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BLOOD  Glucose is the only sugar found in the

blood plasma of a normal individual. It is


CONSITUENTS OF THE BLOOD stored in the form of glycogen.
Plasma – liquid part of the blood. A dilute TEST FOR THE PRESENCE OF PROTEINS
solution of salts, glucose, amino acids, vitamins,
urea, proteins and fats. Test for serum albumin and globulin

White blood cells – involved in immune system  Ammonium sulfate – precipitating


agent; forms red-orange solution with
Platelets – involve in blood clotting. soluble precipitates
Red blood cells – involved in carrying the oxygen.  Sodium Chloride – dissolving agent

Plasma Proteins CHLORIDE DETERMINATION

 Albumin Cl + AgN03 → AgCl + NO3


 Globulins AgCl is the white precipitate
 Fibrinogen PHOSPHATE DETERMINATION
Cholesterol Positive result: yellow precipitate
 Normal product of animal metabolism  Presence of ammonium
Inorganic Constituents phosphomolybdate
TEST FOR FIBRIN
 Chlorides as NaCl
 Inorganic Phosphorus Name of Test Positive Remarks
 Calcium Result
 Plasma sodium MILLON’S Flesh to red Test for the
 Plasma CO2 TEST precipitate presence of
phenol and
CHLORIDES – buffer when 02 and CO2 exchange
tyrosine
in the RBC
HOPKIN’S Violet ring at Test for the
 Chloride shift - Chloride ions diffuse out COLE TEST the junction presence of
to maintain ionic equilibrium tryptophan

PHOSPHATE – major intracellular anion


TEST FOR THE PRESENCE OF CHOLESTEROL
IRON – essential in hemoglobin synthesis,
myoglobin synthesis in muscle and cytochromes  Libermann-Burchard test
that function in oxidative metabolism.  Positive result” green color
 Iron metabolism begins with oxidation IRON DETERMINATION
ferrous to ferric ions and the binding of
ferric to gastroferrin.  Ammonium thiocyanate – detects in the
blood
TEST FOR PRESENCE OF CARBOHYDRATES  Positive result: salmon-pink color
BENEDICT’S TEST – test for glucose BLOOD GASES
Positive result: brick-red precipitate  HEMOGLOBIN transports O2 from the
lungs when the O2 pressure is high.
 Hemoglobin that has been exposed to substances that are not
air is darker red in color. reabsorbed such as urea,
 Oxyhemoglobin – O2 + hemoglobin creatinine, uric acid, sulfates,
 Stoke’s Reagent result: brown solution phenol, and other toxic
with precipitates and bubbles materials.
 End product of the physiological
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS: activity of the kidneys involving
1. Intersitil fluid is found in the tissue glomerular filtration and tubular
spaces. It is derived from the blood reabsorption
plasma and partly from the cells. COLOR
 Blood plasma is the liquid part of the
blood with fibrinogen.  Normal fresh urine is pale
 Serum is the liquid part of the blood yellow due to the pigment
without UROCHROME and small
2. HEMOGLOBIN – the pigment which amounts of UROERYTHRIN
gives the RBCs their color (heme – color; and UROBILIN.
globin – protein)
What color is yours?
The color acts as a carrier of oxygen
The darker urine is the more likely is
 CHLORIDE IONS – buffer that you are not drinking enough
 PHOSPHATE IONS – principal water to maintain health.
intracellular anion
ABNORMAL URINE COLOR
 SODIUM IONS – maintain
osmotic pressure; extracellular URINE DRUGS CONDITION
cation COLOR
 POTASSIUM IONS – intracellular DEEP Heparin,
anions YELLOW riboflavin,
3. PHOSPHATE IONS – principal rifampin,
intracellular anion sulfasalazine,
4. ACID-BASE BALANCE IN BLOOD warfarin
The Blood ph IS 7.35 DARK Ferrous salts, Bile pigment
 Chloride ions acts as buffers to BROWN levodopa, High bilirubin
maintain normal ph. methyldopa, concentration
5. FIBRINOGEN – one of the coagulation metronidazole,
factors that forms the clot. nitrates,
FIBRIN – a fibrous protein that is formed sulfonamides,
as a clot. senna, quinine
6. Blood clotting is due to the action of GREEN Cimetidine,
thrombin which converst the soluble indomethacine,
fibrinogen of the blood cells into soluble methylene
fibrin. Calcium is necessary for blood blue, propofol
clotting. ORANGE Rifampicin, Hypercarotenemia,
sulfasalazine, diabetes mellitus,
URINE warfarin hyperlipidemia,
 Medium for excretion of water, hyperthyroidism
salts, acids bases, waste RED Abdominal or
products of metabolism, or pelvic trauma,
renal disease, UTI,  Infection
TB, schistosomiasis  Systematic alkalosis
PINK OR Anticancer  Renal tubular acidosis
PURPLE drugs,  Use of medicines like acetazolamide
ibuprofen,
methyldopa, ACID URINE
phenytoin,  Metabolic acidosis
rifampicin,
salicylates, SPECIFIC GRAVITY
senna
 An index of weight per unit volume
BLACK Iron salts, Mlignant
 Reflects urine concentration
metronidazole, melanoma,
senna myoglobin  Normal: 1.008 – 1.030
(rhabdomyolysis) HIGH SPECIFIC GRAVITY
 Dehydration
ODOR  Glycosuria
 Proteinuria
 Normal and freshly voided
 Radiographic contrast media
urine has an aromatic odor
due to URINIOD and volatile LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY
organic acids.
 PUTRID or strongly  Compulsive water drinking
ammoniacal odor is due to  Diabetes insipidus
the decomposition of urea URINE
to ammonia
 FRUITY AROMA is observed  0.05% Ammonia
in patient with diabetes  0.18 Sulphate
when large amounts of  0.6% Chloride
ketone bodies are present  0.01 Magnesium
 0.015 Calcium
TRANSPARENCY  0.06% Potassium
 Normal fresh urine is clear and  0.1% Sodium
transparent  0.1% Creatinine
 0.03% Uric acid
 Acid urine – white or pinkish sediments
 2% Urea
of amorphous phsphates
 95% Water
 Alkaline urine – white sediments of
amorphous phosphates Average urine volume per day for an adult = 1.4
 Cloudy (Nubecula) – appear after litres
standing upon cooling due to the
presence of mucus, leukocytes, and TEST FRO CREATININE
epithelial cells that settle.  Creatinine – arginine, methionine,
glycine
Positive result: deep red color
REACTION  Normal: 0.6 – 1.5 mg/Dl (53-133
mcmoles/L)
ALKALINE URINE
TEST FOR UREA
 UREA – end product of protein
metabolism
Positive result: ammoniacal odor, gives
black deposit to filter paper with
Nessler’s reagent
TEST FOR PATHOLOGICAL CONSTITUENTS
TEST FOR INORGANIC CONSITUENTS
Constituent Positive result Remarks Name of Description Positive Remarks
Test Result
CHLORIDE White Silver Chloride Benedict’s Test for With glucose Glucose is
precipitate Test glucose (GREEN) present in the
CARBONATES White Carbonate is Without urine of a
precipitate present in the glucose diabetic
form of (BLUE) patient
bicarbonates Rothera’s Test for With acetone Acetone
SULFATES Cloudy Sulfate are Test ketone (RED to bodies
precipitate found in urine bodies VIOET RING) originate from
three forms: Without the oxidation
inorganic acetone of fatty acids
sulfate, (YELLOW
ethereal RING)
sulfate, neural Osgood Test for With protein
sulfate Ruskin’s protein (CLOUDY to
Test WHITE
PRECIPITATE)
Test for Sink Presence of
Bile Acids bile acids
Float No bile acids
present

TEST FOR PATHOLOGICAL COSTITUNETS

Name of Test Discussion

Benedict’s Test Glycosuria: diabetes


mellitus, acute tubular
damage
Rothera’s Test Ketonuria: Diabetic keto-
acidosis, fasting/starvation,
alcoholic keto-acidosis
Osgood Ruskin’s Test Proteinuria: UTI, diabetes
mellitus, kidney failure,
kidney damage
Test for Bile Acids Presence of bile acids in the
urine indicates liver
dysfunction