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# SOLVED PROBLEMS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Problem # (16)
A rectangular footing is acted by a vertical load of 8060 kN and two horizontal forces of
1500 kN in both the long and the short directions with a distance of 0.6 m from the ground surface.
Determine:
1. The base pressure at the four corners if the footing was on soil.
2. Pile loads at the four corners if the footing was on piles whose pattern as shown.

Solution:

8060 KN
 soil  20 kN / m
3

0.5 m
2*2 m pedestal
 conc  24 kN / m
3

Hp = 1500 KN

1.4 m 1 m
7m

0.5 m
B A

1m 1m 1m 1m
Hp = 1500 KN
5m

0.5 m D 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m C 0.5 m
0.5 m

Hs = 1500 KN

## Pedestal 2×2×1.5×24 = 144 kN

Footing 5×7×1.4×24 = 1176 kN
Soil (5×7 – 2×2) ×1.0×20 = 620 kN
Column load 8060 kN

## Total load = 144+1176+620+8060 = 10,000 kN.

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PROF. MOHAMMED AWAD
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

## 1. Base Pressure at the Four Corners:

q max 
 Q 1  6eL

6eB

min A L B

1500  3
eL  eB   0 . 45 m
10 , 000

10 , 000  6  0 . 45 6  0 . 45 
q max  1   
min 57  7 5 
Q max  285 . 7  111 . 4  154 . 3
min

## qA = 285.7 + 111.4 + 154.3 = 551 kN/m2

qB = 285.7 - 111.4 + 154.3 = 329 kN/m2
qC = 285.7 + 111.4 - 154.3 = 243 kN/m2
qD = 285.7 - 111.4 - 154.3 = 20 kN/m2

## 2. Pile Loads at the Four Corners.

Q 
 Q

M yx

M xy
n Iy Ix

e L  e B  0 . 45 m

e  Q  M L M B
 4500 KN / m

## IB = (12 + 32) ×3×2 + 22×2×2 = 76 pile.m2

IL = 22 ×4×2 + 12×2×3 = 38 pile.m2

## 10 , 000 4500 4500

Q   3 2
18 76 38
Q max
 556  178  237
min

## QA = 556 + 178 + 237 = 971 KN/pile

QB = 556 - 178 + 237 = 615 KN/pile
QC = 556 + 178 - 237 = 497 KN/pile
QD = 556 - 178 - 237 = 141 KN/pile

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PROF. MOHAMMED AWAD
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Problem # (17)
For the group of friction piles shown; determine the settlement of the clay layers.

T o ta l Q = 3 6 0 0 K N
4 .0 m

1 .2
F r ic tio n p ile s
I n c o m r e s s ib le

2 .8 m
2 /3 D f = 8 .0 m

1 .2
0 .4
m v = 0 .0 0 0 1 K N
1 .2 1 .2 1 .2

1 2 p ile s g r o u p
17 m SO FT C LAY

Q 1 = 3 6 0 0 /( 4 * 2 .8 ) = 3 2 1 .4 K N /m 2
1 /3 D f = 4 .0 m

1 .5
Q 2 = 1 3 8 .5 K N /m 2 A1
30

1 .5
Q 3 = 7 7 .0 K N /m 2 A2
I n c o m p r e s s ib le
I n c o m r e s s ib le

A d d e d v e r tic a l s tr e s s w h ic h c u a s e s e ttle m e n t
3 .0

Q 3 = 3 3 .9 K N /m 2 A3
5 .0 m

A4
3 .0

Q 3 = 1 9 .0 K N /m 2

## very dense gravel

Solution:

S  P  H  mv  AL  mv

A = Pressure area
S is the settlement of the clay layer
A1 = 0.5× (321.4 + 138.5) × 1.5 = 345 kN/m.
A2 = 0.5× (138.5 + 77.0) × 1.5 = 162 kN/m.
A3 = 0.5× (77.0 + 33.9) × 3.0 = 166 kN/m.
A4 = 0.5× (33.9 + 19) × 3.0 = 79 kN/m.
S1 = 345×0.0001 = 0.0345 m
S2 = 162×0.0001 = 0.0162 m
S3 = 166×0.0001 = 0.0166 m
S4 = 79×0.0001 = 0.0079 m
Total Settlement = 0.0752 m = 75.2 mm

Note that almost the half of the settlement of the pile group is due to compression of the upper 1.50
thick layer.

6:
PROF. MOHAMMED AWAD
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Problem # (18)
Determine the settlement of the group of point bearing piles shown.

T o ta l Q = 3 6 0 0 K N

E n d B e a r in g P ile s
SO FT C LAY

4 .0 m
D f = 8 .0 m

0 .4 m
m v = 0 .0 0 0 1 K N

1 .2
2 .8 m

1 .2
1 .2 1 .2 1 .2

1 2 p ile s g r o u p
0

3 .0
30 Q 1 = 7 7 .0 k N /m 2

3 .0
Q 2 = 3 3 .9 k N /m 2
6 .0

CLAY
3 .0

Q 3 = 1 9 .0 K N /m 2

## very dense gravel

Solution:

S  P  H  mv  AL  mv

A = Pressure area
S is the settlement of the clay layer
Note; Q is used instead of P in the following equations
3600
Q1   77 . 0 kN / m
2

( 4  2  3  tan 30 )  ( 2 . 8  2  3  tan 30 )

3600
Q2   33 . 9 kN / m
2

( 4  2  6  tan 30 )  ( 2 . 8  2  6  tan 30 )

3600
Q3   19 kN / m
2

( 4  2  9  tan 30 )  ( 2 . 8  2  9  tan 30 )

1
S1   ( 77 . 0  33 . 9 )  3 . 0  0 . 0001  0 . 0166 m
2
1
S2   ( 33 . 9  19 . 0 )  3 . 0  0 . 0001  0 . 0079 m
2
Total Settlement S = 0.0166 + 0.0079 = 0.0245 m = 24.5 mm

6;
PROF. MOHAMMED AWAD
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Problem # (19)
A reinforced concrete circular pile is driven to the soil as shown below. Calculate the
negative skin friction force acting on the pile.

  17 KN / m
3

4 .0 m
N e w s a n d fill ( 1 )
  35
o

  18 KN / m
3
4 .0 m

C o m p r e s s ib le c la y la y e r ( 2 )
q u  30 KN / m
2
4 .0 m

C o m p r e s s ib le c la y la y e r ( 2 ) R ock
0 .5 m

R ock
0 .5 m
Solution:

K o  1  sin   0 . 43

  2
3
tan   0 . 467 R e s u lta n t o f la te r a l
4 .0 m

e a r th p r e s s u r e a t r e s t
qu
Cu   15 KN / m
2

2 1
Po   4  29 . 24  58 . 48 KN / m
2

4  17  0 . 43  29 . 24 KN / m
2

F 1  P o  D

F 1  58 . 48  0 . 467    0 . 5  43 KN

F 2   Dh  Cu

F 2    0 . 5  4  15  94 . 3 KN

## Total negative skin friction, F = F1 + F2 = 137.3 kN

75
PROF. MOHAMMED AWAD
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Problem # (20)
A pile supported foundation is given below. A vertical force of 1200 kN (including all the
loads on foundation) is acting downward at point K.
Determine the loads carried by piles A, B and C.

A x is o f S y m m e tr y

B
3 .4 6 4 m

2 .0 7 m
K
X X
c .g

0 .6 9 m

1 .5 m
A
C
Ө Ө
2 .4 m

0 .4 6 m
4 .0 m

P ile C a p

Solution:

3 . 464
tan      60
o

2
 x
 tan 30   x  0 . 46 m .
0
tan
2 0 .8
 Eccentrici ty :

e  1 . 5  ( 0 . 69  0 . 46 )  0 . 35 m
 Moment :
M  1200  0 . 35  420 KN . m

## Moment of inertia of piles:

 1  1 . 38  2  0 . 69  2 . 86 Pile . m
2 2 2
Ix  x

## Then; the force on piles A, B, and C will be;

1200 420
QA  QC    0 . 69  299 kN / pile
3 2 . 86
1200 4200
QB    1 . 38  603 kN / pile
3 2 . 86

75
PROF. MOHAMMED AWAD
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

Problem # (21)
One of the exterior columns of a steel frame structure is acted by a vertical force of 10,000
kN, a horizontal force of 2000 kN and a moment of 5000 kN.m. Due to a poor foundation soil; it was
decided to support that column by a pile foundation consisting of a twelve pile group. Piles are
concrete filled steel pipe piles. Allowable axial compressive load on each pile is 2000 kN. It is also
predicted that each pile can also resist a horizontal force of 60 kN. Passive resistance of soil will not
be considered.
Is the selected pile group satisfactory?

5 0 0 0 K N .m

2000 K N
10000 K N

1 .5 * 1 .5 m p e d e s ta l

5 .5 * 7 .5 m P ile c a p

## B a tte r p ile B a tte r p ile

3 3

1 1

V e r tic a l P ile s

0 .7 5
2
5 .5 m

2
0 .7 5

0 .7 5 2 2 2 0 .7 5

7 .5 m

Solution:
Column load = 10,000 kN
Weight of pedestal = 1.5 ×1.5 ×2 ×24 = 108 kN
Weight of pile cap = 5.5 ×7.5 ×2 ×24 = 1,980 kN
Weight of soil = (5.5 ×7.5 – 1.5 ×1.5) ×2 ×20 = 1,560 kN

## Total vertical loads = 10,000 + 108 + 1,980 + 1,560 = 13,648 kN

Moment = 5000 + 4 ×2000 = 13000 kN.m
Horizontal loads = 2000 kN

75
PROF. MOHAMMED AWAD
SOLVED PROBLEMS IN FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

I 1  1  2  3  (1  3 )  60 pile . m
2 2 2

Qn 
 Q

 M
 Xn 1
n I1 1
13648 13000
Qn    X n  1137  217 X n A B C D
12 60

Then;
QA = 1137 -217×3 = 486 kN/pile
QB = 1137 -217×1 = 920 kN/pile
QC = 1137 +217×1 = 1354 kN/pile
QD = 1137 +217×3 = 1788 kN/pile
2 m 1 m 1 m 2 m

## Total load = 4548×3 = 13644 ≈ 13648kN

1

486 1788
Unbalanced horizontal force = 2000  3   3  698 KN
3 3

698
Now;  58 kN / pile  60  O . K .
12

## Maximum axial load:

QD U n b a la n c e h r iz o n ta l fo r c e
RD 
cos 
1
tan   3 Q D  5364 KN
3
cos   0 . 95
1 . 788
RD   1884 kN  2000 kN  O . K .
0 . 95 3 Q C  4062

 Q  13648 KN

3 Q B  2760

3 Q A  1548

 Q  2000

75
PROF. MOHAMMED AWAD