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HARDWARE DESIGN:

embedded system designed around microcontroller, ESP8266 module and PC


based cloud server. The embedded module is located at the transformer site. It is
utilized to acquire process, display, transmit and receive the parameters of the
power transformer. It is the link between the embedded system and IOT based
cloud server. The third is utility module that has a PC based cloud server. The
server is attached to ESP8266 module transmits parameter data of the power
transformer to cloud server. It converts each reading to a compatible signals that
can be read by the embedded system built-in ADCs (0-5 volts DC). Each circuit
has two Op Amps and set of resistors to adjust the gain and the offset. The current
and voltage have small transformers and rectifier circuits that convert and scale the
current and voltage values to compatible levels with the Op Amps circuits. The
controller block consists of a 16-bit microcontroller that has 8-channel analog to
digital converter (ADC) and several digital input/output ports. The ADC is used to
read the parameters, the built-in EPROM is used to host the embedded software
algorithm that takes care of the parameters acquisition, processing, displaying,
transmitting and receiving. The built-in EEPROM is used to save the online
measured parameters along with their hourly and daily averages. The system is
equipped with 2- lines 16 character each LCD and 16-LEDs that are used as pilot
lights to indicate each parameter status. The microcontroller uses ESP8266 module
for communication to upload information related to the transformer parameters and
status. It send to a cloud server where it can be access or monitored through PC or
any smart device.

Our system is designed based upon online monitoring of key Operational


parameters of distribution transformers can provide useful Information about the
health of transformers which will help the utilities to Optimally use their
transformers and keep the asset in operation for a longer Period. This system will
help us to identify problems before any catastrophic Failure, thus resulting in a
long life service for transformers. In transformer monitoring system we used four
sensors for monitoring that is voltage sensor, current sensor, temperature sensor
and oil level sensor. We used power supply to operate microcontroller AT mega
328P and IOT module. Fig shows the connection between microcontroller and all
other modules. Sensors sense the data and display it on LCD display at the same
time IOT module send the message(data) to user on given number as per program.
If we get any unsecure data about transformer we can avoid failure.

SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE:

Using the microcontroller native language, a software algorithm was developed


and implemented to command the system operation. The algorithm starts by
initializing the input/output ports data direction flow, set the ADC channels and
reset all related memory locations that are going to be used in the operation. Then,
it begins to command the system according to the following sequence: Rest all
variable values 1000. Read currents, voltages and temperatures, Check for
abnormities. If any abnormality exists, send the information to Adafruit server
where any Operation Engineer, technician or any authorized personnel can see it.
Store values and display readings, Repeat the whole process again. The software
algorithm takes about 500ms to acquire, process, transmit / receiver the
information to ESP, module attached to the microcontroller and also display and
update the LCD / LEDs pilot indicators. The required time to sending or receiving
data to/from the esp8266 to/ from the utility personnel depends on the server
speed. It varies from 2-1 seconds. The accuracy of the reading relies on the ADC
resolutions, current and voltage transformers, signal conditioning circuit gain and
offset. The microcontroller ADC resolution is + % least significant bit (LSB). It is
about 10 mV on a 5000 mV scale. This error can be adjusted inside the software
algorithm. Errors introduced by the temperature sensors, current sensor and voltage
transformers are ignored. Future work is under process to extend the system to
utilize the server and a database system. This database system will periodically
store all the parameters from the transformers and later this data can be used for
useful analysis. Also, error correction, offset and gain adjustment circuits can be
added to the signal conditioning circuit to minimize the error and enhance the
accuracy.

Embedded C

As assembly language programs are specific to a processor, assembly language


didn’t offer portability across systems. To overcome this disadvantage, several
high level languages, including C, came up. Some other languages like PLM,
Modula-2, Pascal, etc. also came but couldn’t find wide acceptance. Amongst
those, C got wide acceptance for not only embedded systems, but also for desktop
applications. Even though C might have lost its sheen as mainstream language for
general purpose applications, it still is having a strong-hold in embedded
programming. Due to the wide acceptance of C in the embedded systems, various
kinds of support tools like compilers & cross-compilers, ICE, etc. came up and all
this facilitated development of embedded systems using C. Embedded C is a set of
language extensions for the C programming language by the C Standards
Committee to address commonality issues that exist between C extensions for
different embedded systems. Historically, embedded C programming requires
nonstandard extensions to the C language in order to support exotic features such
as fixed-point arithmetic, multiple distinct memory banks, and basic I/O
operations. In 2008, the C Standards Committee extended the C language to
address these issues by providing a common standard for all implementations to
adhere to. It includes a number of features not available in normal C, such as,
fixed-point arithmetic, named address spaces, and basic I/O hardware addressing.
Embedded C uses most of the syntax and semantics of standard C, e.g., main()
function, variable definition, data type declaration, conditional statements (if,
switch case), loops (while, for), functions, arrays and strings, structures and union,
bit operations, macros, etc. Embedded C Programming is the soul of the processor
functioning inside each and every embedded system we come across in our daily
life, such as mobile phone, washing machine, and digital camera. Each processor is
associated with an embedded software. The first and foremost thing is the
embedded software that decides functioning of the embedded system. Embedded C
language is most frequently used to program the microcontroller.