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Czech Technical University in Prague

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Department of Automatic Control

Master Thesis

Title: Pressing Facility Pneumatic Control System Innovation

MESSAS CHAHIR 2016/2017

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Prague – 2017

Master Thesis

I submit this thesis for review and defense in partial fulfillment of the requirements, for the

degree master at Czech Technical University in Prague.

I declare that this dissertation is my own work, and all the sources have been quoted and

acknowledged by means of complete references.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my thanks to my supervisor Ing Marie Martinaskova, PhD,

who gives me the valuable instructions, advices and supports during my study.

Also for the lectures of Means of Automatic Control, this gave me knowledge during

my course.

I would like to give special thanks to my family and friends for encouragement, and patient

waiting me when I study abroad here.

Chahir Messas
Prague, January 2017

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ABSTRACT

The pneumatic system is a domain of engineering which uses pressurized air or gas,
This master thesis analysis the pneumatic system according to a given facility sketch and
pneumatic control system drawing, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages, in
addition designs the possible changes to this system in nowadays for innovation purposes,
Also explains possible error states at the facility and their management.

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Content
Chapter 1 Analysis of the pneumatic solution ......................................................................... 10
1.1-Introduction .................................................................................................................... 10
1.2-Methods that were used for solving this task ................................................................ 10
1.3-Description of the desired function of the facility ......................................................... 13
1.4-List of components ......................................................................................................... 14
1.5-List of components from laboratory ............................................................................... 18
Chapter 2-PLC solution ............................................................................................................. 21
2.1- General rules for electro-pneumatic circuit ................................................................. 21
2.2-Components of electro-pneumatic system .................................................................... 21
2.3-Advantages of electro-pneumatic systems .................................................................... 21
2.4-Block diagram ................................................................................................................. 25
2.5-Step Displacement Diagram (SDD) ................................................................................. 26
2.6-Time diagram .................................................................................................................. 27
2.7-Functionality of movement, steps .................................................................................. 28
2.8-State diagram.................................................................................................................. 29
2.9-State diagram process .................................................................................................... 29
2.10-PN (Petri Net) ................................................................................................................ 30
2.11-SFC Sequential Function Chart ..................................................................................... 31
2.12-GRAFCET implementation ............................................................................................ 32
2.13-Structure of GRAFCET ................................................................................................... 33
2.14-Real PLC implementation ............................................................................................. 35
2.14.1-PLC definition ............................................................................................................. 35
2.14.2-Programming language for PLC ................................................................................. 35
2.15-Method of solution ....................................................................................................... 42
2.16-Comparison of the electrical circuit with relays and their contacts and the program in
the ladder diagram ............................................................................................................... 43
2.17-Conclusion..................................................................................................................... 43
Chapter 3-Advantages and disadvantages of the pneumatic solution .................................... 44
3.1-Introduction .................................................................................................................... 44
3.2-Advantages ..................................................................................................................... 44
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3.3-Disadvantages ................................................................................................................. 46
3.4-Conclusion....................................................................................................................... 47
Chapter 4-Possible changes to the pneumatic solution ....................................................... 48
4.1-Possible changes ............................................................................................................. 48
4.2- Safety conditions for pneumatic system ....................................................................... 51
4.3 -Industy 4.0 ..................................................................................................................... 52
4.4 -Design principals ............................................................................................................ 52
4.5-Effect of industry 4.0 ...................................................................................................... 53
4.6-Conclusion....................................................................................................................... 53
Chapter 5-Possible errors states in the facility and their management .................................. 54
5.1 Introduction .................................................................................................................... 54
5.2 Possible error states........................................................................................................ 55
5.3- Conclusion...................................................................................................................... 57
Chapter 6-Final Conclusion ...................................................................................................... 58
6.1-Conclusion....................................................................................................................... 58
6.2- References ..................................................................................................................... 59
6.3-List of abbreviation ......................................................................................................... 60
6.4-Appendix ......................................................................................................................... 61

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List of tables
Table 1 Components used in the original circuit. .................................................................... 15
Table 2 PLC inputs. ................................................................................................................... 24
Table 3 PLC outputs .................................................................................................................. 24
Table 4 Functionality of all movement..................................................................................... 28
Table 5 Description of state diagram ....................................................................................... 29
Table 6 Petri net places and transitions. .................................................................................. 31
Table 7 Advantages of the pneumatic system. ........................................................................ 45
Table 8 Disadvantages of the pneumatic system..................................................................... 46
Table 9 Pneumatic cylinder problem and recommended action............................................. 55
Table 10 Actuator moving slow problems and their management. ........................................ 55
Table 11 Flow control valve issues and their solutions. ........................................................... 56
Table 12 Low pressure problems and their management. ...................................................... 56
Table 13 Valve spool stuck issues and recommended actions. ............................................... 57
Table 14 Contamination in circuit problems and solutions. .................................................... 57

List of figures
Figure 1 Press-in connection facility ........................................................................................ 13
Figure 2 Original pneumatic solution ....................................................................................... 14
Figure 3 First pneumatic solution............................................................................................. 16
Figure 4 Second pneumatic solution ........................................................................................ 17
Figure 5 Linear double acting cylinder ..................................................................................... 18
Figure 6 Adjustable one way and flow control valve ............................................................... 18
Figure 7 3 /2-way valve NC (Normally Closed) with spring return........................................... 18
Figure 8 5/2-way valve ............................................................................................................. 19
Figure 9 Quickstepper .............................................................................................................. 19
Figure 10 Shuttle valve ............................................................................................................. 19
Figure 11 Human Machine Interface (HMI) ............................................................................. 20
Figure 12 3/2-Way valve with push button, normally open .................................................... 20

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Figure 13 Push button with arretation ..................................................................................... 20
Figure 14 3/2-way valve mechanically operated with spring return, contact end sensor roller
lever .......................................................................................................................................... 20
Figure 15 Electropneumatic solution ....................................................................................... 22
Figure 16 Virtual PLC circuit ..................................................................................................... 23
Figure 17 Block diagram ........................................................................................................... 25
Figure 18 Step Displacement Diagram (SDD) ........................................................................... 27
Figure 19 Time diagram ............................................................................................................ 27
Figure 20 State diagram ........................................................................................................... 29
Figure 21 Petri net .................................................................................................................... 30
Figure 22 Grafcet program ....................................................................................................... 32
Figure 23 Siemens PLC S7-200 ................................................................................................. 35
Figure 24 Step 7-micro/win 32 for PLC programming with Siemens S7-200 ........................... 35
Figure 25 Old and new double acting cylinder......................................................................... 48
Figure 26 Flow control valve (linear vs. corner version) .......................................................... 48
Figure 27 New 5/2 way valve will be used instead of the old one .......................................... 49
Figure 28 PLC S7–200 replaces the quickstepper .................................................................... 49
Figure 29 3/2 way roller level valve and the new model ......................................................... 50
Figure 30 Industry 4.0 environment ........................................................................................ 52
Figure 31 Single acting cylinder. ............................................................................................... 61
Figure 32 Double acting cylinder. ............................................................................................. 61
Figure 33 5/2 Directional control valve. ................................................................................... 61
Figure 34 Shuttle valve. ............................................................................................................ 61
Figure 35 Cross section of a double acting cylinder. ................................................................ 62
Figure 36 PLC Siemens Simatic S7-300, 1200, 1500. ................................................................ 62

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Chapter 1 Analysis of the pneumatic solution
1.1-Introduction

Pneumatic systems are power systems which use compressed air as a working medium for
the power transmission and for the control signals transmission.
An air compressor transforms the mechanical energy of the prime mover, to pressure energy
of the compressed air.
Such transformation simplifies the transmission, and storage, control of energy.
When compression is done, the compressed air must be well prepared for use.
Air preparation contains filtration, add lubricating oil mist.
The compressed air is stocked in compressed air reservoirs, and transmitted via transmission
lines: pipes.
The pneumatic power is controlled by means of a set of valves like the pressure, flow ect..
Then, the pressure energy is converted to the required mechanical energy through means of
the pneumatic motors and cylinders.

1.2-Methods that were used for solving this task

Chapter1
-Description of the task: Press-in connection facility, the original pneumatic solution with
quickstepper, and Human Machine Interface (HMI), (see figures 1 and 2).
-Tables: description list of components used for this solution divided into four parts:
actuating, processing, Human Machine Interface (HMI), sensors, (see table 1).
Also components used in the pneumatic solution, which are available at the university
laboratory, (see figures 5-14).
-Pneumatic circuits created in fluidsim: based on the original solution, a pneumatic circuit
with HMI (Human Machine Interface) and without HMI has been redrawn, (see figures 3 and
4) simulation the functionality of circuit has been studied and understood.

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Chapter 2:
-Electropneumatic circuit: which is a preparation for the PLC solution, consist of main parts,
Electrical switches, electrical end sensors, relays, controllers, solenoid valves (see figure 15).
-Virtual PLC solution: has been done, the pneumatic part is the same, except:
-The valves must be solenoid ones.
-Instead of quickstepper, PLC has been used.
-All sensors must have electrical outputs (see figure 16).
-Block diagram: related to the structure of the whole system, which consists of the
technological process (TP) and control system (CS) and operator panel (OP), has particular
number of input and output necessary for the task control and their interconnection in this
system, (see figure 17).
-The algorithm for the functionality desired for the task: can be expressed in many ways:
step displacement diagram, time diagram, table of motor movements in particular steps,
causes and effects in particular steps, state diagram, Petri net, also the program in some
language (for better serve the graphical languages -(e.g. SFC, GRAFCET).
-Step Displacement Diagram (SDD): represents the operating of the actuators, which line
the displacement is recorded in relation to the sequence step, also signals causing each step
are involved with line (see figure 18).
-Time Diagram: is related to the step displacement diagram, on the horizontal axis, there is
time instead of the step (see figure 19).
Table: description of all the pneumatic solution steps, movements and their speed,
quickstepper inputs and outputs (see table 4).
-State diagram: illustrates the pneumatic solution, it is steps and transitions actions in each
step, it is shows in a graphical manner with help of nodes connected by directed graphs (see
figure 20).
-Petri net: is a collection of directed arcs connecting places and transitions.
Petri net models consist of two parts:
1. The net structure that represents the static part of the system.
2. A marking that represents the overall state on the structure (see figure 21).

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-SFC and GRAFCET: Sequential Function Chart is a graphical programming language used
for (PLCs), similar to GRAFCET but not the same, the sequence of a GRAFCET is described by
the transitions from a previous to a subsequent step, steps and transitions have to alternate
in the plan (see figure 22).

-Real PLC implementation: After this general design the real implementation has be done,
the general algorithm expressed by many possible ways (tools) now it is necessary to
implement for the real PLC ( PLC S7-200 has been used, because it is in the lab at disposal
and i had some experiences with it from the exercises in the PCA class), and there are only
three languages at disposal in the Micro/win for programming it, LD, IL and FBD. So some
method must be used- moving chain method (suitable for the bistable valves at the
pneumatic motors) to assure the safe and reliable solution so important in the real industrial
automation. And this method is written in the language Ladder diagram - LD (it can be of
course written also in all other languages, that are there at disposal, the FBD or IL, but in the
LD there is the best readability), and the structure of the program is the same as the solution
in the classical electropneumatics (that’s the reason, why this solution has been prepared, to
understood the relationship and prepare the real implementation for the real PLC in the LD
diagram, (see figures 23,24).

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1.3-Description of the desired function of the facility
Press-in connection facility
On the pneumatic controlled press-in connection facility there are ND pieces to be
connected together step by step, there is possible to change the number of the pieces in one
batch at any time from some HMI facility (textual operator panel or PC with visualization
application) and it will be valid from the next piece in the batch.

One working cycle follows these conditions: after indicating of the right clamping of the
piece (block) via a sensor the processing of one couple begins. The sectional die on the
pneumatic motor a presses the cylinder in-the two pieces in the couple together-via one
slow and then one quick stroke.
Then the motor A must stay in the extracted position and damp the piece until the
pneumatic motor B will have pressed the securing bolt from the side. Pressing in of the
securing bolt is done by one slow and two quick strokes. Then the pneumatic motor C throws
away the completed couple and the next couple of the piece can be brought in.

Figure 1 Press-in connection facility

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The circuit below represents the original pneumatic solution, with quickstepper and
Human Machine Interface (HMI), as given in the task description.

Figure 2 Original pneumatic solution

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1.4-List of components [1]
Pneumatic symbols are utilized to illustrate the function of the different valves, and other
devices which are connected together to compose circuits, sub circuits.
The table below illustrates all the components used in the original solution.
Component name Symbol Number of use
-Linear double acting cylinder. 3

-Adjustable one way and flow 3


control valve.

-3/2-way valve, NC (Normally 3 1


3
Closed) with spring return.
2

-3/2-way valve, NO (Normally 3 1


2
Opened) with spring return.
2

4/2-way valve. 4 2
3
1 3

-Shuttle valve (OR function). 2 8


1 1

-3/2 way valve with lever 2 2


switch.
1 3

-Quickstepper. 1
P
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10A11A12
MAN/P
AUTO
X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11 X12
L

3/2-way valve with push 2


2
button normally closed.
1 3

3/2-way roller level valve. 6


1 3
2

Table 1 Components used in the original circuit.

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1.0
A 2.0 B C 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
B0 B1 B2 B3 3.0 Designation Quantity v alue
B4 B5
This pneumatic solution circuit has been created in fluidsim, after studied and understood

100
80
Position 60
1. 01 1. 03 2. 01 1.0
3 1 2. 03 3. 01 mm
3 1 40
20
2
2
4 2 100
1.1 4 2
2.1 4 2 80
3.1
1 3 Position 60
1 3 2.0
1. 17 1. 18 mm
2 2 1. 21 1 3
2 2 1. 22 40
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
20
1. 19 2 1. 20 2 100
1 1 1 1
80
Position 60

Figure 3 First pneumatic solution


3.0
mm
40
20
0.2
2
1. 16 P
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10A11A12

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MAN/P
1 3
2 AUTO
1. 15 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11 X12
L
1 3
2
1. 14
1. 13 2 1 3
1 1
the original circuit.

B0
B4 E ND NON-STOP AUTO/MAX B1 B3 B2 B5
START 2 2
FOR-MAN/P 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.8 1. 10 1. 11 1. 12
1.2 1.5 1.9
0.1
A B C
1.0 B0 B1 2.0 B2 B3
3.0 B4 B5
1. 01
1. 03 2. 01 3. 01
This second pneumatic solution circuit was created in fluidsim as well after studying the

Designation Quantity value 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34


3 1 2. 03
3 1
100
80
2
2 Position 60
1.0
1.1 4 2 3.1 4 2 mm
2.1 4 2 40
20
1 3 1 3
1. 13 1 3 1. 18
2 1. 14 2 1. 17 2 2 100
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
80
original solution, without using the HMI (Human Machine Interface).

Position 60
2.0
1. 15 2 2 1. 16 mm

Figure 4 Second pneumatic solution


1 1 1 1 40
20
100
80
Position 60
3.0
mm
40
20

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P 0.2
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10A11A12
MAN/P
AUTO
X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11 X12
L
1. 12
2
1 1
FOR MAN/P AUTO/MAX NON-STOP B0
START B4 B1 B3 B2
2 2 2 2 2 2 B5
2 2
2 2
0.1
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3
1 3 1.3 1.4 1.5 1 3 1.8 1 3 1 3 1 3
1.2 1.6 1.7 1.9 1. 10 1. 11
1.5-List of components from laboratory
A- Actuating part
A double-acting cylinder is a
cylinder in which the working fluid
works alternately on both sides of
the piston, it has a port at each end,
This is used where an external force
is not available to retract the piston
or where high force is required in
both directions of travel.

Figure 5 Linear double acting cylinder [3]


The one-way flow control valve
contains a combination of a flow
control valve and a non-return
valve, which blocks the flow of
air in one direction, whereby the
air flows through the flow
control valve. The throttle cross
section can be adjusted by
means of a knurled screw.
The settings are fixed by means
of a knurled nut. Two arrows
Figure 6 Adjustable one way and flow control indicate the direction of flow
valve [3] control on the housing. In the
opposite direction, the air flow
is unrestricted through the non-
return valve.

The 3/2 way valve is designated NC


(Normally closed) when it reads
logic 1 in the normal state (no
subject detected).
The switching output transmits logic
0 to the controller. Seen from a
switching technology standpoint,
Figure 7 3 /2-way valve NC (Normally Closed) this sensor thus corresponds to
with spring return [3] normally closed contacts.

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5/2-way valve, from the name itself
has 5 ports equally spaced and 2
flow positions.

Figure 8 5/2-way valve [3]

B- Processing

Quickstepper Ports:
P -Source of the pressure air.
Auto-mode selection.
Man/P-mode selection.
Man-manual without P/ P- with P
- Automatically
(X1 – X12 ) -inputs- switching to the
next step (phase).
L - Reset (setting of the A12 to 1).
(A1 – A12 ) -outputs- creating of the
Figure 9 Quickstepper [3] steps (phases)- signals for the valves
of the pneumatic motors.
A shuttle valve permits fluid to flow
through it from one of two sources,
so it works as an OR gate, It has two
inlets (P1, P2) and one air outlet (A).

Figure 10 Shuttle valve


[3]

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C- Human Machine Interface

Human Machine Interface consists


of: Three (3/2 way valves), Two
normally open and one normally
closed, and two Shuttle valves (OR
blocks).

Figure 11 Human Machine Interface (HMI) [3]


The 3/2-way valve with plug-in
connections is assembled in a
plastic housing. The unit is mounted
on the profile plate via a quick
release detent system with blue
lever (mounting alternative "A").
When the push button is pressed
the valve is actuated, and when it is
Figure 12 3/2-way valve with push button,
released the valve will returns to
normally open
the normal position through a
[3] return valve.
Pneumatic pushbutton with
arretation valves are available with
an assortment of mechanical
button actuators, Pushbuttons are
basically used for starting and
stopping operation of machinery,
they also provide manual override
Figure 13 Push button with arretation[3] at emergencies.

D- Sensors
The roller lever valve is actuated
when the roller lever is pressed, for
instance by the cam of a cylinder.
After release of the roller lever, the
valve is returned to its normal
position using a return spring.
Figure 14 3/2-way valve mechanically operated
with spring return, contact end sensor roller
lever [3]

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Chapter 2-PLC solution
2.1- General rules for electro-pneumatic circuit [2]
-The electro-pneumatic circuit diagram is divided into pneumatic and electrical sections,
Which are drawn separate, but they are strongly related via the labels, sensors and coils.
-For the pneumatic part, the signal flow is shown from the bottom to the top and it is the
reverse for the electrical part.
-In the electrical circuit diagram, the current paths are numbered respectively from left to
right.
-The common circuits diagram elements compose the interfaces between the electrical
and pneumatic circuits.
-Speed control: related only to the pneumatic part of the circuit, for decreasing of the
speed one-way flow control valves can be used, in the inlet - primary speed control–In the
outlet – secondary speed control, For increasing of the speed quick exhaust valve can be
used.

2.2-Components of electro-pneumatic system [4]


The electro pneumatic system consists of the following items:
-DC power supply: to reduce and convert the 230 V AC to a 24 V DC.
- Switches: are installed in an electric circuit, to connect or interrupt the electric current.
- Relays: are defined as electromagnetically actuated switches.
- Solenoid valves.
- Sensors.

2.3-Advantages of electro-pneumatic systems [4]


-Reduced installation complexity: less components and tubing, leads to less effort
in planning and costs mostly with complex and large systems.
-Easier modification of the control system, it is easier to modify programs and
change wiring, instead of changing mechanical devices and pipes networks.
-Better reliability less moving parts risk, comparing with mechanical control
systems.
-More Secure: fewer tubing.
-Easier to handle: less complexity.
-Environmentally-friendly coupling system it require less lubrication.
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Designation Quantity v alue 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
A C
1.0 B0 B1
2.0 B B2 B3
3.0 B4 B5 100
80
Position
60
PMA PMC PMA
PMB mm
3 1 1. 03 40
1. 01 3 1 2. 03
YAF1 2. 01 20
YBF1
3. 01
2 100
2
The electro pneumatic circuit has been done, using moving chain method, the signal is not

80
2 .1 Position
1 .1 4 2 4 2 60
4 2 3 .1 PMB
mm
reset in every time but resets at the end of the signals, the circuit is represented below

40
YBF YBB YCF YCB
YAF YAB
5 3 5 3 20
5 3 1 1
1
100
80
Position
60
PMC
mm
40
0 .1
20

Figure 15 Electropneumatic Solution


+24V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

22
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
3
K16 K1 K7 K8 K9 K10 K11 K12 K13 K14 K15 K16 K1 K4 K2 K14 K5 K6 K9 K11 K9 K11 K8 K10 K12 K15 K16
S1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4
B1
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 B5
3 3 3
B4 B0 B2 B1 B3 B3 B2 B3 B2 B3 B2 B2 B0
B0
4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 4 4
3
B2
4
3
B0
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
4
K1 K2 K3 K4
K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 K10 K11 K12 K13 K14
K15
4 4 4 4
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1
1 K3 K4
K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 K10 K11 K12 K13 K14 K15 K16
K1
K2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A1 2 YAF1
2 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 YBF1
YAF YAB YBF YBB YCF YCB
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 K9 K10 K11 K12 K13 K14 K15 K16
A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2
0V
32 3 1 5 4 7 6 9 8 11 10 13 12 15 14 17 16 19 18 21 20 23 22 25 24 27 26 29 28 31 30 2
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 33
35 37 36 39 40 45 41 46 42 47 38 48 49
43 44
A B
Text
1.0 Text

B0 B1 2.0 B2 B3
3.0 C
Text
B4 B5
Designation Quantity v alue 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1. 01 1. 03 2. 01 2. 03 3. 01 100
3 1
3 1 80
YAF1 YBF1 Position
1.0 60
mm
2 40
2
20
100
80
Position
60
2.0
mm
40
20
100
1.1 3.1 80
2.1 4 2 Position
4 2 60

Figure 16 Virtual PLC circuit


4 2 3.0
mm
40
For PLC solution, the pneumatic part is the same, except:

YCF YCB
YAF YBF YBB
YAB 5 3 20
5 3 1
5 3 1
1

23
The circuit below illustrates the PLC solution
-Instead of quickstepper, PLC will be used,
-All sensors must have electrical outputs.

0.1
-The valves must be solenoid ones.

+24V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
3 B0 3
B2 B1
B3
B4 3 3
B5 3
3
S 3 4 4 GRAFCET
EC IN OUT
3
4 4
4 YYAF
4 BB0
4
YYAB
BB1
4
YYBF
BB2
YYBB
BB3
YYCF
BB4
YYCB
BB5
YYAF1
SS1
YYBF1
EEC
YCB YCF YBB YBF YAB
YBF1 YAF1 YAF
16
0V
-(S) Start button (SS1=1)

-(EC) Reset
-BB0 Sensor of pneumatic motor A is in backward position (BB0=1)

-BB1 Sensor of pneumatic motor A is in forward position (BB1=1)

-BB2 Sensor of pneumatic motor B is in backward position (BB2=1)

-BB3 Sensor of pneumatic motor B is in forward position (BB3=1)

-BB4 Sensor of pneumatic motor C is in backward position (BB4=1)

-BB5 Sensor of pneumatic motor C is in forward position (BB5=1)

Table 2 PLC inputs.

-YYAF Coil for pneumatic motor A forward


-YYAB Coil for pneumatic motor A backward (YYAB=1)

-YYBF Coil for pneumatic motor B forward (YYBF=1)

-YYBB Coil for pneumatic motor B backward (YYBB=1)

-YYCF Coil for pneumatic motor C forward (YYCF=1)

-YYCB Coil for pneumatic motor C backward (YYCB=1)

-YYAF1 Speed control, solenoid, A motor (1 = fast, 0 = slow)


-YYBF1 Speed control, solenoid, B motor (1 = fast, 0 = slow)

Table 3 PLC outputs.

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2.4-Block diagram [2]
The block diagram, illustrates the inputs and outputs of the control system in general.

Figure 17 Block diagram

OP: Operator Panel.


TP: Technological process.
Control system: can be PLC, Quickstepper…
As shown in the block diagram above, there is a start button (SS) to start the whole
process In the Operating Panel.
The control system, PLC for example will use this start button signal as an input, as
well as the signals of the position sensors of the PMs (BB0, BB1, BB2, BB3, BB4, and
BB5).
PLC controls the coils through its output signals (YYAB, YYAF, YYBB, YYBF, YYCB, and
YYCF) which make the PMs A, B and C moving either backward or forward.

25
-PLC inputs

S – Start button (SS1=1)


BB0 – Sensor of Pneumatic Motor A is in backward position (BB0=1)
BB1 – Sensor of Pneumatic Motor A is in forward position (BB1=1)
BB2 – Sensor of Pneumatic Motor B is in backward position (BB2=1)
BB3 – Sensor of Pneumatic Motor B is in forward position (BB3=1)
BB4 – Sensor of Pneumatic Motor C is in backward position (BB4=1)
BB5 – Sensor of Pneumatic Motor C is in forward position (BB5=1)

-PLC outputs

YYAF – Coil for Pneumatic Motor A forward (YYAF=1)


YYAB – Coil for Pneumatic Motor A backward (YYAB=1)
YYBF – Coil for Pneumatic Motor B forward (YYBF=1)
YYBB – Coil for Pneumatic Motor B backward (YYBB=1)
YYCF – Coil for Pneumatic Motor C forward (YYCF=1)
YYCB – Coil for Pneumatic Motor C backward (YYCB=1)
YAF1 – Speed control, solenoid, A motor (1 = fast, 0 = slow)
YBF1 – Speed control, solenoid, B motor (1 = fast, 0 = slow)

2.5-Step Displacement Diagram (SDD) [2]


Represents the operating sequence of the actuators, which line the
displacement is recorded in relation to the sequence step, also signals
causing each step are involved with line.
It is useful for illustration of the movements for the particular pneumatic
motors in the particular steps.
-The movement of every pneumatic motor (position) is represented in the
coordinates Step (horizontally) and Position (vertically).
-End positions of the motors are marked (0 and 1), position is assumed to
be a linear function of the step.
-The real speed of the movement is not mentioned in this type of diagram,
the steps are equidistant.

26
Figure 18 Step Displacement Diagram (SDD)

2.6-Time diagram [2]


Time diagram is connected to the Step displacement diagram, on the
horizontal axis, there is time instead of the step.
- In this diagram, it is possible to represent different speeds of the
pneumatic motors movement.
- Usually time diagram is used for the tasks where the speed of the
pneumatic motor is controlled.
-Decreasing of the speed with the help of the one-way flow control valve
-Increasing of the speed with the help of the quick exhaust valve.

COMPONENT DESIGNATION SIGNAL TIME DIAGRAM


10 12 = 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
1

PM A

PM B

PM C

Figure 19 Time diagram

27
2.7-Functionality of movement, steps
The table below describes this pneumatic solution twelve steps with their causes,
the quickstepper inputs and outputs, and the movements and their speed either it
is slow, quick or nominal.
Speed: S: slow, Q: quick, N: nominal, Movements: (+ Forward), (- Backward).

Quickstepper Quickstepper
Steps Causes Mouvements Speed
inputs Outputs

1 A1 X1 A+ S A1

2 A0 X2 A- N A2

3 A1 X3 A+ Q A3

4 B1 X4 B+ S A4

5 B0 X5 B- Q A5

6 B1 X6 B+ Q A6

7 B0 X7 B- N A7

8 B1 X8 B+ N A8

9 B0 X9 B- N A9

10 A0 X10 A- Q A10

11 C1 X11 C+ S A11

12 C0 X12 C- N A12

Table 4 Functionality of all movement.

28
2.8-State diagram [2]
This diagram illustrates the pneumatic solution, it is steps and transitions actions in
each step, it is shown in a graphical manner with help of nodes connected by directed
graphs.

Figure 20 State diagram

State Description 7 B forward 1


1 INITIAL 8 B backward 1
2 A forward 9 B forward 2
3 B backward 10 B backward 2
4 A forward hold 11 A backward done
5 B forward 12 Throw
6 B backward 13 Throw done.
Table 5 Description of state diagram.

2.9-State diagram process


State diagram process is starting in initial state (1) where all PMs A, B and C are moved
backward, next state “A forward” will be triggered by start button signal SS1, and the PM
backward sensor signals (BB0, BB2, BB4).
In this state the cylinder will be pressed in by moving the PMA forward slowly
(YYBF1=0). When this is done, PM forward sensor signal A (BB1), the PM will be
moved backward fast,

29
In the next state “A backward”. To hold the work piece during further manufacturing
PM A is moved forward again in the next state “A forward hold”.
The movement is fast since the solenoid variable is still set on fast movement
(YYAF=1). When the sensor for forward position of PMA is triggered, next state “B
forward” starts, where PMB is slowly (YYBF1=O) moved forward to press in the
securing bolt.
When this is done PMB is moved backward in state “B backward”, The work piece
must be pressed two times short (YYBF=1) then to finish the securing bolt,
In the next states “B forward 1”, “B backward 1”, “B forward 2”, “B backward 2” using
PMB. After this manufacturing, which ends with “B backward 2” done”,
PMA which is still 6TH STATE, holding the work piece is moved backward to set it free
in state “A Backward done”.
The work piece is thrown out then by PMC using a slow forward and a normal speed
backward move, done in states “Throw” and “Throw done”.
When the sensor for C backward position (EEC) is triggered, the cycle ends by
processing to initial state.

2.10-PN (Petri Net) [2]


A Petri Net is a collection of directed arcs connecting places and transitions.
Petri net models consist of two parts:
1. The net structure that represents the static part of the system.
2. A marking that represents the overall state on the structure.

Figure 21 Petri net

30
Table 6 Petri net places and transitions.

2.11-SFC Sequential Function Chart [16]


(SFC) is a graphical programming language used for (PLCs), it is one of the five languages
defined by IEC 61131-3 standard. The SFC standard is defined as, preparation of function
charts for control systems, and was based on GRAFCET (itself based on binary petri nets).
It can be used to program processes that can be split into steps.
Main components of SFC are:
-Steps with associated actions.

-Transitions with associated logic conditions.

-Directed links between steps and transitions.

31
2.12-GRAFCET implementation
This figure illustrates the GRAFCET used for this PLC solution.

1 YYAB YYBB YYCB

SS1 * BB0 * BB2 * BB4

2 YYAF

BB1

3 YYAB 11 YYAB YYAF1 := 0

BB0
BB0

4 YYAF YYAF1 := 1 12 YYCF

BB1
BB5

5 YYBF 13 YYCB

BB3
BB4

6 YYBB YYBF1 := 0 14

BB2
ECC

7 YYBF YYBF1 := 1

BB3

8 YYBB

BB2

9 YYBF

BB3

10 YYBB

BB2

Figure 22 GRAFCET program

32
2.13-Structure of GRAFCET [7]
GRAFCET is a graphic description language which describes the logical behaviour
and
operation of a control system or a process.
FluidSIM can be used to both create and simulate GRAFCET plans.
A GRAFCET basically illustrates two aspects of a control system, according to
particular
rules: the actions (commands) to be carried out and the sequence of execution. The
elementary components of a GRAFCET are actions, steps and transitions and can be
used
in the same way either as electrical or pneumatic components. To realize a uniform
operating concept, the GRAFCET elements feature connections that can be used to
link
them to each other (as with all other FluidSIM components).

-Steps
There are two types active or inactive and can be linked by actions. The actions of
active steps are executed. The sequence of a GRAFCET is illustrated by the transitions
from a previous to a next step. Both steps and transitions have to alternate in the
plan.
Every step has to be assigned a name, if a step is to be active at the start of the
sequence control, it is marked initial step.

Active steps are marked with a point, also active steps are framed in green.

-Actions
To perform commands, it is required to link any number of actions to a step, actions
do not have to be directly linked to a step, it is possible to link them to each other.
the purpose is to make it easier to create the drawing, it is sufficient to place actions
next to each other, without having to draw connecting lines. If the connections for
the elements overlap each other, it means they will be automatically connected.

33
Actions it is defined by a textual description or by setting or changing variable values.
To simulate a GRAFCET with FluidSIM, the variable values are taken into account in
the simulation.
When displaying a GRAFCET graphically, there is a chose whether the variable name
or the descriptive text is shown in an action. To display the description, set the
checkmark next to "Display description instead of formula" in the action's properties.

There are two types of action:


-Continuously effective and stored effective actions. For a continuously effective
action, its linked variable is set to the Boolean value "TRUE" (1), provided that the
step connected to the action is active. If the step is inactive, the value is set to
"FALSE" (0). This way of setting a variable is referred to as "assignation" in the
GRAFCET specifications.

-For a stored effective action, the set value of the variable remains unchanged until it
is changed by another action. This way of setting a variable is referred to as
"allocation" in the GRAFCET specifications.
At the start of a sequence, all the variable values are in initialise with "0".
-Transitions
Are used to describe the sequence of a control system.

34
2.14-Real PLC implementation
2.14.1-PLC definition [5], [6]
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a digital computer used for automation of
industrial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines.
It is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature
ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact.
A PLC is an instance of a hard-real-time system, because output results must be
corresponding to input conditions, or other operation will result.

Figure 23 Siemens PLC S7-200 [3]

2.14.2-Programming language for PLC [6]


The PLC product line from Siemens is named S7 (Step 7 PLC), the smallest PLC model
is the Siemens S7-200 PLC, there is also Siemens S7-300, Siemens s7-400, Siemens S7-
1200 and the newest PLC system in the line is the Siemens S7-1500.

Figure 24 Step 7-micro/win 32 for PLC programming with Siemens S7-200 [6]

The software used to program the S7 PLC’s is STEP 7-Micro/WIN, programming the

Siemens S7-200 PLC with one of the standard PLC programming languages as described

35
in the IEC 61131 standards, the languages you can use with STEP 7-Micro/WIN are:

-Ladder Logic (LAD), -Function Block Diagram (FBD).

-Instruction List (IL) in Siemens PLC’s, called Statement List (STL).

With that PLC programming languages, there is a lot of instructions available, from

simple binary instructions and word operations to program control with master

control relays (MCR) and even PID-loops, for better understanding, this is an example

of Programming of S7-200 by using Step 7–Micro/WIN. Inputs will be defined as IX.X,

outputs will be defined as QX.X and flags will be defined as MX.X for programming

Siemens PLCs. For instance, I0.1 defines the first module’s first input and Q0.1 defines

first module’s first output.

Using step7-micro / win to produce the program for the used PLC. Step7-Micro /

WIN is a software package which includes all tools for programming S7-200 family

controllers. User can choose between two of the more useful graphical programming

styles, LAD and instruction language, a real PLC program is shown below

36
37
38
39
40
41
42
2.15-Method of solution
Detecting chain algorithm in coding has been used. It is the most used algorithm in industries
because it shows where the error in the coding.

-The program in the step7 micro/win will execute recursively in a chain so it is effective to use
the detecting chain algorithm. The code executes from one network to another sequentially
and at ends it will form a loop and again the control will come to first network.

2.16-Comparison of the electrical circuit with relays and their contacts


and the program in the ladder diagram [2]
-By turning the diagram of the electrical circuit with relays and their contacts with the firm
point "0 + 24 V" from its horizontal position down to the vertical position we can get directly
the related programm in the Ladder diagram language.
-This is the original cause, why and how this ladder diagram language was created.
-Actually for the workers and operators of the machines, to understand in the program
what they have been used to understand in
the firm wiring of the relays and contacts in the control cabinet.
-In the PLC "the same structure of the wiring" is expressed in the program in the ladder
diagram language.

2.17-Conclusion
-This chapter illustrates the electropneumatic circuit which is a preparation for the PLC
virtual solution also graphical language grafcet was presented, then a real PLC SIEMENS
SIMATIC S7-200 program using step 7 micro/win software.

43
Chapter 3-Advantages and disadvantages of the pneumatic
solution
3.1-Introduction
Pneumatic systems are designs that use pressurized gas to power machines and tools, this
chapter discuss the pneumatic systems advantages and disadvantages.
3.2-Advantages [9], [10]
The table below describes the advantages of the pneumatic system, according to this task.
Advantages Descriptions
The designs of pneumatic system components are simple.
So they are more suitable for use in simple automatic
control systems.
-Simple design
Movement can be either linear or angular rotational
movement with simple and continuously variable
operational speeds.
The pneumatic systems operation does not produce
pollutants. Those systems are environmentally clean and
-Environmental friendly
with proper exhaust air treatment can be installed to clean
room standards.
-Unlimited availability of Practically air is available everywhere in the infinite
the source quantities.
-Temperature is flexible Air utilized at different temperatures are requested even in
extreme conditions, the air was able to work.
-Safe The air is not flammable also does not short circuit occurs,
so no danger of fire or explosion.

-Transport Air can be easily transported from one place to another


through pipelines.
-Easy to store The air is stored through the seat tube supply surplus air
pressure.

-Cleanliness The air is tending to clean without chemicals, also it can be


cleaned with some simple processes.
The costs of pneumatic systems are quite low, moreover as
pneumatic systems are very durable, the maintenance is
-Economical
lower than that of other systems.

44
-Easy to use Air is used to clean surfaces through pneumatic equipment,
to produce some movements.

-Maintenance The system components should be lubricated with oil on a


particular basis to avoid damages

-Pneumatic actuators It performs well with only basic maintenance required.


have long life
-Easy selection of speed The speeds of rectilinear and oscillating movement of
and pressure pneumatic systems are quite easy to regulate and subject to
few limitations. The pressure and the volume of air can be
adjusted by a pressure regulator very easily.

Table 7 Advantages of the pneumatic system.

Those advantages illustrate that pneumatic system is more suitable to use, comparing to
other systems.

45
3.3-Disadvantages [9], [10]
All structural systems have weaknesses, unfortunately pneumatic air structures are no
different, the list below illustrates those disadvantages.
Disadvantages Descriptions

-Require qualification It is an old solution so it always requires people


with qualification to deal with it.

-Require preparation Compressed air requires good preparation and


consistent piston speed to operate.

Not able to communicate with electrical devices or


-Connection issues other machines.

Pneumatic systems are the loudest types of designs


-Loudness that power machines.
The air comes out very loud so will cause noisy.

Less durable comparing to other systems, due the


The solution is to put a silencer on each dump line.
-Weather durability moisture the system can freeze especially outside.

Sometimes pipes that supply the system air have the


-Safety issues ability to move on their own, that will cause damages
to those nearly.

Needs drying to avoid condensation also include


-Easy to condense /moisture small quantity of lubricant, to minimize frictions in
the actuators and valves.

-Hard to find leaks A seal is required so that air does not leak.
Seal leakage can cause energy loss.
-Environmental suitability Can not work underwater and are sensitive to
vibrations.
Sometimes pneumatic systems use hazardous
chemicals to their design, which cause accidental
-Toxins and chemicals
launches of chemicals into the air, and damage the
environment.
Table 8 Disadvantages of the pneumatic system.

46
3.4-Conclusion
According to the laboratory experience with pneumatic system while working on this task,
I noticed that, it has a simple design which make it suitable for use, also air is available
everywhere in the infinite quantities, and it is transported into pipelines easily, also it was
quite easy to control the speed, but in the other part it required good preparation and
double check to avoid accidents, moreover it is loud system and sometimes pipes which
supply the system air moved by their own which caused damages to those nearly in
addition it was difficult to find leaks.
Expected after knowing the advantages and disadvantages of pneumatics, these losses can
be avoided.

47
Chapter 4-Possible changes to the pneumatic solution
4.1-Possible changes
This pneumatic solution has been done with the help of old components, innovation strategy
is about how to use the development of new components to obtain better performance
According to this task, the new components which can replace the old ones, are described
below

Figure 25 Old and new double acting cylinder [3]

The new double-acting cylinder with control cams, End-position cushioning with two
adjusting screws. A permanent magnet is mounted on the cylinder piston, its magnetic field
can trigger a proximity switch.

Figure 26 Flow control valve (linear vs. corner version) [3]

This valve is used to influence the volumetric flow rate through an adjustable throttle point,
in one direction. In the opposite direction, the throttle is bypassed using the non-return

48
valve, one-way flow control valve is a combination of a flow control valve and a no return
valve. The cross-section of the restrictor can be set by means of a knurled screw.

Figure 27 New 5/2 way valve will be used instead of the old one [3]

For innovation purposes, 5/2-way directional valve were used, from the name itself has
5 ports equally spaced and 2 flow positions. It can be used to isolate and simultaneously
bypass a passage way for the fluid which for example should retract or extend a double-
acting cylinder, there are variety of ways to have this valve actuated, a solenoid valve is
commonly used, a lever can be manually twist or pinch to actuate the valve, an internal
or external pneumatic pilot to move the shaft inside, sometimes with a spring return on the
other end so it will go back to its original position when pressure is gone.

Figure 28 PLC S7–200 replaces the quickstepper[3]


.

49
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a digital computer used for automation of industrial
processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines.
It is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges,
immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact.
A PLC is an instance of a hard-real-time system, because output results must be correspond
to input conditions, or other operation will result.
The software used to program the S7 PLC’s is STEP 7-Micro/WIN (as it was mentioned in the
first chapter).

Figure 29 3/2 way roller level valve and the new model [3]

The roller lever valve is actuated when the roller lever is pressed, for example by the cam of
a cylinder, after release of the roller lever, the valve is returned to its initial position by a
return spring, and for the new roller level valve Pressure range is (3.5 to 8 bar) and nominal
flow rate is 1 (P) --> 2 (A) 120 l/min.

50
4.2- Safety conditions for pneumatic system [11]

According to this task some safety conditions must be applied.

-Do not activate compressed air, till all of the tubing connections have been finished and

secured.
-Risk of accident due to tubing slipping off.
-Utilize the short possible tubing connections.
-In the event that tubing slips off, switch compressed air supply off instantly.
-Risk of damage when switching compressed air on, Cylinders may forward and backward
automatically.
-Change compressed air supply off before taking apart the circuit.
-Pneumatic circuit dismantling, Push the blue release ring down, after which the tubing
can be pulled out.
-Pneumatic circuit installation, Relate the devices with plastic tubing.
-Even though the pressure of compressed air in pipes and reservoirs is relatively low, when
the container loses its entirety, fierce explosions may still happen.
-Before switching on a compressed air supply unit, one should thoroughly inspect the
whole circuit to check if there are any loose parts, abnormal pressure or damaged pipes.
-Compressed air released from the exhaust contains particles and oil droplets, this can
cause eyes issues.
-A loose pipe may shake violently due to the high pressure built up inside it. Therefore,
each time before the system pressure is increased, thorough inspection of the entire
circuit is required to avoid accidents.
-Switches should be installed on the compressed air supply unit, to permit speedy and easy
control of air flow.
-In case of a leakage, the compressed air supply unit should be turned off immediately.
-The compressed air supply unit must be turned off before changes can be made to the
51
system, stay clear of the moving parts of the system, never try to move the driving parts in
the mechanical operation valve with hands.

4.3 -Industy 4.0 [12]


Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution, very useful for this task in order to get
the innovation of the new components.
The present trend of (Automation-data exchange) in industrialization technologies.
It contains:
- Cyber physical systems.
-The internet of things.
-Cloud computing.
This industry 4.0 makes smart factory.

Figure 30 Industry 4.0 environment [12]

4.4 -Design principals [12]


There are 4 main support companies in characterizing and realizing the industry 4.0
scenarios.
1- Interoperability:
The possibility of devices, machines, also people to communicate together through:
-The internet of people (lop).
-The internet of things (lot).

52
2– Information transparency:
The possibility of information systems to make for the physical world a virtual copy
through enriching the models digital plant, with the data of the sensors.

3–Decentralized decision
The possibility of cyber physical systems to make their own decisions and process
tasks independently.
4–Technicalaid:
The possibility of aid systems to help human through visualizing the informations.

4.5-Effect of industry 4.0 [12]


It will impact many fields for example:
-IT security.
-Workers.
-Business and services models.
-Socio-economic.
-Industry demonstration.
-Product lifecycle.
-Industry value chain.
-Continuous productivity.

4.6-Conclusion
This chapter illustrates the new pneumatic components which can be added to the system to
replace the old ones, this procedure permits the innovation for better performance,
In addition, it describes safety conditions to avoid accidents and achieve an acceptable level
of security, moreover it explains Industry 4.0 (the fourth industrial revolution) which is a new
technology of innovation related to industry 3.0 in order to get better performance.

53
Chapter 5-Possible errors states in the facility and their
management
5.1 Introduction [13]
Every pneumatic circuit has a logical sequence of operation that can involve timing logic,

pressure sensing, position sensing, and speed regulation. Troubleshooting is initiated when

the circuit does not operate properly.

The list below illustrates the general possible issues for the pneumatic system.

-Air pressure loss during operation.

-Cylinder noise at power up.

-Slow cylinder speed.

-The actuator ports are plugged with contaminants.

-The system or actuator filter is blocked or clogged.

-Air is leaking at the piston guide bushings.

-The piston seals are leaking.

-The spring return units have broken springs, valve is binding.

-There are problems with the seals.

-Varying or low air pressure.

-Incorrect utilize of flow control.

54
5.2 Possible error states
According to this task, those are the common errors and their management
a- Pneumatic cylinder failure usually results from some situations for example:
Possible problem Recommended action
-Operating over component limits. Include either increasing rod-thread size or
Operating a cylinder over pressure, load using a studded rod end.
and/or energy limits can also cause the
components failure.
-Insufficient lubrication. Replacement is the only solution.
This happens due to leakage of worn
piston seals and/or rings.
-Side-load mounting. Cylinder mountings should be checked on
Side-load applications do not permit a regular basis.
the piston rod to work in-line while the
extend-retract motion of the cylinder.
This result is seal failure.
-Air pressure loss during operation. Check the ourlet tubing.

-The system fueling up with air, but Clean the area then reactivate the control
when activated, the air is not released. level again.
-Cylinder body seal leak. Repair or replace.
Loose tie rod, Pinched or extruded seal,
Seal deterioration-hard, brittle, generally
due to temperature extremes.
Table 9 Pneumatic cylinder problem and recommended action.
b- Actuator moving abnormally slow [15]
Possible problem Recommended action
-Plugged air silencer, plugged filter. Replace or clean silencer, replace air filter.
-Flow control valve incorrectly Readjust the valve.
adjusted.
-Broken cylinder, seal. Replace cylinder or seal.

-Air leak, squeezed tube. Repair air leak or tube.


Table 10 Actuator moving slow problems and their management.

55
c- Flow control valve [14]
Possible problem Recommended action

-Higher flow rate than normal. Regulate handle stem to obtain desired
output.

-The valve seat warm out or faulty. Change the valve seat installation.

-Not fonction pressure gauge. Change faulty gauge.

-Blocked orifice or piston. Perform again flash of piston or orifice


till the fluid will flows.

-The pressure setting are too close Regulate pressure gauge.


to that of another valve in the
circuit.

-High oil viscosity. Verify the purity of oil, separator efficiency


also status.

-Restricted orifice. Clean properly the orifice.

- Incorrect adjust valve. Verify the correct installation and regulate


it properly.

Table 11 Flow control valve issues and their solutions.


d- Pressure too low [15]

-Problems -Solutions
-Damaged cylinder pipe, seal or piston. Renew or repair all the damaged parts.
-Incorrectly or damaged adjusted Replace regulator or readjust rating.
pressure regulator valve.
-Directional or other valve open, Locate damaged part, then clean or
because of the dirt or failed pilot replace it.
circuit.
-Plugged filter. Replace filter.
Table 12 Low pressure problems and their management.

56
e- Valve spool stuck
Possible problem Recommended action

-Valve pilot not functioning Clean or replace piloting part.

-Impurities between spool and sleeve Replace valve.


Table 13 Valve spool stuck issues and recommended actions.
f- Contamination in circuit
Possible problem Recommended action
-Improperly filtered feed pipes Evaluate circuit design, consider adding
pre-filters.
-Burrs inside piping components Components or/and piping not well
protected during maintenance, and/or
storage, disconnect cylinder from pipes
and remove burrs.
-Usually excessive dirt in circuit Wipers not used on cylinders where
necessary, evaluate circuit design,
consider adding wipers to cylinders.

Table 14 Contamination in circuit problems and solutions.

5.3- Conclusion
This chapter illustrates the pneumatic system common issues and their solutions,
According to my experience while doing this task at the laboratory, i understood that
solving a pneumatic system problem take the several steps:
-Visually inspect the system, and have a thought understanding of this system, using a
schematic, then operate the system and recheck all services.
-Next step isolate the subsystems, and make a list of possible causes in order to reach
a conclusion about the problem.
-Final step is testing the conclusion then repairing or replace as necessary.
Periodic maintenance is the best solution to keep the greatest performance.

57
Chapter 6-Final Conclusion
6.1-Conclusion
In this master thesis, I have successfully made in:

Chapter1 analysis of current pneumatic system according to the facility sketch, and the given
pneumatic system circuit, so two pneumatic circuits were created in fluidsim (with and without HMI)
with visual function of the state diagram in the fluidsim as well).

Chapter2 elecropneumatic circuit was made as a prepation for Virtual PLC solution, also
implementation of graphical language (GRAFCET), then a real PLC Solution was presented for PLC
SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-200 using STEP 7-Micro/WIN software (ladder diagram).
Chapter3 description of the advantages and disadvantages of this solution.
Chapter4 as a part of innovation, designs the possible changes to this pneumatic components in
nowadays were presented.
Chapter5 description of the possible error states at the facility and their management.
Chapter 6: includes all references, list of abbreviation, and appendix.

58
6.2- References
Chapter 1, 2
[1] Fluidsim library
[2] Means of automatic control subject files
[3] http://www.festo-didactic.com/int-en/learning-systems/equipment-
sets/pneumatics/components/?fbid=aW50LmVuLjU1Ny4xNy4yMC41NjQ
[4] Electro-Pneumatics M1 Student - Quia
[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmable_logic_controller
[6] http://www.plcacademy.com/siemens-s7-200
[7] FLUIDSIM 4.0 Contents
[8] CTU laboratory components
[16] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequential_function_chart
Chapter 3
[9] http://ie35int.blogspot.cz/2013/05/the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of.html
[10] http://www.ekci.com/benefits-and-disadvantages-of-pneumatics.html

Chapter 4
[11] http://www.festo-didactic.com/ov3/media/customers/1100/567266.pdf
[12] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industry_4.0

Chapter 5
[13] http://www.pneumatictips.com/4185/2015/10/pneumatic-equipment-
components/pneumatic-system-guidelines-for-success/
[14] http://www.valve-world.net/pdf/maintaining_CASEI.pdf
[15] http://www.valmet.com/media/articles/up-and-running/RTPneuTrouble/

59
6.3-List of abbreviation

-PLC: Programmable Logic Control.

-HMI: Human Machine Interface.

-NC: Normally Closed.

-NO: Normally Opened.

-PN: Petri Net.

-SDD: Step Displacement Diagram.

-LAD: Ladder Logic.

-STL: Instruction List (IL) in Siemens PLC’s, called Statement List.

-FBD: Function Block Diagram.

- (SFC): Sequential function chart.


-MCR: Master Control Relays.

-PMA: Pneumatic Motor A.

-PMB: Pneumatic Motor B.

-PMC: Pneumatic Motor C.

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6.4-Appendix
Pneumatic components
(1) Single acting cylinder. (2) Cross section of a single acting cylinder.

Figure 31 Single acting cylinder.


(1) Double acting cylinder (2) Cross section of a double acting cylinder

Figure 32 Double acting cylinder.

(1) 5/2 Directional control valve (2) Cross section (3) Pneumatic symbol

Figure 33 5/2 Directional control valve.


(1) Shuttle valve (2) Cross section (3) Pneumatic symbol

Figure 34 Shuttle valve.

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Figure 35 Cross section of a double acting cylinder.

Figure 36 PLC Siemens Simatic S7-300, 1200, 1500.

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