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Dr. İlknur BİRSEN

Biruni University, Faculty of Medicine,
Department of Physiology
the study of the normal
functioning of a living
organism and its
component parts, including
all its chemical and
physical processes.

The term physiology

literally means “knowledge
of nature.”
 an integrative science

Figure illustrates levels of organization ranging from the molecular

level all the way up to populations of different species living together
in ecosystems and in the biosphere.
Collections of cells that
carry out related functions
are called tissues.
Tissues form structural
and functional units
known as organs, and
groups of organs integrate
their functions to create
organ systems.
 the regulation of the body’s internal

 maintenanceof dynamic constancy or

equilibrium of internal environment
 “dynamic constancy”
 need to know
-Average level
-Min and max limits of normal range of
all parameters as plasma glucose
concentration, blood plessure..
In diseases caused by
internally or externally
factors, homeostasis is
disturbed. The body attempts
to compensate. If the
compensation is successful,
homeostasis is restored. If
compensation fails, illness or
disease may result. The study
of body functions in a disease
state is known as
 Nervous regulation: QUICK Humoral regulation: SLOW
onset onset
In mammals, integrating centers are usually
part of the nervous system or endocrine
system. Output signals may be chemical
signals, electrical signals, or a combination
of both. The targets activated by output
signals can be any cell of the body.
Changes that are widespread throughout
the body, require more complex control
systems to maintain homeostasis.
Stimulus  sensor  input signal 
We will use the term reflex control to mean
integrating center  any long-distance pathway that uses the
nervous system, endocrine system, or both.
output signal  target  response
Negative feedback mechanism
Positive feedback mechanism
Feed forward mechanism
The pathway in which the
response opposes or removes
the signal is known as
negative feedback.
In a positive feedback loop,
the response reinforces the
One example of a positive feedback loop
involves the hormonal control of uterine
contractions during childbirth. One example
of a positive feedback loop involves the
hormonal control of uterine contractions
during childbirth.
When the baby is ready to be delivered, it drops
lower in the uterus and begins to put pressure
on the cervix, the opening of the uterus.
Sensory signals from the cervix to the brain
cause release of the hormone oxytocin, which
causes the uterus to contract and push the
baby’s head even harder against the cervix,
further stretching it. The increased stretch
causes more oxytocin release, which causes
more contractions that push the baby harder
against the cervix. This cycle continues until
finally the baby is delivered, releasing the
stretch on the cervix and stopping the positive
feedback loop.
 An easily understood physiological example of feed-forward control
is the salivation reflex. The sight, smell, or even the thought of food
is enough to start our mouths watering in expectation of eating the
food. This reflex extends even further, because the same stimuli can
start the secretion of hydrochloric acid as the stomach anticipates
food on the way.
 Seen mainly in nervous system.
 Adaptive control, in advance.
 Temperature-sensitivenerve cells in the skin,
monitor outside temperature.

 When outside temperature falls, they relay this

information to the brain.

 Compensatory responses (heat conservation and heat production)

are activated before the colder outside
temperature can cause the internal body
temperature to fall.
 Basic living structural & functional unit of the body.
• > 100 trillion cells in body

• highly organized

• variety of shapes &

sizes (~200 type)

• each type of cells

has a special function

 All living things are made up of cells.
 Cells are the smallest working units of all
living things.
 All cells come from preexisting cells through
cell division.
 Surrounds, holds cell together & gives its form.
 10 nanometer thick.
 Not solid.
 Separates cell’s internal structures from extracellular
 Is selectively permeable, & controls passage of
materials into & out of cell.
 Participates in intracellular communication.
 Composed of:
• Double layer of
• Proteins pass through
the membrane
completely or partially
• Negatively charged
carbohydrates attach to
the outer surface.
 Compartmentalization
 Selective permeability and transport of solutes
 Response to external signals (ligand) by receptors
 Intercellular interactions; gap junctions...
 Energy transduction at the mitochondria
 Phospholipids provide some secondary messengers
 Seperation of electrical charges
 Proteins……………………. 55%
 Lipids ……………………….. 41%
- Phospholipids … 25%
- Cholesterol ……. 12% Lipids
- Glycolipids …….. 4%
 Carbohydrates …………… 3%
 Polar; Hydrophylic head

 Apolar; Hydrophobic
1. Channels or transporters
• Move molecules in one direction
2. Receptors
• Recognize certain chemicals
3. Glycoproteins
• Identify cell type
4. Enzymes
• Catalyze production of substances
1. Attach cells to each other.
2. Act as receptor substances.
3. Some enter in immune reactions.
4. Give most of cells overall negative surface charge,
which affects the interaction of regulatory molecules
with the membrane.
Transport Systems
 A few molecules move freely
• Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Oxygen

 Carrier proteins transport some molecules

• Proteins embedded in lipid bilayer
• Fluid mosaic model – describes fluid nature of a lipid
bilayer with proteins
 Cell membrane is selectively permeable to some molecules & ions.
• Not permeable to proteins, nucleic acids, & other molecules.

 Lipid or fat-soluble substances, e.g. O2, CO2, OH; enter directly into cell membrane
through the lipid bilayer.

 Water-soluble substances, e.g. ions, glucose, water; enter through proteins of the cell
 categorized by their carrier requirements:
-Carrier-mediated transport
-Noncarrier-mediated transport

 also categorized by their energy requirements:

- Active transport
- Passive transport

•Has a saturation level
•Similar substance competition
- categorized by their energy requirements:

Energy NOT Required (Passive transport)

 Simple diffusion
• Facilitated diffusion
• Osmosis
Energy Required (Active transport)
• Primary active transport
• Secondary active transport
• Endocytosis
• Exocytosis
 Tends to equalize the concentrations
 Molecules move to equalize concentration
 Non-Carrier mediated transport

From higher concentration to lower

Net diffusion of the solute is called flux or flow

Depends on the following variables:
 Size of the concentration gradient,

Permeability of the membrane,

Thickness of the membrane,
 Surface area available for diffusion
 Permeability of the membrane increase when
 the thickness of the membrane is decreased.
 lipid solubility is increased.

 size of the molecules are decreased.

 temperature of the solution is increased.

 Occurs down an
electrochemical potential
 Requires no input of metabolic
 Uses a membrane carrier and
exhibits all the characteristics of
carrier-mediated transport
is the flow of water across a semipermeable membrane
because of a pressure difference
 Concentration differences of impermeable solutes
establish osmotic pressure differences,
 This osmotic pressure difference causes water to
flow by osmosis
Osmosis occurs
because of a pressure difference,
while diffusion occurs because of a
concentration difference of water
Passive water channels
~15 type in human

The osmotic pressure (π)
of Solution depends on
 the concentration of
osmotically active
 the solute remains in

 Solvent + solute = solution Hypertonic solution
 Hypotonic solution Solutes greater outside cell
Solutes in cell more than outside Fluid will flow out of cell
Outside solvent will flow into cell
 Isotonic solution
Solutes equal inside & out of cell
Active transport

Requires energy (against gradient)

Example is sodium-potassium pump

Primary active transport

ATPase 47
Secondary active transport
In secondary active transport, the
movement of an ion from the high
concentration to low is used to drive
the uphill transport of another
ion/molecule. Two types of
secondary active transport processes
exist: cotransport (also known as
symport) and exchange (also known
as antiport). In cotransport, the
direction of transport is the same for
both the driving ion and driven
molecule/ion, whereas in exchange,
the driving ion and driven
ion/molecule are transported in
opposite directions. X and Y
represent transporter substrates.
 Movement of large material
• Particles
• Organisms
• Large molecules
 Movement is into cells
 Types of endocytosis
• bulk-phase (nonspecific)
• receptor-mediated (specific)
 Plasma membrane surrounds material
 Edges of membrane meet
 Membranes fuse to form vesicle
 Phagocytosis – cell eating
 Pinocytosis – cell drinking
 Reverse of endocytosis
 Vesiclemoves to cell surface
 Membrane of vesicle fuses
 Materials expelled
 Follow the same binding rules
– Chemical specificity
– Competition
– Saturation
– Affinity
 A single type of receptor for a
particular messenger may elicit a totally
different response in different cell
 Extracellular signaling
molecules released by
cells occurs over distances
from a few microns –
autocrine (c) and paracrine (b)
signaling to several meters in
endocrine (a) signaling.

 In some instances,
receptor proteins attached to
the membrane of one cell interact
directly with receptors on an
adjacent cell (d).
 Up-regulation and down-regulation are made
possible because there is a continuous degradation
and synthesis of receptors.
 The main cause of down-regulation of plasma-
membrane receptors is as follows:
• The binding of a messenger to its receptor can stimulate the
internalization of the complex; that is, the messenger
receptor complex is taken into the cell by endocytosis (an
example of so-called receptor-mediated endocytosis).
• This increases the rate of receptor degradation inside the
• Thus, at high hormone concentrations, the number of plasma-
membrane receptors of that type gradually decreases during
 The opposite events also occur and contribute to up-
• The cell may contain stores of receptors in the
membrane of intracellular vesicles; these are then
inserted into the membrane via exocytosis during up-
 Another important mechanism of up-regulation and
down-regulation is alteration of the expression of the
genes that code for the receptors.
Intracellular receptors:
- signaling molecules include;
steroid hormones, retinoids,
thyroxine, etc
- receptor-hormone complex
acts a transcription factor
to alter transcription of certain

Membrane (Cell surface) receptors:

- signaling molecules include;
peptide hormones, catecholamines, insulin,
growth factors, cytokines, etc

-binding, and subsequent events;

triggers an  or  in the cytosolic
concentration of a second messenger; or the
activated,bound receptor acts as a scaffold
to recruit and activate other intracellular