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Patton: Anatomy and Physiology, 9th Edition

Chapter 03: Chemical Basis of Life

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Which of the following represents a trace element in the body?

a. Sulfur
b. Chlorine
c. Iron
d. Phosphorus

ANS: C

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Basic Chemistry

2. The kind of element is determined by the number of:

a. protons.
b. neutrons.
c. mesotrons.
d. electrons.

ANS: A

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Mass Number

3. Atomic weight is determined by the number of:


a. protons and electrons.
b. neutrons and electrons.
c. neutrons, protons, and electrons.
d. protons and neutrons.

ANS: D

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Mass Number

4. Carbon has an atomic number of 6. The number of electrons found in the first shell is:

a. two.
b. four.
c. six.
d. eight.

ANS: A

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

5. The atomic number of carbon is 6. How many unpaired electrons are in its outer shell?

a. Two
b. Three
c. Four
d. Five

ANS: C

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

6. A negatively charged subatomic particle that moves around the nucleus is a(n):

a. orbital.
b. proton.
c. neutron.
d. electron.

ANS: D
DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

7. When atoms combine, they may gain, lose, or share:

a. electrons.
b. protons.
c. neutrons.
d. nuclei.

ANS: A

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Attraction Between Atoms

8. An ionic bond is formed by:

a. two or more positive ions combining.


b. two or more negative ions combining.
c. a positive and a negative ion attracting each other.
d. sharing of a pair of electrons.

ANS: C

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

9. An example of an element would be:

a. Ne.
b. CO2.
c. C6H12O6 .
d. H 2O.

ANS: A

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Elements and Compounds

10. An isotope of an element contains different numbers of ____ from other atoms of the same
element.
a. electrons
b. protons
c. neutrons
d. both protons and neutrons

ANS: C

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Isotopes

11. Which of the following elements is least likely to combine with another element?

a. Hydrogen
b. Helium
c. Oxygen
d. Carbon

ANS: B

DIF: Synthesis
REF:
TOP: Attraction Between Atoms—Chemical Bonds

12. The hydrogen isotope tritium consists of:

a. one proton.
b. one proton and one neutron.
c. two protons and one neutron.
d. one proton and two neutrons.

ANS: D

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Isotopes

13. Which of the following bonds are the weakest?

a. Ionic
b. Hydrogen
c. Electrovalent
d. Covalent

ANS: B
DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Hydrogen Bonds

14. The type of reaction in which substances are combined to form more complex substances is
called a(n) _____ reaction.

a. reversible
b. exchange
c. synthesis
d. decomposition

ANS: C

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

15. The process of the digestion of food is an example of which type of reaction?

a. Synthesis
b. Decomposition
c. Exchange
d. Reversible

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

16. Substances that accept hydrogen ions are called:

a. acids.
b. bases.
c. buffers.
d. salts.

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Bases

17. Acids:
a. are proton donors.
b. taste sour.
c. release hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution.
d. All of the above are true of acids.

ANS: D

DIF: Synthesis
REF:
TOP: Acids

18. A solution that contains a greater concentration of hydroxide ions (OH –) than hydrogen ions
(H+) is a(n) _____ solution.

a. acidic
b. alkaline (basic)
c. neutral
d. Not enough information is given to determine the character of the solution.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Bases

19. In the presence of a base, red litmus paper will:

a. stay red.
b. turn blue.
c. turn green.
d. turn yellow.

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

20. The most abundant and important compound(s) in the body is(are):

a. air.
b. water.
c. proteins.
d. nucleic acids.

ANS: B
DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Water

21. Approximately what percentage of body weight is water?

a. 40%
b. 50%
c. 60%
d. 70%

ANS: D

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Water

22. AB + CD  AD + CB is an example of a(n) _____ reaction.

a. synthesis
b. exchange
c. decomposition
d. reversible

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

23. Which of the following represents properties of water?

a. High specific heat


b. High heat of vaporization
c. Strong polarity
d. All of the above

ANS: D

DIF: Synthesis
REF:
TOP: Properties of Water

24. The approximate pH of gastric fluid is:


a. 10.
b. 8.
c. 4.
d. 2.

ANS: D

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: The pH Scale

25. Which of the following is not one of the major groups of organic substances in the human
body?

a. Proteins
b. Salts
c. Lipids
d. Nucleic acids

ANS: B

DIF: Synthesis
REF:
TOP: Organic Molecules

26. All of the following substances are organic except:

a. lipids.
b. electrolytes.
c. carbohydrates.
d. proteins.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Organic Molecules

27. The formation of sucrose involves the removal of a molecule of water. This is called:

a. hydrolysis.
b. oxidation.
c. decomposition.
d. dehydration synthesis.

ANS: D
DIF: Synthesis
REF:
TOP: Anabolism

28. The study of metabolism includes examination of:

a. catabolism.
b. anabolism.
c. ATP requirements.
d. all of the above.

ANS: D

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Metabolism

29. An example of a catabolic process is:

a. hydrolysis.
b. dehydration synthesis.
c. formation of a peptide bond.
d. both B and C.

ANS: A

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Metabolism

30. Which of the following is not one of the major elements present in the human body?

a. Oxygen
b. Zinc
c. Carbon
d. Potassium

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Basic Chemistry

31. Which of the following is not a subatomic particle?


a. Proton
b. Electron
c. Radon
d. Neutron

ANS: C

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

32. The total number of electrons in a neutral atom equals the number of:

a. neutrons orbiting the atom.


b. protons plus the number of neutrons in its nucleus.
c. protons in its nucleus.
d. ions in its nucleus.

ANS: C

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

33. An atom can be described as chemically inert if its outermost electron shell contains _____
electrons.

a. eight
b. nine
c. two
d. Both A and C are correct.

ANS: A

DIF: Synthesis
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

34. Ionic bonds are chemical bonds formed by the:

a. sharing of electrons between molecules.


b. donation of protons from one atom to another.
c. transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
d. acceptance of neutrons from one atom by another.

ANS: C
DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

35. Chemical bonds formed by the sharing of electrons are called:

a. ionic.
b. covalent.
c. hydrogen.
d. isotopic.

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Covalent Bonds

36. The type of chemical reaction most likely to require energy is a(n) _____ reaction.

a. synthesis
b. decomposition
c. exchange
d. All of the above reactions are equally likely to require energy.

ANS: A

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

37. The elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up which percentage of the
human body?

a. 50%
b. 69%
c. 78%
d. 96%

ANS: D

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Elements and Compounds

38. Which subatomic particles carry a charge?


a. Protons and neutrons
b. Neutrons and electrons
c. Protons and electrons
d. Neutrons only

ANS: C

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

39. The element oxygen has an atomic number of 8, which means it contains:

a. four protons and four neutrons.


b. eight protons.
c. eight neutrons.
d. four protons and four electrons.

ANS: B

DIF: Synthesis
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Mass Number

40. For sodium to transform from a neutral atom to a positive ion, it must:

a. gain an electron.
b. gain a proton.
c. lose an electron.
d. lose a proton.

ANS: C

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

41. A molecule that is polar:

a. can form a hydrogen bond.


b. must be ionic.
c. has an unequal charge.
d. is both A and C.

ANS: D
DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Hydrogen Bonds

42. The reaction between hydrogen and oxygen needed to form water is an example of a:

a. hydrogen bond.
b. synthesis reaction.
c. decomposition reaction.
d. None of the above is correct.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

43. Electrolytes are:

a. organic compounds.
b. called cations if they have a negative charge.
c. called cations if they have a positive charge.
d. both A and B.

ANS: C

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Electrolytes

44. A weak acid:

a. dissociates very little in solution.


b. dissociates almost completely in solution.
c. will cause the pH of the solution to rise above 7.
d. does both B and C.

ANS: A

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

45. Salts:
a. can form as the result of a chemical reaction between acids and bases.
b. are electrolytes.
c. will form crystals if the water is removed.
d. All of the above are correct.

ANS: D

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Salts

46. Hydrolysis _____ a water molecule.

a. joins compounds by removing


b. breaks down compounds by removing
c. joins compounds by adding
d. breaks down compounds by adding

ANS: C

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Catabolism

47. As the concentration of hydrogen ions (H +) increases, the:

a. solution becomes more basic.


b. solution becomes more acidic.
c. pH rises.
d. Both A and C are correct.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

48. As the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH –) increases, the:

a. solution becomes more basic.


b. solution becomes more acidic.
c. pH rises.
d. Both A and C are correct.

ANS: D
DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

49. A magnesium atom has an atomic number of 12, an atomic mass of 25, and a +2 charge. This
atom would contain _____ protons, _____ neutrons, and _____ electrons.

a. 12; 25; 2
b. 12; 13; 14
c. 12; 13; 10
d. Not enough information is given to answer the question.

ANS: C

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

50. The octet rule refers to the:

a. stability of the nucleus when the protons are in a multiple of eight.


b. stability of the atom when there are eight electrons in the outermost energy level.
c. stable configuration of the nucleus when there are eight more neutrons than protons.
d. principle that one atom can combine with a maximum of eight other atoms.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

51. The type of reaction most likely to release energy is a(n) _____ reaction.

a. synthesis
b. decomposition
c. exchange
d. All of the above reactions are equally likely to release energy.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

52. Which of the following is not true of all isotopes of oxygen?


a. They can all react with two hydrogen atoms to form water.
b. They have the same number of protons.
c. They have the same atomic mass.
d. All of the above are true of isotopes of oxygen.

ANS: C

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Isotopes

53. Hydrogen can form only when the hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to:

a. an oxygen atom.
b. a nitrogen atom.
c. a fluorine.
d. any of the above.

ANS: D

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Hydrogen Bonds

54. A strong acid:

a. holds on strongly to its hydrogen atoms, releasing very few in solution.


b. would cause a drop in the pH of a solution.
c. would cause a rise in the pH of a solution.
d. is both A and C.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Acids

55. If the pH of a person’s blood is 7.4, it would be described as:

a. strongly acidic.
b. neutral.
c. slightly acidic.
d. slightly alkaline.

ANS: D
DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Bases

56. When sodium (Na) gives up an electron to chlorine, the result is the formation of a sodium
ion (Na+) with a positive charge. This happens because there is then one more _____ than _____.

a. proton; electron
b. electron; proton
c. proton; neutron
d. electron; neutron

ANS: A

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

57. If an atom with a total of nine electrons were to ionically bond with an atom with a total of
three electrons, what would occur?

a. The atom with nine electrons would share one of its electrons with the other atom.
b. The atom with nine electrons would lose one of its electrons, and the atom with three electrons
would accept it.
c. The atom with nine electrons would accept one of the electrons from the atom with three
electrons.
d. The atom with three electrons would share one of its electrons with the other atom.

ANS: C

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

58. The carbon-containing molecules formed by living things are often called:

a. buffers.
b. inorganic molecules.
c. organic molecules.
d. salts.

ANS: C

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Organic and Inorganic Compounds
59. The term that is used to describe all of the chemical reactions that occur in body cells is:

a. catabolism.
b. metabolism.
c. synthesis.
d. anabolism.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Metabolism

60. When your body is building larger and more complex chemical molecules from smaller
subunits, what is occurring?

a. Anabolic reactions that expend energy


b. Anabolic reactions that require energy
c. Catabolic reactions that expend energy
d. Catabolic reactions that require energy

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Metabolism

61. Which type of radiation consists of an electron that is released by the nucleus of an atom?

a. Alpha
b. Beta
c. Delta
d. Gamma

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Radioactivity

62. Which type of radiation consists of electromagnetic radiation, a form of light energy?

a. Alpha
b. Beta
c. Delta
d. Gamma

ANS: D

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Radioactivity

63. Which type of radiation consists of two protons and two neutrons?

a. Alpha
b. Beta
c. Delta
d. Gamma

ANS: A

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Radioactivity

64. A + B  AB is an example of a(n) _____ reaction.

a. decomposition
b. reversible
c. exchange
d. Both A and B are correct.

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

65. The octet rule refers to the:

a. stability of the nucleus when the protons are in a multiple of eight.


b. stability of the atom when there are eight electrons in the outermost energy level.
c. stable configuration of the nucleus when there are eight more neutrons than protons.
d. principle that one atom can combine with a maximum of eight other atoms.

ANS: B

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels
TRUE/FALSE

1. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determines its atomic mass.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

2. The positively charged electrons are found in clouds outside the nucleus of an atom.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

3. Two shared pairs of electrons represent a single covalent bond.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Covalent Bonds

4. The digestion of food is an example of a decomposition reaction.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

5. The number and arrangement of electrons orbiting in an atom’s outer shell determine its
chemical activity.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

6. An atom is chemically inert if its outermost shell has two pairs of electrons.
ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

7. An isotope of an element contains the same number of neutrons but different numbers of
protons.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Isotopes

8. Electrovalent and ionic bonds are the same.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

9. Radiation results from the breaking apart of the nucleus of an atom.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Radioactivity

10. Radioactivity can cause an atom of one element to change to that of another element.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Radioactivity

11. Gamma radiation has less mass than alpha or beta radiation.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Radioactivity
12. A substance that resists changes in pH when acids or bases are added is called a buffer.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Buffers

13. The chemical reaction of an acid with a base will produce a salt and water.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Salts

14. Water acts as a very effective solvent.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Water

15. Electrolytes include acids, bases, and salts.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Electrolytes

16. By definition, inorganic compounds do not contain carbon.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Organic and Inorganic Compounds

17. Electrolytes are characterized by having either a positive or a negative charge.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Electrolytes

18. Acids are electrolytes that produce OH + ions.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids

19. pH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: The pH Scale

20. Metabolism includes the processes of both anabolism and catabolism.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Metabolism

21. ATP is broken down in an anabolic reaction.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Catabolism

22. Catabolism and anabolism are major types of metabolic activity.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Metabolism

23. Sodium chloride is an example of an ionic bond.

ANS: T
DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

24. The digestion of food is an example of a synthesis reaction.

ANS: F

DIF: Synthesis
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

25. The pH scale indicates the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

26. Litmus paper will turn red in the presence of a base.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

27. The atomic mass of an atom is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

28. The mass of a proton is almost exactly equal to the mass of an electron.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

29. Hydrogen will react with other atoms to get eight electrons in its outer energy level.
ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

30. A double covalent bond involves the sharing of two electrons.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Covalent Bonds

31. Synthesis reactions release energy for use by the cell.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

32. Electrolytes dissociate to form ions.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Electrolytes

33. As the hydrogen ion concentration increases, the pH value increases.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

34. Chemistry can be defined as the science that deals with the structure, arrangement, and
composition of substances and the reactions they undergo.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Introduction

35. The nucleus of the atom will always have a positive charge.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

36. If an atom has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic mass of 25, it must have 13 neutrons.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Atomic Mass

37. Consider an atom that has an atomic mass of 18. For it to be electrically neutral, it mu st have
18 electrons.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure, Atomic Number, and Atomic Mass

38. Atoms become positively charged by gaining protons.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

39. Inorganic compounds do not play an important role in living systems.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Organic and Inorganic Compounds

40. Acids release protons in solution.

ANS: T
DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids

41. The “aliveness” of a living organism depends on the mixture of elements of which it is made.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Elements and Compounds

42. Four elements are considered to be the major elements in the body.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Elements and Compounds

43. Dalton named the atom after the Greek word for invisible.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atoms

44. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 electrons.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atoms

45. A neutral atom that has 22 protons must have 22 neutrons.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atoms

46. A neutral atom that has 22 protons could have 25 neutrons.


ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atoms

47. Oxygen has eight electrons, but only six of them are in its outermost energy level.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

48. Hydrogen bonds between atoms do not form molecules or compounds.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Attraction Between Molecules

49. According to the general formula, in synthesis reactions, the number of reactants is usually
greater than the number of products.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

50. According to the general formula, in decomposition reactions, the number of reactants is
usually greater than the number of products.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

51. According to the general formula, in exchange reactions, the number of reactants and the
number of products are usually equal.

ANS: T
DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

52. A solution with a pH of 6 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 4.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: The pH Scale

53. A solution with a pH of 3 has 100 times more hydrogen ions than a solution with a pH of 5.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: The pH Scale

54. Because oxygen has eight electrons, it has achieved its octet and will not react with other
elements.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

55. Trace elements in the body make up about 1% of the body weight.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Elements and Compounds

56. The atomic number of an atom determines its identity.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Mass Number

57. An ionic bond forms crystals whereas a covalent bond forms molecules.
ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds and Covalent Bonds

58. Electrons surround the nucleus of an atom in areas of probability rather than in defined
orbits.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

59. The idea that electrons are found in areas of probability distribution around the nucleus was
first proposed by Niels Bohr.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

60. The term atomic weight refers to the average mass number for a particular element based on
the typical proportions of different isotopes found in nature.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Isotopes

61. A molecule can be an element or a compound.

ANS: T

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Attraction Between Atoms—Chemical Bonds

62. There cannot be an electrically neutral ion.

ANS: T
DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

63. Ions gain or lose electrons to try to attain four pairs of electrons in their outermost energy
level.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

64. Hydrogen bonds form as a result of the attraction between polar molecules.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Hydrogen Bonds

65. In a formula for a chemical reaction, the substances on the right of the arrow are referred to
as products.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions

66. A type of chemical reaction called hydrolysis is an example of an anabolic reaction.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Catabolism

67. During catabolic reactions, some of the energy is released as heat to help keep the body
warm.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Catabolism
68. A type of chemical reaction called dehydration synthesis is an example of an anabolic
reaction.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Anabolism

69. A few inorganic compounds contain both C-C bonds but no inorganic compound has a C-H
bond.

ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Organic and Inorganic Compounds

70. Fifty percent or more of a normal adult’s body weight is water.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Water

71. One of the functions of water in the body is that of helping to maintain a constant body
temperature.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Properties of Water

72. One function of carbon dioxide is to help maintain proper pH balance in the body.

ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

73. A substance that releases an OH– ion in solution is called a base.


ANS: T

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Bases

74. A solution containing the same number of H + ions and OH– ions would have a pH of zero.

ANS: F

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: The pH Scale

MATCHING

Match each term to its corresponding descriptive phrase.

a. Proton
b. Neutron
c. Electron
d. Isotopes
e. Ionic bonds
f. Covalent bonds
g. Octet rule
h. Atomic number
i. Atomic mass
j. Hydrogen bonds

1. Number of protons an atom has

2. Subatomic particle with no charge

3. Bond formed between atoms when they share electrons

4. Subatomic particle with a positive charge

5. Atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

6. Value determined by adding the number of protons and neutrons in an atom

7. Bond that requires a polar molecule

8. Subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found in a “cloud” surrounding the
nucleus of the atom
9. Bond that is formed by the transfer of an electron from one atom to another

10. Indicates an atom will react until it has eight electrons in its outermost energy level

1. ANS: H

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Mass Number

2. ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

3. ANS: F

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Covalent Bonds

4. ANS: A

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

5. ANS: D

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Isotopes

6. ANS: I

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Number and Mass Number

7. ANS: J

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Hydrogen Bonds
8. ANS: C

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Atomic Structure

9. ANS: E

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Ionic Bonds

10. ANS: G

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

OTHER

1. Describe the Bohr model of the atom.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Energy Levels

2. Name and briefly describe the types of chemical bonds discussed in this chapter.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Covalent Bonds, Ionic or Electrovalent Bonds, and Hydrogen Bonds

3. Explain the types of chemical reactions discussed in this chapter, and give the formula for
each.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Chemical Reactions
4. Name and describe the types of radiation discussed in the chapter.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Radiation

5. Explain why the properties of water are important in the functioning of the body.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Properties of Water

6. Explain the role of buffers in maintaining the proper environment in which the body can
function.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: Application
REF:
TOP: Buffers

7. Explain what is meant by anabolism and catabolism, and name a process that is an example of
each.

ANS: Answers will vary.

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Metabolism

8. Releases a hydrogen ion into a solution, which lowers the pH


a. Acid
b. Base

ANS: A

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

9. Releases a hydroxide ion into solution, which raises the pH


a. Acid
b. Base

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

10. Turns red litmus paper blue


a. Acid
b. Base

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

11. Turns blue litmus paper red


a. Acid
b. Base

ANS: A

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

12. Gastric fluid, approximately a 1.5 on the pH scale


a. Acid
b. Base

ANS: A

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

13. Household ammonia, an 11 on the pH scale


a. Acid
b. Base

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

14. Tastes sour


a. Acid
b. Base

ANS: A

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

15. Tastes bitter


a. Acid
b. Base

ANS: B

DIF: Memorization
REF:
TOP: Acids and Bases

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