 155 161 163 164 170 186 187 207 211 213 231 245 246 252 253 254 258 267 269 276 277 280 287 290 291 296 302 309 313 323 324 328 329 332 336 348 357 367 370 377 382 386 387 390 398 DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY. 11 DIELECTRIC ANALYSIS. 60 102 338 DOMESTIC APPLIANCE. 39 165 266 DEPTH PROFILING. 39 208 DIPHENYLMETHANE DIISOCYANATE. 36 151 161 178 182 222 250 272 288 317 CYCLOHEXANE. 71 93 104 210 310 360 DETECTION LIMIT. 8 20 27 36 68 73 83 89 138 144 149 161 163 178 182 187 247 248 265 269 272 300 305 309 312 316 349 377 CURING AGENT. 56 174 289 DIACID. 9 10 20 24 27 36 46 48 49 73 85 115 134 161 180 187 265 272 279 288 294 300 309 326 368 377 CROSSLINKING AGENT. 143 313 DEGREE OF CURE. 26 121 266 DIFFERENTIAL INTERFERENCE MICROSCOPY. 83 279 CROSSLINK DENSITY. 255 271 CREEP RATE SPECTROSCOPY. 342 DIMETHYL TEREPHTHALATE. 134 CURING. 61 316 317 CORONA TREATMENT. 288 341 DIBUTYL PHTHALATE. 9 377 DIELECTRIC CONSTANT. 200 DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE. 36 265 309 CUREMETER. 211 DRAW RATIO. 284 DICUMYL PEROXIDE. 13 216 237 267 291 319 DATA COLLECTION. 355 CRITICAL CONCENTRATION. 146 392 DELAMINATION. 41 59 67 249 277 283 DEGRADABLE. 205 333 342 344 DERIVATIVE THERMOGRAVIMETRY. 18 35 DEGREE OF CROSSLINKING. 76 DIBUTYL SEBACATE. 4 16 39 44 58 65 66 80 85 86 87 88 92 94 101 112 119 135 148 152 164 175 183 189 194 195 213 228 244 258 266 267 274 279 288 294 298 302 309 311 318 325 326 330 338 347 357 374 377 380 385 DEGRADATION PRODUCT. 291 345 DEBONDING. 380 DESORPTION. 382 DEFECT. 208 DIMETHYL SULPHOXIDE. 236 DECANE. 2 13 24 42 54 57 62 63 64 69 94 102 113 114 117 122 126 131 139 143 147 168 257 260 274 277 281 291 309 313 323 357 364 367 377 391 CRYSTALLISATION. 324 DIFFERENTIAL PHOTOCALORIMETRY. 344 364 CORROSION. 2 6 7 8 10 11 12 15 17 18 20 22 24 29 36 41 51 54 56 63 64 65 74 77 78 83 85 88 94 95 98 101 110 113 114 122 125 126 131 133 134 135 136 139 144 146 147 149 154 155 161 163 164 170 186 187 207 211 213 220 245 246 252 253 254 258 261 267 269 276 277 280 282 287 290 291 296 302 305 309 313 323 324 328 329 332 336 348 357 367 370 377 382 386 387 390 394 398 DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 193 209 268 300 CROSSLINK. 277 DICHLOROXYLENE. 80 DOUGH MOULDING COMPOUND. 21 77 DIMETHYL ISOPHTHALATE. 37 112 267 387 DEGRADATION. 341 DIFFUSION. 49 110 259 338 DIELECTROMETRY.

36 102 130 151 229 274 314 END-GROUP ANALYSIS. 28 29 34 35 40 41 50 52 55 60 97 102 103 108 112 114 116 158 166 204 210 229 239 240 243 299 314 322 334 355 375 381 EXOTHERM. 38 46 338 378 ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY. 121 EXTRACTION. 69 274 370 ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE COPOLYMER. 333 ELECTRON DISPERSIVE X-RAY ANALYSIS. 339 375 ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 36 FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 36 100 141 178 231 258 281 320 FIELD EMISSION SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 57 70 100 209 226 251 270 306 341 347 359 373 389 ETHYLENE-VINYL ALCOHOL COPOLYMER.Subject Index DRINKING WATER. 6 7 40 70 72 183 188 195 225 254 266 324 325 F FADING. 5 223 227 237 255 ELECTRODIALYSIS. 179 317 325 DYNAMIC SPECTROSCOPY. 206 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 5 ELECTROPHORESIS. 357 ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY ANALYSIS. 15 115 160 194 351 ELUENT. 97 ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY. 108 129 289 328 ENGINEERING APPLICATION. 56 87 174 321 END GROUP. 345 DYNAMIC LIGHT SCATTERING. 39 266 ETHYLENE-HEXENE COPOLYMER. 35 97 FILLED. 16 397 DYNAMIC. 76 176 197 FIBRE OPTIC. 6 46 138 194 197 218 309 335 379 ERROR ANALYSIS. 232 FIBRE. 2 5 13 63 82 108 129 181 ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 61 ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY. 345 DYNAMIC VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES. 13 358 ELECTRON IONISATION MASS SPECTROMETRY. 56 57 94 291 387 ETHYLIDENE VINYL PYRROLIDONE. 376 FATTY ACID. 101 E ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY. 35 285 310 356 EMISSION. 289 DYE. 45 66 294 326 327 368 ELECTRONIC APPLICATION. 54 56 74 78 94 125 136 139 ENDOTHERMIC. 71 144 317 323 374 DYNAMIC DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY. 38 ELECTRICAL INSULATOR. 207 ENERGY CONTENT. 111 292 EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 13 ETHANOL. 50 ELUTION FRACTIONATION. 131 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 54 276 309 329 336 EXTENDER. 11 DYNAMIC INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 46 50 97 ELECTROSPRAY IONISATION. 11 EPOXY RESIN. 36 108 145 167 254 289 329 FAST ATOM BOMBARDMENT MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 111 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. 17 30 36 167 178 182 254 271 289 296 341 347 357 FAILURE ANALYSIS. 315 EPICHLOROHYDRIN. 6 ELECTRON ENERGY LOSS SPECTROSCOPY. 52 ELUTION VOLUME. 36 56 73 83 92 114 134 161 196 245 269 309 377 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 46 ELECTROKINETIC POTENTIAL. 324 ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING. 370 392 ETHYLENE COPOLYMER. 190 222 229 376 ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS. 56 311 ETHERSULPHONE COPOLYMER. 36 64 74 125 179 187 276 282 309 339 354 375 ENTROPY. 190 200 334 376 388 ENDOTHERM. 289 FIELD-FLOW FRACTIONATION. 85 323 EXOTHERMIC. 203 235 375 ELUTION. 271 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES. 51 348 ETHYLENE-BUTYLENE COPOLYMER. 325 338 367 DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 250 EVANESCENT WAVE SPECTROSCOPY. 47 ETHYLENE ACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER. 10 11 20 32 36 47 62 68 144 145 149 151 157 161 178 179 182 199 200 222 249 255 269 272 282 292 305 309 312 320 EQUIPMENT. 52 ETHYLENE CONTENT. 35 46 203 210 266 285 370 375 382 ELUTION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 71 97 128 171 185 195 266 331 372 373 EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 22 60 63 102 113 154 209 259 348 359 389 ETHYLENE GLYCOL. 97 EXTRUSION. 272 EPOXY NOVOLAC RESIN. 2 5 13 63 82 108 129 181 289 324 ELECTRON SCANNING MICROSCOPY. 52 ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE COPOLYMER. 235 245 276 309 329 359 ENERGY ABSORPTION. 309 367 ENTHALPY. 31 33 43 82 100 178 179 182 231 256 260 330 339 371 FIBRE GLASS. 288 FAILURE. 179 318 325 136 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . 183 307 DUCTILE FAILURE.

1 3 6 8 11 24 25 26 29 30 34 36 40 41 60 63 64 72 77 83 88 92 93 94 98 102 107 108 113 117 126 135 136 150 153 156 160 161 163 165 169 170 173 181 189 190 213 215 216 226 228 246 249 250 252 259 262 264 271 274 275 277 288 300 306 309 316 318 321 328 341 343 344 345 352 360 364 374 381 385 386 397 FRACTION. 52 56 57 63 87 91 102 109 112 128 132 143 164 195 212 214 307 357 372 392 HIGH IMPACT PS. 25 217 268 HETEROGENEOUS. 11 24 26 57 85 126 163 196 228 266 267 269 295 317 377 HEAT STABILITY. 108 116 157 FLUOROPOLYMER. 124 177 195 208 264 286 387 FOOD PACKAGING. 50 143 233 324 372 FLUORESCENCE. 279 387 FOAM. 4 FLAVOUR. 311 GEL. 30 108 164 174 217 312 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 46 319 326 GEL ELECTROPHORESIS. 67 82 98 178 236 271 289 FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY. 2 13 54 61 98 115 191 319 346 391 394 FREE ENERGY. 145 167 276 351 GLASS CONTENT. 18 56 99 338 367 382 FREEZING POINT. 129 146 170 HEXANE. 97 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 95 152 211 218 273 FLAMMABILITY. 179 209 289 340 354 363 389 HINDERED AMINE. 62 107 277 381 HIGH RESOLUTION. 35 170 204 394 FRACTIONATION. 277 GAS TRANSMISSION.Subject Index FILLER. 183 FLEXIBLE. 36 155 245 252 261 276 309 324 HEAT INSULATION. 45 266 FREE VOLUME. 50 107 113 137 152 169 172 190 200 233 259 264 295 310 325 334 356 376 383 388 396 399 GELATION. 80 84 97 302 FOOD-CONTACT APPLICATION. 185 HEAT CAPACITY. 150 173 273 359 FLASH CHROMATOGRAPHY. 28 52 97 107 113 337 370 398 FRACTURE. 67 80 277 311 GAS PIPE. 57 119 HEATING. 23 82 85 93 94 152 189 196 211 244 258 296 317 347 377 380 H HEADSPACE ANALYSIS. 21 35 39 46 76 97 165 171 183 195 200 222 233 238 239 242 247 264 266 286 304 337 366 375 383 399 400 HIGH TEMPERATURE. 36 54 144 179 309 328 332 348 380 HELIUM. 84 277 283 353 FLOATATION. 4 99 133 393 GAS. 17 43 45 65 81 90 93 184 207 211 226 289 306 307 318 324 325 399 FILLER CONTENT. 56 FUNCTIONAL GROUP. 339 FREE RADICAL. 359 FLAME IONISATION. 3 31 66 123 225 G GAMMA-IRRADIATION. 23 26 29 75 76 83 152 160 163 189 192 194 196 244 266 273 318 325 380 381 HEAT FLOW. 12 15 18 20 29 36 49 51 56 74 77 81 85 94 101 106 110 114 117 122 135 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 137 . 67 80 277 311 GAS BARRIER. 296 GLASS FIBRE. 185 FLAME RETARDANT. 108 FIRE RETARDANT. 57 HETEROGENEITY. 97 FLASH PYROLYSIS. 36 83 274 331 FUNGUS. 36 179 187 244 266 309 323 348 354 HEATING RATE. 80 276 HEAT RESISTANCE. 97 FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS. 3 4 30 34 39 53 56 66 71 72 75 76 80 81 84 87 90 96 107 112 119 120 124 128 132 141 143 160 174 183 185 186 191 194 195 198 208 217 218 221 232 235 250 270 273 278 303 307 311 339 349 353 373 382 383 390 392 398 GAS DIFFUSION. 311 HEADSPACE CHROMATOGRAPHY. 1 3 16 27 37 38 40 41 49 56 57 61 62 65 86 92 102 104 106 115 117 118 135 142 148 156 167 168 186 205 246 257 262 266 269 288 289 308 324 327 349 351 362 373 374 386 387 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS. 76 176 197 GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 146 196 HEAT TREATMENT. 5 FURAN RESIN. 56 57 168 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 17 293 FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY. 324 FREQUENCY. 199 FURNITURE. 50 FLOW MICROCALORIMETRY. 289 324 FILM. 274 149 155 161 163 164 170 179 207 213 220 249 261 269 280 282 287 290 305 308 309 323 328 338 357 367 377 382 390 394 GLOW DISCHARGE. 17 179 202 211 231 271 288 296 333 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE. 20 74 78 125 161 179 220 253 261 276 280 287 290 309 324 336 394 HEAT DEGRADATION. 48 HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY. 78 118 179 255 256 287 309 325 336 FUEL TANK. 81 90 324 FILLER DISTRIBUTION. 7 73 134 161 294 GLASS. 97 GAS-PHASE. 240 319 HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 57 124 168 195 266 278 311 FORMULATION. 202 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 93 FLOW RATE. 343 GLOW DISCHARGE SPECTROSCOPY. 274 GAS LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

67 INJECTION MOULDING. 46 333 ISOMERISATION. 144 LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY. 50 97 351 IONISATION. 82 LINEAR LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 6 LASER LIGHT SCATTERING. 135 INTERFACE. 29 172 266 330 INVERSE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 117 KEVLAR. 42 HOMOGENEITY. 77 94 99 114 342 364 HYDROGEN CHLORIDE. 3 23 52 73 75 94 144 149 302 317 323 332 363 380 381 L LAC RESIN. 397 ION EXCHANGE. 97 218 ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE. 36 69 I IDENTIFICATION. 129 133 274 314 ISOTHERM.Subject Index HINDERED PHENOL. 67 INFRARED DICHROISM. 46 HYDROXYL GROUP. 185 LAMELLAE. 13 275 363 INTERNAL MOULD RELEASE. 201 LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS. 97 IMPACT PROPERTIES. 13 67 88 168 179 275 289 346 IMIDAZOLE. 35 200 LASER RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 1 3 8 11 14 17 24 26 29 33 34 36 39 41 43 51 60 63 66 69 72 77 79 85 88 92 93 94 98 108 113 126 135 142 150 153 156 160 161 163 164 165 169 172 173 181 184 186 188 189 207 215 216 225 226 228 230 244 246 249 250 256 257 259 262 264 269 271 274 275 277 284 294 297 301 306 316 318 321 328 341 343 344 345 353 360 362 364 365 371 374 381 383 385 386 387 393 399 INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY. 308 LATEX. 67 160 231 296 357 INK. 167 INTERFACIAL INTERACTION. 36 274 362 INFRARED CAMERA. 226 306 138 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . 8 355 IMMERSION. 321 HYDROGEN BONDING. 57 92 107 139 186 216 225 324 386 LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS. 219 265 LIFETIME PREDICTION. 178 223 237 IMMISCIBLE. 57 168 266 293 LANGIVIN EQUATION. 70 214 345 LENS. 41 88 INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA SPECTROMETRY. 3 46 50 60 75 LASER. 44 56 57 309 HYDROFLUOROCARBON. 311 IMAGING. 236 LASER INTERFEROMETRY. 36 78 117 125 276 317 338 348 375 ISOTROPY. 178 179 182 206 229 236 322 341 342 346 367 394 INTERFACIAL ADHESION. 75 297 300 HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER. 80 276 INTERACTION. 3 288 LIGNOCELLULOSE. 30 79 121 128 132 212 214 353 370 397 ILLUMINATION. 229 274 LIGHT DEGRADATION. 112 IRRADIATION. 90 167 178 INTERFACIAL PROPERTIES. 2 181 HUMIDITY. 361 INFRARED ABSORPTION. 239 INSULATION. 46 156 174 193 198 LEACHING. 62 212 236 298 351 397 LASER INDUCED DECOHESION SPECTROSCOPY. 352 LACQUER. 34 58 59 165 319 341 352 HYDROPHILICITY. 46 ISOTACTIC. 188 367 394 IMMUNOELECTROPHORESIS. 363 LASER IONISATION MASS SPECTROMETRY. 262 IMIDISATION. 3 31 123 132 288 LIGHT STABILITY. 8 10 45 73 83 125 377 KINETICS. 11 288 ISOPHORONE DIISOCYANATE. 46 51 360 HYDROPHOBICITY. 4 40 92 153 358 IRRADIATION DEGRADATION. 46 50 206 222 379 IRON OXIDE. 133 ISOELECTRIC POINT. 220 235 285 INTERCHAIN PACKING. 202 INTRINSIC VISCOSITY. 67 178 309 339 ISOTHERMAL. 183 LEAD. 219 262 393 IMPURITY. 3 40 129 153 196 274 288 LIGHT MICROSCOPY. 100 289 340 HOT STAGE MICROSCOPY. 78 139 LAMINATE. 81 90 141 143 191 217 235 339 382 390 ION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 81 90 111 141 167 178 249 320 342 INTERFEROMETRY. 56 57 168 182 266 342 LAMINATED FILM. 108 255 377 LIGHT ABSORPTION. 121 ISOTACHOPHORESIS. 90 167 178 235 249 285 311 318 341 342 364 INTERACTION PARAMETER. 284 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 191 KINETIC. 221 INDUCTION PERIOD. 333 INTERFACIAL DEBONDING. 56 63 231 370 388 IMPLANT. 168 LATERAL FORCE MICROSCOPY. 34 48 194 228 HYDROLYSIS. 111 116 117 172 203 238 260 310 396 LIGHT STABILISER. 41 HIP JOINT. 181 295 LIGHT SCATTERING. 21 25 35 39 46 50 55 76 97 103 105 108 124 159 165 171 183 195 200 203 206 210 222 229 233 238 239 240 241 242 243 K KAOLIN. 37 46 360 375 HYDROXYBENZENE. 351 INELASTIC NEUTRON SCATTERING.

39 266 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 139 . 3 57 86 87 139 143 164 168 186 207 214 266 324 325 348 372 373 386 LOW FREQUENCY. 39 56 76 171 266 METHANOLYSIS. 358 LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 50 375 395 MODEL. 362 MIGRATION. 28 33 166 198 308 384 METHYLBENZENE. 190 METHACRYLIC ESTER POLYMER. 36 82 141 178 182 351 359 MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION. 288 METHYL METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER. 15 63 259 METHACRYLIC ESTER COPOLYMER. 71 185 MICRORAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 28 105 149 152 172 216 290 311 319 336 341 360 381 382 394 MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY.Subject Index 247 264 266 285 286 299 304 319 337 353 355 366 375 379 383 384 395 LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMER. 185 METHYL ACRYLATE COPOLYMER. 266 MICROANALYSIS. 42 262 MELAMINE-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN. 209 268 283 291 300 340 MAGNESIUM-25. 12 64 77 98 125 146 209 213 220 309 367 390 391 394 MOBILE PHASE. 266 387 MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 179 231 289 MICROBIAL DEGRADATION. 13 58 60 168 170 198 274 370 388 392 MICROTOMY. 195 MECHANICAL SPECTROSCOPY. 6 51 148 266 309 MOLAR MASS. 128 375 M MAGIC ANGLE. 76 218 MASS SPECTROMETRY. 257 281 284 327 360 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. 12 52 56 63 94 114 164 266 295 324 MELTING TEMPERATURE. 54 170 254 282 290 354 MELT TRANSITION. 26 268 301 389 MOLECULAR ORIENTATION. 126 363 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 396 METAL. 267 MELTING. 2 24 54 78 79 136 155 179 209 252 309 332 MELTING POINT. 1 28 29 42 46 50 52 54 55 62 73 89 102 112 113 114 116 120 127 128 130 158 164 166 172 185 190 200 204 210 222 224 235 239 243 285 310 314 319 322 323 325 330 332 334 337 355 356 375 376 378 381 382 388 395 396 MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION. 285 METHYL METHACRYLATE. 20 MOISTURE CONTENT. 28 341 MAPPING. 325 MEDICAL APPLICATION. 4 6 13 28 30 50 75 103 107 112 127 132 178 186 192 194 204 222 229 266 278 307 311 376 379 382 392 396 397 398 MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 168 MICROWAVE. 2 13 16 27 38 41 58 59 61 98 111 125 126 142 145 168 179 181 213 231 256 257 277 289 295 308 324 387 MICROSTRUCTURE. 56 185 241 261 METHYLENE CHLORIDE. 62 255 METAL SALT. 28 66 72 84 86 103 121 124 127 128 137 153 158 159 166 177 185 190 195 202 204 206 244 250 270 273 303 310 312 322 335 356 376 399 MATRIX. 33 172 299 395 METHYL ETHYL KETONE. 28 103 127 137 158 159 166 204 310 322 335 356 376 MALEIC ANHYDRIDE. 9 40 41 56 61 62 63 65 67 82 84 86 91 114 115 126 151 163 168 178 179 182 207 231 249 256 269 271 277 281 288 289 296 309 315 316 324 325 333 353 365 370 388 MECHANICAL RECYCLING. 5 70 149 174 188 223 261 272 298 311 321 348 MONOETHYLENE GLYCOL. 266 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. 20 57 179 207 309 323 332 370 MEMBRANE OSMOMETRY. 45 288 289 324 MISCIBILITY. 62 223 341 METAL COATING. 82 MALEIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER. 177 179 298 341 METAL ADHESION. 168 266 387 METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER. 28 103 127 137 158 159 166 204 310 322 335 356 376 MDI. 1 8 12 16 25 31 47 49 51 53 56 66 68 72 73 77 80 83 89 93 98 101 102 103 107 114 130 133 140 146 152 158 159 164 166 168 172 180 197 198 200 211 213 222 228 229 232 243 264 268 269 274 275 277 283 284 286 289 291 300 301 308 310 317 318 328 331 334 337 355 356 364 365 368 370 376 382 391 MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 102 116 190 200 204 224 310 314 319 322 325 356 375 381 396 MONITORING. 112 128 262 MICROWAVEABLE. 352 METALLISED FILM. 45 245 METHANOL. 309 367 387 LIQUID NITROGEN. 190 METHACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER. 46 65 183 264 266 288 387 MINERAL FILLER. 39 METHYL ACETATE. 117 130 135 168 328 338 355 367 MOLECULAR INTERACTION. 9 MICROEXTRACTION. 10 36 74 125 131 135 161 220 261 282 309 377 394 MODULATED TEMPERATURE THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS. 178 220 342 375 MOLECULAR MOBILITY. 9 MECHANICAL DEGRADATION. 25 35 102 103 107 140 159 MOLECULAR CONFIGURATION. 359 MALDI-TOF SPECTROSCOPY. 69 275 289 339 342 344 MASS SELECTIVE DETECTOR. 5 MICROCALORIMETRY. 159 365 MELT. 168 346 MICROSCOPY. 154 MICRODIELECTROMETRY.

24 NYLON-12. 56 57 168 237 O ODOUR. 38 PHTHALATE. 314 OPTICAL FIBRE. 50 102 105 171 233 318 373 ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES. 62 NAPHTHA. 65 PHYSICAL AGEING. 29 46 200 378 OVEN STABILITY. 33 56 57 79 125 164 168 192 199 207 225 231 309 331 NYLON 1010. 338 PEROXIDE. 130 375 378 NYLON. 393 PESTICIDE. 61 69 106 230 262 298 343 PLASTICISATION. 206 PARTICLE PACKING. 1 22 28 30 31 32 34 57 60 68 73 77 100 108 113 114 123 130 138 148 162 169 172 180 189 193 201 209 212 246 248 251 265 268 272 283 291 297 300 314 331 334 340 350 359 370 372 376 383 388 389 391 392 NUMBER-AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 104 387 OXYGEN BARRIER. 288 PHTHALOCYANINE GREEN. 17 33 57 130 231 329 OIL. 56 57 168 P PACKAGING. 101 135 213 309 338 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 57 168 MULTIPLE PULSE NMR. 267 340 365 PHASE SEPARATION. 62 324 PEAK INTENSITY. 46 221 PHASE BEHAVIOUR. 82 NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 13 37 48 100 104 121 167 175 176 196 197 202 205 277 279 298 308 312 316 320 333 343 PHOTOINITIATOR. 393 OSCILLATING DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY.Subject Index MONOMER. 87 211 212 PLATE-OUT. 97 PARACRYSTALLINE. 26 46 103 124 172 190 192 238 242 264 266 335 ON-LINE MEASUREMENT. 216 266 296 373 PERMEABILITY.6. 294 364 NYLON-6. 102 207 213 315 PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES. 250 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST. 57 104 153 262 274 311 OXYGEN ABSORPTION. 355 NANOCOMPOSITE. 57 183 307 PERMITTIVITY. 7 OSMOMETRY. 40 129 153 274 288 PHOTOVOLTAIC PROPERTIES. 364 NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 27 312 PHOTOISOMERISATION. 324 PARTICLE SIZE. 6 140 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . 33 56 57 132 207 387 NYLON-6. 83 199 300 PHOSPHORUS. 266 387 PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY. 110 125 156 391 394 PHENOL. 52 183 277 307 329 PLANT FIBRE. 128 N N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE. 82 PLASMA TREATMENT. 153 PHOTON CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY. 377 PHOTOCHEMICAL DEGRADATION. 183 PHENOLIC RESIN. 194 277 OLIGOMER. 141 NATURAL POLYMER. 215 NATURAL FIBRE. 232 352 NEAR-INFRARED CORRELATION SPECTROSCOPY. 57 168 266 387 PAINT. 215 216 PARTICLE BEAM ANALYSIS. 13 45 50 81 225 233 319 324 372 375 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. 73 297 300 PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANT. 36 188 292 OPTICAL MICROSCOPY. 224 PHOTOOXIDATION. 46 79 185 NITROGEN. 12 42 52 56 63 94 114 164 188 215 216 236 259 266 295 324 353 382 PIGMENT. 104 117 283 284 361 387 ORTHOPAEDIC APPLICATION. 57 183 ORIENTED. 288 PHOTOLYSIS. 40 41 61 66 88 94 104 129 152 153 205 266 269 274 288 325 329 348 381 393 OXYGEN. 57 76 95 NITROGEN-CONTAINING POLYMER. 62 174 185 217 255 298 PAPER. 16 19 65 66 274 279 PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 73 300 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 46 50 130 183 PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION. 95 312 373 PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY. 2 13 54 61 63 98 115 118 136 191 213 256 309 319 346 367 391 394 MOULDING. 291 MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS. 2 13 41 98 125 142 181 213 289 324 387 OPTICAL PROPERTIES. 33 34 120 184 258 277 353 387 399 PLASTICS WASTE. 19 32 67 106 126 157 327 NOVOLAC RESIN. 36 56 301 348 PLASTICISER. 134 225 343 MULTI-ANGLE LASER LIGHT SCATTERING. 124 229 269 270 387 MORPHOLOGY. 14 36 215 225 362 371 NITROCELLULOSE. 5 57 128 131 168 212 264 266 278 323 387 PACKAGING FILM. 216 MUNICIPAL WASTE. 35 200 MULTILAYER. 249 288 344 PHOTOCALORIMETRY. 65 121 181 217 225 236 237 325 399 PIPE. 168 266 344 387 MULTILAYER FILM. 45 187 PHOTODEGRADATION. 373 PH. 266 OXIDATION. 75 297 300 PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN. 288 PHOTOCROSSLINKING. 294 326 PEROXY COMPOUND. 168 178 260 289 392 PELLET. 1 3 47 57 162 181 199 200 206 263 274 288 292 293 323 332 350 362 375 OPTIMISATION.

125 154 235 337 POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE. 14 57 62 72 79 99 101 199 207 245 273 280 309 340 356 363 367 382 398 POLYCYANATE. 29 35 127 137 204 224 325 335 356 POLYEPICHLOROHYDRIN. 172 248 POLYHYDROXYKETONE. 98 POLYBUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE. 84 110 POLYOXYETHYLENE. 79 POLYBENZYL METHACRYLATE. 33 56 57 79 125 164 168 192 199 207 225 231 309 331 POLYAMIDE-1010. 114 POLYESTERIMIDE. 5 23 79 196 199 320 355 POLYIONENE. 24 POLYAMIDE-12. 154 POLYOXYMETHYLENE. 2 12 26 39 40 57 63 64 74 76 79 106 117 118 131 136 157 164 168 207 212 214 257 261 263 266 269 283 293 309 323 336 357 358 382 388 398 POLYFLUOROETHYLENE. 141 POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. 54 79 126 213 295 315 POLYETHER-URETHANE. 79 152 220 357 367 394 POLYPHENYLENE SULPHIDE. 46 115 POLYARAMIDE. 390 POLYEPOXIDE. 77 367 POLYIMIDE. 398 POLYPHENYLENE ETHER. 46 240 POLYACRYLATE.6. 75 125 151 356 POLYETHYL ACRYLATE. 249 343 POLYACRYLIC ACID. 21 376 POLYBUTYL THIOPHENE. 159 POLYAMIDE-6. 54 66 158 235 238 242 384 398 POLYETHER SULPHONE. 367 POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE. 9 POLYKETONE. 33 56 57 132 165 207 387 POLYAMIDE-6. 355 POLYAMIDE. 257 POLARISED FLUORESCENCE. 35 POLYBIBENZOATE. 79 170 296 320 328 POLYPHENYLENE TEREPHTHALAMIDE. 15 141 POLYMETHACRYLONITRILE. 79 126 POLYETHERIMIDE. 181 POLARISED OPTICAL MICROSCOPY. 256 257 284 POLARISED CONFOCAL RAMAN MICROSCOPY. 191 339 POLYARYL ETHER KETONE. 164 POLYACRYLAMIDE. 79 POLYOL. 199 204 288 POLYESTER-URETHANE. 42 52 56 57 60 61 63 65 79 87 91 92 99 102 107 109 112 128 132 139 143 146 148 154 157 164 168 181 186 188 195 199 207 212 214 216 225 249 256 260 263 266 267 283 293 307 315 324 325 344 348 357 361 365 366 368 370 372 373 386 392 393 398 400 POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL. 147 267 390 POLYCARBONATE. 355 POLYETHER. 387 POLYACRYLONITRILE. 58 POLYETHYL METHACRYLATE.Subject Index POLARISATION. 213 POLYARYLATE. 33 79 119 342 POLYALPHAMETHYLSTYRENE. 327 POLYBUTYLENE NAPHTHALATE. 13 POLARISING MICROSCOPY. 26 POLYETHYLENE NAPHTHALATE. 46 272 POLYANILINE. 75 125 151 356 POLYETHER-ETHERKETONE. 367 POLYPHENYLSULPHONE. 11 POLYCYANURATE. 59 POLYHYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID. 349 POLYHYDROXYSTYRENE. 79 164 180 279 296 POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE. 57 276 POLYISOCYANATE. 79 POLYPROPYLENE. 390 POLYETHYLENE. 79 152 220 367 POLYPHENYLENE OXIDE. 153 POLYAMIC ACID. 218 273 POLYMERIC MOULD RELEASE AGENT. 316 POLYAMINE. 14 21 116 132 137 141 159 166 178 204 219 220 221 224 229 240 241 284 285 289 299 301 304 314 319 335 338 343 363 375 382 384 394 397 398 POLYMETHYLENE OXIDE. 31 41 57 59 79 87 88 91 102 104 109 112 118 123 128 129 132 133 168 171 183 188 205 206 207 212 214 249 264 281 284 289 293 329 330 370 380 381 398 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 141 . 387 POLYETHYLENE OXIDE. 79 POLYPHENYLENE. 50 203 339 POLYACETAL. 245 269 POLYACRYLIC. 309 POLYBISGLYCIDYL METHACRYLATE. 46 172 342 POLYACRYLIC IMIDE. 17 130 POLYAMIDE-IMIDE. 356 POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE. 202 POLYMETHACRYLATE. 140 POLYDISPERSITY. 246 POLYHYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE. 247 POLYBUTYL ACRYLATE. 46 233 310 369 378 POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL TEREPHTHALATE. 267 POLYMERIC FLAME RETARDANT. 45 245 398 POLYMETHACRYLIC ACID. 284 POLARISED LIGHT MICROSCOPY. 361 POLYDICYANATE. 90 POLYETHERETHERKETONE. 11 POLYDIMETHYLPHENYLENE OXIDE. 54 POLYLACTIC ACID. 64 79 98 192 296 367 387 POLYETHERSULPHONE. 164 273 POLYCAPROLACTONE. 10 20 32 36 47 62 68 144 145 149 151 157 161 178 179 182 199 200 222 249 255 269 272 282 292 305 309 312 320 POLYESTER RESIN. 317 POLYDEUTEROPOLYETHYLENE. 339 POLYPHENYLMETHACRYLATE. 168 POLARITY. 156 394 POLYBUTYL METHACRYLATE.

120 192 PYROLYSIS. 74 282 287 290 309 363 RELAXATION MAP ANALYSIS SPECTROSCOPY. 67 RECLAIM. 18 22 69 102 PROPYLENE-ETHYLENE COPOLYMER. 195 214 266 373 POTABLE WATER. 257 343 REFRACTIVE INDEX. 50 241 285 319 375 POROSITY. 1 46 51 57 284 342 POLYVINYL CARBAZOLE. 77 367 POLYVINYL PYRROLIDONE. 13 55 59 71 79 107 199 205 212 283 284 310 350 363 364 365 367 372 377 383 387 142 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . 12 79 277 390 POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE. 13 17 36 79 81 90 100 134 141 176 178 179 182 196 197 199 202 211 231 234 271 281 288 296 318 320 333 339 357 377 RELATIVE HUMIDITY. 80 REGRESSION ANALYSIS. 57 88 266 387 RECYCLATE. 209 268 PULSED NMR. 19 99 338 367 POST-CONSUMER. 38 POLYURETHANE. 143 375 REVERSE OSMOSIS. 4 PYROLYSIS MASS SPECTROMETRY. 79 199 209 220 268 270 367 394 POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. 50 56 171 194 206 222 236 395 PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS. 151 274 388 392 REARVIEW MIRROR. 325 RELAXATION TIME. 101 117 135 261 363 R RADIATION CURING. 221 RESIDUAL CATALYST. 102 171 179 184 195 221 278 373 QUENCHING. 216 PROBE. 183 311 361 QUALITY CONTROL. 202 REPEATABILITY. 44 56 57 309 RELAXATION. 144 214 215 216 224 345 REINFORCED PLASTIC. 64 91 122 195 329 373 RECYCLING. 115 168 199 207 209 231 254 261 323 325 329 373 388 PROPYLENE. 6 7 17 57 79 87 108 141 145 146 167 184 194 201 207 212 214 227 228 254 262 315 326 353 374 385 392 394 POLYVINYL ESTER. 343 RADIOLYSIS. 16 27 30 33 42 47 69 70 108 109 129 140 151 168 182 212 214 215 216 256 257 263 281 284 288 293 300 342 346 365 369 393 RAPID SCAN. 347 REPRODUCIBILITY. 262 271 POWDER. 264 PROPYLENE COPOLYMER. 162 POLYVINYLIDENE CHLORIDE. 46 77 248 250 340 POLYVINYLBENZENE. 46 POLYSTYRENE. 129 RESIDUAL STRESS. 79 85 87 118 153 212 290 315 POLYVINYLCARBAZOLE. 54 136 309 332 RECYCLABILITY. 50 195 233 REVIEW. 179 339 382 PROBLEM PREVENTION. 162 POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. 266 325 357 RESIDUAL ADDITIVE. 30 181 296 303 PROCESSING. 57 168 387 POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE. 46 77 248 250 340 PORE SIZE. 377 RELAXATION SPECTRA. 384 POLYTHIOPHENE. 4 192 Q QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS. 6 46 347 375 RESIDENCE TIME. 4 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 50 118 229 RETENTION TIME. 4 75 83 87 119 192 194 212 234 270 273 296 303 374 380 392 PYROLYSIS GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 265 291 314 388 PROTON SPIN RELAXATION. 67 131 329 347 353 357 386 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 69 274 370 PROTECTIVE COATING.Subject Index POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL. 19 66 79 80 84 89 110 157 158 163 169 187 199 207 255 POLYVINYL ACETATE. 363 POLYVINYL PHENOL. 119 222 RETENTION VOLUME. 103 POLYPYRROLE. 272 PURITY. 209 291 340 RELAXATION TRANSITION. 39 57 64 88 91 122 128 165 195 211 212 231 266 373 387 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY. 195 QUALITY. 1 106 190 200 229 292 375 REFRIGERATOR. 320 POLYVINYL METHYL ETHER. 269 RADIO FREQUENCY DISCHARGE. 290 RELEASE AGENT. 288 POLYPROPYLENE OXIDE. 126 175 194 POWDER COATING. 4 96 107 132 198 218 221 232 250 270 392 PYROLYSIS-IR SPECTROPHOTOMETRY. 97 REVERSE-PHASE CHROMATOGRAPHY. 75 79 99 125 331 POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE. 176 197 215 223 351 PRECIPITATION. 79 164 180 279 296 363 POLYTETRAMETHYLENE OXIDE. 14 21 35 46 48 57 58 79 82 85 87 118 141 153 156 159 160 164 166 203 207 212 214 220 230 245 278 290 299 304 308 315 334 351 363 367 375 382 394 395 398 POLYSULPHONE. 289 RECOVERY. 222 PRE-TREATMENT. 334 POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL MALEATE. 183 307 POTASSIUM BROMIDE. 67 316 RESOLUTION. 35 266 PRESSURE. 50 126 142 203 241 285 319 367 375 POSITRON ANNIHILATION LIFETIME SPECTROSCOPY. 319 RECRYSTALLISATION. 344 345 REACTIVITY. 217 255 PROTON MAGNETIC RESONANCE.

122 128 214 231 SEALANT. 9 167 269 315 STRESS. 13 121 178 202 312 SECONDARY STABILISER. 176 SMALL-ANGLE. 13 71 72 123 124 207 233 351 SAN. 118 291 SENSOR. 56 SOXHLET EXTRACTION. 385 SILICA. 2 5 6 13 59 61 62 63 82 98 108 129 181 202 231 289 316 324 358 SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY. 20 122 207 309 324 354 SPECIFIC VOLUME. 232 352 SHIFT FACTOR. 39 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY. 61 231 281 325 STRUCTURAL ADHESIVE. 315 325 365 STRENGTH. 344 STEREOREGULARITY. 241 319 SILICATE. 301 SURFACE ANALYSIS. 56 79 90 97 114 115 160 372 375 SOLUTE. 35 STARCH. 204 284 SIMULATED BODY FLUID. 209 268 300 SPOILAGE INDICATOR. 67 195 344 SOL-GEL. 34 SIMULATION. 72 110 147 207 220 284 315 345 STYRENE COPOLYMER. 36 151 SECONDARY ANTIOXIDANT. 24 26 57 85 126 163 196 228 266 267 269 295 317 324 377 STANDARD. 59 179 SCISSION. 112 SPECIFIC HEAT. 18 SPIN-PROBE ANALYSIS. 9 178 182 324 325 333 SHEET. 110 147 207 220 284 315 345 SATURATED POLYESTER. 13 72 123 124 207 SAMPLE SIZE. 193 209 268 283 291 300 340 359 389 SOLUBILITY. 21 46 55 77 115 116 130 178 224 268 291 351 367 389 SOLUTION CASTING. 394 STYRENE-METHACRYLIC ACID COPOLYMER. STATIC HEAD SPACE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 179 SOFTWARE.Subject Index 390 391 396 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. 61 62 81 168 176 178 182 197 205 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 143 . 52 141 217 235 277 339 SURFACE PROPERTIES. 75 SUPERCRITICAL. 93 SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 53 SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION. 126 223 236 262 285 298 SULPHUR DIOXIDE. 271 STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES. 62 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS. 50 SHEAR. 209 268 340 ROUND ROBIN TEST. 34 134 149 323 362 367 SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 45 SPIN RELAXATION. 117 291 354 SMOKE EMISSION. 197 324 SURFACE CHEMISTRY. 168 STERIC EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 266 331 SOLVENT PERMEABILITY. 281 ROTATING FRAME. 209 SIDING. 50 235 382 SOLUTION. 26 49 106 114 204 229 267 322 336 367 376 388 398 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 10 20 29 41 46 73 149 161 163 217 266 295 324 325 338 354 RHEOMETRY. 186 SHEET MOULDING COMPOUND. 321 SEMICRYSTALLINE. 173 S SAMPLE PREPARATION. 6 21 40 45 46 90 203 289 319 375 SILICA GEL. 35 55 97 105 128 243 341 351 370 375 384 SEQUENCE ANALYSIS. 228 SEMICONDUCTOR. 93 298 319 SURFACE ENERGY. 50 203 235 375 STEEL. 67 168 182 281 289 315 316 325 STRESS CRACKING. 57 311 387 SHELLAC. 3 40 41 66 86 183 184 201 225 228 288 372 STABILITY. 97 171 372 373 SUPERCRITICAL GAS. 41 STERILISATION. 10 324 325 RHEOPHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY. 387 SEAT. 202 211 SHELF LIFE. 21 29 35 56 113 124 130 185 203 210 235 259 261 266 285 349 360 366 369 375 388 SOLVENT EXTRACTION. 65 81 SILICONE POLYMER. 396 SOLVENT. 19 30 37 38 44 58 59 62 67 69 118 175 178 179 202 219 289 324 333 SURFACE AREA. 71 STATIONARY PHASE. 249 ROPE. 38 SOLID STATE. 274 SECONDARY AMINE. 209 269 389 STYRENE. 42 44 106 118 179 191 196 217 219 277 308 312 360 383 SURFACE TREATMENT. 223 341 STEP-SCAN PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY. 72 124 143 SAMPLING. 42 393 STORAGE. 94 262 367 SOLUTION VISCOSITY. 120 183 184 392 STAR-BRANCHED. 311 STABILISER. 309 311 STORAGE TIME. 50 372 SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION. 199 278 288 STYRENE-ACRYLONITRILE COPOLYMER. 20 292 SEPARATION. 168 STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIP. 76 150 173 SOFTENING TEMPERATURE. 102 106 122 207 213 235 315 SENSITIVITY. 4 152 274 380 SCRAP POLYMER. 28 29 34 35 40 50 52 55 60 97 102 103 108 112 114 116 158 166 204 229 239 240 243 299 314 322 334 375 381 SIZING. 311 STRAIN. 81 SUB-GLASS TRANSITION. 247 SEALING. 28 69 127 198 299 308 363 395 STYRENE-ISOPRENESTYRENE BLOCK COPOLYMER. 112 267 348 STARCH POLYMER. 170 SUBSTRATE.

2 5 13 59 63 82 108 129 181 213 289 331 358 TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY. 173 195 TRACE ELEMENT. 80 276 THERMAL MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. 203 269 340 354 TRANSITION TEMPERATURE. 54 61 94 135 209 223 253 261 268 277 289 317 338 354 394 TIME DEPENDENCE. 40 41 61 63 65 86 114 115 231 277 315 333 TEREPHTHALIC ACID. 189 THERMOMECHANICAL DEGRADATION. 57 236 323 TRANSPORT PROPERTIES. 56 115 TRIAZINE. 371 THERMAL AGEING. 112 126 272 ULTRAVIOLET ABSORPTION. 196 377 THERMAL RELAXATION. 67 324 TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMED ANALYTICAL PYROLYSIS. 7 20 26 36 54 56 67 78 83 92 95 110 133 134 144 147 149 154 155 170 179 186 187 189 207 245 252 258 267 269 270 305 309 313 324 325 367 377 383 386 394 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY. 27 56 62 67 168 179 236 255 257 263 THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY. 2 8 12 15 17 23 24 26 29 48 82 83 85 93 94 98 146 152 163 164 189 192 194 196 211 228 231 244 258 267 269 295 296 316 317 318 326 330 347 348 377 380 381 398 THERMOLYSIS. 179 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 55 58 209 233 242 275 283 344 345 364 365 U UHMWPE. 27 269 349 ULTRAVIOLET DEGRADATION. 370 396 TENSILE PROPERTIES. 236 346 351 358 TESTING. 54 78 136 252 253 280 287 290 309 336 TEMPERATURE PROFILE. 284 TAPPING MODE ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. 40 TRICHLOROBENZENE. 144 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited . 57 135 136 207 245 254 262 287 309 THERMAL IMAGING. 348 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 229 274 ULTRAVIOLET CURING.Subject Index 223 230 262 277 298 343 371 SURFACTANT. 36 151 TEST SPECIMEN. 56 78 220 282 290 309 THERMAL VOLATILISATION ANALYSIS. 168 TIME. 36 67 323 348 370 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 35 THERMAL HISTORY. 196 THERMAL STABILITY. 41 94 152 269 348 THERMORHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. 323 377 THERMOANALYTICAL. 29 TRICHLOROMETHANE. 30 181 296 303 TWO-DIMENSIONAL. 58 TASTE. 29 TRIETHYLAMINE. 219 393 SWELLING. 234 292 362 TRANSPARENCY. 49 99 135 146 147 170 196 259 269 308 336 354 364 382 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT INTERACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 170 TITANIUM DIOXIDE. 260 393 ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY. 282 290 THERMAL RESISTANCE. 80 179 309 324 377 THERMAL DEGRADATION. 177 TRANSITION PHENOMENA. 363 ULTRASONIC. 291 SYNTHETIC FIBREREINFORCED PLASTIC. 281 T TALC. 97 399 TIE LAYER. 67 THERMAL INSULATION. 179 324 394 THERMAL FIELD-FLOW FRACTIONATION. 304 375 TEMPERATURE MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY. 46 65 233 SURGICAL APPLICATION. 179 269 THERMOOXIDATIVE DEGRADATION. 125 196 360 TIME OF FLIGHT. 15 237 250 326 360 SYNCHROTRON RADIATION. 298 TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID. 56 185 241 261 319 TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON. 19 43 58 59 62 71 79 96 108 112 120 123 124 134 145 174 182 183 184 185 195 206 208 254 255 270 288 293 304 315 321 329 332 345 347 357 363 365 379 382 398 TETRAHYDROFURAN. 21 90 122 155 169 172 220 235 290 339 THERMOGRAM. 254 TRANSITION PROPERTIES. 266 THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES. 23 26 29 75 76 83 85 152 160 163 189 192 194 196 244 258 266 273 318 325 380 381 THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY. 76 TERTIARY AMINE. 273 TEMPERATURE RANGE. 11 24 26 57 85 126 163 196 228 266 267 269 295 317 377 THERMAL TRANSITION. 338 THICKNESS. 103 127 137 158 159 166 178 202 204 229 310 312 322 335 356 376 TIME RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY. 388 TROUBLESHOOTING. 65 318 324 TAPE. 29 35 240 241 319 395 TEXTILE APPLICATION. 16 19 196 ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION. 183 TOXICITY. 189 THERMALLY STIMULATED CURRENT. 57 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE. 207 317 364 380 382 TEMPERATURE RISING ELUTION FRACTIONATION. 88 152 THERMAL ANALYSIS. 40 65 217 237 325 TOLUENE.

100 270 341 359 VINYL CHLORIDE. 56 94 164 267 296 347 380 WETTABILITY. 307 ZIEGLER CATALYST. 10 29 46 149 172 266 324 325 330 VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY. 199 392 VINYL CYANIDE. 117 213 260 WIDE ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING. 358 X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 97 185 VACUUM PYROLYSIS. 278 YOUNG’S MODULUS. 9 82 141 258 Y YELLOWING. 13 37 48 100 121 145 167 175 176 196 197 202 277 279 298 308 312 316 320 333 343 X-RAY RESISTANCE. 168 WAVELENGTH. 57 W WASTE. 119 VINYL CYANIDE COPOLYMER. 56 168 WAVE NUMBER. 176 394 WEIGHT GAIN. 251 270 VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 148 WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY. 56 237 WATER PIPE. 274 V VACUUM DISTILLATION. 87 122 128 211 212 266 387 WATER. 13 168 UNPLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. 225 288 399 UNIT CELL. 13 227 231 324 332 367 X X-RAY ANALYSIS. 13 41 57 83 92 95 117 213 260 277 291 327 328 398 399 X-RAY FLUORESCENCE. 44 62 86 92 222 385 WEIGHT AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 359 ZIRCONOCENE. 44 207 288 WAX. 72 185 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND. 104 279 X-RAY SCATTERING. 37 343 WIDE ANGLE. 29 200 203 355 VISCOSITY. 232 WEATHERING. 78 161 290 VOLATILE CONTENT. 307 329 WATER TREE GROWTH RATE. 84 174 185 255 278 321 VOLATILISATION. 174 VEHICLE BONNET. 51 56 237 309 WATER CONTENT. 108 X-RAY NEAR EDGE ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY. 375 WEIGHT CHANGE. 82 199 204 288 333 UV VIS SPECTROSCOPY. 87 194 VAPOUR PERMEABILITY. 14 16 17 26 27 30 33 36 39 42 43 47 51 69 70 85 108 109 129 140 142 150 151 156 164 168 172 173 182 184 186 188 207 212 214 215 216 225 226 230 244 256 257 263 269 274 281 284 288 293 297 300 318 342 345 346 353 365 369 393 VINYL ACETATE. 13 24 41 57 83 92 95 117 213 260 277 291 327 328 X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY. 209 359 389 VINYL ACETATE-ETHYLENE COPOLYMER. 6 108 129 212 231 289 328 383 X-RAY DIFFRACTION. 39 56 61 266 360 WATER ABSORPTION. 20 219 308 VISCOMETRY.Subject Index 19 40 44 196 ULTRAVIOLET RESISTANCE. 17 399 X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY. 365 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited 145 . 298 ZINC BORATE. 102 129 ZINC. 329 VEHICLE MIRROR. 57 196 ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA. 1 3 41 46 65 86 115 157 288 372 ULTRAVIOLET STABILISER. 13 37 48 63 100 108 121 167 175 176 196 197 202 277 279 298 308 312 316 320 328 333 343 354 358 XENON LIGHT. 46 VISCOELASTICITY. 320 VINYL GROUP. 7 WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 40 114 168 231 256 269 309 365 Z ZEOLITE. 6 51 148 WATER PERMEABILITY. 348 WEIGHT FRACTION. 67 VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. 288 YOGHURT POT. 396 VAPOUR PRESSURE OSMOMETRY. 1 46 115 288 VINYL ESTER RESIN. 254 UNSATURATED POLYESTER. 29 200 378 VARNISH. 72 97 VOLUME FRACTION. 56 168 VAPOUR PHASE OSMOMETRY. 56 WEIGHT LOSS. 274 VINYL PYRROLIDONE COPOLYMER. 1 46 115 288 VITRIFICATION. 24 WINDOW. 3 41 65 86 157 264 372 383 399 ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY.

Subject Index 146 © Copyright 2002 Rapra Technology Limited .

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