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calculo de cuadernas y costillas del avion

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Plan:

1. Calculation of load-carrying ribs

2. Standard (normal) ribs calculation

3. Frames calculation.

On load-carrying ribs except distributed air and mass loads the additional concentrated

loads act from a landing gear, from the engine, fuel, and so on. At calculation of load-

carrying ribs we use following assumptions. The wing skin and the spar webs work only on

shear. The load-carrying rib is rigidly connected to a skin of a wing and of spar walls.

Let's consider a load-carrying rib calculation technique. Let us have a load-carrying rib

of a thin-walled design (fig. 1), loaded by a concentrated force P, for example, from engine

mounting.

The shear flow from the shear force Qu in front qfQ and rear qrQ spar webs are

determined by the following formulas, as they are distributed by proportionally to bending

rigidity:

Qu I f

q fQ (1)

I f Ir

Qu I r

qrQ = ,

I f Ir

where If, Ir — are moments of inertia accordingly for front and rear spars, Qu – is shear

force in this cross section from engine weight.

1

For calculation of constant SF on whole contour let us write the equation of equilibrium

for moments relative point 1 on front spar:

Р

Fig. 2. Analytical model of load-carrying rib.

Whence:

Pa qrQ bsp hr

q0 ,

bsp ( h f hr )

where bsp – distance between spars, hf, hr – accordingly heights of front and rear spars.

For calculation of total reactions in spar webs we'll have the following formulas:

Qf = ( q fQ+ q 0) hf , (4)

Qr = ( q Qз- q 0) hз.

Further we build shear forces diagrams and the diagrams for bending moments on

length of a rib (see fig. 1).

M max

max

hп F ,

Q

h ,

where F — the rib flange cross-sectional area; — the thickness of a rib web; h — the

altitude of a rib web.

The standard rib calculation is basically by nothing differs from a load-carring rib

calculation. At the precise standard rib calculation its also accepted, that a wing skin and

spars serve as the ribs legs. At the approximated calculation its considered, that the rib has

only spar legs and the wing skin reactions are not taken into account. At the calculation on

external loads operating on a rib, in approximated statement we need to determine the legs

reactions and to plot the shear forces and bending moments on length of rib diagrams (fig. 2).

2

Fig. 3. Diagrams of shear forces and bending moment for rib.

The normal stresses in flanges and the shear stresses in a rib web can be determined by

the formulas

M

hF

,

Q

h .

It is possible to determine the shear stresses in a web with facilitation holes by the

approximated formula

Q

( h d ) ,

where d — the hole diameter.

If a standard rib web is cut in a middle part on a diagonal, then in the rib calculation it

should be considered as a frame, and it is necessary to actuate in the rib area flanges and part

of a web.

3. Frames calculation.

As against ribs the air load come on a frame contour is inappreciable and it is usually

not taken into account, taking into consideration only the forces from aggregates or freights

with mounting points located on a frame. There, where the air load is great, it should also be

taken into account.

Thus, the frame loading is determined completely. On fig. 4, 5 the analytical models of

loaded frames are shown.

In a fig. 4 there is the load from the aggregate, in a fig. 5 — the load from vertical unit

sectionals. Now it is necessary to calculate these frames by known from mechanic of

structure methods.

3

Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

available in the reference literature. With the reference to ring frames of constant cross-

section the formulas and plots of the bending moments for three kinds of concentrated

loading — by radial force P (fig. 6), tangent T (fig. 67 and moment m (fig. 8) are resulted.

Using a superposition principle with the help of these solutions it is possible receiving

the bending moments for rings of constant cross-section at any loading easily. With some

approximation these solutions can be used and for calculation of ring frames with feebly

varied cross-section by a contour.

In plane's fuselage there is a usually located the great quantity of frames not carrying

the concentrated load (normal frames). For this frames (especially in a large plane's

fuselages) their can is essential a load being a corollary of fuselage axis bending deformation.

Let's allocate a ring of length dx from a fuselage with the help of cross sections and

then figure it in a deformed condition under some bending moment Мz operation (fig. 9). In a

fig. 10 its cross-section is shown schematically. Let's allocate from a design one of stringers

with a skin affixed to it (fig. 11).

Fig. 7 Fig. 8

4

Fig. 9 Fig. 10

Pi dx

dN 2 P sin Pi 2 .

As

Mz 1 Mz

Pi i Fi y i

Iz and EI z ,

than we'll get

M z2

dN i i Fi y i dx

EI z2 (1)

These forces together with уi coordinate change the sign and therefore the ring appears

loaded as it is figured in a fig. 12. Toting force (1) by all ring, it is easy to convince, that they

are mutually counterbalanced.

Thin skins are not capable to counteract the cross-section flattening effect and this role

is laid to normal frames. If the arrangement pitch of the last is equal to a than each of normal

frames loading will be recorded as:

a

2

M z2 i

Ni

EI z2

Fi y i dx

a

2 ,

at the stationary Mz values and it gives

M z2 a i Fi y i

Ni

EI z2

. (2)

5

Fig. 11 Fig. 12

The normal frame should counteract flattening made by this load, which application

scheme is similar figured on a fig. 12.

The calculation can be conducted by known mechanics methods. However it is

necessary to mean, that the sufficient normal frame strength detected by such calculation,

does not guarantee the fuselage will not flatten. This means that as a result of fuselage frame

flattening under an system of Ni forces operation the inertia moment of area Iz will decrease

and that will cause the further flattening loads growth [see formula (2)].

At some normal frame bending stiffness value such process can appear continuous and

the fuselage will be destroyed. This phenomenon has a character of stability loss and it

appears more probable in case of large plane fuselages.

With some reserve for the normal ring frame minimum inertia moment of area can be

determined by the empirical formula

M z2 R 4 a m

I r 0.7 (3)

E 2 I z2

Here Мz — the bending moment of a fuselage cross-section by a frame;

R — the circle radius of a fuselage cross-section;

a — a pitch of normal frames statement;

— the "thickness" of a fuselage skin with the stringers, "spread" on a contour. It is

equal to the area of a stringer with an affixed skin, divided on a stringer pitch. It is

supposed here, that m is constant over the contour:

f t sk

m st ,

t

EIz - bending fuselage stiffness in this cross-section.

In summary let's mark, that frames calculation methods explained here [except for the

formula (3)] are rested in essence on a hypothesis about a nondeformability of a frame

contour in its plane.

The similar calculations with reference to ribs were justified enough by that the last

usually have the web. The rib deformations in its plane appear minor in this case, and they

can be neglected.

6

Other picture is observed in a frame. The last, as a rule, one has essentially changes its

shape under load. The frame contour points displacements, observed at it, call additional

shifts in a skin and by that change the bending moments on a frame. Thus the system of

additional stress resultants and moments appears, essentially varying a character of a stress

state as of a frame, and of skin.

The frames calculation including its deformations in its planes is represented by

considerably more composite problem. This problem is not illuminated here. Let's mark only,

that the rectification to the frame elasticity will reduce the bending moments of this frame

and will give an additional shift load to the applied skin.

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