Questions Answers - Photo Voltaic Training Session 1 | Photovoltaics | Photovoltaic System


September – October 2010







You will lose efficiency in tour system, but if the deviation is small, the losses will not be very important. As an example, you can see the graph in the slide 35 webinar 1, (applicable in southern Europa):.If you take an ideal panel tilt, deviations in orientation around +/-25 º are not very important

hemisphere, solar panels will be mounted facing to south side with latitude(optimum) degrees, What angle+/-15 happens to the

output if panels are mounted other than south side?

What are the methods which can be followed to reduce the PV panel temperature temperature reduced? so losses that can the be

Recommendations: 1. You can use thin film modules halving the thermal losses compared to the crystalline panels. (Losses: Thin film 2 % each 10 º. Crystaline: 4 %/10 º), but you will need more land surface because his efficiency is lower/2. Keep a reasonable distance between panel and roof 3. If it is possible, avoid valleys and choose locations with high altitude The meter has not influence in the PR, but it is very important to have an accurate meter to avoid slipping kWh away You need link all the frames, an then connect the ground cable to the structure of the building earthing system It is 1460 kWh per year and per kWp The maximum rated output of a photovoltaic device, such as a solar cell or array, under standardized test conditions, usually 1000 watts per square meter (0.645 watts per square inch) of sunlight with other conditions, such as temperature specified. Typical rating conditions are 68°F (20°C), ambient air temperature, and 1 m/s (6.2 x 10-3 miles/sec.) wind speed You can find trackers with prices around 1,3$/Wp, this means approximately an investment of 30 % more than a fixed system. In a location with high radiation you can get increases of production by 33-40 %, but also you will have certain expenses for an extra maintenance. With high prices for panels, this equipment is very profitable.

Do you think about the precision of de meter? Do you think that improve the precision meter you can boost the PR? How are panels earthing? Is 1460 KWH per year/ per month or per day? What is kW peak? connected for

Is suntracker always justifiable? 2. What is the normal increase ($ per watt) for a suntracking system vs. fixed?


With low prices for panels its employment is doubtful . Attention: the tracker use is complicated in case of zones with important wind

Where will sun tracking be useful in diffuse or direct light? What is the largest large scale PV installation in the world? Would it be possible to name some programs to make shadowing calculations? Does Leonardo Energy have a tool for estimating or calculating the shadowing effect for dual axis tracking system?

Its usage is more profitable in locations with a high direct radiation we recommend browse at: Our experience with PVSYST is very positive.

Leonardo don´t have this tool, but we recommend you to use the program PVSYST. You will need complementarily get certains data from sites as PVGIS or meteonorm, because this sites supplies radiation data wich you will need for PVSYST Except zones with important pollution, the losses for dirt are not so high. If the zone is rainy, our experience says to us that we must not clean panels. If there is very few rain or the zone has a strong conditions of dirt, can clean them periodically. Please, analyze the production in a dirty string and in a cleaned one to verify the losses in bouth cases. With regard to the automatic option, please verify if 1. Your installation really needs cleanliness the automatic 2. The cost of doing it its foreseen manually 3. The cost of the investment of system and amortization 4. Except very difficult cases, it is better not to get obsessed with the cleanliness

Do you have any experience or data relating to panel washing? What about automated module washing systems, as opposed to manual washing?


Can I clean the panels by myself or do I need an expert?

You can clean them yourself. Important: Please, pay attention to the used water because remains staying on the panels can be more harmful than the benefit obtained by the cleanliness. Preferably make a dry cleaning with a soft brush Usually, if it will be better to put the inverter near the panels, so we will minimize the losses, because of we increase the voltage It is a communication standard for multipoint systems, that allows the communication with a maximum of 32 devices and a maximum cable length of 1.200 meters. It is normally used with DB-9 connectors (the connectors of a computer serial port) It is a cable 0.6 kV, free of halogens With high prices for panels, this equipment is very profitable. With low prices for panels its employment is doubtful .You can find trackers with prices around 1,3$/Wp, this means approximately an investment 30 % more than a fixed system. In a location with high radiation you can get increases of production by 33-40 %, but also you will have certain expenses for extra maintenance. It´s more correct to use DC fuse. Mind the voltage recommended by the manufacturer of AC fuses Concentrators only take advantage of the direct radiation, so you need locations with good meteorological conditions in an important part of the year

How far can you place the inverter from the modules (thinking about the losses)? What kind of output is the RS 485 output?

What means RZ-cable? Up to what extent the additional costs for Sun Tracking systems could be offset by the benefits gained in a given situation?

Hello, Can we use AC Fus instead of DC fuse? Aren't concentrators useful only in areas with high direct and low diffuse irradiation?


What is the best efficiency for concentrating technology modules that you can buy commercial today? Who is the supplier? What is thermal coefficient?

we you can

recommend find in this

browse site for

at: further at: and click the links that information Please,

browse What is the degradation rate of thin film modules? atLoss.htm to get more details about it The initial degradation of these modules in an initial stage is very high, therefore, the manufacturers Later the always supply an initial stable. power in panel higher than the nominal one. degradation becomes Though there is not an important experience in large facilities having been producing for many years, we can consider that the degradation during its lifetime will be similar to the crystalline technology, as manufacturers offer the same production guarantee (90 % in 10 years, 80 % in 25 What is PR? years) Definition: Evaluation criterion for solar

power plants, which is independent of the alignment of the solar power plant and the global solar radiation. The performance ratio is defined as the relationship between the actual returns and theoretically potential energy returns of a Photovoltaic system. The performance valuation all ratio is for an appropriate the is the criterion determining

quality of the plant configuration, because components and It is their interaction of considered. independent

orientation of Photovoltaic system and the global radiation



Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.