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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

1. TB 10.001 The raw materials that the earliest forms of life on Earth used for nutrients were produced
______.
A) artificially
B) biotically
C) abiotically
D) supernaturally
E) quickly

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

2. TB 10.002 Organisms that depend on an external source of organic compounds are called _________.
A) autotrophs
B) heterotrophs
C) chemotrophs
D) phototrophs
E) externotrophs

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

3. TB 10.003 Why was the number of heterotrophs on primitive Earth likely to have initially been severely
restricted?
A) The spontaneous production of organic molecules occurs very slowly.
B) The spontaneous production of organic molecules occurs very quickly.
C) The early heterotrophs could not reproduce.
D) The early heterotrophs reproduced too quickly.
E) Organic molecules spontaneously broke down keeping their amounts low.

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

4. TB 10.004 Organisms that can survive on carbon dioxide as their principal carbon source are called
______.
A) autotrophs
B) heterotrophs
C) chemotrophs
D) phototrophs
E) externotrophs

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

5. TB 10.005 Organisms that use the energy stored in inorganic molecules, like ammonia, hydrogen sulfide
or nitrites, to convert carbon dioxide to organic molecules like carbohydrates and proteins are called
_____.
A) chemoautotrophs
B) chemoheterotrophs
C) photoautotrophs
D) photoheterotrophs
E) didliotrophs

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

6. TB 10.006 Organisms that use the radiant energy of the sun to convert carbon dioxide to organic
molecules like carbohydrates and proteins are called _____.
A) chemoautotrophs
B) chemoheterotrophs
C) photoautotrophs
D) photoheterotrophs
E) didliotrophs

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

7. TB 10.007 Photoautotrophs include _________.


A) plants
B) eukaryotic algae
C) various flagellated protists
D) members of several groups of prokaryotes
E) All of these are correct.

Ans: E
Difficulty: Medium
10.0

8. TB 10.008 What metabolic process below do all eukaryotic green algae and higher plants have in
common?
A) glycolysis
B) photosynthesis
C) transcription
D) translation
E) All of these are correct.

Ans: E
Difficulty: Medium
10.0

9. TB 10.009 The earliest photosynthetic organisms on Earth probably used what substance as an electron
source for photosynthesis?
A) water
B) hydrogen sulfide
C) hydrogen sulfite
D) carbon dioxide
E) carbohydrates

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

10. TB 10.010 Why are organisms that presently use hydrogen sulfide as an electron source limited in their
distribution and importance?
A) It is more efficient.
B) They are smaller.
C) Hydrogen sulfide is abundant and widespread.
D) Hydrogen sulfide is neither abundant nor widespread.
E) In the current environment, hydrogen sulfide combines with silicon dioxide inactivating it.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

11. TB 10.011 How did the evolution of photosynthesis set the stage for the evolution of aerobic respiration?
A) Photosynthesis produces a waste product (carbon dioxide) that led to the evolution of aerobic
respiration.
B) Photosynthesis produces a waste product (oxygen) that led to the evolution of aerobic respiration.
C) Photosynthesis uses carbon monoxide in the atmosphere.
D) Photosynthesis produces a waste product (sulfur) that led to the evolution of aerobic respiration.
E) Photosynthesis inhibits glycolysis.

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.0

12. TB 10.012 A direct advantage of using water as an electron source for photosynthesis was that
_________.
A) organisms could live in fewer habitats than they could previously
B) organisms could get larger
C) organisms were able to live in a much more diverse array of habitats
D) organisms could be smaller
E) organisms could be rehydrated more readily

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.0

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

13. TB 10.013 It is much _____ to pull electrons from water than hydrogen sulfide, since the sulfur atom in
hydrogen sulfide has much ______ affinity for its electrons than the oxygen atom in water.
A) harder, lower
B) harder, higher
C) easier, lower
D) easier, higher
E) easier, more moderate

Ans: A
Difficulty: Difficult
10.0

14. TB 10.014 Chloroplasts were discovered as the site of photosynthesis in an ingenious experiment. What
was it?
A) Oxygen could be seen as it was produced in chloroplasts.
B) Chloroplasts were seen to swell in the presence of sunlight.
C) Spirogyra in the dark shrank and their chloroplast disappeared.
D) When Spirogyra was illuminated, actively moving bacteria gathered outside the cell near its large
ribbonlike chloroplast to use the oxygen produced there for aerobic respiration.
E) None of these are correct.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Easy
10.1

15. TB 10.015. The outer membrane of the chloroplast contains _____ like the outer membrane of ______.
A) carbohydrates, mitochondria
B) carbohydrates, peroxisomes
C) several different porins, mitochondria
D) mitochondria, porins
E) several different porins, nucleus

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.1

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

16. TB 10.016 The chloroplast internal membrane is organized into flattened membranous sacs called
_________; they, in turn, are arranged in orderly stacks called _______ that contain energy-transducing
machinery
A) thylakoids, grana
B) grana, thylakoids
C) thylakoids, stroma thylakoids
D) thylakoids, grana thylakoids
E) grana thylakoids, thylakoids

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
10.1

17. TB 10.017 Where are the enzymes that synthesize carbohydrates located?
A) grana
B) thylakoids
C) the lumen
D) stroma
E) chloroplast envelope

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
10.1

18. TB 10.018 Flattened membranous structures that connect the thylakoids of different grana are known as
______.
A) grana thylakoids
B) stroma thylakoids
C) grana
D) lumen
E) stroma

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.1

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

19. TB 10.019 Which of the following is not a usual component found in the stroma?
A) tRNAs
B) prokaryote-like ribosomes
C) circular DNA
D) linear DNA
E) many different polypeptides

Ans: D
Difficulty: Easy
10.1

20. TB 10.020 Thylakoid membranes have ___________.


A) high protein content
B) relatively plentiful phospholipids
C) a low percentage of galactose-containing glycolipids
D) low protein content
E) high amounts of phospholipids

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.1

21. TB 10.021 The nonpigmented precursors of chloroplasts are called __________.


A) prechloros
B) preplastids
C) proplastids
D) prochloroplasts
E) prechloroplasts

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.1

22. TB 10.022 What do sulfur bacteria use as a source of electrons in photosynthesis?


A) hydrogen sulfide
B) water
C) hydrogen sulfite
D) carbon dioxide
E) glucose

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.2

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

23. TB 10.023 You are growing algae in culture and expose them to CO2 that contains radiolabeled oxygen.
Where does the radiolabeled oxygen end up after photosynthesis?
A) water
B) oxygen
C) carbon dioxide
D) carbohydrates
E) carbon monoxide

Ans: D
Difficulty: Difficult
10.2

24. TB 10.024 What is the plant cell's primary source of reducing power?
A) CO2
B) ADP
C) ATP
D) NAD
E) NADPH

Ans: E
Difficulty: Easy
10.2

25. TB 10.025 What group of organisms is responsible for most of the photosynthesis that occurs on Earth?
A) green plants
B) phytoplankton
C) fungi
D) bacteria
E) moss

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.2

26. TB 10.026 What group of organisms is thought to responsible for converting about 500 trillion kg of
CO2 to carbohydrate each year?
A) plant life
B) phytoplankton
C) fungi
D) bacteria
E) moss

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
10.2

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

27. TB 10.027 What part of the chlorophyll molecule absorbs light?


A) the phytol chain
B) the porphyrin ring
C) the iron containing heme group
D) the polypeptide backbone
E) the perforin ring

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.3

28. TB 10.028 What metal atom is part of the chlorophyll porphyrin ring?
A) magnesium
B) manganese
C) platinum
D) iron
E) aluminum

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
10.3

29. TB 10.029 Which type of chlorophyll is found in brown algae, diatoms and certain protozoa?
A) Chlorophyll a
B) Chlorophyll b
C) Chlorophyll c
D) Bacteriochlorophyll
E) carotenoids

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
10.3

30. TB 10.030 Which type of chlorophyll is found in red algae?


A) Chlorophyll a
B) Chlorophyll b
C) Chlorophyll c
D) Chlorophyll d
E) carotenoids

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
10.3

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

31. TB 10.031 Carotenoids ________.


A) absorb primarily blue light
B) absorb primarily green light
C) reflect orange and red light
D) reflect yellow light
E) All of these are correct.

Ans: E
Difficulty: Easy
10.3

32. TB 10.032 You are studying mutant algal cells that lack carotenoids. You raise them in an aerobic
environment. They do not survive. Why?
A) They cannot absorb any light.
B) They reflect all colors of light.
C) They dissipate aerobic environments.
D) They transfer excess energy to O2 making ultrareactive singlet oxygen that can destroy biological
molecules and cause cell death.
E) The lack of carotenoids causes the chloroplast membranes to disintegrate.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Difficult
10.3

33. TB 10.033 What is the minimum number of photons needed to make one molecule of O2 during
photosynthesis?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 6
D) 8
E) 16

Ans: D
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

34. TB 10.034 About how many chlorophyll molecules are found in a single photosynthetic unit and how
many of those chlorophyll molecules actually transfer electrons to an electron acceptor?
A) 300, 200
B) 300, 1
C) 300, 300
D) 2400, 300
E) 2, 1

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

35. TB 10.035 As energy passes through a photosynthetic unit, it is transferred to a pigment molecule that
absorbs at a(n) ______ wavelength, so energy is _____ and the nature of future transfers becomes
restricted.
A) equal or longer, lost
B) equal or longer, gained
C) equal or shorter, gained
D) equal or shorter, lost
E) equal, the same

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

36. TB 10.036 Photosynthetic light absorption occurs in large pigment-protein complexes called
__________.
A) pigmentoses
B) pigmentosystems
C) antennoids
D) photoids
E) photosystems

Ans: E
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

37. TB 10.037 The shared properties of the two photosystems (I and II) with respect to protein composition
and overall architecture suggest that __________.
A) both absorb exactly the same wavelength of light
B) all photosynthetic reaction centers have evolved from a common ancestral structure that has been
conserved for a long time (more than 3 billion years)
C) all photosynthetic reaction centers have their own unique ancestor
D) all photosynthetic reaction centers have evolved separately within the last 100,000 years
E) all photosynthetic reaction centers evolved from unrelated structures

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

38. TB 10.038 The PSII reaction center, also known as P680, _____________.
1) absorbs light most strongly at 680 nm
2) reflects light most strongly at 680 nm
3) absorbs light most weakly at 680 nm
4) absorbs light most strongly at 700 nm
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 2 and 3
E) 4

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

39. TB 10.039 The LHCII complex binds pigments and holds them in close contact with one another. What
is the advantage of the close contact between the pigments?
A) The close contact facilitates rapid energy transfer toward the photosystem interior.
B) The close contact facilitates rapid energy transfer toward the photosystem exterior.
C) The close contact helps with fluorescence.
D) The close contact helps prevent denaturation.
E) The close contact facilitates renaturation.

Ans: A
Difficulty: Difficult
10.4

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

40. TB 10.040 The excited PSII reaction-center pigment (P680*) transfers a single photoexcited electron to a
closely associated, chlorophyll-like molecule called _________.
A) theophyllin
B) carotene
C) pheophytin
D) xanthophylls
E) succinate dehydrogenase

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

41. TB 10.041 To what type of molecule does pheophytin pass its photoexcited electron?
A) theophyllin
B) plastoquinone
C) another pheophytin
D) xanthophylls
E) succinate dehydrogenase

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

42. TB 10.042 The light-driven splitting of a water molecule is known as _______.


A) hydrolysis
B) photonization
C) photolysis
D) condensation
E) dehydration

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

43. TB 10.043 A cluster of what kind of ions is responsible for passing electrons one-at-a-time to the nearby
P680+ in the reaction center?
A) a cluster of iron ions
B) a cluster of 4 manganese ions and one calcium ion
C) a cluster of magnesium ions
D) a cluster of copper ions
E) a cluster of manganese ions

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

44. TB 10.044 What waste product of photolysis is released to the environment?


A) carbon dioxide
B) water
C) oxygen
D) ammonia
E) precipitated manganese

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

45. TB 10.045 Which molecule conveys protons from the chloroplast stroma into the thylakoid lumen?
A) cytochrome b6f
B) plastocyanin
C) phytochrome
D) cytochrome c
E) oxygen

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

46. TB 10.046 Which molecule carries electrons to the luminal side of the positively charged PSI reaction
center where they are transferred to pigment P700+, the positively charged reaction-center pigment of PSI?
A) cytochrome b6f
B) plastocyanin
C) phytochrome
D) cytochrome c
E) oxygen

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

47. TB 10.047 ______is a small, water-soluble, iron-sulfur protein that transfers electrons to NADP+ to form
NADPH.
A) ferritin
B) sulfotriene
C) sulfate
D) ferredoxin
E) sulferritin

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

48. TB 10.048 What is the mechanism by which the herbicides diuron, atrazine and terbutryn are able to kill
plants?
A) They bind to the manganese ions of chlorophyll.
B) They block electron transport through PSII.
C) They act as competitive inhibitors of reduced plastiquinone binding to chlorophyll a.
D) They act as noncompetitive inhibitors of reduced plastiquinone binding to the D1 protein of PSII.
E) They bind to hemoglobin.

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

49. TB 10.049 What is the mechanism of action by which the herbicide paraquat kills plants?
A) It competes with ferredoxin for electrons from the PSI reaction center.
B) It interferes with PSI function.
C) Electrons attached to paraquat are used to reduce oxygen, generating highly reactive oxygen
radicals.
D) It leads to the production of substances that damage the chloroplasts and kill the plant.
E) All of these are correct.

Ans: E
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

50. TB 10.050 How does paraquat destroy human tissue?


A) It competes with ferredoxin for electrons from the PSI reaction center.
B) It interferes with PSI function.
C) Electrons attached to paraquat are used to reduce nitrogen, generating highly reactive nitrogen
radicals.
D) It leads to the production of substances that damage and kill the tissue.
E) It generates oxygen radicals using electrons diverted from complex I of the respiratory chain.

Ans: E
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

51. TB 10.051 In chloroplasts, a proton gradient is established with a higher concentration of protons found
in the ______ and a lower concentration in the ______.
A) thylakoid lumen, intermembrane space
B) intermembrane space, thylakoid lumen
C) thylakoid lumen, stroma
D) stroma, thylakoid lumen
E) intermembrane space, matrix

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
10.5

52. TB 10.052 The production of ATP in chloroplasts and mitochondria differs in which of the following
ways?
A) The protons move into the stroma in chloroplasts and out of the mitochondria.
B) In mitochondria, the force is expressed primarily as an electrochemical potential; in chloroplasts, it
is largely, if not exclusively, due to a pH gradient.
C) In mitochondria, the force is expressed primarily as a pH gradient; in chloroplasts, it is largely, if
not exclusively, due to an electrochemical potential.
D) The protons move into the intermembrane space in chloroplasts and into the thylakoid lumen in
mitochondria.
E) The protons move into the matrix in mitochondria and into the cytoplasm in chloroplasts.

Ans: B
Difficulty: Difficult
10.5

53. TB 10.053 Why does an electrochemical potential build up in mitochondria, but not in chloroplasts?
A) Proton movement into the thylakoid lumen is compensated for (neutralized) by the movement of
other ions.
B) Proton movement into the intercristal space is compensated for (neutralized) by the movement of
other ions.
C) Proton movement into the cristae lumen is compensated for (neutralized) by the movement of other
ions.
D) The protons in chloroplasts are immediately joined to electrons.
E) The protons in mitochondria are immediately joined to electrons.

Ans: A
Difficulty: Difficult
10.5

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

54. TB 10.054 Inhibition of cyclic photophosphorylation leads to ___________.


1) accelerated NADH production
2) impaired development of higher plants
3) impaired oxygen production
4) impaired growth of higher plants
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 2 and 4

Ans: E
Difficulty: Medium
10.5

55. TB 10.055 Algal cultures in sealed containers were exposed to radiolabeled [14C]O2 for a brief
incubation period. Soluble molecules were extracted from the algae and subjected to 2D-paper
chromatography. How many carbons are found in the most predominant spot on the chromatogram?
A) 2
B) 1
C) 3
D) 4
E) 6

Ans: C
Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

56. TB 10.056 Calvin originally thought that the acceptor molecule for carbon dioxide during carbon
fixation contained how many carbons?
A) 2
B) 1
C) 3
D) 4
E) 6

Ans: A
Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

57. TB 10.057 The initial product of carbon fixation contains ____ carbons, but it breaks down into two
compounds containing _____ carbons.
A) 8, 4
B) 6, 3
C) 6, 6
D) 10, 5
E) 12, 6

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

58. TB 10.058 Starch stored as granules in the chloroplasts serves what purpose?
A) It causes plant cells to swell.
B) It provides plants with sugars at night when light-dependent reactions are not possible.
C) It provides plants with cellulose during the day.
D) It supplies plants with ribulose bisphosphate.
E) It causes plant cells to shrink.

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

59. TB 10.059 Why is the conversion of CO2 to a 6-carbon sugar so energetically expensive?
A) CO2 is the most highly reduced and least energetic form in which carbon can occur.
B) CO2 is very unstable.
C) CO2 is the most highly oxidized and least energetic form in which carbon can occur.
D) CO2 is the most highly oxidized and most energetic form in which carbon can occur.
E) CO2 is highly unstable and only moderately energetic which makes the process more expensive
energetically.

Ans: C
Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

60. TB 10.060 A mechanism that is known to regulate basic cell processes, like protein folding,
transcription, translation and chloroplast metabolism, by controlling the activity of proteins is known as
________.
A) transubstantiation
B) internal combustion
C) redox control
D) oxidation inhibition
E) reduction counter-regulation

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.6

61. TB 10.061 The reduction of ________ is accomplished with electrons passed through ferredoxin; this
substance then reduces certain _______ in selected Calvin cycle enzymes.
A) thioredoxin, disulfide bridges
B) thioredoxin, sulfhydryl groups
C) sulfhydryl groups, thioredoxin
D) disulfide bridges, thioredoxin
E) thioredoxin, hydrogen bonds

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

62. TB 10.062 Why are plants unlikely to produce many carbohydrates at night?
A) Selected Calvin cycle enzymes are inactive in the dark because they denature at night.
B) Selected Calvin cycle enzymes are immobilized at night.
C) Chloroplasts shrink at night.
D) Selected Calvin cycle enzymes are inactive in the dark because thioredoxin is oxidized and cannot
reduce their disulfide linkages.
E) Selected Calvin cycle enzymes are inactive in the dark because thioredoxin is reduced and can break
their disulfide linkages.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

63. TB 10.063 Mercaptoethanol is a reagent that breaks disulfide linkages. If you were to treat Calvin cycle
enzymes with this reagent, what effect might it conceivably have on them?
A) It might competitively inhibit them.
B) It might noncompetitively inhibit them.
C) It might split them in two pieces.
D) It might activate them.
E) It might deactivate them.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

64. TB 10.064 If Calvin cycle enzymes are treated with a reagent that stabilizes their disulfide linkages, what
effect might the treatment have on the enzymes?
A) It might competitively inhibit them.
B) It might noncompetitively inhibit them.
C) It might split them in two pieces.
D) It might activate them.
E) It might deactivate them.

Ans: E
Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

65. TB 10.065 What substance is attached to RuBP by Rubisco to make 2-phosphoglycolate?


A) ATP
B) O2
C) CO2
D) NADPH
E) glycolate

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

66. TB 10.066 2-phosphoglycolate is converted into glycolate by an enzyme in the ________.


A) peroxisome
B) glyoxysome
C) stroma
D) thylakoid disk
E) thylakoid membrane

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

67. TB 10.067 To what organelle is glycolate passed after it is produced in the chloroplast?
A) the peroxisome
B) the glyoxysome
C) the lysosome
D) the Golgi apparatus
E) the rough endoplasmic reticulum

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

68. TB 10.068 Why is the process whereby O2 is added to RuBP called photorespiration?
A) because O2 is released and CO2 is taken up
B) because CO2 is released and O2 is taken up
C) because breathing is necessary
D) because RuBP is released
E) because it occurs in crop plants

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

69. TB 10.069 Why does Rubisco show relatively little preference for CO2 as a substrate over O2?
A) Both CO2 and O2 bind directly to Rubisco's active site.
B) CO2 and O2 bind to RuBP, which occupies the active site; their ability to attack RuBP is roughly
equal.
C) Rubisco binds to a regulatory site.
D) CO2 and O2 bind to a regulatory site instead of the active site.
E) Both O2 and CO2 are repelled RuBP.

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

70. TB 10.070 Why might Rubisco have evolved with an inability to distinguish between CO2 and O2?
A) Rubisco may have evolved at a time when atmospheric O2 levels were virtually nonexistent.
B) Rubisco may have evolved at a time when atmospheric CO2 levels were virtually nonexistent.
C) Rubisco evolved when atmospheric O2 levels were high.
D) Rubisco possesses four subunits.
E) Rubisco denatures due to photorespiration.

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

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71. TB 10.071 What determines the direction of the Rubisco-catalyzed reaction?


A) the concentration of O2 alone
B) the concentration of CO2 alone
C) the CO2/O2 ratio available to the enzyme
D) Rubisco itself
E) cofactors for Rubisco

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

72. TB 10.072 How do C4 and CAM plants overcome the negative effects of photorespiration?
A) They destroy O2.
B) They chemically alter O2 before it gets to the enzyme.
C) They employ mechanisms that increase the CO2/O2 ratio to which Rubisco molecules are exposed.
D) They chemically alter CO2.
E) They destroy CO2.

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

73. TB 10.073 What enzyme is the first enzyme in the C4 Hatch-Slack pathway that carries CO2 into the
bundle sheath cells?
A) Rubisco
B) phosphenolpyruvate carboxylase
C) pyruvate carboxylase
D) phosphoenolpyruvate decarboxylase
E) ATP synthase

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.6

74. TB 10.074 The rate of photosynthetic CO2 fixation _____ and the rate of the release of CO2 by
photorespiration _______ when _____ plants are grown in a closed container.
A) decreases, increases, C3
B) increases, decreases, C3
C) decreases, increases, C4
D) decreases, decreases, C3
E) increases, increases, C3

Ans: A
Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

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75. TB 10.075 What is the reason that C3 plants must open their stomata even when the climate is hot and
dry?
A) To take in CO
B) To take in CO2
C) To take in water
D) To let CO2 out of the leaf
E) To take in O2

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

76. TB 10.076 What anatomical specialization is typical of C4 plants?


A) Mesophyll cells are scattered throughout the interior of the leaf.
B) Bundle sheath cells are scattered throughout the interior of the leaf.
C) C4 plants have two concentric cylinders of cells around their vascular tissue.
D) The leaves are coated with extra waxy material.
E) Rubisco floats free in the air spaces in the leaves of C4 plants.

Ans: C
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

77. TB 10.077 Through what structure in mesophyll cells are C4 products transported to the thick-walled
bundle sheath cells?
A) lysosomes
B) plasmodesmata
C) plasma membrane
D) cilia
E) mitochondria

Ans: B
Difficulty: Easy
10.6

78. TB 10.078 Why is CO2 split off of the C4 carriers once they get into the bundle sheath cells?
A) so that the CO2 can be used by Rubisco to initiate the Calvin cycle
B) so that the CO2 can be used by PEP carboxylase to initiate the Calvin cycle
C) so that the CO2 can be used by Rubisco to initiate the Hatch-Slack pathway
D) so that the CO2 can be used by PEP carboxylase to initiate the Hatch-Slack pathway
E) so that the O2 can be used by Rubisco to initiate the Calvin cycle

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

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79. TB 10.079 What enzyme is responsible for fixing CO2 out of the atmosphere in C4 plants?
A) PEP decarboxylase
B) ATP synthase
C) PEP carboxylase
D) Rubisco
E) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.6

80. TB 10.080 How do C4 plants manage to cause CO2 fixation to be favored over photorespiration?
A) They can generate high [CO2]/[O2] ratios in the local Rubisco environment.
B) They can generate low [CO2]/[O2] ratios in the local Rubisco environment.
C) They destroy the cell wall.
D) They convert CO2 to O2.
E) They can generate high [CO2]/[O2] ratios in the local PEP carboxylase environment.

Ans: A
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

81. TB 10.081 What is the difference between the way C3 and C4 plants fix CO2 from the atmosphere?
A) C3 plants fix CO2 and conduct the light-dependent reactions in the same cells; C4 plants conduct
these activities in different cells.
B) C4 plants fix CO2 and conduct the light-dependent reactions in the same cells; C3 plants conduct
these activities in different cells.
C) C3 plants fix CO2 and conduct the light-dependent reactions at the same time of day; C4 plants
conduct these activities at different times of the day.
D) C4 plants fix CO2 and conduct the light-dependent reactions at the same time of day; C3 plants
conduct these activities at different times of the day.
E) C3 plants fix CO2 and conduct the light-independent reactions in the same cells; C4 plants conduct
these activities in different cells.

Ans: A
Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

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82. TB 10.082 What substance is made in the mesophyll cells of CAM plants during the nighttime fixation
of CO2 and then stored in the cell's central vacuole?
A) malate
B) oxygen
C) RuBP
D) PEP
E) water

Ans: A
Difficulty: Easy
10.6

83. TB 10.083 Across which structure is malate transported for the purpose of storing it in the cell's central
vacuole?
A) the plasma membrane
B) the nuclear membrane
C) the tonoplast membrane
D) the lysosomal membrane
E) the ER membrane

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.6

84. TB 10.084 High intensity light has a negative effect on photosynthesis; in fact, too much light can
diminish photosynthetic output. This phenomenon is known as _______.
A) photousurpation
B) photodiminishment
C) photoinhibition
D) photosynthetic diminishment
E) disinhibition

Ans: C
Difficulty: Easy
10.6

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85. TB 10.085 How does high intensity light supposedly damage PSII?
A) If overexcited, PSII becomes highly acidic.
B) If overexcited, PSII becomes highly basic.
C) If overexcited, PSII can damage PSI.
D) If overexcited, PSII can form toxic oxygen radicals.
E) If overexcited, PSII dissociates.

Ans: D
Difficulty: Easy
10.4

86. TB 10.086 What part of PSII appears to suffer most of the damage from high intensity light?
A) the reaction center photopigment
B) the D1 polypeptide of PSII
C) the electrons
D) NADPH
E) both the D1 polypeptide of PSII and NADPH

Ans: B
Difficulty: Medium
10.4

87. TB 10.087 Which three organelles in a leaf are found closely associated with each other and cooperate
with each other in such a way that products of one organelle serve as substrates in another?
A) peroxisomes, lysosomes, mitochondria
B) chloroplasts, mitochondria, lysosomes
C) chloroplasts, nuclei, mitochondria
D) mitochondria, chloroplasts, peroxisomes
E) chloroplasts, nuclei, peroxisomes

Ans: D
Difficulty: Medium
10.6

88. Critical Thinking Question 10.001


You are observing an organism. It appears to extract energy stored in inorganic molecules like ammonia,
nitrites and hydrogen sulfide; it uses carbon dioxide as its primary carbon source. What kind of organism
is it?
Ans: It is a chemoautotroph.

Difficulty: Easy
10.0

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89. Critical Thinking Question 10.002


An investigator radioactively labels CO2 with 14C. He exposes a plant from a temperate climate to the
radiolabeled CO2. In what molecule does the 14C first appear to accumulate stably? Where does the 14C
appear in a plant that is well adapted for life in a hot, dry habitat?
Ans: In a temperate climate, the molecule is the 3-carbon molecule, 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA). In a
hot, dry habitat, it appears in a 4-carbon molecule, like malate or oxaloacetate.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

90. Critical Thinking Question 10.003


Another investigator labels CO2 with radiolabeled 18O. After exposure of a plant adapted to a hot, dry
climate to the radiolabeled CO2, in what molecule does the radiolabeled 18O appear?
Ans: It appears in a 4-carbon molecule, like malate or oxaloacetate.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

91. Critical Thinking Question 10.004


If water is labeled with 18O, where does the radiolabeled oxygen appear?
Ans: It appears in molecular oxygen released into the atmosphere.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

92. Critical Thinking Question 10.005


When a photon of light is absorbed by a molecule, pushing an electron to a higher energy state, it gives off
light or fluoresces if the electron drops down to its ground state. Why is the light given off as
fluorescence always of longer wavelength than the light absorbed?
Ans: Longer wavelength light has lower energy. Thus, since the absorption of electrons invariably
involves some loss of energy, the energy given off in a fluorescing photon must be of lower energy
and thus longer wavelength than the light originally absorbed.

Difficulty: Medium
10.3

93. Critical Thinking Question 10.006


How can green light drive any photosynthesis given that chlorophyll, the major photosynthetic pigment, is
green?
Ans: Chlorophyll is green and therefore reflects green light. Consequently, green light should not be
able to drive photosynthesis. However, accessory pigments like the carotenoids absorb green light
that can then be used for photosynthesis.

Difficulty: Difficult
10.3

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

94. Critical Thinking Question 10.007


The electrons "stored" in the structure of NADPH contain much higher energy than the electrons of water.
These NADPH electrons are raised in energy by the transfer of energy from photosynthetic pigments.
Why does it take two photochemical events to accomplish this?
Ans: A single red photon does not contain enough energy to raise the energy of water electrons to that of
the electrons in NADPH. Thus, two separate events are required.

Difficulty: Difficult
10.4

95. Critical Thinking Question 10.008


What is a reason for having mobile electron carriers in the thylakoid membranes? Does the movement
require energy or is it passive?
Ans: The PSI and PSII photosystems are separated by some distance. Since electrons must travel
between them, mobile carriers are needed. The movement is by passive diffusion laterally through
the membrane.

Difficulty: Difficult
10.4

96. Critical Thinking Question 10.009


Why are ATP synthase molecules located in nonappressed regions, where two membranes of the grana are
not in close contact?
Ans: ATP synthase has a large portion that protrudes from the thylakoid membranes into the stroma.
This could not happen in appressed regions where two membranes are in close contact.

Difficulty: Medium
10.5

97. Critical Thinking Question 10.010


Why is it necessary to shut down the Calvin Cycle in the dark when ATP and NADPH levels fall?
Ans: In the dark, plants cannot make ATP and NADPH via the light reactions. Therefore, these products
would have to be supplied by aerobic respiration, which would use up carbohydrates. Since
making carbohydrates is the purpose of Calvin Cycle, this would be counterproductive and a waste
of energy and time.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

98. Critical Thinking Question 10.011


Which type of photophosphorylation predominates under conditions of high NADP+ concentration and
under conditions of high NADPH and low ATP concentration?
Ans: Under conditions of high NADP+ concentration, noncyclic photophosphorylation will probably be
favored, since additional NADPH would be needed and this can only be supplied by noncyclic
photophosphorylation. Under high NADPH and low ATP concentrations, cyclic
photophosphorylation would predominate because it can produce ATP without increasing NADPH
concentrations and without NADP+.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

99. Critical Thinking Question 10.012


Using P as a symbol for photosynthesis and R as a symbol for respiration, state which of the processes
below occur in respiration and/or photosynthesis. If it occurs in both processes, use B; if it occurs in
neither process, use N.

a) a cycle of reactions having as chemical intermediates carbon skeletons


b) uses O2 as the final electron acceptor
c) uses carbohydrates as the final electron acceptor
d) makes use of electron transport chains to harness energy
e) produces ATP as a product during the process
f) builds up a proton gradient by the chemiosmotic mechanism
g) produces oxygen as a byproduct
h) produces CO2 as a byproduct
i) produces water as a byproduct
j) produces HCl as a byproduct
k) during this process, a 6-carbon molecule is broken into two 3-carbon
molecules
Ans: a) B
b) R
c) P
d) B
e) B
f) B
g) P
h) R
i) R
j) N
k) B

Difficulty: Medium
Chapters 5 and 6

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

100. Critical Thinking Question 10.013


How do herbicides like atrazine, diuron and terbutryn act on the plants that they kill?
Ans: They bind to the D1 protein of PSII, thus blocking plastoquinone binding by D1. This blocks
electron transport through PSII.

Difficulty: Medium
10.4

101. Critical Thinking Question 10.014


An herbicide is found to interfere with the functioning of PSI by competing with ferredoxin for electrons
from the PSI reaction center. These same electrons are found to lead later to the formation of highly
reactive oxygen radicals that damage the chloroplasts. What herbicide is this likely to be?
Ans: Paraquat

Difficulty: Easy
10.4

102. Critical Thinking Question 10.015


What do plants do to prevent transpiration in a hot, dry climate? How would this cause photorespiration in
a C3 plant? Why are C4 plants protected?
Ans: To prevent transpiration in a hot, dry climate, plants close their stomata, preventing water from
escaping. By keeping their stomata closed, CO2 levels will drop since they cannot be replenished
through open stomata. At the same time, O2 levels rise, since it is produced by the light-dependent
reactions. When O2 levels are significantly higher than CO2 levels, Rubisco in a C3 plant would
preferentially run the reactions leading to photorespiration. In C4 plants, Rubisco is cut off from the
air spaces in the plant and CO2 is fixed by a different enzyme, PEP carboxylase, which does not use
O2 as a substrate. Under these circumstances, photorespiration is not a problem.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

103. Critical Thinking Question 10.016


You are studying plant cells that make phosphoglycolate under high temperature conditions. You prepare
some plant tissue containing these cells for electron microscopy. You see the normal complement of
organelles (nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc.), but find an unexpected organelle close to the
mitochondria and chloroplasts. What is it and why is it there?
Ans: The organelle is a peroxisome, which is involved in the metabolism of the products of
photorespiration along with the mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

104. Art Question 10.001


In the figure below, look at the transverse-section of the leaf. Is this likely to be a C3 or C4 plant?

Ans: The photosynthetic cells are scattered throughout the leaf and not in the inner layer of the concentric
cylinders that surround the vascular tissue of a C4 plant. Thus, the plant in the figure is a C3 plant.

Difficulty: Difficult
10.1

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105. Art Question 10.002


As shown in the figure below, photosynthetic reactions require NADPH, while NADH is involved in
aerobic respiration. How could this dichotomy be used to regulate both biosynthetic and catabolic
activity?

Ans: Since NADH/NAD+ is present in small, finite amounts, its phosphorylation to NADPH/NADP+
represents an opportunity for regulation. When present in primarily one form or the other, one or
the other of the two pathways is favored. An abundance of NADP+ will drive the biosynthetic
(photosynthetic) pathways, while an abundance of NAD+ will favor aerobic respiration.

Difficulty: Medium
10.2

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

106. Art Question 10.003


Look at the absorption spectra for chlorophyll a and b and -carotene in the figure below. Which
wavelengths of light are absorbed least effectively by the above pigments?

Ans: Chlorophyll a exhibits little absorbance between about 490 and 650 nm. Chlorophyll b absorbs
little light from about 510 to 620 nm. -carotene absorbs little light from about 550 nm to 700 nm.
The chlorophylls absorb little light in the green-yellow region of the spectrum, explaining their
green color. -carotene reflects predominantly red, orange and yellow light, explaining its orange
color.

Difficulty: Medium
10.3

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Karp 6e Chapter 10: Chloroplast Structure and Function

107. Art Question 10.004


Why do the action and absorption spectra shown in the figure below parallel each other so closely?

Ans: Only light that has been absorbed can supply the energy needed to drive photosynthesis.
Consequently, the action and absorption spectra should parallel each other.

Difficulty: Medium
10.3

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108. Art Question 10.005


In the figure below, which photosystem reaction center accepts the lowest amount of excitation energy?
In Figure 10.10, which photosystem reaction center receives electrons with an energy content of about
+400 mV (+0.4 V)?

Ans: The P700 reaction center from PSI accepts the lowest amount of excitation energy. The "700"
indicates the wavelength of light absorbed most effectively by this reaction center. It is a longer
wavelength than the 680 nm light absorbed preferentially by the PSII reaction center. Since longer
wavelengths of light contain lower energy, the P700 reaction center accepts a lower amount of
excitation energy. The P700 reaction center.

Difficulty: Medium
10.4

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109. Art Question 10.006


The figure below exhibits the results of an experiment in which every four brief flashes of light result in
an increase in the amount of oxygen released by isolated chloroplasts. You repeat the experiment on
chloroplasts isolated from a rare and poorly studied plant and find that the oxygen release peaks with
every seven flashes of light. What do these experiments tell you?

Ans: The experiments tell you that in the two plants different numbers of photochemical events are
required to accumulate O2 before it can be released. The first plant requires four photochemical
events to release O2; the second plant requires seven photochemical events to do so.

Difficulty: Difficult
10.4

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110. Art Question 10.007


In the figure below, which cellular compartment contains the globular head of the ATP synthase? In
which membrane is the ATP synthase embedded?

Ans: The stroma of the chloroplast. ATP synthase is embedded in the membrane of the thylakoid disk.

Difficulty: Easy
10.4

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111. Art Question 10.008


In the figure below, what molecule delivers the electron back to PSI after it has driven the production of
ATP? In the figure below, during cyclic photophosphorylation, which molecule conveys the electron to
the cytochrome b6f complex instead of passing it to NADP+ as would have happened during noncyclic
photophosphorylation.

Ans: Plastocyanin. Ferredoxin.

Difficulty: Easy
10.5

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112. Art Question 10.009


Why in the experiment described in the figure below were the algal cells exposed to 14CO2 for such a short
period of time?

Ans: The purpose of the experiment was to determine the molecule first formed when CO2 is fixed. A
short labeling period insures that there is not enough time for the labeled carbon to move far beyond
that step. Therefore, most of the label will be localized in that first stable molecule in the fixation
pathway.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

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113. Art Question 10.010


The figure below shows that CO2 is fixed from the atmosphere by attaching it to RuBP and thus producing
a 6-carbon molecule that quickly splits into two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. Evidence that this
occurs has been demonstrated using 14CO2 as described in Figure 10.18. Most of the radiolabel appears
in the spot on the 2D-chromatography plate that corresponds to 3-phosphoglycerate. What might these
data look like if the 6-carbon molecule were more stable and split into 3-phosphoglycerate at a much
slower rate? What might the name of this type of photosynthesis be instead of C3 photosynthesis?

Ans: There would be a highly radioactive spot containing most of the chromatogram's radiolabel and
corresponding to the 6-carbon molecule formed when CO2 attaches to RuBP. There might be some
radiolabel in 3-phosphoglycerate, but much less than in the aforementioned spot. It would
probably be called C6 photosynthesis since the first stable product building up in the process was the
6-carbon molecule, instead of the three-carbon 3-phosphoglycerate as actually happens in C3
photosynthesis.

Difficulty: Difficult
10.6

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114. Art Question 10.011


In the figure below, what happens to glyceraldehyde phosphate that leaves the Calvin - Benson Cycle?

Ans: Glyceraldehyde phosphate that leaves the Calvin - Benson Cycle is converted to fructose 1,6
bisphosphate and then to sucrose.

Difficulty: Easy
10.6

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115. Art Question 10.012


The figure below shows the reactions that can be carried out by Rubisco. Given that high levels of O2
depress the carboxylase activity, while high levels of CO2 depress the oxygenase activity, how would you
describe the effects of the two alternative substrates on the enzyme kinetics of Rubisco?

Ans: They both act like competitive inhibitors of Rubisco, since high levels of one reverse the effect of
the other; they could also be described as alternative substrates for Rubisco.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

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116. Art Question 10.013


What structural feature of the peroxisome in the figure below is characteristic of leaf peroxisomes and
makes it relatively easy to identify? What enzyme is concentrated in this structural feature?

Ans: Its crystalline core. Catalase.

Difficulty: Medium
10.6

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117. Art Question 10.014


In the figure below, what is the product made when PEP carboxylase adds CO2 to phosphoenol-pyruvate?

Ans: Oxaloacetate is produced and then converted to malate after it is reduced in a reaction in which
NADPH is the electron donor.

Difficulty: Easy
10.6

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