Examples from the recommended textbook

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Examples from the recommended textbook

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ME2115

1

Example – Parallel Axis Theorem

• The diagram shows a pendulum consisting of a

slender rod of length 1 m and a disk with a hole in it.

The radius of the disk is 250 mm and the radius of the

hold is 125 mm. The rod has a density of 7000 kg/m3

and a cross sectional area of 400 mm2. The disk has a

density of 8000 kg/m3 and a thickness of 10 mm.

• Compute the moments of inertia of the pendulum

about an axis normal to this plane and passing

through

• (a) the hinge at O, (b) the centre of mass G of the

pendulum.

2

Solution

(a) The pendulum can be thought of a combination of a rod and a solid disk and sub-stracting from it a

smaller disk of the size of the hole as shown in the following diagram:

3

• For the rod, mass of the rod mr = 7000 x 400 x10-4 x 1 = 2.80 kg

• Moment of inertia about the mass centre of the rod of length l = 1/12 mr l2

• Applying the parallel axis theorem, moment of inertia about O of the rod = (IO)r

• = 1/12 mr L2 + mr (0.5L)2

• =1/12 x 2.80 x 12 + 2.80 x (0.5 x 1.0 )2

• = 0.933 kg m2

• For the solid disk, mass of the disk md = 8000 x (3.14159 x (0.25)2 x0.01 ) = 15.71 kg

• Moment of inertia about the mass centre of the disk of radius R = 1/2 md r2

• Applying the parallel axis theorem, moment of inertia about O of the disk = (IO)d

• = 1/2 md R2 + md (R + L)2

• = 1/2 x 15.71 x 0.252 +15.71 x (1+0.25)2

• = 25.03 kg m2

• Note that R + L is the distance between the centre of mass of the disk and O.

• For the smaller disk of the size of the hole, mass of the smaller disk mh = 8000 x (3.14159 x (0.125)2 x0.01 ) = 3.93 kg

• Applying the parakkek axis theorem, moment of inertia about O of the smaller disk (with r = 0.125 m) = (IO)h

• = 1/2 mh r2 + mh (R + L)2

• = 1/2 x 3.93 x 0.1252 +3.93 x (1+0.25)2

• = 6.17 kg m2

• Therefore, the moment of inertia of the pendulum about ) = IO = (IO)r + (IO)d - (IO)h

• = 0.933 + 25.03 - 6.17 = 19.79 kg m2

4

• (b) Let the position of the centre of mass of the pendulum G be at a

distance of d from O,

• From the definition of the mass centre,

• (mr + md - mh) d = 0.5 mr +1.25 md - 1.25 mh

• thereofore, d = 1.11 m

• Applying the parallel axis theorem for the pendulum,

• IO = IG + m d2

• From (a) IO = 19.79 kg m2

• IG = 19.79 - (2.8 + 15.71 - 3.93) x (1.11)2

• = 1.83 kg m2.

• Of coourse, we can use the same method as (a) to compute (b).

However, since IO is known, IG can be determined easily using the

parallel axis theorem.

5

Example

• To determine the angular acceleration and the forces acting on a plate

undergoing rotation about a fixed axis.

• The following diagram shows a uniform plate of mass 20 kg supported

at A and B. If B is suddenly broken, determine (a) the angular

acceleration of the plate, (b) the components of the reaction at A at

this particular instant.

6

Solution

• When the support at B is suddenly removed, the plate will be undergoing

rotation about a fixed axis passing through A. At the same instant, the

angular velocity of the plate is equal to zero. There is no sudden increase in

the angular velocity as there is no external impulsive load acting on the

plate. See the note on Rotation about a fixed axis for more details.

• The plate is in rotation. The acceleration of the centre of mass G in the GA

direction (so called the radial component) is equal to zero at this instant as

the angular velocity of the plate is zero at the instant. There is only the

tangential component normal to GA as indicated in the diagram. If the

initial angular velocity is not zero, we need to take into account the radial

component. For rotation about A, the tangential component of the

acceleration of G is related to the angular acceleration as follows:

• AG a = aG

7

• denoting AG = r, we get aG = ra

• From the mathematical handbook, IG = (1/12) m (L2 + W2) where L and W are the length and width of the plate.

• IG =(20/12)(0.152 + 0.22) = 0.1042 kg m2

• Let the angle between the line AG and the horizontal line be q. sin q = 3/5, cos q = 4/5

• Taking moment about A (so that the two unknowns at A will not enter into the equation),

• mg r cos q = (mra)r + IG a

• Note that(mra)r + IG a is also equal to IA a from the parallel axis theorem.

• a = (mg r cos q )/(mr2 + IG)

• a = 47.1 rad/s2.

• Balance of forces in the horizontal direction,

• Ax = -maG sin q = -(3/5)x20x0.125x47.1= -70.6 N

• The negative sign indicates that the horizontal component is pointing to the left.

• Balance of forces in the vertical direction:

• Ay - mg = - cos q (maG)

• Ay = 102 N

8

Example

• The following diagram shows a beam BD of mass 100 kg supported by

two rods having negligible mass. At the instant shown in the diagram,

find the force in each rod. The rods are parallel at all times and are

both rotating with an angular velocity of 6 rad/s in the clockwise

direction. The dimensions are: BD = 0.8 m, AB=CD=0.5 m.

Gravitational acceleration is taken to be 9.81 m/s2.

9

• For the beam, the orientation remains unchanged at all times. The

angular acceleration of the beam is therefore equal to zero. The beam

is undergoing curvilinear translation. See the note on Linear and

Curvilinear Translations for more details.

• The beam is in curvilinear translation. The points B,D and the mass

centre G all move along circular paths of radius 0.5 m. This suggests

the use of normal and tengential coordinate

10

• Let the force in rod AB be TB and the force in rod CD be TD.

• Balance of forces in the n direction:

• TB + TD - 100 g cos(30 degrees) = 100 (aG)n

• Balance of forces in the t direction:

• 100g sin(30 degrees) = 100 (aG)t

• Taking moment about the centre of mass G:

• -TB(0.4 cos(30 degrees)) + TD (0.4 sin(30 degrees)) = 0

• We have three equations with four unknowns. We need to look at kinematics to get the

additional equation for solving the problem.

• From the kinematics:

• (aG)n = aD as the beam is in curvilinear translation.

• aD = (6)2 (0.5) = 18

• (aG)n = 18

• Substituting into the previous equations, we get TB = TD = 1325 N.

• If you identify the motion wrongly as general planar motion with angular acceleration,

the solution will be incorrect. Therefore, the first step on the identification of motion is

the most important step.

11

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