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Stage : A What you should have , do , check before patrolling as a security officer

Generally you must be familiar with / aware of / know the following :

The time of the first round of a shift which normally should begin :

- as soon as possible after the complex is locked for the day, or

- after the end of activities of the preceding work shift.

When operations in a facility are normally suspended,:

- security officers should make rounds as often as possible.

When there are special conditions, such as the presence of exceptional hazards,

- additional rounds by security officers may be required.

1- The purpose of a patrol which is include but not limited to:

- detect hazards
- housekeeping hazards, such as piled up garbage or recycling items maintenance hazards, such as leaks,
burnt out lights, electrical cords left across walkways equipment that has been left on when it is supposed
to be turned off, such as coffee pots.
-You should always check when you are trained to see what the guards can and cannot turn off. As a
general rule, computers and copy machines are not touched by security.
safety hazards, such as sparking electrical wires, overheated boilers, ice on walkways.
Also look for equipment not being used properly such as hanging items off sprinkler heads or using a fire
extinguisher to prop a door open.
- detect emergencies, such as fires and floods
help employees by keeping the site safe, reporting injuries, giving first aid or escorting them if they feel unsafe.
-detect people committing crimes, such as vandalism, break and entry, shoplifting, theft, assault.
-report equipment or machinery that is not working properly, such as heating and refrigeration units
-check for damage to property
-protect confidential information by making sure only authorized people are in controlled areas.
-improve community relations by giving help and information to the public, such as in a shopping mall.

2- post orders :

They will be specific to your site and should give a clear orders about what is expected to done . They must contain
important information such as the purpose of the patrol, routes, timings, major check points, what to do in an
emergency, reporting procedures, and areas that may have safety risks and precautions .
Key Control Procedure

You shall follow these procedures to insure the keys you are responsible for are not misused.

-Keep your keys on your person at all times and preferably out of sight.
-Do not loan your key ring to anyone for even a few seconds.
-If you are required to open a lock for someone, do it yourself.
Remember, it takes but a second for someone to make an impression of a key.
-Do not unlock any lock for another person unless it is specifically authorized, and you have positively identified that
-Keep careful records of all people who handle the keys you are responsible for.
*If you are required to issue and receive keys, they must be logged in and out.
*If your security system has no official key log, make a record on your daily report.
-Include who has received what key (by area it opens or key number) when and by what authority.
-Be sure to note the time the key is returned.
-It is also a good idea to require those receiving keys to sign for them.
*If you pass keys on to your relief, they should be counted by both of you and a note made in your daily report of how
many keys were passed on.

Know your site :

- the layout of the buildings and grounds including any maps or diagrams.
- pay a visit to the site in the daytime to you know what areas could be hazardous in the dark ( night shift ) ; and
then Draw a diagram to test how well you know the site. This can also help you to remember key areas and the
location of special equipment.
- be awrae of what goes on for the whole property ask for a tour of the whole site not just the parts that you will be in
on a regular basis.

4- For everyone’s safety, know exactly where the following are:

-telephones (including pay phones) and communications equipment.

-Know where the power failure phones are on your site.
- know any areas where a portable radio or cell phone devices do not work.
- all fire fighting equipment, including hose stations, extinguishers, hydrants, and sprinkler valves and their supply
- Also look for signs that these aren?t working properly.
- fire alarm boxes, fire doors, fire escapes and fire walls.
- Know any areas that would have special fire suppression systems and chemicals used in those systems.
- high risk areas such as pay offices, cash registers, safes, computer rooms,
labs, storage areas for valuables or expensive equipment exterior doors and gates all stairways evacuation routes .
- utility control rooms and shut-off switches back-up power units
light switches and emergency lighting panels pipes carrying gas, steam, acid, wastes storage areas for flammable
and / or hazardous materials including gases, acids, explosives or poisons.
-any dangerous machinery first aid and medical facilities
-dead zones where your phone or radio may not work.
-restricted areas where phones and radios are not allowed, such as in parts of a hospital.
5- Smell :
*Be aware with what chemicals are used in your workplace, where they are stored, and how to deal with the effects
and threats they pose.
* Be familiar with the smells can cause strong emotional reactions and remain calm.
*Know that some vapours from chemicals, gasoline, ether and smoke can deaden your sense of smell.
6- Sight :

* Be aware of things that can distort or affect your ability to see. The following table gives some special conditions
and suggestions of how to deal with them:122.pdf

* Know when to be seen :

* During the daytime you will want people to see you as a deterrent.
* At night you will need to decide what is best for your situation. .
7- know very well the power of observation. Techniqes and scops .
8- know very well the Emergency section of your post orders and any safety information such as Workplace
Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS). All hazardous materials in the workplace should have a label
giving important cautions and first aid measures. The law says that must receive training about dangerous products
in your workplace. See Unit 10 for more information on this.
Right before commencing the shift :

first of all ;

Key Control Procedure

1. At the beginning of your shift count your keys.

 Log in number of keys.
Sign to accept responsibility
2. Refer to Post Orders for Key Control Procedures. All keys will be signed in and out, there will be no exceptions

* the security officer that will be assigned on patrol duty must be both mentally and physically prepared
for every patrol ,
* If security officer has been working at the same site for a long time the supervisor must tempted to relax him to
not let him be as alert as possible before going on patrolling

Talk to other guards – Arrive 15 minutes early to get information and special instructions from anyone
who has worked the previous shift.

- check with the previous shifts or officers to get a briefing about unusual events or occurrences, suspicious
people or activities, problems around the facility and expected VIP’s, vendors and contractors

- Find out if anything has changed since your last shift, and who is authorized to be on the site.
- Read the regular occurrence and incident reports from the proceeding shift and from the shifts that may have
occurred when you were off (regular days off or extended period of time)
-Your site supervisor or guards on the shift before yours should tell you about any changes to your post orders.
-Talk to your supervisor if your post orders are not correct or need to be changed.
3. Ask questions when ambiguity or misunderstanding ,
* Do not be embarrassed to do so

- to get a safety brief concerning a safety issues such as icy roads, high winds or drifting snow.

During foot patrols, security officers;

- must be alert at all times in order to detect safety and security problems .
-be aware of the immediate measures to reduce the impact from any incidents.
- Officers must make complete patrol rounds on a regular basis.
- Patrols are conducted as directed in the Post Order Manual and as directed by supervisor during special
circumstances which as well requiring the officer’s full attention.

6. Make a list of activities that need to be done on each specific patrol. * Plan your route, including a map of major
checkpoints, windows, doors, stairways, and high traffic areas.
* Plan a different route in case of an emergency such as a fire, explosion or chemical leak. If you develop a plan
before each patrol you can vary the route and timing, so that it is not too predictable.

5. Check your equipment

use a checklist that is used before every shift. It includes the following:
*-uniform including comfortable shoes and proper clothing for the --*weather conditions
*identification card
*radio / phone in good working order and charged before you head out. carry spare batteries for emergencies
*emergency numbers
*flashlight spare bulbs and batteries notebook and 2 pens
*map or checklist of areas or stations which must be patrolled
*watch to record exact time of incidents keys and access cards if required.
*safety equipment such as goggles, hard hat, steel toed boots, if required special instructions.
*. Make sure thatyou have the right kind of notebook
it should have numbered pages that cannot be easily removed.

*When patrolling in a vehicle your post orders will also outline areas or sites that you must patrol, but you may be
able to choose the order in which you visit them. As with a foot patrol, vary the times and routes when possible, so
that criminals can’t be sure of your movement.
* Watch for hazards that could affect your driving and be extra careful in poor weather conditions.

Stage2: B What officers should have , do , check during patrolling

To ensure effective and safe patrol , security officers must comply with the following procedures:

- pass through the entire area the patrol is to cover,

-and, as much as possible, to prevent short cuts from being taken.
- Patrolmen should make rounds at intervals determined by the client and the security agency management.

-The first patrol establishes the “status” of the facility:

- who is in the facility,
what areas are open or closed and note any unusual situations which the security officer may need to monitor during
subsequent patrols.

- Be careful to notice everything on your first patrol ? If you notice everything on your first patrol you can see if
anything has changed on your later patrols.
Make sure:
*everything is locked that should be locked
*all lights and power switches are on or off as required heating and cooling systems are on or off as required
*there are no fire or safety hazards that could cause a problem later

*to note the areas where employees are working. This will be helpful in
case of an emergency.
*Talk to the workers you meet so they know you are there if they need help. Getting to know the staff will help you to
know their

- Begin your Patrol from the exterior at the perimeter of the property and work your way toward any buildings

- Take your time You will notice more if you

* walk at a slow, steady pace and look all around you.
- Watch where you walk

The officer must look for physical hazards such :

- loose hand rails, leaks, lighting.

- He or She “sees” movement, shadows and;
- details on equipment, vehicles, people and
- can compare the status of situations round after round.

Safety Hazards
Security officers should be especially alert :
-to notice and take corrective action to correct such hazards as wet spots on floors, broken or cracked glass in doors
or items on which people may trip or fall.
-Written &spoken reports of hazards should be rendered by the security office.

Take action to correct any situation within your control.

- Make a note on your security service report of your actions and any conditions requiring correction which are not of
an emergency nature.
- If an emergency is indicated, refer to your emergency list of instructions and immediately contact the proper person.
Chicking windows and lock during patrolling :

Window latches

can often be checked visually,

*if not they must be checked physically, too. A brief inspection of a lock takes a little longer than a check.
-At least once every shift you should make a point to inspect those locks protecting critical areas and those locks you
lock and unlock yourself.

When you inspect a lock you should examine it,

-the door, the door frame, and the hinges for

-evidence of tampering.
-Look for scratches,
- marks, small holes, bent parts, anything irregular.
-Try the lock. Lock and unlock it to see if it operates smoothly.
*Any time you find evidence of fresh tampering or breakage, you must assume an intruder has passed through. He
might still be in the area, so be cautious.
*In this situation, you should promptly search the immediate area for other evidence of intrusion.
*If you have good reason to believe an intrusion has happened,
especially if you think or know an intruder is in your building, call your supervisor or the police depending on your

Security officers detect malfunctioning equipment, such as:

- heaters and air conditioners by the unusual sounds they sometimes make before they break down.
Early detection of such malfunctions may prevent major damage to the equipment and can prevent serious fire

Security officers shall be alert to other sounds, such as :

- the crackling of an unseen fire or ;

-the sound of other people in a supposedly unoccupied building.

- Security officers continuous develop a keen sense of smell which can be used to detect:
- a smoldering fire, chemical spill, gas leak, scorching coffee pots,
-or even the presence of another person nearby.
- The sense of smell is especially useful when entering a building from the fresh outdoor air. Accordingly,
- security officers should routinely sniff the inside air each time they enter a building.

* Follow communication instructions

* Stay away from slippery surfaces.
* Go around hazards, not over or under them.
* Stop from time to time to listen.
* Check fences, gates and lights.
*Look for signs of digging under fences or anything that can be climbed on, such as ladders, trees, or vehicles
parked close to a fence.
*Make sure that there are no signs of forced entry into a building.
* Don’t just look at locks and windows.
* Try to open them gently to see that they are secure. This will help you to know if an intruder has been able to enter
the building.

-When the outside of the building is secure ,Patrol the interior.

* quietly enter it.
At night *
*check out your patrol area during the day, to be more aware of dangerous areas that can’t be seen as well at night.

-Don’t smoke It will affect your ability to smell odors such as smoke and tobacco. Also, a lit cigarette is visible at

*move away from the lighted entrance.

*Listen for any unusual sounds.
*If you don’t hear anything, turn on the lights and examine each checkpoint outlined in your post orders.

You must take special care when you are patrolling at night. Here are some specific things to remember:

- Use your flashlight effectively ? Turn off your flashlight when it is not needed.
If you must leave it on while walking, carry it in front of you at arm?s length away from your body. In this way, if
someone attacks you in the area of the light they will not hit your body.
* use the flashlight with the hand you don’t write by .

7. Use caution with windows and glass doors

* Do not to pass directly in front of them.
At night your body will be visible as a silhouette.
*Don’t be a target. If you must pass, walk by quickly.
* Don’t approach a dark window or door and look inside.
*Shine your flashlight before approaching and stand to one side when observing.

- when you patrol at night :

*Know when to be seen and when to be heard
* use good judgment and common sense.
* At certain sites you must patrol quietly and walk in the shadows close to buildings.
* If you are patrolling in a vehicle, minimize any noise from your engine, brakes and tires, and*
don’t slam doors. Generally, you do not want to set yourself up to be a target by being overly noisy and announcing
your presence.
* If you see anything suspicious happening, you should stay out of sight, make your observations, and report the
handling flashlight during patrolling :

-Use your light only sparingly.

-Use it to see into places you can't see into any other way.
-Flick it on and then off.
-Hold the light away from your body in the event the suspect is armed. If he fires he will fire at the light.
*If you're holding it in front of you, you'll be hit. Hold it away.
*If there are two officers, one officer should cover his eyes when the light comes on and uncover them when the light
is turned off. This way only one officer will be temporarily night-blinded.
-Carry your flashlight in daytime as well as night. You can make good use of it in dark buildings, alleys, and tunnels.

*At buildings Start at the bottom floor and work your way up. It will be harder for an intruder to go past you without
you knowing.
- Be careful when entering a dark room .
* In case of investigating something suspicious DO NOT just walk into a dark room .
*Open the door first by pushing it all the way open (someone could be behind the door) and
*shine your flashlight around the whole room before your enter. Identify yourself as security and listen for sounds.
*If you get a bad feeling or something doesn’t look right DO NOT enter without back up.
*Call for back up and then stand back and observe until back up arrives.

- Look for anything unusual like signs that may show a crime / something suspicious or does not seem right has
happened or is still happening such as :
*strange lights, or a usual light not on machinery that is jammed or running when it shouldn’t be.
* pry marks on doors, hinges or windows.
*gas / steam, water / sewer lines that are plugged, broken or leaking broken glass in or near windows wires that are
loose or broken.
*people in places where they should not be including both staff and non-staff areas.
*objects that are out of place
*obvious signs of a search or disturbance.
* Open drawers or cabinet doors that should be closed, or that are supposed to be locked. For example, a medicine
cabinet that is open and no one is using it or in the room.
missing equipment. For example, a site car that is signed in and was returned but that is not in its parking place.
*strange noises, breaking glass or sounds of items being moved in a hurry and not carefully.
*open doors that should be closed.
- Have your notebook with you on patrol or when you are investigating occurrences
* Make notes as soon as possible , When you see something unusual like what mentioned above or anything that
doesn’t seem right .
For example, if you see a strange vehicle, describe it and any occupants in your notes.
*Write as many details as possible, including the exact time that you observed something.

Security officers must be alert to:

prevent, if possible and, discover committed or potential acts of vandalism, burglary, or theft. Suspicious conditions,
such as room or building lights turned on where lights usually are not on; doors open where doors usually are not
open; or vehicles parked in unusual places, must be investigated. Assistance should be requested from the local
Police Department 911 and your company supervisor if warranted by the situation. A written description of suspicious
people (and vehicles, if applicable) should be made whether or not suspicious people were confronted by the security

7. Get to know people

*know which people are authorized to be on the property.
*have good relationships with these people, get them to trust you with information and let you know about problems.
* Maintenance people and cleaners can be very helpful because they know how things should work and where
things should be.
*Guards on the previous shift will give you valuable information and instructions. Experienced guards can give you
tips about trouble areas or problem people and how to deal with them.

8. Avoid routines
* Make sure you vary yours as much as possible while still meeting the requirements of your post orders.
* Don’t be predictable
*change directions (back-track), or mix full patrols with partial patrols. For example, if a foot patrol takes forty
minutes to complete, break it up into two twenty-minute rounds. Complete the first half, return to the central starting
point, then complete the second half. The next round could be the full forty minute patrol. .
work patterns. Also, if you have a good relationship with the staff, they will be more willing to talk to you about
changes or concerns.

10. Use all your powers of observation

* Do not rely on your sight alone. Study the principles of observation and rules of memory found later in this section
and practice them on each patrol. Make notes, notes, notes. You cannot remember everything exactly as it
happens. Small short notes can be turned into fuller reports when your patrol is finished.

Use the five sense of yours :

1. Noticing

Have you ever stared at a TV screen, but not really seen what was on it or driven from point A to point B, but didn?t
remember how you got there? Your brain was on
?automatic pilot? and you were probably thinking about something else. Your senses were giving you information,
but you weren?t really paying attention.
As a security guard you must be actively aware of everything that is going on around you. This is a skill you can
develop only with experience and practice. There are some things you should know about the senses.


*be very familiar with the sounds that you commonly hear at your site such as These include the working sounds of
loud machines as well as the quieter sounds of heating and cooling units.
*be aware of background noises and what is causing them.
*At some areas with a loudly background noises As you patrol,
*focus your hearing on any sounds that are out of the ordinary such as --These include the starting and stopping of
machinery or equipment, leaking gas, running water, breaking glass, alarms, screams, arguing, fighting, or voices
when there should be none.
* increase your ability of hearing by closing your eyes and standing still for a moment.
* judge the distance of a sound by how strong the sound is.
* judge what direction a sound is coming from by noticing if it is louder in one ear than the other.


*. As you patrol, practice focusing on smells.

*train yourself to become more sensitive to different odors such as the
smell of smoke or fumes or vapours before your eyes or ears sense danger. Fumes are the by-product of heating
metal and have traces of metal in them. Vapours are wet gases, like steam, that are coming off a liquid such as
paint. It is important to know this so that you can choose the type of breathing protection that you may need to enter
an area safely.

* identify odors and be prepared to act fast if you smell anything dangerous
* Leave the area as quickly as possible.
*use your sense of smell to describe people or suspicious conditions that you notice while on patrol.

*touch a vehicle’s tires or engine to determine how long it has
been parked on your site.
*In the dark, use touch to check if windows or doors have been forced open.
* Be very careful not to disturb evidence that the police or health and safety or insurance officials may need when
they investigate.
*If you suspect a fire, you can feel a closed door to see if it is hot. If so, do not open it as there is likely fire on the
other side.


While on patrol, *you must actively scan large areas and examine small areas in detail.
*use eye control’ look at things rather than through them.
*Look for differences rather than similarities. For instance, There are hundreds of blue vans, but few with a dented
right rear bumper with red paint on the dent.

Stage 3 : C What officers should, do , at the end of patrolling and how to deal with the abnormal situations
and how to deal with the outcome of a regular ones

How do I patrol safely?

1. Don’t approach a suspect alone

* Use abuddy system
* call for back up.
1. You must assigned a partner at a site where there is a high risk of criminal activity or violence.
*Make sure you are not both exposed to the risk at the same time.
* The second person should be within sight, but safely removed from the danger. For example, if you are
asking a trespasser to leave your site, a second security could watch from a distance to make sure the
person is cooperating with you.
*If you see an actual crime in progress, call the police.

4. contact your security operation center or supervisor after each patrol or follow other reporting orders,
especially if you are the only guard on the site. These procedures were created for your safety, so make sure
you follow them closely. See Work Alone Plan

In case of fire,
- remember the advice of fire fighters everywhere: "the first five minutes at a fire are worth the next five
hours." if the fire is so small that you are completely sure of your ability to control it immediately with available
equipment, put it out--but be doubly sure it is out.
- If there is the slightest doubt in your mind, turn in the alarm calling the fire department,
- open the proper gates and wait for the fire department at that point in order to direct them to the fire.
- In all cases pertaining to fires, make certain you follow the client's instructions on action to be taken. .

3. Alertness for conditions which are out-of-the-ordinary, such as:

fire hazards, unsafe conditions, violation of site rules and regulations, improperly secured doors and
windows, blocked aisles, etc. are of main concern.
4. 1. When fire hazards or unsafe conditions are observed,
- make every effort to have these conditions corrected.
* If the situation can be corrected by contacting supervision of the area concerned, you should do so. *
- contact your employer and report the condition in detail.
- Report immediately all leaking steam or water pipes, clogged drains, electric or telephone wires that are
defective. Log each incident in the daily activity report.
2. Challenge employees that are observed apparently pilfering, or tampering with supplies, boxes, computers
or anything which appears suspicious.
* If the condition appears serious enough, contact the client immediately.

5. Fire Protection Inspection:

officers must :
-Reports of this nature are usually submitted on an Incident Report or in some cases a special client form.
-Reports cover situations where sprinkler system valves are found closed, where freezing could cause
damage, process or service equipment is believed to be out of order and like matters.

6. Security officers must be alert to:

prevent, if possible and, discover committed or potential acts of vandalism, burglary, or theft. Suspicious
conditions, such as room or building lights turned on where lights usually are not on; doors open where doors
usually are not open; or vehicles parked in unusual places, must be investigated. Assistance should be
requested from the local Police Department 911 and your company supervisor if warranted by the situation. A
written description of suspicious people (and vehicles, if applicable) should be made whether or not
suspicious people were confronted by the security officer.

7. Safety Hazards
Security officers should be especially alert : -Written &spoken reports of hazards should be rendered by the
security office.

8. Alarm Response: If the alarm is a residence burglary alarm, and is an alarm after the fact, it will be handled
the same as a business burglary of the same type. If it is a burglary in progress, then the unit assigned the
burglary call should respond as quickly as possible.

-Remain alert as you approach the scene of the call.

- It is an easy rule to remember if you always consider that your investigation begins the moment you arrive at the
call or hear an alarm ringing.
In approaching the address of the burglary call,
- it is a good idea to coast to a stop several doors away from the actual call.
- The better you know the area, the better you can plan your approach.
- You should be as silent and unobtrusive as much as you can make it.
- Avoid making noise when you engage the emergency brake of your vehicle.
- Close the doors quietly. -
- If you're carrying keys, or anything else that jingles, on your belt, remove them and put them in your pocket.
- All radio transmissions should be completed before you exit the patrol vehicle.

During daylight hours burglary calls:

-Use caution on all calls. Discover for yourself what the call is all about, don't make assumptions.
-As you approach the scene, notice pedestrians and vehicles in the area, particularly those moving away from the
location of your call. Most of these people or vehicles will not appear to you to be "hot" suspects. That is, their only
interest to you will be that they were in the vicinity at the time.
-Jot down brief descriptions, license plate numbers, drivers, passengers, pedestrians and so forth. Occasionally,
you'll discover a hot suspect; that raises suspicions.
-In such a case, you'll want to stop him immediately.
- If you do so, be sure to notify your dispatch or duty officer on-call. Tell dispatch where you are and that you have a
possible suspect related to your assigned call. This will provide you with back-up protection.

After dark,

-many experienced officers turn off their vehicle's headlights when they near the scene, and when it is safe to do so.
-It is also a good idea to turn your patrol radio down; undoubtedly preventing transmission at the wrong moment.
-Don't drive over manhole covers or other noise making objects.
-Close the doors of your vehicle quietly.
- Park away from the scene.

If the burglar has left the scene,

-put yourself in the burglar's place. How would you leave the scene if you knew the police were approaching? Where
would you hide?
-Take great care in checking hiding places.
-Always consider the possibility of more than on suspect or that the suspect may be armed and dangerous.

When approaching the scene,

- don't hesitate to look in windows or other openings before entering. This advice goes for any call of any kind. A
quick look through a window can be vitally important to the police investigation and your safety. In some instances,
looking before you knock or enter will not be possible, but if it is possible, look first. If in doubt wait for law
enforcement. This could save your life.
-Our deployment plan with your partner (Should you have a partner) should be set before you reach the
scene so there should be little need for conversation once you get there.

-Take your flashlight but use it as little as possible.The less obvious your approach, the more likely you are to
apprehend the burglar in the act.
-Also, where possible, deploy diagonally.

(unless there are compelling circumstances, such as immediate endangerment to the life of the officer or an
employee. Surround the structure.

- Cut off major avenues of escape.

- Wait for the owner or other official.
-Once the suspect is trapped, there is no real hurry, and embarrassing, false accusations can be avoided.

Intrusion Procedures:

1 If there is evidence that an intrusion has occurred, call the client contact, your supervisor and the police as directed
by your Post Orders.
2. Never look for an intruder by yourself, wait for assistance.
3. Observe the area closely until the proper authorities arrive.
4. If you encounter a person on the client’s premises who may be an intruder, follow the Unidentified Person Procedure.
5. Report all suspected intrusions on the Daily Activity Report and an Incident Report.
Reports and Administration:

Report Procedure:
1. If the situation requires immediate attention, report to the client point of contact and then your supervisor by
2. If there is a clear and immediate threat of bodily harm, call the police.
3. Record routine occurrences on the Daily Activity Report
4. Record the details of unusual or threatening incidents and all hazards on an Incident Report.
Also record a brief description of the incident on the Daily Activity Report.

What should I do if I suspect that a crime has been committed?

*Get help.
*Call the police. It is your job to report and their job to enforce the law. *Notify your security operartin center of
*use other guards for back up whenever possible. If no other guards are available as back-up,
*you should wait for the police whenever possible.
* In some situations you may need to help someone before the police arrive. An example of this is giving someone
first aid.