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EQUIPMENT / INSTRUMENT DESIGN CRITERIA ..................................... 3

I.7 PUMPS 17
I.10 PIPING 24

II. FLARE AND ENVIRONMENTAL DATA............................................ 36

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Design Codes
Pressure vessels shall be designed in accordance with:
− ASME Code VIII Division I,
Individual vessels shall comply with other Codes, such as:
− Steam drum boilers (kettle type not included): ASME I
− Large vessels (spheres, large diameter, high pressure vessels): ASME VIII Division
2 (requiring the prior written authorization)
− Vessels subjected to pressure and temperature swings: ASME VIII Division 2, the
magnitude and frequency of these swings will be given on the specification sheet.

Design Conditions
Design temperature and pressure, in pairs, shall be specified according to the following
− Normal operation.
− Other non-operating conditions (catalyst regeneration, star-up, short-term
conditions...etc.) (1)
− Steam-out (1)
− Minimum temperature (1)
− Vacuum conditions (1)
(1) If applicable and conditioning the material selection or material treatment.

Design pressure shall be the greater of the following:
− 1.1 x Maximum Operating pressure.
− Maximum Operating pressure + 1.75 kg/cm2
− 3.5 kg/ cm2,
To define the design pressure it must be taking into account other conditions like block-
out, pumps shut-off, settling out, etc.
Vessels in vacuum conditions during normal operation, start-up, shutdown, catalyst
regeneration, etc. shall be designed for total vacuum.
It is also required total vacuum in the following cases:
− Those vessels which normally operates liquid full and can be blocked in and cooled
down (not apply to cooling water service)
− Those vessel which can undergo a vacuum condition when are blocked in and
− Vessels containing steam.
Vacuum design requirement does not apply due to blocking in after steaming out.
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Design temperature shall be the greater of the following:
− Operating Temp. + 15ºC
− Other not normal temperature conditions (start-up, shutdown, catalyst regeneration,
etc.) + 15ºC
− 80ºC
The design temperature at vacuum conditions shall be the dew point temperature at
atmospheric pressure plus 15ºC. In case of steam consider 120ºC.
In the case of vessels with internal thermal insulation, it shall be specified different
design temperature for the refractory and the shell.
Pressure vessels shall be designed for a minimum temperature, which is the lower of the
− Minimum ambient temperature.
− Minimum operating temperature minus 5ºC.
− Minimum temperature reachable by the effect of auto-refrigeration due to
depressurization (LPG systems for example)
When vessels zones operate at different temperatures and these can be clearly defined,
each zone shall be designed based on its respective design temperature.

All nozzles for piping connections should be flanged, except for particular services
determined by Basic Engineering. The use of other type of nozzle shall be subject to the
prior approval.

Inlet nozzles
If the product inlet speed would exceed 10 m/s, or if accelerated erosion is expected in
the area of incidence of the fluid vein a minimum 10mm thickness wear plate must be
installed, with same quality as the vessel shell to completely cover this area; otherwise a
protective system should be designed to mitigate this problem.

Outlet liquid nozzles

Outlet nozzles in the vessel bottom will be equipped with vortex breaker, except for
drains and reboiler connections.
When the outlet nozzles in the vessel bottom are elevated, separated drain nozzles will be
specified in the lowest point of the vessel.
Relief valve nozzles
Safety valves connecting nozzles shall have an internal diameter at least equal to inlet
valve diameter.
For vessels with a demister pad section installed immediately under the outlet nozzle
another connecting nozzle shall be installed under that section for safety valve
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connection. In case of vessel operating liquid full or with more than one demister, the
connection will be agreed.

Instrumentation nozzles
See attachment 3.14 - Instrumentation.

Vent, ventilation, drain and steam out nozzles.

Vessels will normally be provided with separated vent, drain, ventilation and steam-out
nozzles, according to the following:

Drain, Vent and

Vessel Diameter Ventilation
(mm) (inch)
≤ 4500 2 4
4500 a 6000 3 6
≥ 6000 4 8

Horizontal vessels with compartments shall be provided with separated drain nozzles in
each zone.
Steam-out connections shall be located in the bottom for horizontal vessels and close to
the lowest tangent line for vertical nozzles.
On horizontal vessels, blanked off ventilation nozzle will be provided on the top of the
vessel near the end opposite the manway. The vent nozzle will be provided near the end
opposite the steam-out connection.

Manholes and inspection openings

All vessels with 1 m. interior diameters and above shall be provided with manholes in the
shell and heads, unless construction difficulties exist and there are other possible access
Vessels with 1m or lower internal diameter shall have one end flanged and a hand hole of
at least 8” at the other end.
Columns shall be provided at least with the following manholes:
− Shell lower section
− Shell upper section
− Flash zone (feed tray)
− Each extraction tray
On columns, the maximum distance between two manholes shall be 18m.
Nominal diameter for manhole nozzles will be as follow:
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Without internal elements 20”
With internal elements
In vessels where it may be necessary to use internal
scaffolding (for inspection and repair work)

On unlined horizontal vessels, a manhole will be provided on the side of the vessel at
horizontal centerline. If the bottom half of the horizontal vessel is lined, the manhole will
be located on the top of the vessel.
Horizontal vessels with compartments shall be provided with openings on the separation

2:1 semi-ellipsoidal or Korbogën head types shall be specified.
Other head types (hemispherical, conical ...) may be used if so required under process
conditions and always subjected to approval.
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Tray Types.
Sieve or valves trays shall be normally specified. The use of other types, like high
capacity, etc., it is only permitted in case of changing the installed existing trays and
always with the approval.
Random packing shall be normally specified. The use of structured packing is subjected
to the prior approval.

Trays and Packing Numbering

Unless otherwise indicated, trays and packing beds shall be numbered from top to

Number of downcomers
As a general rule, trays shall be specified with 1-pass or 2-pass trays. The use of multiple
downcomer trays (4-pass or 3-pass trays) is subjected to the prior approval.

Jet Flooding
For new column design and for normal capacity use jet flooding values between 75 –
In case column revamp, the use of higher Jet flooding values is subjected to the prior

Overdesign and turndown

As a general rule, trays and packing overdesign and/or turndown shall be specified
according to the one specified for the whole unit.
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Design Codes.
Storage tanks and vessels shall be designed according to:
− Atmospheric or working at a pressure less than 0.18 kg/cm2 g: API 650
− Operating pressures between 0.18 and 1.00 kg/cm2 g: API 620
− Spheres and LPG storage: ASME VIII Div. 2 / API 2510
− Venting requirements: API 2000
− Overfilling protection: API 2350

Product inlet and outlet nozzles:
Unless otherwise indicated, the minimum size for product inlet and outlet nozzles shall
Tank Diameter Minimum Diameter
(m) (inches)
Up to 10 4
From 10 to 25 6
From 25 to 40 8
More than 40 10

All tanks shall have 24” manholes according to the following table:

Tank Diameter Nº Manways

(m) Roof Walls
Up to 10 1 1
From 10 to 25 2 2 (a 180º)
From 25 to 40 3 3 (a 120º)
More than 40 4 4 (a 90º)

Temperature indicators:
− Local indicators: All tanks shall have at least one thermometer gauge type
temperature indicator.
For the readings to be as representative as possible the thermometer gauges shall be
placed in the tanks areas where fluid movement is relatively high, such as mixers, suction
nozzles, etc; in any case, thermometers shall be readily accessible to the operators
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Temperature indicators:
− Local indicators: All tanks shall have at least one thermometer gauge type
temperature indicator.
For the readings to be as representative as possible the thermometer gauges shall be
placed in the tanks areas where fluid movement is relatively high, such as mixers, suction
nozzles, etc.; in any case, thermometers shall be readily accessible to the operators

Level instruments
The following transmitters shall be used:
− Servo-operated electronic level transmitters.
− Radar transmitters

Mixing systems can be propeller type with vertical or lateral shaft -always installed in
24” manholes- or high speed injection nozzles.

Heating systems.
For tanks larger than 20m diameter, the heating system shall have two independent heater
circuits, each one with a heating capacity of at least 60% of total required heating.
Pipes and accessories shall be schedule 80 minimum.
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Design Codes
Shell and tube heat exchangers shall be normally specified. Others than these, i.e. plate-
fin heat exchangers, is subjected to the prior approval.
As pressure vessels, the requirements stated in attachment 3.3 will apply.
All heat exchangers will comply with:
− TEMA class “R” for refinery services.
− TEMA class “B” for chemical process services
− TEMA class “C” for the other services.
API 660/ ISO 16812 must complement Tema standard specifications
Under plate-fin heat exchangers denomination, all the heat exchanger equipment covered
by API 662 / ISO 15547 are included.

Operating and mechanical design conditions

Operating and design conditions shall be calculated following the same rules as for
pressure vessels (attachment III).
Exchangers shall be designed for specified design pressure and temperature
independently on both, the shell and the tube sides. In no case, shall the design pressure
of one side be less than 10/13 the design pressure of the other side. Exceptions could be
individually considered for economical reasons.

Limitations in the use of different types of exchanges and TEMA designations.

Hairpin type exchanges (double pipe or multitube) shall be specified when the expected area
is less than 20m2.
Reboilers or condensers stab-in are not acceptable without prior written approval.
The fouling factor values shall not be less than the specified in TEMA standards.
Those fluids, whose fouling factor is equal or less than 0,0001 hm2ºC/kcal, can be
considered as clean fluid.
The preferred types of exchangers are AES and BEU.
Channels shall generally have a removable cover in accordance with TEMA type A. The
TEMA B type model with an integrated head (bonnet) may be use for non-corrosive
clean services with U-tubes bundles.
U tubes can be used when the fluid inside the tube is clean and the corrosive level of the
fluid outside is light or medium or if, for process reasons, it is desirable to minimize the
number of closures.
Heat exchangers can be with fixed tubesheet when fluid through the shell is clean
(TEMA L, M, N).
The longitudinal baffle type corresponding to TEMA types G and H is acceptable when
applied to condensation or vaporization on the shell side with a maximum pressure drop
of 0,15 kg/cm2.
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The following configurations may be used with prior written approval:

− Tube Bundles with one pass, floating head and closing packing, types P y W.
− Tubesheet integrated in the channel –in accordance with TEMA types C and D are
always specify in very high-pressure services.
− Longitudinal baffle (TEMA type F) always for clean and no critical services and
when the pressure drop on the shell side is less than 0.35 kg/cm2.
It is preferred that cooling water and dirty fluids be placed on tubeside for easier cleaning.
It is preferred that high viscosity fluids are placed on shell side.
Fluids that contain solids in suspension (slurry) shall flow in the tubeside and in a
downward direction.

Thermal and mechanical limitations for the design.

Maximum bundle diameter is 1.5m.
Maximum bundle weight is 15 t.
Outside tube diameter shall be ¾” unless because of pressure drop, fouling, etc., it will be
necessary to use 1” OD.
Unless greater tube thickness is required by design conditions or specified in the
datasheets, the following values shall be used as standard tube gauges:
BWG for BWG for
Tube Material
do= 3/4" do= 1"
Ferritic Alloy Steel before 9% Cr incl. 14 12
Ferritic Alloy Steel 12% Cr 16 14
Austenitic Stainless steel 18 16
Copper Alloys 16 14
Aluminum 14 12
Monel 400 18 16
Incoloy 800 18 16
Titanium 20 18

The straight tube length shall be 6,096 m (20 feet). Exceptions will be made (depending
on plot area available, vertical reboilers) and the use of standard length tubes of 4,887m
(16 feet), 3,658m (12 feet), 3.048m (10 feet) and 2,438 (8 feet), shall also be acceptable
following prior approval.
In general, when the shell-side fluid side is not clean, specify the heat exchanger with
removable tube bundle and the tube layout shall be square (90º) or square rotated (45º)
¼” pitch (5,35mm).
Thermosiphon reboilers and condensers with the process fluid on shell-side shall
preferably have square pitch tube layout (90º)
Fixed tubesheet exchangers shall have triangular pitch.
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For water coolers exchangers the maximum inlet temperature for process fluid shall not
exceed 150 ºC

Typical configurations.
Typical configuration for cooling water exchanger will be:



(*) Required bypass only

for winterization reasons
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Design codes
As pressure vessels, the requirements stated in attachment 3.3 will apply.
Under air cooled heat exchanger denomination, all the heat exchange equipment covered
by API 661 and ISO 13706 standards are included. The air coolers shall be designed
according the above-referred standards with the limitations and conditions stated in this

Operating and Mechanical Design Conditions

Operating and design conditions shall be calculated following the same rules as for
pressure vessels (attachment 3.3).

Limitations in the use of air coolers.

As a general rule, the use of air cooled heat exchange is limited to a process outlet
temperature at a minimum of 15ºC above the design bulb temperature.
For air cooler + water trim cooler systems, the cut point air – water is limited at 18ºC
above the design bulb temperature.

Limitations to the thermal and mechanical design.

− The width of the bundles shall be limited to a maximum of 3 m
− Tube length will be 30ft.
− 1” bare tube OD shall be standard.
− The maximum weight of each bundle shall be less than 10 t.
− The air coolers shall be of forced draft fan type.
− 50% of the motors shall be with variable speed.
− In case of units that handle products with pour points higher than the minimum
ambient temperature the need of louvers and steam coils shall be considered.
− When the difference in the temperature of the fluid between the inlet of one tube
pass and the outlet the nest pass is greater than 110ºC split headers shall be
− The following tube gauges or BWG shall be used as minimum thickness, unless
otherwise indicated:
Tube Material (BWG)
Ferritic Steel up to 9%Cr. Incl. 12
Stainless Steel 12 Cr. 14
Stainless Steel (austenitic and duplex) 16
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Design Codes.
The fire heaters shall be designed according to:
− API STD 560. Fired Heaters for General refinery Services.
− API STD 530. Calculation of heater-Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries
− ASME Sect. I for steam banks of the convection section for steam production or

General Design Data

The Fire Heater Design shall be designed between 50 and 120% of the normal operating
capacity, unless otherwise specify in the Process Design Basis.
For multi-pass heaters the following will be specified:
− Vapor phase or Mixed phase: inlet and outlet symmetrical arrangement of the passes
and board temperature indicator on each pass outlet.
− Liquid phase: flow control valve with a minimum flow stopper on each pass inlet
and board temperature indicator on each pass outlet.
The specified efficiency shall be calculated based on the lower heating value of the fuel
to be burned.

Maximum decoking temperature shall be:
− Carbon Steel 680 ºC
− Alloy Steel (P11 – P9) 735 ºC
− Stainless Steel 815 ºC

Unless otherwise stated, it shall be considered Low NOx burners dealing with FG and FO
(dual burners).

Soot blowers
Soot blowers shall be installed in the convection section of those fire heaters burning FO.

Except otherwise indicated, each fire heater shall have its own self-supporting stack

Instrumentation and connections.

The minimum instrumentation requirements to be installed in a fire heater shall be:
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− Pressure gauge for draft measuring, with pressure connections in the burner level,
outlet of the radiant chamber, outlets of each section of the convection section and
air preheater, if any, and upstream and downstream from the flue gas damper.
− It shall be installed a high pressure switch at the plenum chamber
− Thermocouples for measuring the process fluid temperature shall be located at the
fire heater inlet and at the outlet of the radiant coils in each one of the passes.
− Thermocouples for measuring coil wall temperature (skin point)
− Flue gas temperature measurements at radiant floor and roof, convection section exit,
inlet and outlet of air-preheater and outlet air from air-preheater (if any)
− Oxygen analyzer at radiant section exit.
− Equipped with Burner Management System permissive start-up sequences and
automated safety shutdown system.
− Adjustable flame detector and flame scanner that continuously watching the pilot
and main flame.
− Igniter transformer to ignite pilot flame during initial firing.
− Equipped with Human Machine Interface (HMI) display panel at local and Control
Room, which provide simple information of step-by-step firing procedure.
− Equipped with Engineering Workstation to access logic and graphic builder and
Sequence of Event (SoE) application server.
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Design Codes.
Pumps shall be designed according to:
− ASME B73.1 or ISO 5199. Pumps in hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon services,
which do not exceed any of the following limits:
٠ Maximum discharge pressure: 16,32 kg/cm2g (16 barg)
٠ Maximum suction pressure: 6,12 kg/cm2g (6 barg)
٠ Maximum pumping temperature: 175ºC
٠ Maximum rated total head: 125 m
٠ Maximum rotative speed: 3600 rpm
− API 610. For the rest of services using centrifugal pumps not included in ASME
− API 674. Reciprocating pumps
− API 675. Metering or proportioning pumps.
− API 676. Rotatory pumps.
− API 685. Sealless pumps
− API 682. Shaft sealing systems for centrifugal and rotatory pumps.

Pumps installation
In all process services pumps shall be spared, except for:
− Intermittent services where maintenance can be done with the unit in operation. In
these cases, a warehouse spare pump shall be specified.
− No critical services with the possibility of common spare pump for two services,
always without creating incompatibilities between suction emergency block valves,
fluids for seal systems, shut-off pressures, etc.
If parallel operation is specified, the difference between the total differential heads at the
rated flow and at shut-off among the pumps test curves shall be less than 10%.

Pumps types
For certain low flow, high head services, the use of vertical, high speed, single stage
pumps (Sundyne) is acceptable.

Oversizing criteria
As a general rule, the rated capacity shall be equal to 110% of the normal capacity,
except for the following:
− Qrated = 1,2 x Qnormal on reflux and reboiler pumps.
− Qrated= 1,05 x Qnormal for big pumps (> 500 m3/h)
For pumps in services where a huge flowrate variability is expected, the overdesign shall
be jointly agreed.
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Available NPSH
The available NPSH shall be established without additional margin derived from the
rated capacity and considering that the static head is equal to the distance between the
vessel lower tangent line and the anticipated shaft center line.
For reciprocating pumps no acceleration head shall be included for NPSHA calculations.
This fact shall be stated in the datasheet.

Maximum differential head

It is assumed that the maximum differential head at shut-off conditions is equal to:
− 1,2 times the differential head specified for the rated capacity in case of motor driver
is specified.
− 1,2 * 1,1 the differential head specified for the rated capacity in case of turbine
drivers is specified.

Maximum discharge pressure

The maximum discharge pressure shall be calculated a the sum of:
− The maximum differential head
− The set pressure of the PRV in the suction vessel
− Static head from the HLL to the anticipated shaft center line of the pump.
When for economic reasons (high differential heads) and when it is foreseen that it is not
possible to have the pump at shut-off conditions when the suction source is at its relief
pressure, it can be use the normal differential pressure instead of the maximum
differential head to determine the maximum discharge pressure.

In general motor drivers shall be specified, unless the use of turbine drivers is required
for process reasons, safety (equipment, personnel or catalyst protection), or pump
availability for certain services (pump-out, etc.).
The use of sealless pumps (magnetic driver) is permitted in those services where it is
recommended for security conditions.

Mechanical seals
Unpressurized dual mechanical seals shall be specified in the following cases:
− When the vapor pressure at 38ºC is above 4,08 kg/cm2a (4 bara) or specific gravity is
below 0,55.
− When the pumping temperature above 260ºC.
− Pumps in light hydrocarbon services (C5- cuts).
− When the maximum pumping temperature is equal to or above the self-ignition
temperature of the liquid pumped.
Pressurized dual mechanical seal shall be specifies when:
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− The liquid pumped has a solid content above 0.5%wt.

− Sub-atmospheric pressure suction conditions.
− Toxic or very corrosive liquid or when liquids that can polymerize are handle.
− Process fluid with Benzene content higher than 1wt%. Nevertheless, unpressurized
dual mechanical seal might be specified for process or product contamination
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Design Codes.
Compressors shall be designed according to:
− API 617. Axial and Centrifugal Compressors.
− API 618. Reciprocating Compressor.
− API 619. Rotary-Type Positive-Displacement Compressor.
As a particular case of centrifugal compressor, are those one stage centrifugal fans with a
total differential pressure between 0.020 – 0.250 bar, for use in heavy-duty petroleum,
chemical and gas industry services. The design of this equipment shall be according to
API 673.
If the specified driver is a steam turbine, it shall conform to:
− API 611. General-purpose Steam Turbine.
− API 612. Steam-Turbine Special-purpose applications.

Spare Capacity.
Centrifugal and axial compressor: Due to their high reliability, centrifugal and axial
compressors will not be spared, but spare rotors will be specified.
Reciprocating Compressors: Spare Capacity will be specified according to the service
criticism level. Usually, it will be two 100% spare capacity, but it must be consider three
50% spare capacity, in case 50% will be the operating capacity for long periods.

Oversize and minimum flow rate.

As a general rule, the rated capacity shall be equal to 110% of the normal capacity.
Nevertheless, the selected final oversizing shall be agreed.

Reciprocating Compressors: The driver shall be an electric motor. The driver nameplate
rating shall be the 110% of the greatest power absorbed for any of the specified operating
condition, or the power absorbed at the set point pressure of the discharge relief valves
(whichever is greater)
Axial, Centrifugal and Screw Compressors: driver selection will be evaluated for each
application based upon critical service, utilities availability, and capital and operating
costs. For critical services and in the event of electric failure, it shall be specify a steam
turbine driver for the spared service to ensure the compressor operation.

Shaft sealing.
Unless otherwise specify, dry gas seals shall be installed.
Lube oil and oil sealing system shall be independent for compressors handling H2S or
other hazardous, corrosive, toxic or lethal gases.
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Design Codes
Material selection shall be done according to ASME and/or ASTM codes, including the
requirements indicated in:
− NACE MR 0103, MR 0175 y API 945 for wet H2S, sour water and Amine services.
− API 941. Applied to Hydrogen services.
− NACE. Corrosion Data Survey. Metal Section and No Metal Section.

Material Selection
Material selection for equipment as well as lines shall be based on design conditions.
Column trays metallurgy should be 12%Cr or above. In some cases, lower quality
material can be specified according to design conditions.
C-Mo y C-Mn-Mo steels cannot be used unless prior approval.
Cr-Mo steels modified with V can be used.
Exchanger with seawater service shall use titanium.

Corrosion allowance
The over-thickness corrosion allowance shall be designed to warrant an operating life as
listed below:
− Heater tubes: Design live shall be 100.000 operating hours (According to API 530).
− Pressure Vessels with 50mm wall thickness, or greater, tanks and spheres: 20 years.
− Other pressure vessels (including shell and channels of heat exchangers): 10 years.
− Heat exchanger bundles and other piping: 5 years.

Nevertheless and in any case it shall be specified a minimum corrosion over-thickness

according to:
Pressure vessels, heat exchangers (excluding tube bundle) and equivalent.
Corrosion allowance
Carbon steels (1) 3
Low alloy steels (2) 3
Medium alloy steels (3) 1,5
High alloy steel (4) (5) 1,5
Non-ferrous materials (5) 0,5
Vessels with inner linings (6) 0
Includes any type of carbon steel, even carbon-manganese alloy steels and
micro-alloy steels.
Includes ½% Cr - ½% Mo; 1% Cr - ½% Mo; 1 ¼% Cr - ½% Mo and 2 ¼% Cr -
1% Mo alloy steels.
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Includes 5% Cr - ½% Mo and 9% Cr - 1% Mo alloy steels.

Includes alloy steels with more than 9% Cr, including all types of stainless steel.
When the material has been selected due to fluid contamination considerations, the
over-thickness corrosion allowances will be 0 mm.
Refers to metallic and non-metallic linings resistant to the corrosive medium in
operating conditions, and provided that they totally prevent the corrosive
medium’s contact with the resistant material they line.
In cases where corrosion allowance is replaced by a different lining material, this lining
material will be CLADDING OR OVERLAY. LINING shall not be admitted (welded
Explosion cladding would be acceptable if performed by Nobelclad except:
- With hydrogen service
- For large pieces of equipment
When the vessel is lined with interior metal cladding, the thickness of this lining should
be 3 mm, unless otherwise specified.
If this cladding is made of Titanium, the minimum thickness shall be 2 mm

Heater tubes.
allowance (mm)
Carbon steel and alloys up to 9%Cr – 1%Mo 3
Austenitic steels 1,5

Storage spheres.
Corrosion allowance shall be 1.5 mm.
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Design Codes
Piping shall be designed according to ASME B31.3

Design Pressure and Temperature.

Operating and design conditions shall be calculated following the same rules as for
pressure vessels (attachment 3.3) taking into account that the design temperature for a
specific line shall be the design temperature of the preceding equipment or line
(whichever is greater) and the flow direction.

Piping size
Lines of the following size shall not be used:
1¼”, 2 ½”, 3 ½”, 5” y 7”
Within the unit the minimum diameter shall be ¾”. Off-site the minimum size shall be 1
For XXS piping thickness the minimum diameter allowed is 1”.

Unit Battery Limit

Unit Battery Limit isolation shall have the following configuration:

Note 1 Note 1

Battery Limit (B.L.)

Battery Limit (B.L.)
Lines leaving the Unit
Incoming Lines

Note 1: This valve may be available as part of a control valve assembly or provided for
other process reasons and would be used as part of the isolation system.

Drain Systems
Water and hydrocarbon drain system will be defined in agreement during the
development of the Basic Design.
The following sketch shows the typical lay out of this system:
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1.- This valve is connected to the
equipment and may be common
to different blow off lines.
2.- Minimum valve size 1”.

Drainage normally shall have a diameter of ¾”. Exceptionally, in those pipes or

equipment that have catalyst, very viscous or very hot products, they may have a
diameter of 1” or more, if required by the process

Double Block Valve

A double valve shall be supplied for:
− Operating vents and drains, by-pass to pressure relief and control valves, and in
connections to instruments in lines with 900# rating or higher
− In pumps discharges with 1500# rating or higher.
− Operating vents and drains, by-pass to pressure relief and control valves, and in
connections to instruments in hydrogen, toxic or lethal services.
− In suction and discharge lines for hydrogen supply compressors.
− In LPG service where flashing and consequently freezing could occur.

Utility connection to pipes and equipment

Utility connections to equipment or lines in hydrocarbon or chemical services such as
steam, water, air, oil, inert gas, etc. shall be defined.

Utility connections to equipment or lines in hydrocarbon or chemical services shall be

permanent with rigid piping according to the following sketch
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1.- When was required by process piping
material specification, this valve shall be a
ball valve.
2.- If the line size is less than 2”, a flange
set shall be installed for mounting the
spectacle flange.
3.- The spectacle flange shall be
represented in the diagram according to
the position during normal operation of
the unit (open or close). When the disk
shall remain open in normal operation and
the pipe or equipment material
specification is more stringent, it shall
also cover the globe valve.
4.- In the case that the equipment or
piping requires jacketing, it shall be
jacketed up to the first block valve.
5.- Drainages shall have at least ¾” of
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Design Codes
Control valves shall be designed according to:
− ANSI / ISA S 75.01 - Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves
− API 553 - Refinery Control Valves:

Types of Control Valves

The following types of valves or applications shall only be used with specific approval:
− Three way valves
− Double seat globe-type valve or with an eccentric rotary plug (Camflex o similar) or
adjustable Cv.
− Self-regulating.
Other types of valves (gate or plug valves, etc.) can be used in special cases and always
with explicit approval for each application.

Control valve installation

Control valves shall be operated with pneumatic actuators.
In general shall be installed with the following elements:

− In high-pressure systems, double the block and drain valves.

− Depressuring or drain valve shall be 3/4”. In services with high freezing point shall
be 2”.
− A by-pass shall not be installed in the following services:
٠ Not allowed by process reasons or the operation without control involves risk
for the safety.
٠ In services that can be temporary shutdown while repairing repair the valve in
The rating and facing shall be the same as process lines, with a minimum rating of 300#
for bodies of up to 16” and 150# above for bodies above 16”.

Control and emergency shutdown systems

Process plants shall have separate control and emergency shutdown systems. So there
shall be installed independent control and interlock valves unless explicit approval.
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Design Codes.
Pressure relieving valves shall be designed according to:
− API codes:
٠ API RP 520 Sizing, selection & installation of pressure relieving devices in
٠ API RP 521 Guide for pressure relieving systems and depressuring systems
٠ API STD 526 Flanges Steel Safety Relief Valves (orifice sizing and
٠ API STD 527 Seat Tightness of Safety relief Valves with Metal to Metal Seats
− ASME codes:
٠ ASME Section I Requirements for boiler pressure relief systems
٠ ASME Section VIII Requirements for vessel pressure relief systems

Types of valves and application

Balance valves shall be used when:
− Pset ≤ 45 barg and the valve discharges to a close system with a variable back
− Pset > 45 barg and the back pressure in the discharge system is higher than the 10%
of Pset.
Shall be also used for toxic, dirty and corrosive services (regardless of the Pset)

Conventional valves shall be used when:

− Pset > 45 barg and the back pressure in the discharge system is lower than the 10% of
Pset with an overpressure of a 10%;
− The valve discharge to the atmosphere (regardless of the Pset) or to a close system
with a superimposed back pressure constant and a built-up back pressure less than
10% of Pset with an allowed overpressure of 10%.

Pilot-operated valves shall be used when:

− Very high precision is required in the point of calculation (with deviations lower
than 3% of the Pset);
− The operating pressure and the set pressure differ by less than 10%;
− The Pset is very low (typically Pset < 1.5 barg)
In any case the use of pilot-operated valves requires approval
Safety valves in liquid services which protect equipment designed according to ASME
VIII Division 1 requires a rated capacity certification sizing method.
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Set Pressure
When more than one safety valve are installed to reach rated discharge capacity, the
selected Pset shall follow the API, ASME VIII or ASME I criteria, according to the
design code applied.

The accumulation depends on the design code of the protected system. Usually values
Number of
Code Accumulation
ASME I Any 6% (PG 67.2)
One 10% MAWP ó 3 psi (the greatest)
ASME VIII More than one 16% MAWP ó 4 psi (the greatest)
Any 21% MAWP (only for fire case)
MAWP: Maximum allowed working pressure: maximum gauge pressure permissible at the top of
a complete vessel in its normal operating position at the designated coincident temperature
specified for that pressure. The pressure is set by the materials, nominal thickness and design

Design overpressure
In relief valves that protect lines (and therefore that are not subject to the ASME codes)
the allowed overpressure shall be 25% of Pset as maximum.
In safety or relief valves that protect vessels subject to ASME I, the maximum admissible
overpressure shall not exceed 3% of the Pset. (Page 72.1 of referred code)
In safety or relief valves that protect vessels subject to ASME VIII, the maximum
admissible overpressure in each case can reach the difference between the permitted
accumulation and the Pset.
In the previous rule shall apply supposing that the maximum accumulation for a fire case
with an only one valve installed shall be 10% (an exception to API 520/521).

Discharge flow
To calculate the fire relief requirement, no reduced capacity shall be considered, even
when the vessel is insulated.

Process connections
The minimum rating of the inlet connection shall be 300#, and that of the outlet shall be
150# .
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In those cases where a safety valve must be often removable due to maintenance works
under normal process operation shall be install 100% capacity spare valve with inlet and
outlet block valves and adequate mechanical interlocks to avoid blocking by

Boiler Pressure Relief Valves

In boilers or steam generator subjected to ASME I, it is obligatory to distribute always
the maximum discharge flow capacity between at least two safety valves.
Kettles are not considered boilers or steam generator, therefore they are designed
according to ASME VIII, and do not apply the previous paragraph.
Due to maintenance considerations, it is convenient that the high pressure steam valves
(associated to lines or equipment with rating equal or higher than 600#) include a spare
equipment (another valve of equal capacity)

Installation of block valves.

Spared relief valves shall be provided with inlet and outlet block valves and adequate
mechanical interlock for valves discharging to a closed system to avoid blocking by

Installation of safety by-pass

The installation of a by-pass to a safety relief valve is only allowed when a vent to the
flare is required and there is no other way but the by-pass.
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Design codes
Instruments and control symbols appearing in Basic Engineering P&I diagrams shall
comply the following standards:
− Instrumentation: ISA – S 5.1.
− Distributed control: ISA – S 5.3

Electronic instrumentation shall be used and the DCS shall be digital supplied by
Unit control system shall be located in a control room.
Process plants shall have independent control and emergency shutdown systems. The
instrumentation and their nozzles shall be independent for both systems.
Normal alarm functions shall be integrated into control system.
Critical and shutdown alarms are implemented in the emergency shutdown system.
All process unit charge and product streams shall be measured with flow recorders. If
accurate flow rate is needed for use in constructing material balances, it is recommended
the installation of pressure and temperature instruments in control board.
All inlet and outlet process streams needed to close material and heat balance in principal
equipment (fractionators, exchangers) shall be measured with flow recorders to control
board (If accurate flow rate is needed, it is recommended the installation of pressure and
temperature instruments in control board)
All inlet and outlet exchanger streams will be equipped with TI´s to control board.
Additional thermowells in every shell shall be installed. Not to apply to utilities (CW,
steam which will be equipped with local TI´s)
All utility flow rates shall be metered and recorded at unit battery limit. Additionally, is
required the readings of:
− Fuel gas to heaters.
− Steam to reboilers, steam turbines and ejectors.
− Utility to critical equipment.

The measurement principle shall be indicated in each instrument.

Temperature Instruments.
ISA type K thermocouples shall be specified for general services when technically
feasible. If for a given service, the use of other type of thermocouple is recommended, it
shall be clearly stated.
Converters shall be field mounted.
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The minimum thermowell flange class shall be 150#.

Thermowell flange size shall be:
− 2” for vessels
− 1 ½” for piping

Level instruments
Differential pressure type level instruments are the preferred. External displacement type
level instruments shall be used in interface services or when the differential pressure type
are not technically viable.
All the level measures shall be indicated in the control system.
The minimum level instrument flange class shall be 300#
The level instrument connection size shall be:
− 2” for stand pipes.
− For external displacement type transmitters:
1 ½” if the equipment class is equal or less than 600#
2” if the equipment class is above 600#
− 1” for magnetic level transmitters.

Pressure Instruments
Pressure instruments shall be located in process lines or when feasible in stand pipes.

Continuous stream analyzers shall be specified where strictly required or those agreed for
process control and monitoring.
Surge Lightning Protector
All field devices that connected to the system shall be equipped with Surge Lightning
Protector, especially unit that located on high elevation or open area.
To each loop shall be installed two kinds of Surge Lightning Protector:
1. To Protect Control System, it will be installed serial on cabinet wiring before
introduce to FTA card or I/O module.
2. To Protect Field Transmitter, it will be mounted on transmitter conduit entry
(spare) and connected parallel with system wiring (power supply).
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Insulation selection
The service or purpose which motive the insulation requirements in lines and equipment
is classified and identified with the following symbols:
− Personnel protection (P): for lines and equipment which operating temperature is
above 65ºC.
− Heat conservation (H): when it is required a heat loss minimization.
− Cold conservation (C): when the operating temperature is below the ambient
temperature and it is required a heat gain reduction, prevent a surface condensation
or personnel protection caused by cold surfaces. It is included cold conservation (-
170ºC to 20ºC) and dual temperature services (-20ºC to 250ºC)
− Steam tracing (ST) or jacketed (SJ): to maintain the minimum fluidity of the process
− Electric tracing (ET) and liquid jacketed (LJ): the use is under approval.
Steam supply and condensate return lines shall be specified with heat conservation for
their operating temperature, except for those discharging to the atmosphere.
When it is specified refractory insulation for lines or equipment, the use of external
insulation requires approval. If required guard personal protection (PG) shall be

Instruments line up in normal operation shall be specified with the same insulation of
those lines or equipment which are connected to.

Jacketed lines
Jacket diameter depends on the line diameter to be jacketed. The jacket diameter
selection shall be according to the following table
1” 1 ½” 2” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10”
2” 3” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10” 12”
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Remote actuated emergency valves
That valves must be FIRE-SAFE type valves and all their elements as internals and
signal transmition devices shall be protected against fire or being intrinsically fire proof
for at least 20 minutes.
Hydraulic actuators type shall preferably specified.
In case of electrical actuator shall be connected to a Safe Power Supply.
With pneumatic actuation, the installation shall include an instrument air volume tank
permitting of operate three times the valve.
Whether pneumatic actuation, the valve secure position shall be failed close (FC) unless
for process safety considerations (i.e. reflux pump,...) being stationary position.
Remote actuated emergency valves shall be installed in the following cases:
Storage farms
− Toxic or Class A products (liquefied products such vapor pressure @ 15ºC is 1
kg/cm2a or higher): bottom outlet lines, whether storage capacity is 10 t or above.
Production facilities
− Columns: (with or without pump)
٠ Distillation column bottoms of Atmospheric and Vacuum units.
٠ Main fractionator bottoms of ethylene plants, FCC units, catalytic reformers
and visbreakers.
٠ Stabilizer column bottoms.
٠ Debutanizer and depropanizer column bottoms.
− Hot pumps:
٠ When the upstream inventory is higher than 10 m3 and the temperature is
above the self-ignition point.
٠ When the upstream inventory is higher than 30 m3 and the temperature is
above the flash point.
− Cold pumps (LPG):
٠ When the upstream inventory is above 8 m3.
− Battery Limits:
٠ For Gas plants.
٠ For Liquid/Gas separation plants.
٠ For pressurized lines with 10 inches diameter or above, carrying toxic and
flammable products.

The inventory shall be found out as 15% of the vessel volume for columns and 50% for
other vessels for a density corresponding to the average operating temperature.
Installation two out of three (2oo3) transmitters
All the transmitters as part of the interlock system and causing security risks or the
shutdown for the unit shall be installed two out of three.
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To design considerations, the superimposed back pressure at the unit battery limit (BL) is
constant 0,3 kg/cm2g.
The estimated maximum pressure drop (superimposed + built up) at the proposed flare
tie-in for the maximum discharge scenario (multi-unit reliving condition simultaneously
for several units) is 1,0 kg/cm2g..
All Safety Interlock Systems (SIS) installed in the unit to avoid discharges to the flare
system for multi-unit relieving scenario shall have a Safety Integrity Level (SIL) at least
of value in order to minimize the overall flare load.