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Prepared by: Prof .N SSenanayake

Ms. A. D. N. Piumi

Rankine cycle with improvements

Re-heat cycle

Same temp

turbine, the steam is diverted to reheating unit of the boiler and

then super heat steam is allowed to expand through low

pressure turbine.

Re-heat cycle

turbine outlet.

Reheating also increases the network of the cycle

without further increasing the superheat

temperature, which is limited by the metallurgical

properties of the turbine.

Reheating reduces the specific steam

consumption(1/wTur )as the area of the cycle on T-S

diagram that gives the network is increased

(increased by the area ABCD in figure)

Example

taking boiler pressure as 30bar and condenser

pressure as 0.04bar with super heat temperature of

450oC and with re-heating.

Solution

From steam tables

Point 2; h2 = 3343 kJ/kg, s2= 7.082kJ/kg

Point 3; s3= s2= 7.082 kJ/kg (saturated

vapor) p3 = p4 = 2.3 bar, h3 = 2713 kJ/kg

h4 = 3381 kJ/kg (at superheat temperature 450oC and pressure of 2.3 bar) s4

= 8.310 kJ/kg

s5= s4= 8.310 kJ/kg

s5= sf5 + x5 sfg5 x5

= 0.98

h5 = hf5 + x5 hfg5

h5 = 2505 kJ/kg

h6 = h7 = 121 kJ/kg

The total heat added to the steam (water) in the boiler

q72 + q34 = (h2 - h7) + (h4 - h3) = (3343 – 121) + (3381 – 2713) = 3890 kJ/kg

Total turbine work

W23 + w45 = - (h3 – h2) - (h5 – h4) = - (2713 – 3343) – (2505 – 3381)

= - 1506kJ/kg

w45 1506

w23 0.387 (>0.3678)

q72 q34 3890

s.s.c. = 3600/1506 = 2.39kg/kWh

the expansion at which reheating is carried out. The effective average

temperature at which heat is added in the reheat cycle (ABCD of the figure) may

be lower than that in the simple Rankine cycle if the intermediate pressure is too

low. Then the improvement in the efficiency becomes marginal.

Regenerative cycle

Regenerative cycle

In simple Rankine Cycle additional heat needs to be supplied to bring

water to the saturation temperature at the boiler pressure. Because of

this the efficiency is lowered from that of Carnot cycle. If heat could

be supplied within the cycle itself to do this, the efficiency could be

increased.

One theoretical way of doing this is to let the steam leaving the

pump, which is sub cooled, goes through a part of a turbine and

raise the temperature of water to the saturated value.

However, practical limitation exist that this cannot be implemented.

One is that design of a turbine that would act as a both expander

and a heat exchanger. Secondly, as the process in the turbine is no

longer adiabatic , the steam leaving the turbine tends to be wet that

is not desirable for the turbine.

Regenerative cycle with open feed

heater

As there are practical difficulties implementing

the regenerative cycle, the function of

regeneration is achieved in a different manner in

practice.

Instead of taking the feed water to the turbine

casing, some of the steam from the turbine is taken

to the feed water to raise its temperature. This

process is known as steam bleeding. The bleeding

can be done at several stages in the turbine.

Regenerative cycle with open feed

heater

Fractions

Saturated liquid

mixture

Example 1: open feed heater

pressure of 0.04bar determine the Rankine efficiency

and specific steam consumption with one open feed

heater.

The steam entering the turbine is at dry saturated

state (Saturated vapor). The steam bleeding is

done at the middle temperature between

condensation and evaporation.

Solution

First determine the bleed pressure. This

is selected such that t8 – t4 equally

divided

At p = 30bar and steam is saturated

liquid at 8

We know at state 4, p = 0.04bar and

steam is saturated liquid

From steam tables, t4 = 29oC

Bleed temperature = (233.8 + 29)/2 =

131.4oC

From tables p2 = p6 = p5 = 2.8bar

Now calculate the massof steam bled at 2 assuming that after

mixing the bled steam with water at sate 5, water becomes

saturated at sate 6. Also the mixing is assumed to be adiabatic.

Writing energy balance equation to feed heater;

h6 h 5

h6 = y h2 + (1-y) h5 y

h2 h5

s1= s2= 6.186kJ/kg

Therefore,

h2 = hf + x2 hfg = 551 + 0.846 (2171) = 2388kJ/kg

h5 is assumed to equal to h4 as the pump work is very small

h5 = h4 = 121.5kJ/kg

551-121.5

y 0.1895kg

2388-121.5

From tables, h1 = hg at 30bar

h1 = 2803kJ/kg

If the pump work is neglected,

q71 = h1- h6 = 2803-551 = 2252kJ/kg

Turbine work;

w13 = - (h2 – h1) – (1 – y)(h3 – h2) kJ/kg

Therefore, h3 = hf + x3 hfg = 121.5 + 0.716 (2432.4) = 1863kJ/kg

w13 = - (2388- 2803) – (1- 0.1895)(1863 – 2388) = 415 + 425.5

w13 = 840.5kJ/kg

= 840.5/ 2252 = 0.373 (

ssc= 3600/840.5 = 4.28 kg/kWh

Notice the ideal efficiency improvement from basic Rankine

cycle (0.350).

Regenerative cycle with closed feed

heater

Here the bled steam at intermediate turbine pressures is not

mixed with feed water to the boiler, but heat of the bled

steam is transferred to the feed water in stages as of a heat

exchanger.

Cycle with one

closed feed

heater

y

1

y

Example 2: closed feed heaters

consumption of a steam power plant when the turbine

pressure and the condenser pressure are 30 bar and

0.04 bar respectively. The power plant operates on

Regenerative Rankine Cycle with closed 2 feed

heaters. The steam enters the turbine at 450oC

superheat.

closed feedwater heater 1 , heater 2 and turbine to calculate y,z and Wout

Solution

1.Mark fractions

of steam bled

Heater 1 Heater 2

First determine steam bleed points.

Steam bleed pressures are found considering equal saturation temperature

differences on the T-Sdiagram as shownbelow.

Assume:

h10 = h13 = hf

h11 = h8 = hf

(t14 – t4) is divided into 3 equal steps.

t14 = 233.8oC t4 = 29 oC

t13 = 165.53 – 68.27 = 97.26oC pressure = 1 bar

introduce a significant error to the final results.

2. After throttling the state points lie on saturation liquid line;

i.e. h10 = h13 = hf and h11 = h8 = hf

3. The temperature of feed water coming into the feed heater is

equal to the temperatures of bled steam leaving the feed

heater. Hence their enthalpies are equal, i.e. t12 = t10 and t5 =

t11.

4. The enthalpy of compressed liquid in feed line is approximated

to the saturation liquid enthalpy values of the same

temperature.

h1 = 3343 kJ/kg

s9= s1= 7.082 kJ/kg

At 7 bar sg= 6.709 kJ/kg

As s9 > sg the vapour is superheat

From h –s chart (Mollier Diagram for steam)

h9 = 2950kJ/kg, h2 = 2580kJ/kg, h3 = 2110kJ/kg

h4 = h5 =121.5kJ/kg [hf at 0.04 bar] - neglecting feed

pump work

Also h8 = h11 =121.5kJ/kg

h13 = h10 = h12 = 417kJ/kg [hf at 1.0 bar]

h6 = h15 = 697kJ/kg [hf at 7bar]

We need to find out the amount of steam bled to determine total

work and heat transfer.

Writing energy balance equation for each feed heater we get

the following.

For first feed heater:

yh9 + h12 = yh10 + h6

y = [h6 – h12]/[h9 – h10] = [697 – 417]/[2950 – 417]

y = 0.1105kg

For second feed heater

z

h2 h11

h11 h5 h4

z

h5 h12 yh13 h11 417 121.5 0.1105121.5 417

h4 h2 2580 121.5

Heat added in the boiler,

q61 = h1 – h6 = 3343 – 697 = 2646 kJ/kg

Turbine work,

w13 = (h1 – h9) + (1 – 0.1105)(h9 – h2) + (1 – 0.1105 – 0.1069)(h2 – h3)

= 1089.94 kJ/kg

= w13/q61 = 1089.94/2646 = 0.412

s.s.c. = 3600/1089.94 = 3.303 kg/kWh

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