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# 0

## Department of Technical and Vocational Education

Civil Engineering

A .G .T .I - Year I

Semester – II

## 1. The following records refer to an operation involving reciprocal leveling.

Instrument at Remark
A B
A 1.155 2.595 Distance AB = 500 m
B 0.985 2.415 RL of A = 525.500 m

## Find (a) The true RL of B,

(b) The combined correction for curvature and refraction,
(c) The collimation error and
(d) Whether the line of collimation is inclined upwards or downwards.

Solution

Instrument at Remark
A B
A 1.155 2.595 Distance AB = 500 m
B 0.985 2.415 RL of A = 525.500 m

## (a) 1st set up (Instrument at A)

Apparent different of level = 2.595 – 1.155 = 1.44 m
2nd set up (Instrument at B)
Apparent difference of level = 2.415 – 0.985 = 1.43 m
∴ True difference of level between A and B
1.44 + 1.43
=      = 1.435m (Fall from A to B) c
2
RL of B = 525.5 – 1.435 = 524.065m

500 2
(b) Combined correction = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673( )
1000
= 0.0168m
(c) Assume the line of collimation is inclined upwards.
Let collimation error in 500m =e
- When the instrument is at A
True staff reading at A = 1.155m
True staff reading at B = (2.595 – 0.0168 – e)
∴ True difference of level between A and B
= (2.595 - 0.0168 - e) - 1.155 = 1.4232 – e d
eqn : d = eqn; c
1.4232 – e = 1.435
e = - 0.0118m
= 0.0118 m
(d) The line of collimation is inclined downwards.

2. The following observations were made during the testing of a dumpy level.
Instrument at Remark
A B
A 1.725 2.245 RL of A
B 2.145 3.045 = 450.000m
Distance between A and B = 200 m

## Is the instrument in adjustment? To what reading should the line of collimation be

adjusted when the instrument is at B? Find the RL of B.

Solution
Instrument at Remark
A B
A 1.725 2.245 RL of A = 450m
B 2.145 3.045 Distance AB = 200m

## 1st set up (Instrument at A)

Apparent difference of level = 2.245 – 1.725 = 0.52m
2nd set up (Instrument at B)
Apparent difference of level = 3.045 – 2.145 = 0.9m
Since, two apparent differences are not equal, the instrument is not in adjustment.
∴True difference of level between A and B
0.52 + 0.9
=   = 0.71m c (Fall from A to B)
2
RL of B = 450 – 0.71 = 449.29m
200 2
Combined correction = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673( )
1000
= 0.0027m
Assume the line of collimation is inclined upwards.
Let collimation error in 200m =e
- When the instrument is at B
True staff reading at B = 3.045
True staff reading at A = (2.145 – 0.0027 – e) ⇐
∴ True difference of level between A and B
= 3.045 – 2.145 + 0.0027 + e = 0.9027 + e d
eqn : d = eqn; c
0.9027 + e = 0.71
e = - 0.1927m
= 0.1927 m
The line of collimation is inclined downwards.
∴ True staff reading at A = 2.145 - 0.0027 + 0.1927 = 2.335m ⇐

3. In testing a dumpy level, the following records were noted while undertaking
reciprocal levelling.
Instrument at
A B
A 1.725 1.370
B 1.560 1.235
Is the line of collimation in adjustment? What should be the correct staff reading at A,
during the second set up to make the line of collimation truly horizontal? Find the
amount of collimation error also.
Solution
Instrument at
A B
A 1.725 1.370
B 1.560 1.235
1st set up (Instrument at A)
Apparent difference of level = 1.725 – 1.37 = 0.355m
2nd set up (Instrument at B)
Apparent difference of level = 1.56 – 1.235 = 0.325m
Since, two apparent difference are not equal, the line of collimation is not in
∴True difference of level between A and B
0.355 + 0.325
=     = 0.34m (Fall from B to A) c
2
Assume line of collimation is inclined upwards.
Let collimation error =e
nd
- In 2 setup (Instrument at B)
True staff reading at B = 1.235m
True staff reading at A = 1.56 – e
∴ True difference of level between A and B
= 1.56 – e – 1.235 = 0.325 + e d
eqn : d = eqn; c
0.325 – e = 0.34
e = - 0.015m
e = 0.015 m
The line of collimation is inclined downwards.
∴ True staff reading at A = 1.56 + 0.015 = 1.575m ⇐

4 (a) A level is set up at a point 150m from A and 100m from B: the observed staff
readings at A and B are 2.525 and 1.755 respectively. Find the true difference of level
between A and B.
Solution
Staff at A
2
⎛ 150 ⎞
Combined correction = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.0015m
⎝ 1000 ⎠
True staff reading at A = 2.525 – 0.0015 = 2.5235m

Staff at B
2
⎛ 100 ⎞
Combined correction = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673 ⎜ ⎟ = 0.0007m
⎝ 1000 ⎠
True staff reading at B = 1.755 – 0.0007 = 1.7543m
∴True difference at level between A and B
= 2.5235 – 1.7543 = 0.7692m(Fall from B to A).

4 (b) A lamp at the top of a lighthouse is visible just above the horizon from a station at sea
level. The distance of the lamp from the station is 30km. Find the height of the
lighthouse.

Solution

D = 30km ⇒ h= ?
H = 0.0673D2 = 0.0673 × 302 = 60.57m
∴The height of the lighthouse = 60.57m ⇐

4 (c) What is the visible horizon distance from a tower 50m height? What is the dip of the
horizon, assuming the radius of the earth to be 6370km?

Solution

h = 50m , R = 6370 km
h
Visible horizon distance, D =
0.0673
50
= = 27.26km ⇐
0.0673

D
Dip of the horizon, θ =
R
27.26 180⋅
= × × 60mins
6370 π
= 14.71mins ⇐

5. The following table gives latitude and departure at the sides of closed traverse
ABCDA.
Side Latitude(m) Departure(m)
AB 225.5 120.5
BC -245 210
CD -150.5 -110.5
DA 170 -220

Calculate the area of traverse by using (i) co-ordinate method and (ii) DMD method.

Solution

## (i) Coordinate method

Latitude Departure Coordinate
Station Side
(m) (m) y x
A 200 100
B AB 225.5 120.5 425.5 220.5
C BC -245 210 180.5 430.5
D CD -150.5 -110.5 30 320
A DA 170 -220 200 100
A B C D A
y ⇒ 200 425.5 180.5 30 200
x ⇒ 100 220.5 430.5 320 100
ΣP = (200×220.5) + (425.5×430.5) + (180.5×320) + (30×100)
= 288037.75m2
ΣQ = (100×425.5) + (220.5×180.5) + (430.5×30) + (320×200)
= 159265.25m2
Double area = ΣP - ΣQ = 128772.5m2
∴ Req: area = ½ × 128772.5 = 64386.25m2 ⇐

## (ii) DMD method

Side Latitude Departure DMD Departure
AB 225.5 120.5 120.5 27172.75
BC -245 210 451 -110495.00
CD -150.5 -110.5 550.5 -82850.25
DA 170 -220 220 37400.00
Total -128772.5
Double area = 128772.5m2
Req: area = ½ × 128772.5 = 64386.25m2

6 The following table gives the latitudes and departures of the sides of closed traverse
ABCD.
Latitude Departure
Side
N S E W
AB 214.8 124
BC 245.1 205.7
CD 155.9 90
DA 186.2 239.7

Calculate the area of traverse by using (i) coordinate method and (ii) DMD method.

Solution
(i) Coordinate method
Coordinate
Station Side Latitude Departure
y x
A 200 100
B AB +214.8 +124 414.8 224
C BC -245.1 +205.7 169.7 429.7
D CD -155.9 -90 13.8 339.7
A DA +186.2 -239.7 200 100
A B C D A
y ⇒ 200 414.8 169.7 13.8 200
x ⇒ 100 224 429.7 339.7 100
ΣP = (200×224) + (414.8×429.7) + (169.7×339.7) + (13.8×100)
= 282066.65m2
ΣQ = (100×414.8) + (224×169.7) + (429.7×13.8) + (339.7×200)
= 153362.66m2
Double area = ΣP - ΣQ = 128703.99m2
∴ Req: area = ½ × 128703.99 = 64351.995m2 ⇐
(ii) DMD method

## AB +214.8 +124 124.0 26635.20

BC -245.1 +205.7 453.7 -111201.87
CD -155.9 -90.0 569.4 -88769.46
DA +186.2 -239.7 239.7 44632.14
Total -128703.99
Double area = 128703.99m2
Req: area = ½ × 128703.99 = 64351.995m2 ⇐

7. The record of a closed traverse is given below, with two distances missing.
Line Length (m) Bearing
AB 100.5 N 30°30' E
BC ? S 45°0' E
CD 75.0 S 40°30' W
DE 50.5 S 60°0' W
EA ? N 40°15' W
Calculate the lengths of BC and EA.

Solution
Line Length (m) RB (θ) Latitude(L) Departure(D)
AB 100.5 N 30°30' E +86.594 +51.008
BC l1 S 45°0' E -0.707l1 +0.707l1
CD 75.0 S 40°30' W -57.03 -48.709
DE 50.5 S 60°0' W -25.25 -43.734
EA l2 N 40°15' W +0.763l2 -0.646l2
ΣL = 0
86.594 – 0.707l1 – 57.03 – 25.25 + 0.763l2 = 0
- 0.707l1 + 0.763l2 = -4.314 c
ΣD =0
51.008 + 0.707l1 – 48.709 – 43.734 – 0.646l2 = 0
0.707l1 – 0.646l2 = 41.435 d
Solving eqn: c and d
The length of BC = l1 = 348.51m ⇐
The length of EA = l2 = 317.27m ⇐

8. The following records are obtained in a traverse survey, where the length and bearing
of the last line were not recorded:
Line Length (m) Bearing
AB 75.50 30°24'
BC 180.50 110°36'
CD 60.25 210°30'
DA ? ?
Compute the length and bearing of line DA.

Solution
Line Length WCB RB (θ) Latitude Departure
AB 75.5 30°24' N 30°24' E + 65.12 +38.21
BC 180.5 110°36' S 69°24' E - 63.507 + 168.96
CD 60.25 210°30' S 30°30' W - 51.913 -30.58
DA ? ? ? LDA DDA

ΣL =0
65.12 – 63.507 – 51.913 + LDA = 0
LDA = +50.3m
ΣD =0
38.21 + 168.96 – 30.58 + DDA = 0
DDA = -176.59m

## The length of DA = L2DA + D2DA  = 50.32 + 176.59 2 = 183.614m ⇐

D 176.59
θ = tan-1 = tan-1 = 74°6'
L 50.3
R.B of DA = N 74°6' W
WCB of DA = 360° - 74°6' = 285° 54' ⇐

## 9. The following observations were taken from stations P and Q.

Line Length(m) Bearing
PA 125.0 S60°30'W
PQ 200.0 N30°30'E
QB 150.5 N50°15'W
Calculate the length and bearing of AB, and also the angles ∠PAB and ∠QBA.
Solution B
150.5

200
?

P
125
In traverse ABQPA A

## Line Length RB(θ) Latitude Departure

(m)
AB ? ? LAB DAB
BQ 150.5 S50°15'E -96.236 +115.711
QP 200 S30°30'W -172.326 -101.508

## PA 125 S60°30'W -61.553 -108.794

ΣL =0
LAB – 96.236 – 172.326 – 61.553 = 0
LAB = +330.115m
ΣD =0
DAB + 115.711 – 101.508 – 108.794 = 0
DAB = +94.591m

## Length AB = L2AB + D2AB  = 330.1152 + 94.5912 = 343.4m ⇐

D 94.591
θ = tan-1 = tan-1 = 15°59'
L 330.115
R.B of AB = N 15°59' E
∠PAB = Bearing of AP – Bearing of AB
= 60°30' - 15°59'
= 44° 31' ⇐
∠QBA = Bearing of BQ + Bearing of BA
= 50°15' + 15°59'
= 66° 14' ⇐

10. The following particulars are given for a traverse survey, where the length of the line
AB is required to be measured. Point A is 50.0m from P, and B is 75.0m from R.
Line Length(m) Bearing
PQ 125.5 N 30°15'E
QR 80.25 S 40° 30'E
RS 150.75 S 60° 30'W

Solution

Q
80.25
R
75.5
125.5
A
75
50 150.75
B
P

S
10

In traverse AQRBA
Line Length (m) RB(θ) Latitude Departure
AQ 75.5 N 30° 15'E +65.22 +38.035
QR 80.25 S 40° 30'E - 61.023 +52.118
RB 75 S 60° 30'W -36.932 -65.277
BA ? ? LBA DBA

ΣL =0
LBA + 65.22 – 61.023 – 36.932 =0
LBA = +32.735m
ΣD =0
DBA + 38.035 + 52.118 – 65.277 = 0
DBA = -24.876m

## Length of BA = L2AB + D 2BA = 32.7352 + 24.876 2  = 41.114m

D 24.876
θ = tan-1 = tan-1 = 37°14'
L 32.735
R.B of BA = N 37°14' W
R.B of AB = S 37°14' E

11. The following observation were made using a tachometer fitted with an anallatic lens,
the multiplying constant being 100.

## Inst. Height Staff WCB Vertical Hair reading Remarks

station of inst. station angle
0 1.550 A 30º 30´ 4º 30´ 1.155, 1.755, 2.355 Rl of O=
B 75º 30´ 10º 15´ 1.250, 2.000, 2.750 150.000
Calculate the distance AB and the Rls of A and B. Find also the gradient of the line
AB.

Solution
β = 75º 30´ - 30º 30´ = 45º
A
K = 100, C = 0 (Vertically)
D = KS cos2θ + Ccosθ = 100 × S × cos2θ
D1
B V = ½KS sin2θ + C sinθ = 50 × S + sin2θ
β
D2

O
11

*Inst: at 0, staff at A
θ = 4º 30´ (elevation), S = 2.355 – 1.155 = 1.2m, h = 1.755m
OA = D1 = 100 × 1.2 × cos2 4º 30´ = 119.261m
V = 50 × 1.2 × sin9º = 9.386m
RL of inst: axis = RL of O + 1.55 = 150 + 1.55 = 151.55m
RL of A = RL of inst: axis + V – h
= 151.55 + 9.386 – 1.755 = 159.181m
*Inst: at O, staff at B
θ = 10º 15´ (elevation), S = 2.75 – 1.25 = 1.5m, h = 2m
OB = D2 = 100 × 1.5 × cos2 10º 15´ = 145.25m
V = 50 × 1.5 × sin 20º 30´ = 26.266m
RL of B = RL of inst: axis + V – h
= 151.55 + 26.266 – 2 = 175.816m
Difference RL = RL of B – RL of A = 175.816 – 159.181
= 16.635m (Rising)

## = 119.2612 + 145.252 − 2 ×119.261×145.25 × cos 45º

= 104.033m
16.635 1
Rising gradient of AB =  = (i.e, 1 in 6.25)
104.033 6.25

12. To determine the gradient between two points A and B, a tachometer was set up at
another station C and the following observations were taken, keeping the staff
vertical.
A + 4º 20´ 0´´ 1.300, 1.610 , 1.920
B + 0º 10´ 40´´ 1.100, 1.410, 1.720
If the horizontal angle ACB is 35º 20´, determine the average gradient between A and
B, K = 100, C = 0.0
Solution
A K = 100, C = 0 (Vertically)
D1 D = KS cos2θ + C cosθ = 100 × S × cos2θ
β = 35º 20´  V = ½KS sin2θ + C sinθ = 50 × S × sin2θ
C B
D2
12

## Assume, RL of Inst: axis = 100m

*Inst: at C, staff at A
θ = 4º 20´ 0´´ (elevation), S = 1.92 – 1.3 = 0.62m , h = 1.61m
CA = D1 = 100 × 0.62 × cos2 4º 20´ 0´´ = 61.646m
V = 50 × 0.62 × sin 8º 40´ 0´´ = 4.671m
RL of A = RL of inst: axis + V – h
= 100 + 4.671 – 1.61 = 103.061m
*Inst: at C, staff at B
θ = 0º 10´ 40´´ (elevation), S = 1.72 – 1.1 = 0.62m, h = 1.41m
CB = D2 = 100 × 0.62 × cos2 0º 10´40´´ = 61.999m
V = 50 × 0.62 × sin 0º 21´ 20´´ = 0.192m
RL of B = RL of inst: axis + V – h
= 100 + 0.192 – 1.41 = 98.782m
Difference RL = RL of B – RL of A = 98.782 – 103.061
= -4.279 (Falling)

## = 61.6462 + 61.9992 − 2 × 61.646 × 61.999 × cos35º20´

= 37.525m
4.279 1
Falling gradient of AB = = (i.e, 1 in 8.77)
37.525 8.77

## Inst. Height Staff Vertical Hair reading (m) Remarks

station of axis station angle
A 1.345 BM -5º 30´ 0.905, 1.455, 2.005 Rl of BM
A 1.345 B +8º 0´ 0.755, 1.655, 2.555 = 450.5m
B 1.550 C +10º 0´ 1.500, 2.250, 3.000
Calculate the Rls of A, B and C and the horizontal distance AB and BC. The
tachometer is fitted with an anallanic lens and multiplying constant is 100.
Solution
K = 100, C = 0 (Vertically)
D = KS cos2θ + C cosθ = 100.S.cos2θ
V = ½KS. sin2θ + C sinθ = 50.S.sin2θ
*Instrument at A, staff at BM
13

## S = 2.005 – 0.905 = 1.1m, h = 1.455m, θ = 5º 30´ (depression)

V = 50 × 1.1 × sin11º = 10.495m
RL of BM = RL of instrument axis – V – h
∴RL of instrument axis = 450.5 + 10.495 + 1.455
= 462.45m
RL of A + 1.345 = 462.45
∴RL of A = 461.105m ⇐
*Instrument at A, staff at B
θ = 8º (elevation), S = 2.555 – 0.755 = 1.8m, h = 1.655m
Distance AB = D = 100 × 1.8 × cos28º = 176.514m ⇐
V = 50 × 1.8 × sin16º = 24.807m
RL of B = RL of instrument axis + V – h
= 462.45 + 24.807 – 1.655
= 485.602m ⇐
*Instrument at B, staff at C
θ = 10º (elevation), S = 3 – 1.5 = 1.5m, h = 2.25m
Distance BC = D = 100 × 1.5 × cos210º = 145.477m ⇐
V = 50 × 1.5 × sin20º = 25.652m
RL of C = RL of instrument axis + V – h
= (RL of B + 1.55) + V – h
= (485.602 + 1.55) + 25.652 – 2.25
= 510.553m ⇐

## 14. Following observations were taken for determining the RL of station A.

Inst. Height of Staff Vertical Staff reading Remarks
station inst. station angle
Q 1.600m B.M +6º 12´ 0.945, 1.675, 2.405 Rl of BM
Q 1.600m P -4º 12´ 1.450, 2.380, 3.310 = 421.625
A 1.650m P +7º 0´ ‘x’, 0.655, 1.255
Could not be observed

The instrument was fitted with an anallactic lens, and the value of constant was
100.00. Calculate the R.L of station A. Also determine the distances PQ and PA.
Solution
K = 100, C = 0 (Vertically)
14

## D = KS cos2θ + Ccosθ = 100.S.cos2 θ

V = ½K.S.sin2θ + Csinθ = 50.S.sin2θ
*Instrument at Q, staff at BM
θ = 6º 12´ (elevation), S = 2.405 – 0.945 = 1.46m, h = 1.675m
V = 50 × 1.46 × sin 12º 24´ = 15.676m
RL of BM = RL of Instrument axis + V – h
RL of Instrument axis = 421.625 – 15.676 + 1.675
= 407.624m
*Instrument at Q, staff at P
θ = 4º 12´ (depression), S = 3.31 – 1.45 = 1.86m, h = 2.38m
∴ PQ = D = 100 × 1.86 × cos2 4º 12´ = 185m ⇐
V = 50 × 1.86 × sin 8º 24´ = 13.586m
RL of P = RL of Instrument axis – V – h
= 407.624 – 13.586 – 2.38 = 391.658m
*Instrument at A, Staff at P
θ = 7º (elevation), S = 2(1.255 – 0.655) = 1.2m, h = 0.655m
PA = D = 100 × 1.2 × cos27º = 118.22m ⇐
V = 50 × 1.2 × sin 14º = 14.515m
RL of P = RL of Inst: axis + V – h
RL of Inst: axis = 391.658 – 14.515 + 0.655 = 377.798m
RL of A + 1.65 = 377.798
∴RL of A = 376.148m

15. Two points A and B are on opposite sides of a summit. The tachometer was set up at
P on top of the summit, and the following reading were taken.
Inst. Height of Staff Vertical
station inst. station angle
P 1.500 A -10º 0´ 1.150, 2.050, 2.950 RL of P
P 1.500 B -12º 0´ 0.855, 1.605, 2.355 = 450.5m

The tachometer is fitted with an anallatic lens, the multiplying constant being 100.
The staff was held normal to the line of sight. Find (a) the distance between A and B,
and (b) the gradient of lines PA and PB.
15

Solution
K = 100, C = 0 (normal, depression)
D = KS cosθ + Ccosθ – h sinθ = 100.S.cosθ – h sinθ
V = K.S sinθ + C sinθ = 100.S.sinθ
RL of inst: axis = RL of P + 1.5 = 450.5 + 1.5 = 452m
*Inst: at P, staff at A
θ = 10º (depression), S = 2.95 – 1.15 = 1.8m, h = 2.05m
∴PA = D = 100 × 1.8 × cos10º - 2.05 × sin10º = 176.909m ⇐
V = 100 × 1.8 × sin10º = 31.257m
RL of A = RL of Inst: axis – V – h cosθ
= 452 – 31.257 – 2.05 × cos10º = 418.724m ⇐
*Inst: at P, staff at B
θ = 12º (depression), S = 2.355 – 0.855 = 1.5m, h = 1.605m
PB = D = 100 × 1.5 × cos12º - 1.605 sin12º = 146.388m ⇐
V = 100 × 1.5 × sin12º = 31.188m
RL of B = RL of Inst: axis – V – h cosθ
= 452 – 31.188 – 1.605 × cos12º = 419.242m
(a) Distance AB = PA + PB = 176.909 + 146.388 = 323.297m
Difference of RL 450.5 - 418.724 31.776
(b) Falling gradient of PA = = =
Distance PA 176.907 176.907
1
= (i.e, 1in 5.57)
5.57
450.5 - 419.242 31.258 1
Falling gradient of PB = = = (i.e, 1in 4.68)
146.388 146.388 4.68

16. Two sets of tachometric readings were taken from two instruments at station A, one
after the other to a staff station B.
I set Instrument – 1 Height of instrument = 1.364m
(staff vertical)
II set Instrument - 2 Height of instrument = 1.352m
Determine the stadia readings with the instrument – 2 if the staff was held normal to
the line of sight and the vertical angle in both cases was 28º.
Take k = 100 and C = 0.35 for the instrument -1 and 90 and 0.0 for the instrument -2.
The RL of station A was 104.580m.
Solution
I set, Instrument -1 (k = 100, C = 0.36)
16

## Instrument at A, staff at B (vertical)

θ = 28º (elevation), s = 1.3 – 0.71 = 0.59, h = 1.005
D = kscos2θ + C cosθ = 100 × 0.59 × cos2 28º + 0.36 × cos 28º
= 46.314m ⇐
V = ½ks.sin2θ + C sin θ = ½ × 100 × 0.59 × sin56º + 0.36 × sin 28º
= 24.626m ⇐
RL of B = RL of inst: axis + V – h
= (RL of A + 1.364) + V – h
= (104.58 + 1.364) + 24.626 – 1.005
= 129.565m ⇐
II set, Instrument 2 (k = 90, C = 0)
Inst: at A, staff at B (Normal)
θ = 28º (elevation), height of instrument = 1.352m
D = ks cosθ + C cosθ + h sinθ
46.314 = 90.S × cos 28º + h sin 28º
79.465S + 0.47h = 46.314 c
V = k.s.sinθ + Csinθ
= 90.S × sin28º = 42.252S
RL of B = RL of inst: axis + V – h cosθ
RL of B = (RL of A + 1.352) + V – h cosθ
129.565 = 104.58 + 1.352 + 42.252S – h cos 28º
42.252S – 0.883h = 23.633 d
Solving eqn c and d
S = 0.578
h = 0.876
S 0.578
∴ Lower staff reading = h -  = 0.876 -  = 0.587
2 2
Central staff reading = h = 0.876
S 0.578
Upper staff reading = h +  = 0.876 + = 1.165
2 2
∴ The stadia readings are 0.587, 0.876, 1.165 ⇐
17

17. Two tangents meet at an angle of 130º. Calculate the lengths of the offsets measured
from the tangent for setting out a curve of 200m radius if (a) the offsets are radial, (b)
the offset are perpendicular to the tangent.
Solution
I = 130º, φ = 180º - 130º = 50º, R = 200m
Offsets from Tangent
T B
φ φ
T = R tan = 200tan 25º = 93.26m
2 Ox

(a) The radial offsets
T1
E  T2
A C

O
Ox = R2 + x2 - R = 2002 + x 2  - 200

Point 1 2 3 4 5 6
x(m) 0 20 40 60 80 93.26
Ox (m) 0 0.998 3.961 8.806 15.41 20.675

## (b) The perpendicular offsets

φ
xlast = R sin = 200 sin25º = 84.52m
2
B
xlast  φ

x  Ox

T1
E  T2
A C

O
Ox = R- R − x = 200- 200 − x
2 2 2 2

Point 1 2 3 4 5 6
x(m) 0 20 40 60 80 84.52
Ox (m) 0 1.003 4.041 9.212 16.697 18.737

## ∴Right half ordinates are the same as left half.

18

18. Two tangents intersect at a chain age of 1000m, the deflection angle being 30º.
Calculate all necessary data too setting out a circular curve of radius 200m by the
method of offsets from the chord produced, taking a peg interval of 20m.

Solution
Chainage of V = 1000m
φ = 30º
R = 200m
φ
1. Tangent length, T = R tan
2
30º
= 200 tan
2
= 53.59m
πRφ
Curve length, l =
180º
π × 200 × 30º
=  = 104.72m
180º
Chainage of T1 = chainage of V – T
= 1000 – 53.59
= 946.41m
Chainage of T2 = Chainage of T1 + l
= 946.41 + 104.72 = 1051.13m

## Chainage of the first full station = 950m

Length of the first sub-chord, c´ = 950 – 946.41 = 3.59m
Length of the normal chord c = 20m
Length of the last sub-chord c´´ = 1051.13 – 1050 = 1.13m
1050 − 950
Number of full chords = =5
20
∴ Total number of chords = 1 + 5 + 1 = 7
∴ Req : offsets are;
(C1 ) 2 3.582
O1 = = = 0.03m
2R 2 × 200
C 20(3.58 + 20)
O2 = (C1 + C)= = 1.18m
2R 2 × 200
C2 20 2
O3 = = = 2m
R 200
C2 20 2
O4 = = = 2m
R 200
C2 20 2
O5 = = = 2m
R 200
C2 20 2
O6 = = = 2m
R 200
C11 (C + C11 ) 1.14(2 + 1.14)
O7 = = = 0.06m ⇐
2R 2 × 200
19

19. Tow tangents intersect at a chainage of 101 + 60 in terms of chain stations. The chain
used is 20m in length, with 100 links. Calculate the necessary data for selling out a
curve of 250m radius to connect the two tangents if the deflection angle is 46º 30´.
Take the peg interval as 100 links (20m). Use the method of offsets from the chords
produced.

Solution
φ
Tangent length, T = R tan
2
= 250 tan 23º 15´ = 107.41m
πRφ π × 250 × 46.5
Length of the curve, l = =
180 180º
= 202.89m
Chainage of point of intersection (V) = 101 × 20 + 60 × 0.2
= 2032.0m
Chainage of point of curvature (T1) = 2032.0 – 107.41
= 1924.59m
Chainage of point of tangent (T2) = 1924.59 + 202.89
= 2127.48m
Chainage of the first full station = 1940.00m
Length of the first sub-chord, c´ = 1940.0 – 1924.59 = 15.41m
Length of the normal chord, c = 20.0m.
Length of the last sub-chord, c´´ = 2127.48 – 2120.00
= 7.48m
2120.0 − 1940.00
Number of full chords = =9
20
Total number of chords = 1 + 9 + 1 = 11
(c) 2 (15.41) 2
Length of the first offset, O1 = = = 0.475m
2R 2 × 250
c 20 × (15.41 + 20.0)
Length of the second offset O2 = (c´+c) =
2R 2 × 250
= 1.416m
Length of all intermediate offsets,
c 2 (20) 2
O3, O4, ……..O10 = =   =1.60m
R 250
c"
Length of the last offset, O11 = (c + c" )
2R
7.48 × (20.0 + 7.48)
= = 0.411m ⇐
2 × 250
20

20. Two tangents intersect at the chainage 1190m, the deflection angle being 36º.
Calculate all the data necessary for setting out a curve with a radius of 300m by
deflection angle method. The peg interval is 30m.

Solution
φ
Tangent length, T = R tan
2
= 300 tan (36º/2) = 97.48m
πRφ π × 300 × 36
Length of curve. l = = =188.50m
180 180
Chainage of T1 = 1190.0 – 97.48 = 1092.52m
Chainage of T2 = 1092.52 + 188.50 = 1281.02m
Length of the first sub-chord, c´ = 1110.0 – 1092.52
= 17.48m
Length of the last sub-chord, c´´ = 1281.02 – 1260.0
= 21.02m
1260.0 − 1110.0
Number of normal chords of 30m = =5
30
Total number of chords =1+5+1=7
Lengths of the chords are 17.48, 30, 30, 30, 30, 30 and 21.02m
1718.9c
Tangential angles. δ =
R
1718.9 × 17.48
δ1 = = 100.153´
300
= 1º40´09´´
1718.9 × 30
δ2 = = 171.89´
300
= 2º 51´ 53´´

δ3 = δ4 = δ5 = δ6 = 2º 51´ 53´´
1718.9 × 21.02
δ7 = = 120.435´
300
= 2º 0´ 26´´
Deflection angles,
Δ1 = δ1 = 1º 40´ 09´´
Δ2 = Δ1 + δ2 = 1º 40´ 09´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 4º 32´ 2´´
Δ3 = Δ2 + δ3 = 4º 32´ 2´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 7º 23´ 55´´
Δ4 = Δ3 + δ4 = 7º 23´ 55´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 10º 15´ 48´´
Δ5 = Δ4 + δ5 = 10º 15´ 48´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 13º 07´ 41´´
Δ6 = Δ5 + δ6 = 13º 07´ 41´´ + 2º 51´ 53´´ = 15º 59´ 34´´
Δ7 = Δ6 + δ7 = 15º 59´ 34´´ + 2º 0´ 26´´ = 18º 0´ 0´´
Check. Deflection angle of T2 = ½ × φ = 18º 0´ 0´´ (O.K)
21

## The computed values are given in Table.

Actual
Tangential Deflection
Peg Chord Theodolite
Chainage angles(δ) Angle(Δ) Remark
No. Length Setting to 20´´
º ´ ´´ º ´ ´´ º ´ ´´
1. 1110.0 17.48m 1 40 09 1 40 09 1 40 0
2. 1140.0 30.0m 2 51 53 4 32 2 4 32 0
3. 1170.0 30m 2 51 53 7 23 55 7 24 0
4. 1200.0 30m 2 51 53 10 15 48 10 15 40
5. 1230.0 30m 2 51 53 13 07 41 13 7 40
6. 1260.0 30m 2 51 53 15 59 34 15 59 40
7. 1281.02 21.02m 2 0 26 18 0 0 18 0 0

21. Two straights AB and CD both when produced intersect at V. Angle CBV = 30º,
angle BCV = 120º. It is proposed to introduce a reverse curve consisting of two
circular arcs AT and TD lying on BC. Length BC is 791.71m and radius of arc AT is
800m, chainage of B is 1000m. Calculate (i) radius of arc TD, (ii) length of arc AT,
(iii) length of arc TD, (iv) chainage of point D.
Solution

## Let the radius of arc TD be R2.

From the triangle O1BT.
BT = O1 tan 15º
= R1 tan 15º
= 800 tan 15º = 214.36m
22

AB = BT = 214.36m
Therefore, TC = BC – BT
= 791.71 – 214.36 = 577.35m
In the triangle O2TC,
TC = R2 tan 30º
577.35 = R2 tan 30º
R2 = 1000m
Length of the curve AT,
πR φ
l1 = 1 1
180
π × 800 × 30
= = 418.89m
180
Length of the curve TD,
πR φ
l2 = 2 2
180
π ×1000 × 60º
= = 1047.20m
180
Total length of curve, l = l1 + l2
= 418.89 + 1047.20 = 1466.09m
Chainage of A = Chainage of B – AB
= 1000.00 – 214.36 = 785.64m
Chainage of T = 785.64 + 418.89 = 1204.53m
Chainage of D = 1204.53 + 1047.20 = 2251.73m ⇐

## 22. Two tangents AB and BC interest at B. Another line DE intersects AB and BC at D

and E such that ∠ADE = 150º and ∠DEC = 140º. The radius of the first curve is
200m and the second is 300m. The chainage of B is 950m. Calculate all data
necessary for setting out the compound curve.

Solution B φ

D φ1 T2 φ2  E
T1 T3

A C
Rs = 200m O1
Rl = 300m
φ1 = 180º - 150º = 30º O2
φ2 = 180º - 140º = 40º
φ = 30º + 40º = 70º
φ1 30º
c T1D = DT2 = Rs tan = 200 tan
= 53.58m
2 2
φ 40º
d T3E = ET2 = Rl tan 2 = 300 tan = 109.19m
2 2
e DE = DT2 + T2E = 53.58 + 109.19 = 162.77m
DB BE DE
f = =
sin 40º sin 30º sin110º
23

## sin 40º sin 40º

DB = DE = 162.77 × = 111.34m
sin 110º sin 110º
sin 30º sin 300º
BE = DE = 62.77 × = 86.61m
sin 110º sin 110º
BT1 = BD + DT1 = 111.34 + 53.58 = 164.92m
BT3 = BE + ET3 = 86.61 + 109.19 = 195.8m

## g Chainage of T1 = 950 – 164.92 = 785.08m

π × 200 × 30º
h Shoot curve length = = 104.72m
180º
i Chainage of T2 = 785.08 + 104.72 = 889.80m
π × 300 × 40º
j Long curve length = =209.44m
180º
k Chainage of T3 = 889.8 + 209.44 = 1099.24m

## Deflection angle for short curve

Taking a full chord of 20m,
No: of full chords = 5(5 × 20 = 100m )
Length of final sub-chord = 104.72 – 100 = 4.72m
1718.9 × 20
δ for full chord = = 2º 51´ 53´´
200º
1718.9 × 4.72
δ for full sub-chord = = 0º 40´ 34´´
200º
φ 30º
Check Total deflection = 1 = = 15º
2 2
Calculated angle = 5 × 2º 51´ 53´´ + 0º 40´ 34´´
= 14º 59´ 59´´ = 15º(say)

## Deflection angle for long curve

Taking a full chord of 30m,
No: of full chords = 6(5 × 30 = 180m )
Length of final sub-chord = 209.44 – 180 = 29.44m
1718.9 × 30º
S for full chord = = 2º 51´ 53´´
300º
1718.9 × 29.44
S for full sub-chord = = 2º 48´ 41´´
300º
φ 40º
Check Total deflection angle = 2 = = 20º
2 2
Calculated angle = 6 × 2º 51´ 53´´ + 2º 48´ 41´´
= 19º 59´ 59´´ = 20º(say) ⇐

23. A page of the field book of a cross-staff survey is given in Fig. Plot the required fig;
and calculate the relevant area.
B
110
F 90
60 65 E
58
D 40
20
20 C
0 42
24

Solution

60
D
g  f
h  20
A G H I J B
20  40  65  90

58

C
E

Mean
Base Offsets Area
Portion Figure Chainage offset
(m) (m) (m2)
(m)
1. ΔACG 0 and 20 20 0 and 42 21 420
2. Trap: GCEI 20 and 65 45 42 and 58 50 2250
3. ΔIEB 65 and 110 45 58 and 0 29 1305
4. ΔJFB 90 and 110 20 0 and 60 30 600
5. Trap: DHJF 40 and 90 50 60 and 20 40 2000
6. ΔADH 0 and 40 40 20 and 0 10 400

6975

## ∴ Area of field = 6975m2⇐

24. The following offsets were taken from a chain line to an irregular boundary line at an
interval of 10m:
0, 2.50, 3.50, 5.00, 4.60, 3.20, 0m
Compute the area between the chain line, the irregular boundary line and the end
offsets by:
(a) The mid-ordinate rule
25

## (b) The average-ordinate rule

(c) The trapezoidal rule
(d) Simpon’s rule
Solution

## 2.5 3.5 5 4.6 3.2

01 0 0 04 05 06 07
d 2 d 3
10m 10m
c Mid-ordinate Rule
0 + 0 2 0 + 2.5
h1 = 1 = = 1.25
2 2
0 + 03 2.5 + 3.5
h2 = 2 = =3
2 2
0 + 0 4 3.5 + 5
h3 = 3 = = 4.25
2 2
0 + 05 5 + 4.6
h4 = 4 = = 4.8
2 2
0 + 06 4.6 + 3.2
h5 = 5 = = 3.9
2 2
0 + 07 3.2 + 0
h6 = 6 = = 1.6
2 2
A = d [h1 + h2 + h3 + h4 + h5 + h6]
= 10[1.25 + 3 + 4.25 + 4.8 + 3.9 + 1.6]
= 188m2
d Average ordinate Rule
01 + 0 2 + 03 + 0 4 + 05 + 0 6 + 0 7
A = ×L
7
0 + 2.5 + 3.5 + 5 + 4.6 + 3.2 + 0
= × 60
7
18.8
= × 60 = 161.14m2
7
e Trapezoidal Rule
d
A = [ 01 + 0 7 + 2(0 2 + 0 3 + 0 4 + 0 5 + 0 6 ) ]
2
10
= [ 0 + 0 + 2(2.5 + 3.5 + 5 + 4.6 + 3.2) ]
2
= 188m2⇐
f Simpson’s Rule
d
A = [ 01 + 0 7 + 4(0 2 + 0 4 + 0 6 ) + 2(0 3 + 0 5 ) ]
3
10
= [ 0 + 0 + 4(2.5 + 5 + 3.2) + 2(3.5 + 4.6) ]
3
= 196.67m2⇐
26

25. The following offsets are taken from a survey line to a curved boundary line;
Distance(m) 0 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 80
Offset(m) 2.50 3.80 4.60 5.20 6.10 4.70 5.80 3.90 2.20
Find the area between the survey line, the curved boundary line, and the first
and the last offsets by;
(i) The trapezoidal rule, and (ii) Simpson’s rule
Solution 05
07
04 06
03 08
02
01 09
2.5 3.8 4.6 5.2 6.1 4.7 5.8 3.9 2.2
0 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 80
d1 = 5m d2=10m d3=20m

## (i) Trapezoidal Rule

d
A1 = 1 [ 01 + 05 + 2(0 2 + 03 + 0 4 ) ]
2
5
= [ 2.5 + 6.1 + 2(3.8 + 4.6 + 5.2) ] = 89.5m2
2
d
A2 = 2 [ 05 + 0 7 + 20 6 ]
2
10
= [ 6.1 + 5.8 + 2 × 4.7] = 106.5m2
2
d
A3 = 3 [ 0 7 + 0 9 + 208 ]
2
10
= [ 5.8 + 2.2 + 2 × 3.9] = 158m2
2
∴ Total A = A1 + A2 + A3
= (89.5 + 106.5 + 158)m2 = 354m2

## (i) Simpson’s Rule

d
A1 = 1 [ 01 + 05 + 4(0 2 + 0 4 ) + 2(03 ) ]
3
5
= [ 2.5 + 6.1 + 4(3.8 + 5.2) + 2( 4.6) ] = 89.67m2
3
d
A2 = 2 [ 05 + 0 7 + 40 6 ]
3
10
= [ 6.1 + 5.8 + 4 × 4.7] = 102.33m2
3
27

d3
A3 = [ 0 7 + 0 9 + 408 ]
3
20
= [ 5.8 + 2.2 + 4 × 3.9] = 157.33m2
3
∴ Total A = A1 + A2 + A3
= (89.67 + 102.33 + 157.33)m2 = 349.33m2 ⇐

26. The following offsets were taken at 15m intervals from a survey line to an irregular
boundary line:
3.50, 4.30, 6.75, 5.25, 7.50, 8.80, 7.90, 6.40, 4.40, 3.25m
Calculate the area enclosed between the survey line, the irregular boundary line, and
the first and last offsets, by:
06
(a) The trapezoidal rule 05
(b) Simpson’s rule 03 07
Solution 04 08
02
09
01
0
3.5 4.3 6.75 5.25 7.50 8.80 7.90 6.40 4.40 3.25 10

15m
(a) Trapezoidal Rule
d
area = [ 0 + 0 + 2(0 2 + 0 3 + ......... + 0 9 ) ]
2 1 10
15
= [ 3.5 + 3.25 + 2(4.3 + 6.75 + 5.25 + 7.5 + 8.8 + 7.9 + 6.4 + 4.4) ]
2
= 820.125m2
(b) Simpson’s Rule
- Simpson’s rule is applied for 01 to 09
- Area between 09 and 010 is found out by the trapezoidal rule.
d
A1 = [ 01 + 09 + 4(02 + 04 + 06 + 08 ) + 2(03 + 05 + 07 ) ]
3
15
= [ 3.5 + 4.4 + 4(4.3 + 5.25 + 8.8 + 6.4) + 2(6.75 + 7.5 + 7.9) ] = 756m2
3
d
A2 = [ 09 + 010 ) ]
2
15
= [ 4.4 + 3.25] = 57.38m2
2
∴ Total A = A1 + A2
= 756 + 57.38
= 813.38 m2 ⇐
28

27. A railway embankment 500m long has a width at formation level 9m with side slopes
of 2 to 1. The ground levels at every 100m along the centerline are:
Distance (m) 0 100 200 300 400 500
Ground level (m) 107.8 106.3 110.5 111.0 110.7 112.2
The embankment has a rising gradient of 1.2m per 100m and the formation level is
110.5 at zero chainage. Assuming the ground to be level across the centre line,
compute the volume of earthwork.

Solution
Chainage 0 100 200 300 400 500
Formation level 110.5 111.7 112.9 114.1 115.3 116.5
Ground level 107.8 106.3 110.5 111.0 110.7 112.2
Height (h) 2.7 5.4 2.4 3.1 4.6 4.3
For Level Section 9m
2
h 1

h = 2.7m ⇒ A1 = ( 9 + 2 × 2.7) 2.7 = 38.88m2
h = 5.4m ⇒ A2 = ( 9 + 2 × 5.4) 5.4 = 106.92m2
h = 2.4m ⇒ A3 = ( 9 + 2 × 2.4) 2.4 = 33.12m2
h = 3.1m ⇒ A4 = ( 9 + 2 × 3.1) 3.1 = 47.12m2
h = 4.6m ⇒ A5 = ( 9 + 2 × 4.6) 4.6 = 83.72m2
h = 4.3m ⇒ A6 = ( 9 + 2 × 4.3) 4.3= 75.68m2

Volume of earthwork
(i) Trapezoidal Formula
D
V = [ A1 + A 6 + 2(A 2 + A 3 + A 4 + A 5 ) ]
2
100
= [ 38.88 + 75.68 + 2(106.92 + 33.12 + 47.12 + 83.72) ]
2
= 32816m3
(ii) Prismoidal Formula
D D
V = [ A1 + A 5 + 4(A 2 + A 4 ) + 2A 3 ] + [A 5 + A 6 ]
3 2
100 100
= [ 38.88 + 83.72 + 4(106.92 + 47.12) + 2 × 33.12] + [83.72 + 75.68]
3 2
= 34803.3m3 ⇐

## 28. Data for three-level section of a road are as follows.

Stations Left Centre Right
29

## 1 + 0.95 + 1.00 + 2.55

5.25   0   7.50
2 + 1.35 + 1.50 + 2.80
4.75 0 8.10

The width of cutting at formation level is 9m, and the side slope is 1 : 1. The stations
are 50m apart. Calculate the volume of cutting.

Solution
Three-level sections (b = 9, s = 1)
Section (1)
h = 1m; h1 = 2.55m; h2 = 0.95m
b = 9m; b1 = 7.5m; b2 = 5.25m
h b
A1 = (b1+b2) + (h1 + h2)
2 4
1 9
= (7.5+5.25) + (2.55+0.95)
2 4
= 14.25m2

Section (2)
h = 1.5m; h1 = 2.8m; h2 = 1.35m
b = 9m; b1 = 8.1m; b2 = 4.75m
h b
A2 = (b1+b2) + (h1 + h2)
2 4
1.5 9
= (8.1+4.75) + (2.8+1.35)
2 4
= 18.975m2
Volume by Trapezoidal rule ( D = 50m )
D
V = (A1+A2)
2
50
= (14.25+18.975)
2
= 830.625m3
Prismoidal correction
30

D
Cp = (h1+h2) (whole width of one section – whole width of another section)
12
50
= (1–1.5) [(7.5+5.25) – (8.1+4.75)]
12
= 0.21m3
Correct volume = V – CP
= 830.625 – 0.21
= 830.415m3

29. The formation width of a road is 10m and the side slope for cutting is 1:1 and for
filling 2:1. The transverse slope of the ground is 1 in 5 (fall). The sections are 50m
apart. The depths of excavations at the centres of the two sections are 0.50 and 0.70m
respectively. Find the volume of cutting and filling.
Solution
Cutting ( D = 50m)
b = 10m ; S1 = 1; n=5
b
( + nh) 2
A=½× 2
n − s1
10
( + 5 × 0.5) 2
h = 0.5m ⇒ A1 = ½ × 2
5 −1
= 7.03m2
10
( + 5 × 0 .7 ) 2
h = 0.7 ⇒ A2 = ½ × 2
5 −1
= 9.03m2

By trapezoidal rule;
D
V = (A1+A2)
2
50
= (7.03+9.03)
2
= 401.5m3
D
Cp = × n2(h1 – h2)2
12(n − s1 )
31

50
= × 52 (0.5 – 0.7)2 = 1.04m3.
12(5 − 1)
Corrected volume of cutting = V – Cp
= 401.5 – 1.04
= 400.46m3
Filling (D = 50m)
b = 10m ; s2 = 2 ; n = 5
b
( − nh) 2
A=½× 2
n − s2
10
− 5 × 0.5) 2
(
h = 0.5m ; A1 = ½ × 2 = 1.04m2
5−2
10
− 5 × 0.7 ) 2
(
h = 0.7m ; A2 = ½ × 2 = 0.38m2
5−2
By Trapezoidal Rule;
D 50
V = (A1+A2) = (1.04 + 0.38) = 35.5m3
2 2
D 50
Cp = × n2(h1–h2)2 = × 52 (0.5 – 0.7)2 = 1.4m3.
12(n − s 2 ) 12(5 − 2)
Corrected volume of cutting = V – Cp
= 35.5-1.4
= 34.1m3 ⇐

30. The areas enclosed by various contours of a proposed reservoir are given below.
Contour (m) 100 105 110 115 120 125
Area (ha) 3 8 10 15 20 25
Determine (a) the capacity of the reservoir if the full reservoir level is 125.00, (b) the
elevation of the water surface when the reservoir is half-full. Ignore the volume below
R.L 100.00.
Solution
(a) Trapezoidal Formula
D
V = [ A100 + A125 + 2(A105 + A110 + A115 + A120 ) ]
2
5
= [ 3 + 25 + 2(8 + 10 + 15 + 20) ]
2
= 335 ha.m
32

## Prismoidal Formula (from RL 100 to 120)

D
V = [ A100 + A120 + 4(A105 + A115 ) + 2A110 ]
3
5
= [ 3 + 20 + 4(8 + 15) + 2 × 10]
3
= 225 ha.m
(from RL 120 to 125)
D
V = ( A120 + A125 )
2
5
= (20 + 25) = 112.5 ha.m
2
∴ Total volume = 225 + 112.5 = 337.5 ha.m ⇐

## (b) Let us take the full reservoir capacity as 337.5 ha.m.

Capacity when half-full = ½×337.5 = 168.75 ha.m
The reservoir level when half-full is somewhere between R.L of 115 and 120.
D D
Capacity upto RL of 115 = [ A100 + A110 + 4A105 ] + [A110 + A115 ]
3 2
5 5
= [3 + 10 + 4 × 8] + [ 10 + 15]
3 2
= 137.5 ha.m
137.5 ha-m ⇒ RL = 115m
225 ha-m ⇒ RL = 120m
168.75 ha-m ⇒ RL = 116.79m (by interpolation)
∴ The elevation of reservoir when half-full = 116.79m ⇐

BY
TU (Hmawbi)
dr.ayemyint@gmail.com
09-5030281,01-620072/620454
thuminhtike@gmail.com
09-5060826
33