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Civil Engineering

A .G .T .I - Year I

Semester – II

1

Staff reading at

Instrument at Remark

A B

A 1.155 2.595 Distance AB = 500 m

B 0.985 2.415 RL of A = 525.500 m

(b) The combined correction for curvature and refraction,

(c) The collimation error and

(d) Whether the line of collimation is inclined upwards or downwards.

Solution

Staff reading at

Instrument at Remark

A B

A 1.155 2.595 Distance AB = 500 m

B 0.985 2.415 RL of A = 525.500 m

Apparent different of level = 2.595 – 1.155 = 1.44 m

2nd set up (Instrument at B)

Apparent difference of level = 2.415 – 0.985 = 1.43 m

∴ True difference of level between A and B

1.44 + 1.43

= = 1.435m (Fall from A to B) c

2

RL of B = 525.5 – 1.435 = 524.065m

500 2

(b) Combined correction = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673( )

1000

= 0.0168m

(c) Assume the line of collimation is inclined upwards.

Let collimation error in 500m =e

- When the instrument is at A

True staff reading at A = 1.155m

True staff reading at B = (2.595 – 0.0168 – e)

∴ True difference of level between A and B

= (2.595 - 0.0168 - e) - 1.155 = 1.4232 – e d

eqn : d = eqn; c

1.4232 – e = 1.435

e = - 0.0118m

= 0.0118 m

(d) The line of collimation is inclined downwards.

2

2. The following observations were made during the testing of a dumpy level.

Staff reading at

Instrument at Remark

A B

A 1.725 2.245 RL of A

B 2.145 3.045 = 450.000m

Distance between A and B = 200 m

adjusted when the instrument is at B? Find the RL of B.

Solution

Staff reading at

Instrument at Remark

A B

A 1.725 2.245 RL of A = 450m

B 2.145 3.045 Distance AB = 200m

Apparent difference of level = 2.245 – 1.725 = 0.52m

2nd set up (Instrument at B)

Apparent difference of level = 3.045 – 2.145 = 0.9m

Since, two apparent differences are not equal, the instrument is not in adjustment.

∴True difference of level between A and B

0.52 + 0.9

= = 0.71m c (Fall from A to B)

2

RL of B = 450 – 0.71 = 449.29m

200 2

Combined correction = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673( )

1000

= 0.0027m

Assume the line of collimation is inclined upwards.

Let collimation error in 200m =e

- When the instrument is at B

True staff reading at B = 3.045

True staff reading at A = (2.145 – 0.0027 – e) ⇐

∴ True difference of level between A and B

= 3.045 – 2.145 + 0.0027 + e = 0.9027 + e d

eqn : d = eqn; c

0.9027 + e = 0.71

e = - 0.1927m

= 0.1927 m

The line of collimation is inclined downwards.

∴ True staff reading at A = 2.145 - 0.0027 + 0.1927 = 2.335m ⇐

3

3. In testing a dumpy level, the following records were noted while undertaking

reciprocal levelling.

Reading at

Instrument at

A B

A 1.725 1.370

B 1.560 1.235

Is the line of collimation in adjustment? What should be the correct staff reading at A,

during the second set up to make the line of collimation truly horizontal? Find the

amount of collimation error also.

Solution

Reading at

Instrument at

A B

A 1.725 1.370

B 1.560 1.235

1st set up (Instrument at A)

Apparent difference of level = 1.725 – 1.37 = 0.355m

2nd set up (Instrument at B)

Apparent difference of level = 1.56 – 1.235 = 0.325m

Since, two apparent difference are not equal, the line of collimation is not in

adjustment.

∴True difference of level between A and B

0.355 + 0.325

= = 0.34m (Fall from B to A) c

2

Assume line of collimation is inclined upwards.

Let collimation error =e

nd

- In 2 setup (Instrument at B)

True staff reading at B = 1.235m

True staff reading at A = 1.56 – e

∴ True difference of level between A and B

= 1.56 – e – 1.235 = 0.325 + e d

eqn : d = eqn; c

0.325 – e = 0.34

e = - 0.015m

e = 0.015 m

The line of collimation is inclined downwards.

∴ True staff reading at A = 1.56 + 0.015 = 1.575m ⇐

4

4 (a) A level is set up at a point 150m from A and 100m from B: the observed staff

readings at A and B are 2.525 and 1.755 respectively. Find the true difference of level

between A and B.

Solution

Staff at A

2

⎛ 150 ⎞

Combined correction = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.0015m

⎝ 1000 ⎠

True staff reading at A = 2.525 – 0.0015 = 2.5235m

Staff at B

2

⎛ 100 ⎞

Combined correction = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.0007m

⎝ 1000 ⎠

True staff reading at B = 1.755 – 0.0007 = 1.7543m

∴True difference at level between A and B

= 2.5235 – 1.7543 = 0.7692m(Fall from B to A).

4 (b) A lamp at the top of a lighthouse is visible just above the horizon from a station at sea

level. The distance of the lamp from the station is 30km. Find the height of the

lighthouse.

Solution

D = 30km ⇒ h= ?

H = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673 × 302 = 60.57m

∴The height of the lighthouse = 60.57m ⇐

4 (c) What is the visible horizon distance from a tower 50m height? What is the dip of the

horizon, assuming the radius of the earth to be 6370km?

Solution

h = 50m , R = 6370 km

h

Visible horizon distance, D =

0.0673

50

= = 27.26km ⇐

0.0673

D

Dip of the horizon, θ =

R

27.26 180⋅

= × × 60mins

6370 π

= 14.71mins ⇐

5

5. The following table gives latitude and departure at the sides of closed traverse

ABCDA.

Side Latitude(m) Departure(m)

AB 225.5 120.5

BC -245 210

CD -150.5 -110.5

DA 170 -220

Calculate the area of traverse by using (i) co-ordinate method and (ii) DMD method.

Solution

Latitude Departure Coordinate

Station Side

(m) (m) y x

A 200 100

B AB 225.5 120.5 425.5 220.5

C BC -245 210 180.5 430.5

D CD -150.5 -110.5 30 320

A DA 170 -220 200 100

A B C D A

y ⇒ 200 425.5 180.5 30 200

x ⇒ 100 220.5 430.5 320 100

ΣP = (200×220.5) + (425.5×430.5) + (180.5×320) + (30×100)

= 288037.75m2

ΣQ = (100×425.5) + (220.5×180.5) + (430.5×30) + (320×200)

= 159265.25m2

Double area = ΣP - ΣQ = 128772.5m2

∴ Req: area = ½ × 128772.5 = 64386.25m2 ⇐

Side Latitude Departure DMD Departure

AB 225.5 120.5 120.5 27172.75

BC -245 210 451 -110495.00

CD -150.5 -110.5 550.5 -82850.25

DA 170 -220 220 37400.00

Total -128772.5

Double area = 128772.5m2

Req: area = ½ × 128772.5 = 64386.25m2

6

6 The following table gives the latitudes and departures of the sides of closed traverse

ABCD.

Latitude Departure

Side

N S E W

AB 214.8 124

BC 245.1 205.7

CD 155.9 90

DA 186.2 239.7

Calculate the area of traverse by using (i) coordinate method and (ii) DMD method.

Solution

(i) Coordinate method

Coordinate

Station Side Latitude Departure

y x

A 200 100

B AB +214.8 +124 414.8 224

C BC -245.1 +205.7 169.7 429.7

D CD -155.9 -90 13.8 339.7

A DA +186.2 -239.7 200 100

A B C D A

y ⇒ 200 414.8 169.7 13.8 200

x ⇒ 100 224 429.7 339.7 100

ΣP = (200×224) + (414.8×429.7) + (169.7×339.7) + (13.8×100)

= 282066.65m2

ΣQ = (100×414.8) + (224×169.7) + (429.7×13.8) + (339.7×200)

= 153362.66m2

Double area = ΣP - ΣQ = 128703.99m2

∴ Req: area = ½ × 128703.99 = 64351.995m2 ⇐

(ii) DMD method

BC -245.1 +205.7 453.7 -111201.87

CD -155.9 -90.0 569.4 -88769.46

DA +186.2 -239.7 239.7 44632.14

Total -128703.99

Double area = 128703.99m2

Req: area = ½ × 128703.99 = 64351.995m2 ⇐

7

7. The record of a closed traverse is given below, with two distances missing.

Line Length (m) Bearing

AB 100.5 N 30°30' E

BC ? S 45°0' E

CD 75.0 S 40°30' W

DE 50.5 S 60°0' W

EA ? N 40°15' W

Calculate the lengths of BC and EA.

Solution

Line Length (m) RB (θ) Latitude(L) Departure(D)

AB 100.5 N 30°30' E +86.594 +51.008

BC l1 S 45°0' E -0.707l1 +0.707l1

CD 75.0 S 40°30' W -57.03 -48.709

DE 50.5 S 60°0' W -25.25 -43.734

EA l2 N 40°15' W +0.763l2 -0.646l2

ΣL = 0

86.594 – 0.707l1 – 57.03 – 25.25 + 0.763l2 = 0

- 0.707l1 + 0.763l2 = -4.314 c

ΣD =0

51.008 + 0.707l1 – 48.709 – 43.734 – 0.646l2 = 0

0.707l1 – 0.646l2 = 41.435 d

Solving eqn: c and d

The length of BC = l1 = 348.51m ⇐

The length of EA = l2 = 317.27m ⇐

8. The following records are obtained in a traverse survey, where the length and bearing

of the last line were not recorded:

Line Length (m) Bearing

AB 75.50 30°24'

BC 180.50 110°36'

CD 60.25 210°30'

DA ? ?

Compute the length and bearing of line DA.

Solution

Line Length WCB RB (θ) Latitude Departure

AB 75.5 30°24' N 30°24' E + 65.12 +38.21

BC 180.5 110°36' S 69°24' E - 63.507 + 168.96

CD 60.25 210°30' S 30°30' W - 51.913 -30.58

DA ? ? ? LDA DDA

8

ΣL =0

65.12 – 63.507 – 51.913 + LDA = 0

LDA = +50.3m

ΣD =0

38.21 + 168.96 – 30.58 + DDA = 0

DDA = -176.59m

D 176.59

θ = tan-1 = tan-1 = 74°6'

L 50.3

R.B of DA = N 74°6' W

WCB of DA = 360° - 74°6' = 285° 54' ⇐

Line Length(m) Bearing

PA 125.0 S60°30'W

PQ 200.0 N30°30'E

QB 150.5 N50°15'W

Calculate the length and bearing of AB, and also the angles ∠PAB and ∠QBA.

Solution B

150.5

200

?

P

125

In traverse ABQPA A

(m)

AB ? ? LAB DAB

BQ 150.5 S50°15'E -96.236 +115.711

QP 200 S30°30'W -172.326 -101.508

9

ΣL =0

LAB – 96.236 – 172.326 – 61.553 = 0

LAB = +330.115m

ΣD =0

DAB + 115.711 – 101.508 – 108.794 = 0

DAB = +94.591m

D 94.591

θ = tan-1 = tan-1 = 15°59'

L 330.115

R.B of AB = N 15°59' E

∠PAB = Bearing of AP – Bearing of AB

= 60°30' - 15°59'

= 44° 31' ⇐

∠QBA = Bearing of BQ + Bearing of BA

= 50°15' + 15°59'

= 66° 14' ⇐

10. The following particulars are given for a traverse survey, where the length of the line

AB is required to be measured. Point A is 50.0m from P, and B is 75.0m from R.

Line Length(m) Bearing

PQ 125.5 N 30°15'E

QR 80.25 S 40° 30'E

RS 150.75 S 60° 30'W

Solution

Q

80.25

R

75.5

125.5

A

75

50 150.75

B

P

S

10

In traverse AQRBA

Line Length (m) RB(θ) Latitude Departure

AQ 75.5 N 30° 15'E +65.22 +38.035

QR 80.25 S 40° 30'E - 61.023 +52.118

RB 75 S 60° 30'W -36.932 -65.277

BA ? ? LBA DBA

ΣL =0

LBA + 65.22 – 61.023 – 36.932 =0

LBA = +32.735m

ΣD =0

DBA + 38.035 + 52.118 – 65.277 = 0

DBA = -24.876m

D 24.876

θ = tan-1 = tan-1 = 37°14'

L 32.735

R.B of BA = N 37°14' W

R.B of AB = S 37°14' E

11. The following observation were made using a tachometer fitted with an anallatic lens,

the multiplying constant being 100.

station of inst. station angle

0 1.550 A 30º 30´ 4º 30´ 1.155, 1.755, 2.355 Rl of O=

B 75º 30´ 10º 15´ 1.250, 2.000, 2.750 150.000

Calculate the distance AB and the Rls of A and B. Find also the gradient of the line

AB.

Solution

β = 75º 30´ - 30º 30´ = 45º

A

K = 100, C = 0 (Vertically)

D = KS cos2θ + Ccosθ = 100 × S × cos2θ

D1

B V = ½KS sin2θ + C sinθ = 50 × S + sin2θ

β

D2

O

11

*Inst: at 0, staff at A

θ = 4º 30´ (elevation), S = 2.355 – 1.155 = 1.2m, h = 1.755m

OA = D1 = 100 × 1.2 × cos2 4º 30´ = 119.261m

V = 50 × 1.2 × sin9º = 9.386m

RL of inst: axis = RL of O + 1.55 = 150 + 1.55 = 151.55m

RL of A = RL of inst: axis + V – h

= 151.55 + 9.386 – 1.755 = 159.181m

*Inst: at O, staff at B

θ = 10º 15´ (elevation), S = 2.75 – 1.25 = 1.5m, h = 2m

OB = D2 = 100 × 1.5 × cos2 10º 15´ = 145.25m

V = 50 × 1.5 × sin 20º 30´ = 26.266m

RL of B = RL of inst: axis + V – h

= 151.55 + 26.266 – 2 = 175.816m

Difference RL = RL of B – RL of A = 175.816 – 159.181

= 16.635m (Rising)

= 104.033m

16.635 1

Rising gradient of AB = = (i.e, 1 in 6.25)

104.033 6.25

12. To determine the gradient between two points A and B, a tachometer was set up at

another station C and the following observations were taken, keeping the staff

vertical.

Staff at Vertical angle Stadia readings

A + 4º 20´ 0´´ 1.300, 1.610 , 1.920

B + 0º 10´ 40´´ 1.100, 1.410, 1.720

If the horizontal angle ACB is 35º 20´, determine the average gradient between A and

B, K = 100, C = 0.0

Solution

A K = 100, C = 0 (Vertically)

D1 D = KS cos2θ + C cosθ = 100 × S × cos2θ

β = 35º 20´ V = ½KS sin2θ + C sinθ = 50 × S × sin2θ

C B

D2

12

*Inst: at C, staff at A

θ = 4º 20´ 0´´ (elevation), S = 1.92 – 1.3 = 0.62m , h = 1.61m

CA = D1 = 100 × 0.62 × cos2 4º 20´ 0´´ = 61.646m

V = 50 × 0.62 × sin 8º 40´ 0´´ = 4.671m

RL of A = RL of inst: axis + V – h

= 100 + 4.671 – 1.61 = 103.061m

*Inst: at C, staff at B

θ = 0º 10´ 40´´ (elevation), S = 1.72 – 1.1 = 0.62m, h = 1.41m

CB = D2 = 100 × 0.62 × cos2 0º 10´40´´ = 61.999m

V = 50 × 0.62 × sin 0º 21´ 20´´ = 0.192m

RL of B = RL of inst: axis + V – h

= 100 + 0.192 – 1.41 = 98.782m

Difference RL = RL of B – RL of A = 98.782 – 103.061

= -4.279 (Falling)

= 37.525m

4.279 1

Falling gradient of AB = = (i.e, 1 in 8.77)

37.525 8.77

station of axis station angle

A 1.345 BM -5º 30´ 0.905, 1.455, 2.005 Rl of BM

A 1.345 B +8º 0´ 0.755, 1.655, 2.555 = 450.5m

B 1.550 C +10º 0´ 1.500, 2.250, 3.000

Calculate the Rls of A, B and C and the horizontal distance AB and BC. The

tachometer is fitted with an anallanic lens and multiplying constant is 100.

Solution

K = 100, C = 0 (Vertically)

D = KS cos2θ + C cosθ = 100.S.cos2θ

V = ½KS. sin2θ + C sinθ = 50.S.sin2θ

*Instrument at A, staff at BM

13

V = 50 × 1.1 × sin11º = 10.495m

RL of BM = RL of instrument axis – V – h

∴RL of instrument axis = 450.5 + 10.495 + 1.455

= 462.45m

RL of A + 1.345 = 462.45

∴RL of A = 461.105m ⇐

*Instrument at A, staff at B

θ = 8º (elevation), S = 2.555 – 0.755 = 1.8m, h = 1.655m

Distance AB = D = 100 × 1.8 × cos28º = 176.514m ⇐

V = 50 × 1.8 × sin16º = 24.807m

RL of B = RL of instrument axis + V – h

= 462.45 + 24.807 – 1.655

= 485.602m ⇐

*Instrument at B, staff at C

θ = 10º (elevation), S = 3 – 1.5 = 1.5m, h = 2.25m

Distance BC = D = 100 × 1.5 × cos210º = 145.477m ⇐

V = 50 × 1.5 × sin20º = 25.652m

RL of C = RL of instrument axis + V – h

= (RL of B + 1.55) + V – h

= (485.602 + 1.55) + 25.652 – 2.25

= 510.553m ⇐

Inst. Height of Staff Vertical Staff reading Remarks

station inst. station angle

Q 1.600m B.M +6º 12´ 0.945, 1.675, 2.405 Rl of BM

Q 1.600m P -4º 12´ 1.450, 2.380, 3.310 = 421.625

Reading’x’

A 1.650m P +7º 0´ ‘x’, 0.655, 1.255

Could not be observed

The instrument was fitted with an anallactic lens, and the value of constant was

100.00. Calculate the R.L of station A. Also determine the distances PQ and PA.

Solution

K = 100, C = 0 (Vertically)

14

V = ½K.S.sin2θ + Csinθ = 50.S.sin2θ

*Instrument at Q, staff at BM

θ = 6º 12´ (elevation), S = 2.405 – 0.945 = 1.46m, h = 1.675m

V = 50 × 1.46 × sin 12º 24´ = 15.676m

RL of BM = RL of Instrument axis + V – h

RL of Instrument axis = 421.625 – 15.676 + 1.675

= 407.624m

*Instrument at Q, staff at P

θ = 4º 12´ (depression), S = 3.31 – 1.45 = 1.86m, h = 2.38m

∴ PQ = D = 100 × 1.86 × cos2 4º 12´ = 185m ⇐

V = 50 × 1.86 × sin 8º 24´ = 13.586m

RL of P = RL of Instrument axis – V – h

= 407.624 – 13.586 – 2.38 = 391.658m

*Instrument at A, Staff at P

θ = 7º (elevation), S = 2(1.255 – 0.655) = 1.2m, h = 0.655m

PA = D = 100 × 1.2 × cos27º = 118.22m ⇐

V = 50 × 1.2 × sin 14º = 14.515m

RL of P = RL of Inst: axis + V – h

RL of Inst: axis = 391.658 – 14.515 + 0.655 = 377.798m

RL of A + 1.65 = 377.798

∴RL of A = 376.148m

15. Two points A and B are on opposite sides of a summit. The tachometer was set up at

P on top of the summit, and the following reading were taken.

Inst. Height of Staff Vertical

Hair reading Remarks

station inst. station angle

P 1.500 A -10º 0´ 1.150, 2.050, 2.950 RL of P

P 1.500 B -12º 0´ 0.855, 1.605, 2.355 = 450.5m

The tachometer is fitted with an anallatic lens, the multiplying constant being 100.

The staff was held normal to the line of sight. Find (a) the distance between A and B,

and (b) the gradient of lines PA and PB.

15

Solution

K = 100, C = 0 (normal, depression)

D = KS cosθ + Ccosθ – h sinθ = 100.S.cosθ – h sinθ

V = K.S sinθ + C sinθ = 100.S.sinθ

RL of inst: axis = RL of P + 1.5 = 450.5 + 1.5 = 452m

*Inst: at P, staff at A

θ = 10º (depression), S = 2.95 – 1.15 = 1.8m, h = 2.05m

∴PA = D = 100 × 1.8 × cos10º - 2.05 × sin10º = 176.909m ⇐

V = 100 × 1.8 × sin10º = 31.257m

RL of A = RL of Inst: axis – V – h cosθ

= 452 – 31.257 – 2.05 × cos10º = 418.724m ⇐

*Inst: at P, staff at B

θ = 12º (depression), S = 2.355 – 0.855 = 1.5m, h = 1.605m

PB = D = 100 × 1.5 × cos12º - 1.605 sin12º = 146.388m ⇐

V = 100 × 1.5 × sin12º = 31.188m

RL of B = RL of Inst: axis – V – h cosθ

= 452 – 31.188 – 1.605 × cos12º = 419.242m

(a) Distance AB = PA + PB = 176.909 + 146.388 = 323.297m

Difference of RL 450.5 - 418.724 31.776

(b) Falling gradient of PA = = =

Distance PA 176.907 176.907

1

= (i.e, 1in 5.57)

5.57

450.5 - 419.242 31.258 1

Falling gradient of PB = = = (i.e, 1in 4.68)

146.388 146.388 4.68

16. Two sets of tachometric readings were taken from two instruments at station A, one

after the other to a staff station B.

I set Instrument – 1 Height of instrument = 1.364m

Stadia readings = 0.710, 1.005, 1.300

(staff vertical)

II set Instrument - 2 Height of instrument = 1.352m

Determine the stadia readings with the instrument – 2 if the staff was held normal to

the line of sight and the vertical angle in both cases was 28º.

Take k = 100 and C = 0.35 for the instrument -1 and 90 and 0.0 for the instrument -2.

The RL of station A was 104.580m.

Solution

I set, Instrument -1 (k = 100, C = 0.36)

16

θ = 28º (elevation), s = 1.3 – 0.71 = 0.59, h = 1.005

D = kscos2θ + C cosθ = 100 × 0.59 × cos2 28º + 0.36 × cos 28º

= 46.314m ⇐

V = ½ks.sin2θ + C sin θ = ½ × 100 × 0.59 × sin56º + 0.36 × sin 28º

= 24.626m ⇐

RL of B = RL of inst: axis + V – h

= (RL of A + 1.364) + V – h

= (104.58 + 1.364) + 24.626 – 1.005

= 129.565m ⇐

II set, Instrument 2 (k = 90, C = 0)

Inst: at A, staff at B (Normal)

θ = 28º (elevation), height of instrument = 1.352m

D = ks cosθ + C cosθ + h sinθ

46.314 = 90.S × cos 28º + h sin 28º

79.465S + 0.47h = 46.314 c

V = k.s.sinθ + Csinθ

= 90.S × sin28º = 42.252S

RL of B = RL of inst: axis + V – h cosθ

RL of B = (RL of A + 1.352) + V – h cosθ

129.565 = 104.58 + 1.352 + 42.252S – h cos 28º

42.252S – 0.883h = 23.633 d

Solving eqn c and d

S = 0.578

h = 0.876

S 0.578

∴ Lower staff reading = h - = 0.876 - = 0.587

2 2

Central staff reading = h = 0.876

S 0.578

Upper staff reading = h + = 0.876 + = 1.165

2 2

∴ The stadia readings are 0.587, 0.876, 1.165 ⇐

17

17. Two tangents meet at an angle of 130º. Calculate the lengths of the offsets measured

from the tangent for setting out a curve of 200m radius if (a) the offsets are radial, (b)

the offset are perpendicular to the tangent.

Solution

I = 130º, φ = 180º - 130º = 50º, R = 200m

Offsets from Tangent

T B

φ φ

T = R tan = 200tan 25º = 93.26m

2 Ox

x

(a) The radial offsets

T1

E T2

A C

O

Ox = R2 + x2 - R = 2002 + x 2 - 200

Point 1 2 3 4 5 6

x(m) 0 20 40 60 80 93.26

Ox (m) 0 0.998 3.961 8.806 15.41 20.675

φ

xlast = R sin = 200 sin25º = 84.52m

2

B

xlast φ

x Ox

T1

E T2

A C

O

Ox = R- R − x = 200- 200 − x

2 2 2 2

Point 1 2 3 4 5 6

x(m) 0 20 40 60 80 84.52

Ox (m) 0 1.003 4.041 9.212 16.697 18.737

18

18. Two tangents intersect at a chain age of 1000m, the deflection angle being 30º.

Calculate all necessary data too setting out a circular curve of radius 200m by the

method of offsets from the chord produced, taking a peg interval of 20m.

Solution

Chainage of V = 1000m

φ = 30º

R = 200m

φ

1. Tangent length, T = R tan

2

30º

= 200 tan

2

= 53.59m

πRφ

Curve length, l =

180º

π × 200 × 30º

= = 104.72m

180º

Chainage of T1 = chainage of V – T

= 1000 – 53.59

= 946.41m

Chainage of T2 = Chainage of T1 + l

= 946.41 + 104.72 = 1051.13m

Length of the first sub-chord, c´ = 950 – 946.41 = 3.59m

Length of the normal chord c = 20m

Length of the last sub-chord c´´ = 1051.13 – 1050 = 1.13m

1050 − 950

Number of full chords = =5

20

∴ Total number of chords = 1 + 5 + 1 = 7

∴ Req : offsets are;

(C1 ) 2 3.582

O1 = = = 0.03m

2R 2 × 200

C 20(3.58 + 20)

O2 = (C1 + C)= = 1.18m

2R 2 × 200

C2 20 2

O3 = = = 2m

R 200

C2 20 2

O4 = = = 2m

R 200

C2 20 2

O5 = = = 2m

R 200

C2 20 2

O6 = = = 2m

R 200

C11 (C + C11 ) 1.14(2 + 1.14)

O7 = = = 0.06m ⇐

2R 2 × 200

19

19. Tow tangents intersect at a chainage of 101 + 60 in terms of chain stations. The chain

used is 20m in length, with 100 links. Calculate the necessary data for selling out a

curve of 250m radius to connect the two tangents if the deflection angle is 46º 30´.

Take the peg interval as 100 links (20m). Use the method of offsets from the chords

produced.

Solution

φ

Tangent length, T = R tan

2

= 250 tan 23º 15´ = 107.41m

πRφ π × 250 × 46.5

Length of the curve, l = =

180 180º

= 202.89m

Chainage of point of intersection (V) = 101 × 20 + 60 × 0.2

= 2032.0m

Chainage of point of curvature (T1) = 2032.0 – 107.41

= 1924.59m

Chainage of point of tangent (T2) = 1924.59 + 202.89

= 2127.48m

Chainage of the first full station = 1940.00m

Length of the first sub-chord, c´ = 1940.0 – 1924.59 = 15.41m

Length of the normal chord, c = 20.0m.

Length of the last sub-chord, c´´ = 2127.48 – 2120.00

= 7.48m

2120.0 − 1940.00

Number of full chords = =9

20

Total number of chords = 1 + 9 + 1 = 11

(c) 2 (15.41) 2

Length of the first offset, O1 = = = 0.475m

2R 2 × 250

c 20 × (15.41 + 20.0)

Length of the second offset O2 = (c´+c) =

2R 2 × 250

= 1.416m

Length of all intermediate offsets,

c 2 (20) 2

O3, O4, ……..O10 = = =1.60m

R 250

c"

Length of the last offset, O11 = (c + c" )

2R

7.48 × (20.0 + 7.48)

= = 0.411m ⇐

2 × 250

20

20. Two tangents intersect at the chainage 1190m, the deflection angle being 36º.

Calculate all the data necessary for setting out a curve with a radius of 300m by

deflection angle method. The peg interval is 30m.

Solution

φ

Tangent length, T = R tan

2

= 300 tan (36º/2) = 97.48m

πRφ π × 300 × 36

Length of curve. l = = =188.50m

180 180

Chainage of T1 = 1190.0 – 97.48 = 1092.52m

Chainage of T2 = 1092.52 + 188.50 = 1281.02m

Length of the first sub-chord, c´ = 1110.0 – 1092.52

= 17.48m

Length of the last sub-chord, c´´ = 1281.02 – 1260.0

= 21.02m

1260.0 − 1110.0

Number of normal chords of 30m = =5

30

Total number of chords =1+5+1=7

Lengths of the chords are 17.48, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30 and 21.02m

1718.9c

Tangential angles. δ =

R

1718.9 × 17.48

δ1 = = 100.153´

300

= 1º40´09´´

1718.9 × 30

δ2 = = 171.89´

300

= 2º 51´ 53´´

δ3 = δ4 = δ5 = δ6 = 2º 51´ 53´´

1718.9 × 21.02

δ7 = = 120.435´

300

= 2º 0´ 26´´

Deflection angles,

Δ1 = δ1 = 1º 40´ 09´´

Δ2 = Δ1 + δ2 = 1º 40´ 09´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 4º 32´ 2´´

Δ3 = Δ2 + δ3 = 4º 32´ 2´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 7º 23´ 55´´

Δ4 = Δ3 + δ4 = 7º 23´ 55´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 10º 15´ 48´´

Δ5 = Δ4 + δ5 = 10º 15´ 48´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 13º 07´ 41´´

Δ6 = Δ5 + δ6 = 13º 07´ 41´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 15º 59´ 34´´

Δ7 = Δ6 + δ7 = 15º 59´ 34´´ + 2º 0´ 26´´ = 18º 0´ 0´´

Check. Deflection angle of T2 = ½ × φ = 18º 0´ 0´´ (O.K)

21

Actual

Tangential Deflection

Peg Chord Theodolite

Chainage angles(δ) Angle(Δ) Remark

No. Length Setting to 20´´

º ´ ´´ º ´ ´´ º ´ ´´

1. 1110.0 17.48m 1 40 09 1 40 09 1 40 0

2. 1140.0 30.0m 2 51 53 4 32 2 4 32 0

3. 1170.0 30m 2 51 53 7 23 55 7 24 0

4. 1200.0 30m 2 51 53 10 15 48 10 15 40

5. 1230.0 30m 2 51 53 13 07 41 13 7 40

6. 1260.0 30m 2 51 53 15 59 34 15 59 40

7. 1281.02 21.02m 2 0 26 18 0 0 18 0 0

21. Two straights AB and CD both when produced intersect at V. Angle CBV = 30º,

angle BCV = 120º. It is proposed to introduce a reverse curve consisting of two

circular arcs AT and TD lying on BC. Length BC is 791.71m and radius of arc AT is

800m, chainage of B is 1000m. Calculate (i) radius of arc TD, (ii) length of arc AT,

(iii) length of arc TD, (iv) chainage of point D.

Solution

From the triangle O1BT.

BT = O1 tan 15º

= R1 tan 15º

= 800 tan 15º = 214.36m

22

AB = BT = 214.36m

Therefore, TC = BC – BT

= 791.71 – 214.36 = 577.35m

In the triangle O2TC,

TC = R2 tan 30º

577.35 = R2 tan 30º

R2 = 1000m

Length of the curve AT,

πR φ

l1 = 1 1

180

π × 800 × 30

= = 418.89m

180

Length of the curve TD,

πR φ

l2 = 2 2

180

π ×1000 × 60º

= = 1047.20m

180

Total length of curve, l = l1 + l2

= 418.89 + 1047.20 = 1466.09m

Chainage of A = Chainage of B – AB

= 1000.00 – 214.36 = 785.64m

Chainage of T = 785.64 + 418.89 = 1204.53m

Chainage of D = 1204.53 + 1047.20 = 2251.73m ⇐

and E such that ∠ADE = 150º and ∠DEC = 140º. The radius of the first curve is

200m and the second is 300m. The chainage of B is 950m. Calculate all data

necessary for setting out the compound curve.

Solution B φ

D φ1 T2 φ2 E

T1 T3

A C

Rs = 200m O1

Rl = 300m

φ1 = 180º - 150º = 30º O2

φ2 = 180º - 140º = 40º

φ = 30º + 40º = 70º

φ1 30º

c T1D = DT2 = Rs tan = 200 tan

= 53.58m

2 2

φ 40º

d T3E = ET2 = Rl tan 2 = 300 tan = 109.19m

2 2

e DE = DT2 + T2E = 53.58 + 109.19 = 162.77m

DB BE DE

f = =

sin 40º sin 30º sin110º

23

DB = DE = 162.77 × = 111.34m

sin 110º sin 110º

sin 30º sin 300º

BE = DE = 62.77 × = 86.61m

sin 110º sin 110º

BT1 = BD + DT1 = 111.34 + 53.58 = 164.92m

BT3 = BE + ET3 = 86.61 + 109.19 = 195.8m

π × 200 × 30º

h Shoot curve length = = 104.72m

180º

i Chainage of T2 = 785.08 + 104.72 = 889.80m

π × 300 × 40º

j Long curve length = =209.44m

180º

k Chainage of T3 = 889.8 + 209.44 = 1099.24m

Taking a full chord of 20m,

No: of full chords = 5(5 × 20 = 100m )

Length of final sub-chord = 104.72 – 100 = 4.72m

1718.9 × 20

δ for full chord = = 2º 51´ 53´´

200º

1718.9 × 4.72

δ for full sub-chord = = 0º 40´ 34´´

200º

φ 30º

Check Total deflection = 1 = = 15º

2 2

Calculated angle = 5 × 2º 51´ 53´´ + 0º 40´ 34´´

= 14º 59´ 59´´ = 15º(say)

Taking a full chord of 30m,

No: of full chords = 6(5 × 30 = 180m )

Length of final sub-chord = 209.44 – 180 = 29.44m

1718.9 × 30º

S for full chord = = 2º 51´ 53´´

300º

1718.9 × 29.44

S for full sub-chord = = 2º 48´ 41´´

300º

φ 40º

Check Total deflection angle = 2 = = 20º

2 2

Calculated angle = 6 × 2º 51´ 53´´ + 2º 48´ 41´´

= 19º 59´ 59´´ = 20º(say) ⇐

23. A page of the field book of a cross-staff survey is given in Fig. Plot the required fig;

and calculate the relevant area.

B

110

F 90

60 65 E

58

D 40

20

20 C

0 42

24

Solution

60

D

g f

h 20

A G H I J B

20 40 65 90

c

e

58

d

C

E

Mean

Base Offsets Area

Portion Figure Chainage offset

(m) (m) (m2)

(m)

1. ΔACG 0 and 20 20 0 and 42 21 420

2. Trap: GCEI 20 and 65 45 42 and 58 50 2250

3. ΔIEB 65 and 110 45 58 and 0 29 1305

4. ΔJFB 90 and 110 20 0 and 60 30 600

5. Trap: DHJF 40 and 90 50 60 and 20 40 2000

6. ΔADH 0 and 40 40 20 and 0 10 400

∑

6975

24. The following offsets were taken from a chain line to an irregular boundary line at an

interval of 10m:

0, 2.50, 3.50, 5.00, 4.60, 3.20, 0m

Compute the area between the chain line, the irregular boundary line and the end

offsets by:

(a) The mid-ordinate rule

25

(c) The trapezoidal rule

(d) Simpon’s rule

Solution

01 0 0 04 05 06 07

d 2 d 3

10m 10m

c Mid-ordinate Rule

0 + 0 2 0 + 2.5

h1 = 1 = = 1.25

2 2

0 + 03 2.5 + 3.5

h2 = 2 = =3

2 2

0 + 0 4 3.5 + 5

h3 = 3 = = 4.25

2 2

0 + 05 5 + 4.6

h4 = 4 = = 4.8

2 2

0 + 06 4.6 + 3.2

h5 = 5 = = 3.9

2 2

0 + 07 3.2 + 0

h6 = 6 = = 1.6

2 2

A = d [h1 + h2 + h3 + h4 + h5 + h6]

= 10[1.25 + 3 + 4.25 + 4.8 + 3.9 + 1.6]

= 188m2

d Average ordinate Rule

01 + 0 2 + 03 + 0 4 + 05 + 0 6 + 0 7

A = ×L

7

0 + 2.5 + 3.5 + 5 + 4.6 + 3.2 + 0

= × 60

7

18.8

= × 60 = 161.14m2

7

e Trapezoidal Rule

d

A = [ 01 + 0 7 + 2(0 2 + 0 3 + 0 4 + 0 5 + 0 6 ) ]

2

10

= [ 0 + 0 + 2(2.5 + 3.5 + 5 + 4.6 + 3.2) ]

2

= 188m2⇐

f Simpson’s Rule

d

A = [ 01 + 0 7 + 4(0 2 + 0 4 + 0 6 ) + 2(0 3 + 0 5 ) ]

3

10

= [ 0 + 0 + 4(2.5 + 5 + 3.2) + 2(3.5 + 4.6) ]

3

= 196.67m2⇐

26

25. The following offsets are taken from a survey line to a curved boundary line;

Distance(m) 0 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 80

Offset(m) 2.50 3.80 4.60 5.20 6.10 4.70 5.80 3.90 2.20

Find the area between the survey line, the curved boundary line, and the first

and the last offsets by;

(i) The trapezoidal rule, and (ii) Simpson’s rule

Solution 05

07

04 06

03 08

02

01 09

2.5 3.8 4.6 5.2 6.1 4.7 5.8 3.9 2.2

0 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 80

d1 = 5m d2=10m d3=20m

d

A1 = 1 [ 01 + 05 + 2(0 2 + 03 + 0 4 ) ]

2

5

= [ 2.5 + 6.1 + 2(3.8 + 4.6 + 5.2) ] = 89.5m2

2

d

A2 = 2 [ 05 + 0 7 + 20 6 ]

2

10

= [ 6.1 + 5.8 + 2 × 4.7] = 106.5m2

2

d

A3 = 3 [ 0 7 + 0 9 + 208 ]

2

10

= [ 5.8 + 2.2 + 2 × 3.9] = 158m2

2

∴ Total A = A1 + A2 + A3

= (89.5 + 106.5 + 158)m2 = 354m2

d

A1 = 1 [ 01 + 05 + 4(0 2 + 0 4 ) + 2(03 ) ]

3

5

= [ 2.5 + 6.1 + 4(3.8 + 5.2) + 2( 4.6) ] = 89.67m2

3

d

A2 = 2 [ 05 + 0 7 + 40 6 ]

3

10

= [ 6.1 + 5.8 + 4 × 4.7] = 102.33m2

3

27

d3

A3 = [ 0 7 + 0 9 + 408 ]

3

20

= [ 5.8 + 2.2 + 4 × 3.9] = 157.33m2

3

∴ Total A = A1 + A2 + A3

= (89.67 + 102.33 + 157.33)m2 = 349.33m2 ⇐

26. The following offsets were taken at 15m intervals from a survey line to an irregular

boundary line:

3.50, 4.30, 6.75, 5.25, 7.50, 8.80, 7.90, 6.40, 4.40, 3.25m

Calculate the area enclosed between the survey line, the irregular boundary line, and

the first and last offsets, by:

06

(a) The trapezoidal rule 05

(b) Simpson’s rule 03 07

Solution 04 08

02

09

01

0

3.5 4.3 6.75 5.25 7.50 8.80 7.90 6.40 4.40 3.25 10

15m

(a) Trapezoidal Rule

d

area = [ 0 + 0 + 2(0 2 + 0 3 + ......... + 0 9 ) ]

2 1 10

15

= [ 3.5 + 3.25 + 2(4.3 + 6.75 + 5.25 + 7.5 + 8.8 + 7.9 + 6.4 + 4.4) ]

2

= 820.125m2

(b) Simpson’s Rule

- Simpson’s rule is applied for 01 to 09

- Area between 09 and 010 is found out by the trapezoidal rule.

d

A1 = [ 01 + 09 + 4(02 + 04 + 06 + 08 ) + 2(03 + 05 + 07 ) ]

3

15

= [ 3.5 + 4.4 + 4(4.3 + 5.25 + 8.8 + 6.4) + 2(6.75 + 7.5 + 7.9) ] = 756m2

3

d

A2 = [ 09 + 010 ) ]

2

15

= [ 4.4 + 3.25] = 57.38m2

2

∴ Total A = A1 + A2

= 756 + 57.38

= 813.38 m2 ⇐

28

27. A railway embankment 500m long has a width at formation level 9m with side slopes

of 2 to 1. The ground levels at every 100m along the centerline are:

Distance (m) 0 100 200 300 400 500

Ground level (m) 107.8 106.3 110.5 111.0 110.7 112.2

The embankment has a rising gradient of 1.2m per 100m and the formation level is

110.5 at zero chainage. Assuming the ground to be level across the centre line,

compute the volume of earthwork.

Solution

Chainage 0 100 200 300 400 500

Formation level 110.5 111.7 112.9 114.1 115.3 116.5

Ground level 107.8 106.3 110.5 111.0 110.7 112.2

Height (h) 2.7 5.4 2.4 3.1 4.6 4.3

For Level Section 9m

2

h 1

h = 2.7m ⇒ A1 = ( 9 + 2 × 2.7) 2.7 = 38.88m2

h = 5.4m ⇒ A2 = ( 9 + 2 × 5.4) 5.4 = 106.92m2

h = 2.4m ⇒ A3 = ( 9 + 2 × 2.4) 2.4 = 33.12m2

h = 3.1m ⇒ A4 = ( 9 + 2 × 3.1) 3.1 = 47.12m2

h = 4.6m ⇒ A5 = ( 9 + 2 × 4.6) 4.6 = 83.72m2

h = 4.3m ⇒ A6 = ( 9 + 2 × 4.3) 4.3= 75.68m2

Volume of earthwork

(i) Trapezoidal Formula

D

V = [ A1 + A 6 + 2(A 2 + A 3 + A 4 + A 5 ) ]

2

100

= [ 38.88 + 75.68 + 2(106.92 + 33.12 + 47.12 + 83.72) ]

2

= 32816m3

(ii) Prismoidal Formula

D D

V = [ A1 + A 5 + 4(A 2 + A 4 ) + 2A 3 ] + [A 5 + A 6 ]

3 2

100 100

= [ 38.88 + 83.72 + 4(106.92 + 47.12) + 2 × 33.12] + [83.72 + 75.68]

3 2

= 34803.3m3 ⇐

Stations Left Centre Right

29

5.25 0 7.50

2 + 1.35 + 1.50 + 2.80

4.75 0 8.10

The width of cutting at formation level is 9m, and the side slope is 1 : 1. The stations

are 50m apart. Calculate the volume of cutting.

Solution

Three-level sections (b = 9, s = 1)

Section (1)

h = 1m; h1 = 2.55m; h2 = 0.95m

b = 9m; b1 = 7.5m; b2 = 5.25m

h b

A1 = (b1+b2) + (h1 + h2)

2 4

1 9

= (7.5+5.25) + (2.55+0.95)

2 4

= 14.25m2

Section (2)

h = 1.5m; h1 = 2.8m; h2 = 1.35m

b = 9m; b1 = 8.1m; b2 = 4.75m

h b

A2 = (b1+b2) + (h1 + h2)

2 4

1.5 9

= (8.1+4.75) + (2.8+1.35)

2 4

= 18.975m2

Volume by Trapezoidal rule ( D = 50m )

D

V = (A1+A2)

2

50

= (14.25+18.975)

2

= 830.625m3

Prismoidal correction

30

D

Cp = (h1+h2) (whole width of one section – whole width of another section)

12

50

= (1–1.5) [(7.5+5.25) – (8.1+4.75)]

12

= 0.21m3

Correct volume = V – CP

= 830.625 – 0.21

= 830.415m3

29. The formation width of a road is 10m and the side slope for cutting is 1:1 and for

filling 2:1. The transverse slope of the ground is 1 in 5 (fall). The sections are 50m

apart. The depths of excavations at the centres of the two sections are 0.50 and 0.70m

respectively. Find the volume of cutting and filling.

Solution

Cutting ( D = 50m)

b = 10m ; S1 = 1; n=5

b

( + nh) 2

A=½× 2

n − s1

10

( + 5 × 0.5) 2

h = 0.5m ⇒ A1 = ½ × 2

5 −1

= 7.03m2

10

( + 5 × 0 .7 ) 2

h = 0.7 ⇒ A2 = ½ × 2

5 −1

= 9.03m2

By trapezoidal rule;

D

V = (A1+A2)

2

50

= (7.03+9.03)

2

= 401.5m3

D

Cp = × n2(h1 – h2)2

12(n − s1 )

31

50

= × 52 (0.5 – 0.7)2 = 1.04m3.

12(5 − 1)

Corrected volume of cutting = V – Cp

= 401.5 – 1.04

= 400.46m3

Filling (D = 50m)

b = 10m ; s2 = 2 ; n = 5

b

( − nh) 2

A=½× 2

n − s2

10

− 5 × 0.5) 2

(

h = 0.5m ; A1 = ½ × 2 = 1.04m2

5−2

10

− 5 × 0.7 ) 2

(

h = 0.7m ; A2 = ½ × 2 = 0.38m2

5−2

By Trapezoidal Rule;

D 50

V = (A1+A2) = (1.04 + 0.38) = 35.5m3

2 2

D 50

Cp = × n2(h1–h2)2 = × 52 (0.5 – 0.7)2 = 1.4m3.

12(n − s 2 ) 12(5 − 2)

Corrected volume of cutting = V – Cp

= 35.5-1.4

= 34.1m3 ⇐

30. The areas enclosed by various contours of a proposed reservoir are given below.

Contour (m) 100 105 110 115 120 125

Area (ha) 3 8 10 15 20 25

Determine (a) the capacity of the reservoir if the full reservoir level is 125.00, (b) the

elevation of the water surface when the reservoir is half-full. Ignore the volume below

R.L 100.00.

Solution

(a) Trapezoidal Formula

D

V = [ A100 + A125 + 2(A105 + A110 + A115 + A120 ) ]

2

5

= [ 3 + 25 + 2(8 + 10 + 15 + 20) ]

2

= 335 ha.m

32

D

V = [ A100 + A120 + 4(A105 + A115 ) + 2A110 ]

3

5

= [ 3 + 20 + 4(8 + 15) + 2 × 10]

3

= 225 ha.m

(from RL 120 to 125)

D

V = ( A120 + A125 )

2

5

= (20 + 25) = 112.5 ha.m

2

∴ Total volume = 225 + 112.5 = 337.5 ha.m ⇐

Capacity when half-full = ½×337.5 = 168.75 ha.m

The reservoir level when half-full is somewhere between R.L of 115 and 120.

D D

Capacity upto RL of 115 = [ A100 + A110 + 4A105 ] + [A110 + A115 ]

3 2

5 5

= [3 + 10 + 4 × 8] + [ 10 + 15]

3 2

= 137.5 ha.m

137.5 ha-m ⇒ RL = 115m

225 ha-m ⇒ RL = 120m

168.75 ha-m ⇒ RL = 116.79m (by interpolation)

∴ The elevation of reservoir when half-full = 116.79m ⇐

BY

TU (Hmawbi)

dr.ayemyint@gmail.com

09-5030281,01-620072/620454

thuminhtike@gmail.com

09-5060826

33

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