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# Chapter 2

Fluid Statics

## CLO2: Describe the concept of fluid statics in pressure

measurement and buoyancy force determination

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hilmi.noh@utp.edu.my
Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CEB 1053) Jan 2019

Outline
• Definition of fluid statics
• Hydrostatic Equilibrium
• Barometric equation
• Pressure measurement: Principle and
devices
• Buoyancy

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Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CEB 1053) Jan 2019

Learning Outcome
• At the end of this chapter, you should
be able to:
– Define the term “fluid statics”
– Calculate pressure using manometers
– Determine buoyancy force
– Apply the fluid statics principle to the
chemical engineering unit operations.

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## What Is Fluid Statics?

Fluid statics (also called hydrostatics) is the science of
fluids dealing with forces applied by fluids at rest or in rigid-
body motion*
 No shear stresses involved
 The only forces develop on the surfaces of the particles will
be due to pressure.

## Application of fluids statics

1. Manometers
2. Continuous gravity decanter
3. Centrifugal decanter
4. Determination buoyancy force
5. others
(*Rigid body motion - fluid that is moving in such a manner that there is no 4
Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CEB 1053) Jan 2019

Fluid Statics
• Example:
– Water in a tank.
– Water in a lake (Water actually move very slowly in the
lake. However the movement of water relative to each other
is nearly zero that water is seen as “static”)

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Pressure
It can be defined as a normal force exerted by a
fluid per unit area. It has the unit of Newtons per
square meter (N/m2) which is called a pascal (Pa)

## Types of pressure defined in fluid mechanics:

• Absolute pressure (Pabs): actual pressure at given
position
• Gage pressure (Pgage): Pabs - Patm
• Vacuum pressure (Pvac): Patm-Pabs

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Absolute, Gage and Vacuum pressures

Pgage
Pabs
Patm

Pvac
Patm
Patm

Pabs

## Pabs = Patm + Pgage Pabs = Patm – Pvac 7

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CEB 1053) Jan 2019

Atmospheric Pressure

## • Highest recorded Patm 108.6 kPa

(Tosontsengel, Mongolia, 19 December 2001)
• Lowest recorded non-tornadic Patm  87.0
kPa (Western Pacific during Typhoon Tip, 12 October
1979)

In Fluid Mechanics:
•Patm = 1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 14.7 psi
•Some devices uses 100 kPa (or 1 bar) as
atmospheric pressure.

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Class Example 1

## a) A vacuum gage connected to a chamber reads 24

kPa at location where the local atmospheric
pressure is 92 kPa. Determine Pabs.

## b) If the absolute pressure in a tank is 20 psi at normal

atmospheric pressure, determine Pgage.

## c) Gage pressure readings shows a value of – 60 kPa.

What does it means? And, determine Pabs.

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Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CEB 1053) Jan 2019

## Class Example 1: Solution Solution

a) Pgauge = 24 kPa, Patm = 92 kPa
Pabs = 24 + 92 = 116 kPa

## b) Pgauge = Pabs - Patm

= 20-14.7
= 5.3 psi
c) Pgage = – 60 kPa
It means vacuum since the value is negative.
(The same if mention as Pvac = 60 kPa)
Pabs = Pgauge+Patm
= 101.3 – 60 = 41.3 kPa
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## • In a stationary fluid the pressure is exerted

equally in all directions and is referred to as
the static pressure.

P1

P3 P4

P2 An element of fluid

Fluid

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Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest
• Fluid at rest : pressure at a point is the same in all directions
(Pascal’s Law)
• In a fluid at rest the pressure intensities in a horizontal plane are equal
Since fluid is at rest, there is no accelerations, and hence, Newton’s Laws
of motion sum of the forces on any part of the fluid in any direction is zero

## Let us consider the z direction, opposite the direction of gravity. Pz= ∆z

The sum of forces (positive upward):

We can write,

## (P z=0) ∆x ∆y - (P z=∆z ) ∆x ∆y – ρg ∆x ∆y ∆z = 0 ………(1) z=0

∆x
W ∆y

Pz=0
Fig. Surface and body forces acting
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on small fluid element.
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find

## P z=∆z ─ P z=0 Pz= ∆z

∆z = ─ ρg
z = ∆z
If we now let ∆z approach zero, then

∆P dP z=0
limit = = ─ ρg = ─ γ
∆z 0 ∆z dz
∆x
W ∆y
This is the basic equation of fluid statics,
Pz=0
called the Barometric equation

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## Pressure- depth relationships for incompressible fluids

What is incompressible fluids??

## In fluid mechanics, an incompressible fluid is a fluid that does not

change the volume (e.g., density) of the fluid due to external
pressure. Incompressible fluids are a hypothetical type of fluids,
which are introduced for the convenience of calculations. The
compressibility of an incompressible fluid is always zero

Example: water

## What is the difference between Compressible Fluids and

Incompressible Fluids ? 14
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## Pressure - depth relationships for incompressible fluids

Assumption: g is constant
We can write barometric equation that can be directly integrated

2 2
∫ dP = − ∫ γ dz P1 = Patm
1
1 1 z1 z

2
= − γ ∫ dz h
y
to yield 1

P2 − P1 = −γ (z 2 − z1 ) z2 2 P2 x

or P2 − P1 = γ ( z1 − z 2 )
or P2 = P1 + γh Fig. Notation for pressure variation in a
fluid at rest with a free surface

## Pressure in a liquid at rest increases linearly with

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## Pressure- depth relationships for incompressible fluids

Ps
z=h
Ps h
∫P
dP = − ∫ γ dz
0

Ps − P = − γh
P = Ps + γh z=0 P

• Normally take Ps = 0 (Pgage definition)
• P = γh = Pgage

## • P increase as one go downward.

• P decrease as one go upward.
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## At same elevation, pressure is the same for the same

fluid at rest.
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Class Example 2

## Find the pressure at the bottom of a tank containing

glycerin under pressure shown
(γglycerin = 12.34 N/m3)

50 kPa

2m

Class Example 3

## Determine the pressure at the bottom of the above tank if it is

open.
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Compressible Fluid
 Density ρ change with pressure
Example; Ideal/perfect gases

## The equation of state for ideal gas is

P = absulate pressure (kPa)
P PM
ρ=
M = molar mass (kg/kmol)
= Ru = Universal gas constant (J/mol K)
RT R u T R = Gas constant (kJ/kg K)
T = absolute temperature (K)

## Substituting above equation for density in hydrostatic equation, we find

dP PM
=− g …………….(1)
dz R uT
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## If the temperature is constant, equation 1 can be separated

and integrated as follows:

2 dP gM 2
∫1 P
=− ∫
R uT 1
dz

P2 gM w
ln = − ( z 2 − z1 )
P1 R uT
 gM w 
P2 = P1 exp − (z 2 − z1 ) Barometric
equation
 R uT 

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Pressure Measurement

• Objective:
•Understand the principles of
manometer
•Learn how to calculate pressure using
manometer

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In measuring pressure:
A B
• Pressure • Pressure
increases as decreases as
one go one go
downward upward
• In calculation, • In calculation,
has to “plus” has to “minus”
the pressure the pressure

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Measurement of Pressure
Barometer : (Mercury Barometer)
A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure

## • A simple barometer consists of: P2

– a tube more than 30 inch (760 mm)
long
– inserted in an open container of
mercury
– a closed and evacuated end pointing
upward
P1
– open end in the mercury pool
– mercury extending from the container
up into the tube.
– It contains mercury vapor at its
saturated vapor pressure
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A

## In reference to barometric equation, we can write,

Patm= γHgh + P vapor

Patm
Since pressure exerted by mercury
vapor is very small, therefore, B
Mercury
Patm= γHgh

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## Manometer: They use vertical or inclined liquid

columns to measure pressure

## A standard technique for measuring pressure

involves the use of liquid columns in vertical or
inclined tubes.

Piezometer tube
U-tube manometer
Inverted U-tube manometer
Inclined tube manometer

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Piezometer Tube Manometer
The simplest manometer is a tube, open at the top, which is attached to
the top of a vessel containing liquid at a pressure (higher than
atmospheric) to be measured.
Patm
As the tube is open to the atmosphere the pressure measured
is relative to atmospheric so it is gauge pressure
h1
Pressure at A = pressure due to column of liquid above A A
0 h2
PA = Patm + ρgh1 = ρgh1 Cross section
of a pipe

## Pressure at B = pressure due to column of

B
liquid above B
PB = Patm + ρgh2 = 0 + ρgh2 Liquid

This method can only be used for liquids (i.e., not for gases) and only when the
liquid height is convenient to measure. It must not be too small or too large and
pressure changes must be detectable. 26
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## The “U”-Tube Manometer

• Using a “U”-Tube enables the pressure of both liquids and gases to be
measured with the same instrument.
• The “U” is connected as in the figure below and filled with a fluid called the
manometric fluid.
• The fluid whose pressure is being measured should have a density less than
that of the manometric fluid and the two fluids should not be able to mix
• They must be immiscible.

Fluid density, ρ
D

h2
A
h1
B
C

## Manometric fluid density, ρman

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## Pressure in a continuous static fluid is the same at any horizontal level

so, PB= PC ……….(1)
For the left hand arm,
Pressure at B = pressure at A + pressure due to height h1 of measured fluid
PB= PA + ρgh1

## For the right hand arm

Pressure at C = pressure at D + pressure due to height h of manometric fluid
PC= Patm + ρmangh2
= ρmangh2 ( Since we are measuring gage pressure, Patm = 0 )

## Putting the values of PB and PC in equation 1, we find, PA =ρmangh2 - ρgh1

If the fluid being measured is a gas, the density will probably be very low in comparison
to the density of the manometric fluid i.e., ρ man>> ρ. In this case the term ρgh1can be
neglected, and the gauge pressure give by
PA =ρmangh2 (for gases)

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Measurement of Pressure Difference Using a “U”-Tube Manometer
If the “U”-tube manometer is connected to a pressurized vessel at two
points the pressure difference between these two points can be measured.
B
If the manometer is arranged as in the figure, then we say
Pressure at C = Pressure at D
Fluid density, ρ
PC = PD ………(1)
hb
E
PC= PA +ρgha ……. (2)
h
PD= PB +ρg(hb –h) + ρmangh ……(3) A
ha
C D
Combining equation 1, 2 & 3,
PA +ρgha = PB +ρg(hb –h) + ρmangh Manometric fluid density, ρman
or,
PA-PB = ρg(hb - ha- h) + ρman gh
if the fluid whose pressure difference is being measured is a gas and ρ man>> ρ,
then the terms involving ρ can be neglected, so

## PA-PB = ρman gh (for gases only) 29

Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CEB 1053) Jan 2019

## If used at the lower part of the pipe, require another manometer

liquid to measure ∆P

Flow ρ
1 2

∆h
Prove that pressure difference :
P1-P2= ∆P = g∆h (ρman - ρ)

Manometer liquid,
(ρman)

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∆h

Flow

If used at the upper part of the pipe, it does not require another
manometer liquid to measure ∆P
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Inclined-tube manometer

Fluid C

Liquid B 2
1 h3
b e
h1
a

h2 d
c L
Fluid A

## P1-P2= γBL sinθ

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Selection of Manometer
Care must be taken when attaching the manometer to vessel, no
burrs must be present around this joint. Burrs would alter the flow
causing local pressure variations to affect the measurement.
• Small pressure differences can be measured
• They are very simple
• No calibration is required; the pressure difference can be calculated from
first principles.

• Not for measuring larger pressure differences
• Some liquids are unsuitable for use. Surface tension can also cause errors
due to capillary rise; this can be avoided if the diameters of the tubes are
sufficiently large - preferably not less than 15 mm diameter
• Slow response; unsuitable for measuring fluctuating pressures.

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Class example 4
A simple U-tube manometer is installed across an orifice meter. The manometer
is filled with mercury (specific gravity 13.6), and the liquid above the mercury is
carbon tetrachloride (specific gravity 1.6). The manometer reads 200 mm. What is
the pressure difference over the manometer?

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Class example 4
A simple U-tube manometer is installed across an orifice meter. The manometer
is filled with mercury (specific gravity 13.6), and the liquid above the mercury is
carbon tetrachloride (specific gravity 1.6). The manometer reads 200 mm. What is
the pressure difference over the manometer?

Solution:
Pressure at X = pressure at X'

## Pressure at X‘, PX'= P2 + ρmerg h +ρCCl4g a

We can write,
P1 + ρCCl4g (a+h) = P2 + ρmerg h +ρCCl4g a
or, P1-P2 = ρmerg h - ρCCl4g h
=ghρwater (SG mercury- SG CCl4)
= 9.81x 0.2 x1000 (13.6-1.6)
= 23544 Pa
The pressure difference is 23544 Pa 35
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Class example 5
The fluid shown shaded in the manometer is ethyl iodide with a specific gravity
of 1.93. The heights are h1 = 100 cm and h2 = 20 cm.
a) What is the gage pressure in the tank?
b) What is the absolute pressure in the tank?

Tank full h1
of air

h2

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## Ptank = - ρairgh2 + ρEIg(h1 + h2)

= – (1.2)(9.81)(0.2) + (1.93)(1000)(9.81)(1.00 + 0.200)
= 22717.6 Pa
= 22.72 kPag

## Ptank = ρEIg(h1 + h2)

= (1.93)(1000)(9.81)(1.00 + 0.200)
= 22719.96 Pa
= 22.72 kPag
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## Self assessment Assignment Example

• The mercury manometer below indicates a
differential reading of 0.30 m when the pressure
in pipe A is 30-mm Hg vacuum. Determine the
pressure in pipe B if the specific gravity of the oil
and mercury is 0.91 and 13.6, respectively.

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Ans: 33.47 kPa
Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics (CEB 1053) Jan 2019

## Mechanical and Electronic Pressure Measuring Device

 Measure of high pressures

 Pressure gage
Used where only a visual indication is
needed at the site where the pressure is
being measured.

 Pressure transducer
Pressure is measured at a point, and the
value is displayed at another point.

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## Bourdon Pressure Gage

• When pressure acts on an elastic structure, the structure will
deform.

## • As the pressure within tube increases 

tube straighten  translated into pointer
motion on dial.

## • The pressure indicated

 the difference between that
communicated by the system to the
external (ambient) pressure
 Pgage

https://youtu.be/f9MJAXhLSv0
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Pressure transducer
• The sensed pressure is converted to electrical signal

control station

## – Continuously monitor pressure changes with time (for rapidly

changing pressure)

## • Types of pressure transducers:

– Strain gage pressure transducer
– Linear-variable differential transformer (LVDT) pressure transducer
– Piezoelectric pressure transducers
– Quartz resonator pressure transducers

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Buoyancy
Objectives:
 To derive the equation of buoyant force
 To analyze the case of bodies floating on a
fluid
 Use the principle of static equilibrium to solve
forces involved in buoyancy problems.

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What is Buoyancy
When an object is submerged or floating in a static fluid the resultant
force exerted on it by the fluid is called buoyancy force.

## In a column of fluid, pressure increases with

depth as a result of the weight of the overlying
fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object
submerged in the fluid, experiences greater
pressure at the bottom of the column than at the
top. This difference in pressure results in a net
force that tends to accelerate an object upwards.

## The magnitude of buoyancy force is proportional to the difference in the

pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and (as explained by
Archimedes' principle) is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would
otherwise occupy the column, i.e. the displaced fluid.

## Archimedes’ Principle: Any Object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid

is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
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## Buoyant force – Principle

• The buoyant force is caused
by the increase of pressure in
P1 a a fluid with depth.

b
• Consider a body with a
thickness, b is submerged in
a liquid of density, ρf.
P2

## • The hydrostatic forces:

F1 = P1A acting downward
F2 = P2A acting upward

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## • Buoyant force = the

difference between the two
forces i.e the net upward
P1 a
force
b
FB = P2A – P1A
= ρf g(a+b)A – ρf gaA
P2
= ρf gbA
= ρf gVb

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## The buoyant force on the solid object is equal to

the weight of the fluid displaced
(Archimedes' principle)

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## For fully submerged or immersed body in a fluid ,

Archimedes’ principle is restated as:

## The buoyant force on a completely submerged

body is equal to the weight of fluid displaced

FB = W = ρfgVb = γfVb

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## With respect to the fluid dispersed:

FB = W = ρbgVf = γbVf

FB = ρ f gVbody
 m body 
= ρf g  
ρ 
 body 

 ρf 
FB = m body g  
ρ 
 body  48
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Example
• A piece of irregularly shaped metal weighs 300.0
N in air. When the metal is completely
submerged in water, it weighs 232.5 N. find the
volume of the metal.

Solution:
FB = W = 300 – 232.5 = 67.5 N

## FB = ρfgV = (1000)(9.81) V = 67.5

V = 0.00688 m3

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restated as:

## “A floating body displaces a volume of fluid whose

weight is exactly equal to its own”

## The weight of the entire body must be equal to the

buoyant force
(Weight of the fluid whose volume is equal to the volume of the
submerged portion of the floating body).

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## • For floating bodies,

FB = W
⇒ ρ f gVbody,sub = ρ avg, body gVtotal
Vbody,sub ρ avg, body
=
Vtotal ρf

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Example
• Determine the submerged depth of a cube of
steel 0.30 m on each side floating in mercury.
Given SGsteel = 7.8
SGHg = 13.6

steel
D

mercury
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Example
• A solid block (SG = 0.9) floats such that 75% of its
volume is in water and 25% of its volume is in
liquid X, which is layered above the water.
Determine the density of liquid X.

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Solution
• W = FB
ρbgVf = ρfgVb

## SGX = 0.60  ρX = 600 kg/m3

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Sink or Float

An object
with an
average
specific
weight less
than that of
the fluid
tend to float
because
W < FB

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Sink or Float

An object
with an
average
specific
weight
greater than
that of the
fluid tend to
sink because
W > FB.

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Sink or Float

An object
whose
average
specific
weight is
equal to that
of the fluid is
neutrally
buoyant.

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## Sample questions from previous years

1.FIGURE shows a tank containing air and water connected to a U-tube manometer
that is closed at one end. The U-tube manometer contains manometer liquid with
specific gravity of 13.6. The space above the liquid in the closed limb contains air.

## i. By stating ONE (1) assumption, determine

the gage pressure of the air in the U-tube
manometer if its temperature and density
are 30oC and 1.50 kg/m3, respectively. [4
marks]
ii. Estimate the reading of pressure gage A if h1
= 120 cm. [8 marks]
iii. If the manometer liquid is replaced by
another liquid, would the pressure gage A
[3 marks]
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## Sample questions from previous years

 A cubic ice block has a relative density of 0.95 and floats in sea water that has a

specific gravity of 1.035. A 12 cm high portion of the ice block extends above the

surface of the sea water. Determine the height of the ice block below the surface.

[6 marks]

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##  What is fluid statics and hydrostatic equilibrium?

 Pascal Law
 How to derive Barometric equation
 Definition of incompressible and compressible fluids?
 Pressure depth relationships for fluids
 Application of fluids statics
(a) pressure measurement using manometer
(b) Buoyancy force determination

End of Chapter 2 60