This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The same "so-called mysteries" harbored by Scientists should be no mystery at all if you got an "A" in World History. When something teeter totters into a realm that can't be linked back to mainstream history, scientists make the statement: "We have our team of experts working on that." Therein lies the carefully constructed hitch. Everything documented in history is measured to and from Europe because of European mapmakers of the day. Sheer evidence shows the EXODUS was FROM Africa--NOT TO AFRICA. If you know anything about the color theory, you would know every color comes from black--meaning that Africans produced all members of mankind. When the historians FINALLY GOT BACK TO AFRICA, Africans had already migrated to all parts of the world. Modern humans originated in Africa. Bands of hominids migrated first to the Middle East, then throughout Europe and into Asia. But exactly who moved away? The Earth is filled with yellow, brown, and black people strategically stationed as the 8% hangs on by a thread trying to dominate and change history in its tracks. Can it be said that the global world has become one of Ventriloquists? In biblical times "Africa" included much of what European maps call the "Middle East." European mapmakers determined regions on the top of Africa would be divided according to distances from Europe: "Near East," "Middle East" and "Far East." Remember, the name Africa is actually of Latin origin and was imposed on the great continent by European explorers. That brought to the surface many more "Harbored Mysteries." In November 2002 the replica of an ancient Chinese map that included a recognizable outline of Africa was unveiled in South Africa's Parliament. The Amalgamated Map of the Great Ming Empire (Da Ming Hun Yi Tu) dating back to 1389 was made decades before the first European voyages to Africa. THEREIN LIES THE HITCH. The European scientists present at the unveiling of the map had "egg in the face" because they couldn't explain how the Chinese had a map dated decades before the Europeans sailed BACK to Africa. Names on the map were written mostly in Manchu, a virtually extinct language that needed to be translated. Remember the words, "FROM AFRICA--NOT TO AFRICA."
A picture dated 11 November 2002 shows a detail on the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu (The Amalgamated Map of the Great Ming Empire) dating back to 1389 which is arguably the oldest world map in existence that accurately reflects the African continent.
Clyde A. Winters and Blacks in China The skeletal remains from Southern China are predominately Negroid. The people of that era practiced single burials which is an African ritual. In northern China Blacks founded many civilizations. The three major empires of China were the Xia Dynasty (c.2205-1766 BC), Shang Yin Dynasty (c.1700-1050 BC) and the Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou dynasty was the first dynasty founded by the Mongoloid people in China called Hua (Who-aa). The founders of Xia and Shang came from the Fertile African Crescent by way of Iran. Chinese civilization began along the Yellow River. By 3500 BC. Blacks in China were raising silkworms and making silk. The culture hero Huang Di is a direct link of Africa. His name was pronounced in old Chinese Yuhai Huandi or "Hu Nak Kunte." He arrived in China from the west in 2282 BC and settled along the banks of the Loh River in Shanxi. This transliteration of Huandgi, to Hu Nak Kunte is interesting because Kunte is a common clan name among the Manding speakers. The Africans or Blacks that founded civilization in China were often called Li Min "black headed people" by the Zhou dynasts. This term has affinity to the Sumero-Akkadian term Sag- Gig-Ga "black headed people.”
Taiwan's aboriginal clan
China was occupied predominately by Blacks from West Asia to China. Blacks were forced from East and Southeast Asia by the expansion of the Thai, Annamite, Bak and Hua Mongoloids. Blacks ruled China until around 1000-700 BC. Blacks of China were known in historical literature by many names, including Negro, Austroloid, Oceanean, etc. by the Europeans. The East Indians and Mongoloid groups had other names like Dara, Yneh-chih, Yaksha, Suka, K'un-lun, Lushana and Seythians. Hawaii's last Queen and her Black brother (The Ancient Sea People)
ancient skeletal remains represented the earliest inhabitants to be Austroloids and Negrillo/Negrito. The Northern Chino-Africans were called Kui-shuang (Kushana) or Yueh-chih. By the beginning of the Present (Holocene) Period the population in China could be differentiate. but the rest of their physiology appears African. Mongolia. Blacks also lived in Turkestand. The socio-economic relationship between the Negrito and their neighbors is strikingly analogous to that found in Africa.1838 . An interesting detail is the fact that the Negrito *sit* like pygmies. This two-route migration of Blacks to China led to the development of southern and northern Chinese branches of Africoids. the earliest forms of man were believed to have migrated from the Asian Subcontinent to the Philippine Islands via land bridges formed during the Ice Age. Below is an excerpt from Nsaka Sesepkekiu -Student of African and Asian Studies . In addition to the Yueh Tribes along the north east coastal region. Transoxiana. I know of no other people who sit that way.University of the West Indies -Trinidad and Tobago who validates what is being said: . The relic populations of Vedda peoples found in Indonesia.000) years ago. with their legs stretched out straight in front of them. flat nosed. Their skin color is light by African standards (though pygmy skin color is also lighter than their Bantu neighbors). while another groups reached China by sea. A number of factors lend support to the out-of-Africa hypothesis.1913 Queen Lili'uokalani 1891 Queen Lili'uokalani Hawaii's last Queen 1874 Lili'uokalani's brother Kalakaua becomes king The original Black population lived in China and were the Negritos and Austroloid groups. Sri Lanka. and Arabia. and placed into categories designating Mongoloid in the north. the Ili region and Xinjiang Province. while the southern tribes were called Yi and li-man Yueh and Man. Africoid people from Kush in Africa began to enter China and Central Asia from Iran. After 5000 BC. Fifty thousand (50. The logical explanation for the presence of Blacks worldwide is part of a great migration. The Negrito *look* African. and Oceanic on Black Races in the south. People of the Negrito Race came to the Philippines. Negritos can be described as a generally under five feet tall. dark-skinned with curly brown hair. In Southeast Asia and southern China.
webtv. giving the People's Republic of China its first Chief Minister in the name of Eugene Chen. Under this program millions of Africans and Afro-Asians were killed from 1951-1956.html This picture below of Buddha portrays him as a Negroid individual with kinky. 1. Many Africans survived the Mongol invasion into the twentieth century only to be exterminated by Chairman Mao's program of Cultural cleansing. forensic and otherwise confirm that China's first two dynasties." The Agta of the Philippines is one such example. first. present in small percentages. Port-of-Spain. a Trinidadian of George Street.000 years ago and dominated the region until a few thousand years ago when the Mongol advance into that region began. flat nose. Gopinath. These Africans who fled the Mongol onslaught can still be found in South East Asia and the Pacific Islands misnomer Nigritos or "small black men. Indeed archeology. Albert Churchward's Origin and Development of Religions. The facts are well recorded in African. The mixture of the two races created the Yellow Race. China also has a series of pyramids and groups of people "minorities" in the South such as the Moi of Vietnam and the Nakhis of Southern China. Below are pictures of Black Chinese from: http://community2. coiled hair. who was of an African mother and a Chinese father." . native. Around 500 BCE an African living in India called Gautama would establish a religion called Buddhism which would come to dominate Chinese thought. Runoko Rashidi's African Presence in Early Asia and J A Roger's Sex and Race Vol. were largely Black African with an Australoid. East Indian and African-American history books. primitive inhabitants of China were black Africans who arrived there about 100. "Nagaloka: The Fractured History and Forgotten Glory of the Bahujan Indians. full lips. Even the oracle of the I-Ching came with a later African group. Kung fu and Tae Kwon Do. These Africans would carry an art of fighting developed in the Horn of Africa into China which today we call martial arts: Tai Chi. called "Madras Indian" or "Chamar" in Trinidad. According to sources from India (M. the Xia and the Ch'ang/Sh'ang. Contribute we still did.The original. Egypt the Light of the World. Cheikh Diop's points are well made when he stressed that the Yellow Race has racial characteristics of both Negroid and Caucasian Races. the Akkadians of Babylon. Any one who is in doubt should consult Geoffrey Higgins's Anacalypsis. Gerald Massey's.net/BARNUBIANEMPIRE/BLACKPEOPLEBLACK/index.
This dance was once common in southern Africa countries and once widespread on the continent before the influences of fundamentalist Islam and Christianity. The Afrasian language family includes six groups. Indo-Europeans Several years ago a major television network covering then President Clinton's trip to sub-Saharan Africa captured him being greeted by dignitaries. also. The dance focused on shaking of the belly. he was the first man on earth to preach the great principles off equality. 3. and other parts of Asia. but what is known comes from the words that can be reconstructed from their variants in the Indo-European Languages. In Egypt the category of traditional dances is called balladi. Bangalore. Even though a correction over earlier names. as. He made the Nagas to realize their own "mind power" as against the "mantra power" (P 13). or branches: Cushitic. Egyptian. Omotic. once called "Africa" only very shortly after the first Old European society had been established in that region. and Amazight (Berber). Aryan--applied to the languages of India and Europe which are derived from the prehistoric Aryan language. liberty and fraternity. the Indo-European or Aryan family. A member of any of the peoples speaking an Indo-European language. meaning simply "dances from the land". The dancing was once common among Nilotic people. A family of languages consisting of most European languages as well as those of Iran. India . the Indian subcontinent. 2. 8. And I quote from the Encyclopedia: "There is little known of the IndoEuropean homeland. North Street. Chadic (Hausa). pertaining to the people or nations who speak these languages. "an Enlightened Master from the Sakya clan of Naga Race. These are . Afro-Asiatic is a misnomer because these languages are spoken nowhere in Asia unless carried there by religious conquest. The dance has been preserved in Africa from the days of the Pharaohs. No. The Hebrew language belongs to the AfroAsian language family. A young girl dressed in a traditional skirt made from reeds was doing a dance with movements reminiscent of the Hawaiian Hula Dance. Indo-European means the following: 1. Semitic. in the so-called fertile river valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in present day Iraq.560 047 India ) Buddha was." As with the continental Old European civilizations.published by Dalit Sahitya Sanghatane. the Indo-European tribes started arriving in the Middle East--remember. A member of one of the Caucasian Races of Europe or India speaking an Indo-European language. Could this same belly dance be reminiscent of Northern Africa and Hawaii--since the traveling of Africans "FROM AFRICA--NOT TO AFRICA!" Now with that said let's tackle the once scarce history of the Indo-Europeans and their ploy to capture and claim what is Black African. Neelasandra. ProtoIndo-European also called Indo-Germanic.
Certain features of Old Irish verb forms can be understood only in the light of Hittite. Hittites were a Canaanite nation. Irish has as many features in common with non-Indo-European languages. spoken in what is now Turkey in the second and first millennia B. eastward to Oman. 1. The natives of Ireland and Wales used a Hamitic and/or Semitic tongue before they came into contact with Continental Indo-European ones. Semitic was actually near the last to seperate from the phylum roughly 6000 years ago whereas Kushitic became distinct 10. and northward to Syria (Jewish University in Moscow.D. Italic. Celtic. and Germanic. (Hittites were a Canaanite nation. Slavic. as with other Indo-European languages. Insular British Celtic tongues. Baltic.C.000 years ago. Albanian. and the two Tocharian languages. show certain peculiarities which are reminiscent of Hamitic and Semitic tongues. The difference between Hamitic and Semitic is more one of emphasis than of substance. and local dialects in various parts of the Middle East. Dialects of Hebrew within the land of Israel could well have absorbed Hamitic elements. Sanskrit. They have a close affinity with Semitic languages. Aspects of Hamitic speech are found also in Biblical Hebrew but not emphasized. that the Celtic peoples of Europe originally spoke Hebrew. the easternmost of Indo-European dialects. ETHIOPIAN-ARAMAIC IS AFRICAN--NOT INDOEUROPEAN! IT SHOULD BE questioned WHEN the word EUROPEAN is grouped and hyphenated with an ancient Canaanite or Hittite Nation. Vedic. both of which are extinct: Hittite and other Anatolian languages. This is a proof. 2007). to the objective reader.) The pre-Aryan idioms which still live in Welsh and Irish were derived from a language allied to Egyptian tongues. The present century has seen the addition of two branches to the family. THE HAMITO-SEMITIC. and Mycenean Greek. There are Arabic dialects that are Hamitic or reveal a Hamitic substratum. Both Egyptian and Berber are Hamitic tongues.actually NorthEast Afrikan languages native to Afrika from their southern origin in the Horn spreading westward to Nigeria and on to Morocco. the earliest attested in the IndoEuropean family. especially colloquial Welsh.. 2007). especially with Hamito-Semitic languages. Greek. then. This indicates that proto-Afro-Asiatic developed in the region of Ethiopia and Somalia and began splitting by at least 8000 BC (Jewish University in Moscow. Most of the ancient Canaanite peoples adopted a language similar to Hebrew. Biblical References: . There is Phoenician use of Hebrew. spoken in Chinese Turkistan (modern Xinjiang Uygur) in the first millennium A. The dialects or branches of Indo-European still represented today by one or more languages are Indic and Iranian. It's funny that some linguists would speak of a proto-Semitic language as if it were ancestral to all Afro-Asian languages. Armenian.
the Seleucids (Macedonian-Greek). Genesis 6:10. commercial and religious affinities are also considered. a fact reflected in the Bible. the Arsacids (Parthian). 1). Genesis 11:10 f. Turkey. Aramaic survives as a spoken language in small communities in Syria. the “land of the two rivers” was a British colony. where portions of Ezra and Daniel are in Aramaic. most of whom can be traced historically and geographically. Aramaic is one of the Semitic languages. e.) Aramaic as an Imperial Language Aramaic was used by the conquering Assyrians as a language of administration communication. (What is usually called "Hebrew" script is actually an Aramaic script.E. including that of Belshazzar’s feast with the famous "handwriting on the wall" are in Aramaic. which ruled from India to Ethiopia..The words "Semites. Genesis 9:23 ff. and was written in a variety of alphabetic scripts. and employed Aramaic as the official language. and Akkadian (ancient Babylonian and Assyrian). the Umayyads. 10. an important group of languages known almost from the beginning of human history and including also Arabic. it belonged to the White Sheep Turks. Timurids. it belonged to the Ottoman Empire. the Kassites. but more recently the title has been expanded to apply to others who are not specified in the Bible as Semites. The most important documents of this period are numerous papyri from Egypt and Palestine.. the Assyrians. the Akkadians. the Babylonians. The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon will not attempt to be a full dictionary for this Modern Aramaic. Mongols. Aramaic The language which Jesus spoke was the ancient Semitic language of Aramaic. and indeed are plainly called Hamitic. Abassids. Black Sheep Turks. then (about 700–320 B. Prior to that. 1Ch. and the Sumerians.C. and following them by the Babylonian and Persian empires. Aramaic was also the official language of the Assyrians. Genesis 10:1." "Semitic. 11 as Shem's descendants. Some of the best known stories in biblical literature. and Iran. Genesis 9:18. Seljuks. It is particularly closely related to Hebrew. Before that. the Sassanids (Persian). Buwayhids. Biblical Aramaic Aramaic displaced Hebrew for many purposes among the Jews. Heading backwards through time beyond that. the Amorites. Formerly the designation was limited to those who are mentioned in Gen. the Babylonians (Genesis 10:10) and the Phoenicians and Canaanites (Genesis 10:15-19). Ethiopic. the Elamites.). Shem (Genesis 5:32.g. but are derived from the name of Noah's oldest son.. which is best undertaken as a . Aramaic held a position similar to that occupied by English today. The grounds for the inclusion of these Biblical Hamites among the Semites are chiefly linguistic. the Abbasids again. Hebrew. the Aramaeans. Genesis 10:21 f. Some of the Dead Sea Scrolls were written in Aramaic. For this period. although political." do not occur in the Bible. Iraq. the Persians again. The nation of Iraq has only existed since 1932.
It is true that in Arabic very many features are preserved more faithfully than in the cognate languages. and many grammatical distinctions. these invaders and some of the Blacks mixed to create the Assyrians. or the desert regions. but where an ancient word has a modern continuation. seem at the first glance to be primitive. . These were Black descendants of Ham and they created the very first civilization in South Arabia (Arabia Felix) about 1800 B. Elamites). particularly in the interior of words. All Semitic languages—and all of the languages of the world were descendants of Hebrew or of Aramaic. Iraq (Cushites. but which nevertheless are only modifications of the primitive forms. After many centuries.C. Yet. The first whites to enter the Black regions of Mesopotamia were the Gutis who swept from the Zagros Mountains and attempted to Destroy Black Mesopotamia. the short vowels in open syllables. which in the other languages are more or less obscured. a great number of forms which. the Modern Aramaic use will be recorded. nearly all the original abundance of consonants. It has always been maintained that Arabic supported a close resemblance to the primitive Semitic language. They are also known as CushiteArabians to distinguish them from the Bedouin Semitic Arabians who lived in the part of Arabia called Arabia Deserta. Blacks are the first people to inhabit Arabia (the Adites and Cushites). Babylonians and the present population of the region. for instance. simply from analogy. Iran (Elamites. Arabic has coined. Susians. Cushites). On the other hand. owing to their extreme simplicity.separate task. The domain of Semitic tongues we can assign to Arabic only a relative antiquity. while perhaps the other Semitic languages exhibit modifications of a different kind. Black features and faces are still indigenous in parts of Iran and Iraq and South Arabia. The original people of Arabia were the descendants of Ad or the Adites.
1890 North Africa . Once the world was "Colored.1894 Samoa Samoa The pictures above were taken in the 1890s." .Samoa Solomon Islands North Africa .
Micronesia. Northern Marianas. Germs. Solomon Islands.All of the people pictured below are currently classified as Caucasian except the Oceanic Negroes (Samoa. and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Norfolk Island. a heated debate has erupted over Jared Diamond’s Guns. stewartsynopsis@yahoo. Kiribati. New Caledonia. Tokelau. Nauru. Samoa. an anthropology group blog that I contribute to. Christmas Island.com Jared Diamond on “The Japanese Race” Filed under: • • • • Academia Archaeology English General — tak @ 3:38 am Print At Savage Minds. Marshall Islands. has spilled over to Crooked Timber and picked up by individual bloggers elsewhere. Tonga. Cocos Islands. While some of the debates have moved to discussions on the . Cook Islands. Guam. Pitcairn. a book that explains European imperialism by geography and ecology. Tuvalu and Vanuatu). Polynesia. now three in number (here and here and here) with endless comments. Palau. The posts. Niue. Fiji. This work has been made into a recently aired three-part documentary on PBS.
the impetus that triggered so much blogger enthusiam was the question of whether the assumptions behind his argument are racist despite his public denunciation of racism. in East Asia as in the Middle East. Koreans and Japanese are joined by blood yet locked in traditional enmity. If that is truly what he is seeking to accomplish. This mention of the “enmity” between Koreans and Japanese (which by the way should not and cannot be compare to the conflict in the Middle East) is an appeal to one of the moral dilemmas facing humanity today: how can we stop people from fighting each other? Maybe I’m too cynical. This post is getting way long.icio. pottery shards. but he seems quite naive to think that whatever “truth” he will uncover in his field will solve geopolitical problems. As a good scientist he admits that he cannot conclusively and exactly reconstruct what happened — that would require more evidence. can bring to light historical truths and mend geopolitical conflicts. not because I study “Japan. and the domestication of animals (among others). came from the Korean peninsula. No wonder he is liked. I tend to agree with my fellow anthropologists at Savage Minds. In this article.” That is to say. historical. from the secong paragraph of this essay: . Like Arabs and Jews. Take this excerpt. and Steel is anything similar in tone to this short Discover article. and punctuating his subarguments with discussions dealing with body hair. I believe he needs to re-examine the political history of his own discipline. Here is his concluding paragraph: History gives the Japanese and the Koreans ample grounds for mutual distrust and contempt. Diamond explores the origin of the Japanese race. I found this article by Jared Diamond titled “The Japanese Roots” originally published in the June 1998 (vol. they are like twin brothers who shared their formative years. Now I am compelled to comment on this article.us tag for japanese anthropology). If Guns. (Here I don’t follow him: I don’t understand why rice agriculture necessarily gives people more military might. But enmity is mutually destructive. Curious. Today. the Japanese race. The political future of East Asia depends in large part on their success in rediscovering those ancient bonds between them. As reluctant as Japanese and Koreans are to admit it. linguistic.” and not because I carry a Japanese passport. so I’ll stick to the article at hand. In reading this article I realized why there is such a fierce debate over Jared Diamond. I read it right away. so any conclusion confirming their close relationship is likely to be unpopular among both peoples. he arrives at the conclusion that “Koreans and Japanese are joined by blood. His heart is in the right place and he believes that scientific investigation. such as the ones he conducts. the ending of this short article also appeals to a sentimental justification of his science. But he focuses on one particular concept: that rice cultuvation was of a higher stage of development and thus gave whomever was growing this staple crop an advantage over others during military encounters. though.) I won’t go into detail here all of his arguments — it would be much faster for the reader to plunge into the article herself. but because I now understand why my fellow bloggers felt so impassioned to critique Diamond. I can see why many people would find him appealing. and the knowledge of rice cultivation.minute details of Diamond’s argument. By slowly moving through archaeological. But for the most part I have stayed out of the discussion because I have neither read his book nor seen the television program. and genetic evidence. Germs. Just like the way Diamond at the end of the PBS special reportedly shed tears in an African hospital filled with dying children (as noted by Ozma here).19) issue of Discover (via cbuddha’s del.
for what it boils down to is that 1. what does Diamond say about Japan in Guns. allowed for the highest form of cultural development. hundreds of years from now. There are also frightening parallels in the history of Japanese fascism to the kind of environmental determinism used by Diamond. I think. who despite his engagement with Heidegger’s critique of ontology (or perhaps because of it).” The danger here lies not so much in the conclusions given by Diamond. Now Diamond does not argue this. Some Japanese critics have interpreted this book as using the argument of environmental determinism to claim Japanese racial superiority: he writes that certain climatic factors lend themselves better to philosophical and ethical inquiry. let alone compare it ? The myth of racial homogeneity has been dismantled by Japan historians. produced his 1936 work 『風土 人間学的考察』 (translated as Climate and Culture: A Philosophical Study). Germs and Steel? Japan was never ostensibly “conquered” by the West and proved to be quite superior militarily and . because to those who know Japan’s modern history. This is just too simplistic. AMONG WORLD POWERS TODAY. and 2. does he assume that Japanese all speak Japanese and only Japanese? Or if he finds evidence of rice cultivation in Japan it is immediate understood to be that it was left by those who came from Korea? That’s like finding. but in the biologism of his methodological assumption. he has some theory of civilizational stages in mind whereby rice cultivation gives a military advantage over hunter & gatherer people. however statistically sound it may be. But he shares with Watsuji a basic methodology of relying on environmental factors as a way to typologize groups of people according to “race. Once again he explicitly frames the stakes of his research in geopolitical terms. which snugly fit with the emperor cult of seeing all Japanese subjects as having a common ancestor. why is Japanese culture perceived as the most unique? Where is the evidence? And how do you even measure cultural uniqueness. Japan’s rising dominance and touchy relations with its neighbors make it more important than ever to strip away myths and find answers. since so many people ate sushi. technology. Why does he rely so much on the concept of race? Why. in which the game designers rely on the same assumptions. And of course. I mean didn’t people actually mix agriculture and hunting. as was often the case in medieval Japan (noted by Japanese historian Amino Yoshihiko) and is often noted in anthropological literature? Instead of reading these simplistic assumptions about race. Take the example of Watsuji Tetsuro. there must have been a mass migration of Japanese! But that’s not even the point here. is generally understood to have peaked during Japanese imperialism. mister. Sounds pretty racist. for example. are already thwarted by his first two sentence in which he assumes without providing evidence that “the Japanese are the most distinctive in their culture and environment. chopsticks and wasabi tubes in New York City and saying. and stages of civilization. I’d rather wait for the release of Civilization 4. But his hopes. a translation of the 1995 disciplinedefining work 『単一民族神話の起源―「日本人」の自画像の系譜』. the monsoon climate. THE ORIGINS OF THEIR LANGUAGE ARE one of the most disputed questions of linguistics.” Stop right there. THE JAPANESE ARE THE MOST DISTINCTIVE IN THEIR CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT. And finally. he has just reproduced the rhetoric of Japanese imperialism! I mean. These questions are central to the self-image of the Japanese and to how they are viewed by other peoples. he perpetuates racism by associating a group of people with specific traits. with which the Japanese race nourished itself.UNEARTHING THE ORIGINS OF THE JAPANESE IS A MUCH HARDER TASK THAN YOU MIGHT GUESS. This racism. most recently by Eiji Oguma in his A Genealogy of Japanese Self-Image.
The comparison to the Arab-Israeli conflict at the end highlights this absurdity: does anyone really think that the Arab-Israeli conflict will be settled by informing the participants that they have similar genes? PS. typologize people according to “race. Alan Baumler says: 7/28/2005 at 6:06 am But I will probably never read the book to find out. If anything this should prove his eurocentrism and blast his racial categories altogether. 10 against 1 usually wins. I love that the title of the blog is “Frog in a Well”! that is one of the few Chinese 4-character phrases that I know…(my mom used to call my dad “frog in a well”) 2. it’s hard to see how people could have started farming in the first place without passing through a “transition” stage. Diamond in this article points out that for a long time hunter-gathering was the more “effective” lifestyle in Japan. but perhaps was covering too much ground in this Discover article to give it proper treatment.” I think he might have left that part of the argument out due to space constraints or something..e. as you rightly say. I thought the book was too popularized for my taste. I was not that impressed with the Savage Minds crew. so they start looking for more land – and more land. as they seemed to be misreading the book (Actually.economically. that people will often use a mix of farming and hunter-gathering (is that a word?). when it seems to me that all that conflict about who really conquered whom is just an epiphenomenon on rival nationalisms. conquer): the population grows too rapidly for the farms to feed everyone. But it seems plausible that as you move slightly more toward farming. This is not to deny. Andrew says: 7/28/2005 at 4:21 am “I don’t understand why rice agriculture necessarily gives people more military might.) Mostly he is looking at how envioromental factors prior to 1600 led to the development of very different types of societies on the Eurasian mainland than in the New World. and other places. and more land. (Anyway. That’s too bad. of course. Comments (20) 20 Responses to “Jared Diamond on “The Japanese Race”” 1. because its not really ecological determinism in the simplistic sense you suggest. But I will probably never read the book to find out. in the book. Diamond explicitly notes this in GG&S. Plus. I don’t think he says much at all about Japan. until the farmers finally developed more efficient farming techniques. you necessarily move slightly more toward a sedentary lifestyle and a more crowded population. I think . He does not. and largely derivative of Crosby’s Ecological Imperialism. but it exists. farming also gives the farmers motive to expand (i.) What I find questionable about the way Diamond frames his article is (as you point out) the idea that “the truth” about their prehistoric histories will allow peace between Korea and Japan.” (I have not read the Discovery article. Indeed. Africa. The relationship may not be linear. The point is that agriculture feeds far more people per acre than hunting and gathering. In a battle.
I have been following all the exchanges on the book at Savage Minds. it’s quite a simplistic statement to make. Interestingly enough. and find it very good so far to. K.) in. Any of us familiar with Nihonjinron arguments of cultural nationalism and its predecessors in the imperial period have strong suspicions about anything which embraces the sort of teleological approaches based on environmental factors to get strong claims of causation that often float passed the intervening centuries and perhaps especially the transition to modernity. Alan may well be right about Diamond and I think many of the readers of Diamond who have chimed in on the recent online discussion emphasize his careful qualifications and retreats from any determinist argument – but it hasn’t prevented the warning bells from ringing. I think we could make too much of the offhand statement that Japanese culture is very unique. But Japan is an island after all and so the cultural borrowings from Eurasia were more sporadic. I thought of the exact same two books you mentioned when I was reading about DIamond’s arguments: Watsuji Tetsurô’s Fûdo and Oguma Eiji’s brilliant book 『単一民族神話の起源―「日本人」の自画像の系譜』 As you have already hinted at. but not really to the point. who know something about the enviromental history of East Asia would say about Diamond and Crosby. That is true. as one Crooked Timber commenter noticed – attributing the causes of current circumstances to hugely distant environmental factors. I think both of us were thinking many of the same things as we read about Diamonds book. on the face of it. Brad’s blog. 4. so many cultures throughout the world seem very different. Before the modern period. the former points out what happens when things go way to far (and I know everyone is emphasizing how careful Diamond is on qualifying his claims to prevent him from embracing any raw env. and Crooked Timber closely and saw also that you tentatively popped your head in here and there. I’m reminded of the only slightly related but much more objectionable example of Edward O. M. Of course. It would be very interesting to see what someone like Elvin or Totman. although not as entertaining a read. Karlo says: 7/28/2005 at 8:30 am I haven’t read the article you mention but I have read the book and I’d recommend that you read it. I’m glad you found some time to post here. and I think you simply can’t be careful enough in this territory.that most or all of them admited to not having read it). I’m currently reading his other book on the collapse of societies. . determ. Lawson says: 7/28/2005 at 10:59 am Tak. 3. Wilson’s “Consilience” which is probably the most shockingly brazen and frighteningly ignorant sample of how bad this can get in contemporary scholarship. pointing out that Diamond is looking at enviromental factors and that racists look at enviomental factors.
Many Koreans and Japanese are happy to admit some kind of racial connection between the two (although granted there were once many Japanese who riled at the idea) but in the historiography of the past century this kind of talk has only contributed to the mess… Japanese nationalists can easily claim “My ethnic group grew out of the stagnant and eventually despotic group that stayed on the peninsula and we grew to be strong and modern. We gave you everything you have! (I refer you to most old men I have spoken to in Korea about the topic of Japan) Rather than. as his title suggests) that Japan is homogenous.” (See Tanaka’s “Japan’s Orient”) and Koreans can say. or as the case may be. 2) I think I interpreted Ogama’s argument a bit differently than you did. The result. Diamond was usually careful in the article to discuss the diversity of both the Korean peninsula and the islands of Japan but I would. don’t have the book with me in Seoul) this multi-ethnic and more inclusive and flexible definition of Japanese identity is not necessarily better than the ridiculous notion (and myth. “Haha. however. is exactly the same: Scholars like Ogama Eiji (and Amino Yoshihiko. is perhaps another good example) have brought us a long way to considering the dangers of being less than very careful in carrying present day concepts of Japan and Japaneseness in the past.I would add 2 comments to your post Tak. Another reason why I suspect this kind of approach is very popular is that it bypasses the muddy waters of culture and the detailed contingencies of recent history that anthropologists and historians wade through in order to jump to the (ironically) more serene waters of qualitative data and the literally hard evidence of archeological findings – even when such information is still scarce in many cases. challenge the very efficacy of the approach here. as the “heart” is in the right place. your ethnic group is just a derivative of us superior and more highly developed mainland peninsula types. 1) You note the likability of a book like this. . Now we will save you our old brothers from yourselves. as Diamond suggests. like you. I took him to argue that only in the postwar. I took Ogama’s main point in this respect to be arguing that while one Japanese discourse of its origins in the prewar held everyone to be descendents of the emperor in fact the dominant discourse of identity in Imperial Japan (especially after its acquisition of colonies) emphasized the multi-ethnic (as opposed to the homogenous) nature of the Japanese nation (He shows this up front with two interesting quotes juxtaposed at the beginning of the book). stripped of its colonies did the myth of the homogenous nation truly topple its competing rivals. This kind of approach is certainly welcome but the framing of the questions and the consequences of proceeding certain ways in argumentation share similar dangers to our own discpline that may not be immediately obvious to those who believe they have found the path to greater simplicity and clarity. Books like this serve us well if for no other reason that they promote debate on these issues. generate productive complaints that the very 問題式 or problematic of the approach betrays fallacious assumptions. trying to convince both sides they are ethnic “twin brothers” I think that wasting ink on these kinds of debates is only feeding the flames and contributing to the ethnic essentialism and anachronistic silliness that the kind of “my ethnic group taught fire and farming to your ethnic group” or “my ethnic group conquered your island and developed into your ethnic group” which I believe should be excised from the entire discussion. Ogama notes in his conclusion (if I remember correctly.
Konrad: Thanks for clarifying my very muddled and misinformed explanation of Oguma’s book! Your comments. Perhaps if I find it in a used bookstore I’ll pick it up for that rainy day or that long flight. or would you only label a person racist if that person *maliciously* promulgated spurious beliefs about a culture? I tend to label people racist for the latter reason instead of the former.5. which is something I always find admirable. then I would have guess the entire population of this planet would fall within this category. as in real life. Anyway. though. Which leads me to… Alan & Karlo: I guess I should read GGS. as you point out. If understood without a critical eye. and yes. I guess it makes sense that more men are fed per acre with farms than hunting. Alan. I have no problems with this aspect of Diamond’s scholarship. and from all the commentary I have read in the last few days it sounds like he is empiricist and detail oriented. I’m sure it is an engaging book. and economic arguments. To my mind. 6. And I tend to label the former as just “misguided”. it would be fascinating to hear from scholars well-versed in environmental history. I suspect those who argue the case of materialistic determinism are just looking for a . But I would be bit worried if the methods and conclusions of his research are taken up in the political sphere. Oh. as is what he seems to be suggesting in the essay I read. technological. Reconfiguring Modernity: Concepts of Nature in Japanese Political Ideology). and when in the mood I love to watch documentaries on such topics. beowulf888 says: 7/28/2005 at 3:32 pm Question (for anyone who wishes to comment): Would you describe a person as being racist for promulgating spurious beliefs about a culture. but I doubt if these factors are the entire story. one more thing. I’m sure tons of books have been written about this topic (Julia Thomas’s book. if everyone who had a misinformed view of another culture (any culture) was racist. But like in the game Civilization 4. I won’t deny that these factors may and do contribute to the evolution of culture. doesn’t tending to a farm require more labor power and resources than hunter-gathering (btw I like this phrase!)? Well. Learning about how differnt types of societies emerged from different environments is rewarding in and of itself. he explains himself more clearly in GGS. comes to mind in terms of Japanese history). I’ve always categorized Jared Diamond’s arguments as little better than Marvin Harris’ cultural just-so stories. tak says: 7/28/2005 at 12:15 pm Andrew: Thanks for explaining Diamond’s agricultural superiority argument. As Konrad put it so well in his comments. it can essentialize cultural difference and possibly provide justification for ethnic conflict. “this kind of talk has only contributed to the mess” rather than uproot the source of the problem. made me think of another possible way to critique Diamond: the discursive history of social darwinism and the rise of nationalism in the nineteenth century. There seems to be a yearning by some within the field of Anthropology to explain away cultural differences using historical.
The most interesting element of this article is the linguistic argument — the existence of dialects in pre-unification societies complicates our dating of language evolutions — but it’s conjectural. and get much more food out of that than if you had put X amount of energy into hunter-gathering. But they are given no choice.simple answer (but I will entertain the notion that. they may have a racist.* In that regard. You can steal a weeks worth of food from a hunter-gather but you can steal a years worth of food from an agriculturist if you come at the right time. 8. Jonathan Dresner says: 7/28/2005 at 4:04 pm The anthropological faith that our common origins can overwhelm our subsequent divergences is touching. The other point that Diamond makes is that because agriculturists are so exploited. depending on the proponent. but the relevant quantity is the amount of labor power and resources required *per calorie of food derived. –Beo 7. imperialist. Agriculture can also be exploited by a hierachy much more than hunter-gathering. I won’t label them racist. farming is more “efficient” – put in X amount of energy plowing. I’ve always been struck by the lack of translators or linguistic comments in the early chronicles. This is . I’ll just label them silly . But if someone wants to argue that the modern American taboo against nose-picking is based on a cultural selection against the behaviors that facilitate the transmission of disease. The idea that recovering an accurate history of Japanese-Korean origins will have an effect on contemporary politics is a real leap of faith. etc. people are better off (healthier taller) being hunter gatherers. sowing. harvesting. I haven’t read any of the scholarship in this area recently. then he is engaging in the kind of essentialism that he’s accused of: only if race is a determinative category can the revelation of racial unity be determinative. Andrew says: 7/28/2005 at 5:12 pm doesn’t tending to a farm require more labor power and resources than huntergathering” Perhaps.-) best regards. If he’s serious about this. but I was under the impression that Korean and Japanese were much closer than his sources suggest. joe o says: 7/28/2005 at 3:49 pm Diamond’s argument is that agriculture leads to higher densities of population. Agicultural basedhierachies can include a full time military to conquer other areas. irrigating. but as yet unproven. ignoring 1500 years of independent competition/contact/conflict/colonialism/commerce. Also. religious or Marxist ax to grind). etc. which suggests to me that the languages were pretty much mutually intelligible roughly 1500 years ago. 9.
doesn’t tending to a farm require more labor power and resources than hunter-gathering (btw I like this phrase!)?] Only for part of the year.why farming can support a non-productive elite (artists. so everyone has to pull their weight. 11. depending on the crop. Which is why modern societies can get away with having only a few percent of the population working in agriculture. one of the big problems for the leaders of the American Revolution was keeping significant numbers of troops in the field at all times. born out of the industrial era. [Diamond has called the adoption of agriculture "the worst mistake in the history of the human race" because it gave us malnourishment. so early agriculture tended to produce large but malnourished populations. 10. until the Yayoi rice farmers developed good techniques of farming. But like in the game Civilization 4. In contrast. hunter-gatherers can only generate enough food to feed themselves. I would take it just as the “hook” that he uses to catch the reader’s attention and make the article seem more relevant to a popular science magazine. epidemic diseases. Note that farming produces a lot of calories. it is much lower for industrialized agriculture than for hunter-gathering. as huge numbers would melt away at harvest time. but ironically. this is a generality – as Diamond says. because the nonproducers live off (often. the Jomon huntergatherer lifestyle was more “efficient” in the Japanese environment. because the Japanese archipelago was unusually fruitful in providing food for hunter-gatherers. priests. . as in real life. the efficiency of industrial agriculture is much. transportation). take by coercive force) the surplus generated by the farmers.). etc. but in European terms year-round warfare is essentially a recent innovation. But you can still live with vitamin deficiencies. Andrew says: 7/28/2005 at 5:16 pm Re: the idea that revealing the truth about the prehistoric past will end Japan-Korea tensions – upon further reflection. famine. Pearsall Helms says: 7/28/2005 at 5:50 pm [Andrew: Thanks for explaining Diamond’s agricultural superiority argument. once you factor in all the energy put into food production that comes from fossil fuels (fertilizer production. Of course. farming machinery.] Interesting factoid: the “energy efficiency” of food production is much higher for “traditional agriculture” than for hunter-gathering. social inequality. Of course. etc etc etc. Traditional peasant life usually meant lots of sitting around in between periods of frantic action…perfect for going off to hack people up! I don’t know much about Japanese or Korean history. I guess it makes sense that more men are fed per acre with farms than hunting. Hunter-gatherers were/are often a lot healthier than early farmers because they have/had a more diverse diet. much higher in terms of amount of food produced per unit of human labor. this idea is so outlandish that I can’t really even believe that Diamond himself takes it seriously. since all the energy comes from fossil fuels and not human muscle. For example. but not necessarily healthy calories.
In this context Diamond is goodhearted. which is where the problem lies. of course. 15. Then he cites evidence from the physiology of the actual people involved (skeletal measurements and DNA) to resolve the issue in favor of the migration hypothesis. environmental determinism. by displacing historical dynamics to the silliest form of explanation. but what is his claim to a theory of history? Close to zero. 14. and for the same reasons I found your “chopsticks and wasabi tubes” analogy particularly apt. Please keep up with the good work here. and yes. 13. conscious or unconscious. plays ball with the regime. Darwin is exempted from scrutiny.12. Charles Park says: . Justin Yoshida (cbuddha) says: 7/29/2005 at 1:48 am I’m happy someone else found a use for that link because it was too annoying and I couldn’t be bothered to blog about it. The latter thesis simply makes no coherent sense of the development of global civilization which shows the heretical factor of directionality. The confusions of biological and cultural evolution have persisted since the time of Darwin. In fact. and the resulting theories of competition and conflict. John Landon says: 7/29/2005 at 7:49 am Discussion tends to focus on the secondary implications of Diamond’s historiographical(evolutionary) method. There Diamond’s thesis is really a non-thesis. although this is hard to detect/analyze in current methodologies. he explicitly says that both migration and diffusion are plausible hypotheses for the spread of rice. The great prize/stumbling block of historical theories is the rise of the modern. while everyone else is subject (justifiably) to close quarters. and it is interesting to consider Jim Blaut’s _Eight Eurocentric Historians_ for his acute (whatever one thinks of Blaut’s vies) dismantling of the theories current in this field. Diamond successfully coexists with this regime in a clever PR strategy. who first made all the basic mistakes. The subtitle to Darwin’s text Origin should remind us that racial extermination lurks behind the cover of a scientific thesis on evolution. Stentor says: 7/29/2005 at 7:40 am if he finds evidence of rice cultivation in Japan it is immediate understood to be that it was left by those who came from Korea? He doesn’t say that. Darwin catching fleas from this and other sources. The confusing influence of reductionist biology and the debatable assumptions concerning Darwinian givens leaves nothing but ‘flat history’ approaches. Herbert Spencer. My all-time favorite theory of Japanese origin must be the Lost Tribe argument.
I do think what Diamond is saying is that the natural endowments allowed the Europeans who are otherwise no different from the rest of the world to develop surplus producing agriculture to a sufficient level to enable them to develop their guns.” when one brother throws out the garlic breath bear . In Japan Origins which is the focus of this blog entry. But again remember that his intended audience is the lay public. technology diffusion theory. And I think the public is well served by such integrationists when much of real science is inaccessible to them. S. So it’s great if you find his side arguments interesting. I don’t understand some of your historicisms. But to suggest that the Japanese or any race are superior because of their natural endownments is silly.g. 2) The crux of Jared Diamond’s argument is that the practice of agriculture when well managed creates societal surplus which the society can invest in cultural development.” 5) I agree that Diamond is delving into territory that he may not be expert (e. And given the complexity of the issue. And sorry. 1992 Origin of the Koreans: a population genetic study. steel and social systems to conquer the world (they also inadvertently created germs also. Jared Diamond proposes the clash between possibly the Koguryo agricultural society of the 400 BC vs. history. assimilation is less likely and atriction more likely (Jared Diamond’s second and third hypotheses see more plausible). Certainly. See SAHA.7/30/2005 at 3:45 am I was almost done writing a lengthy comment when the screen disappeared. highly less efficient agricultural societies). hunter gatherer societies are apt to be. “Hey you two. the hunter gather Japanese Jomon. TAY. and J. In Guns. etc. efficient agriculture necessitats hierarchic governance which by definition requires a high level of organization. since agriculture enabled crowding to occur). 6) Many of you accuse him of being a racist but I find the opposite (and I find your finding offensive). genetics. Further. Further. I think he finds it necessary to be integrating findings and arguments in many disciplines of which he is not expert. Germs and Steel. I think that his premis is also compelling. anthropology. But theories are reductionist and deterministic by definition for with our theories we seek to surmise the world and predict it. 7) Lastly. J. Try to understand his discipline and criticze his work in a biology journal. he looks at the clash of an agricultural society (Europe) and the hunter-gatherer society (American Indians or in the case of Mayans. I don’t think it ill-serves the public political discourse since more information in such discourse is always better especially when the parties appear to be adhering to certain non-sensical mythos. more agricultural development. When societies are worlds apart as agricultural vs. Further. 4) I agree that Diamond’s premis is reductionist and deterministic. linguistics. as Tak suggests. you are closer to eachother than you think. that he is saying that the Europeans were so superior because of their environment. I think Jared Diamond does positively serve the current political debate between Japan and Korea. I don’t think. Am. Phys.. What is wrong with saying. Anthropol. having visited the country. 88:27-36 which concludes that “…the Koreans are more closely related to the Japanese and quite distant from the Chinese. I think he is in accord with modern genetic anthropology which proposes that modern humans have a common African ancestor (not ancestry). N. I know Japan to be very beautiful.). etc. Discover is not the American Journal of Phys(iogical?) Anthropology. 3) This premis is useful in the study of the clash of civilizations. technological development. It can be frustrating sometimes :-) Anyway here was I meant to say in abbreviated form: 1) I think it is unfair for you historians to be attacking a biologist’s popular work.
But I don’t see Jared Diamond who has love for the indigenous farmers of Indonesia as racist. I have been enjoying the exchange. Well written and imaginative. Charles.against the Sun Goddess? Maybe instead of thinking of themselves as descended of a garlic breath bear (extreme Korean nationalist?) or a pure race descended from a “Sun Goddess” (extreme Japanese nationalist?). as always. I especially found the details exhilarating. I actually enjoyed it (I would not have read it otherwise). who I thought distorted some of my claims but also made some valid points. I was hoping that a kind reader or two . at the same time as I say this. tak says: 7/30/2005 at 9:09 am I wanted to quickly acknowledge everyone’s comments. he makes similar points as you do. the Nazi concentration camp doctors. his prose conjured up for me a panoramic view of the historical past. Thanks to those who have graciously filled me in about the link between rice cultivation and military strength. Now I can go to sleep… 16. I apologize for not taking the time to reply to everyone. but frankly speaking I’m a little disappointed at how mean-spirited this exchange has become. In regards to parts I did not understand. how they procured food and stored it. The entry there has generated some good discussion. as crooked as this timber may be! First: I didn’t say that Jared Diamond was racist. but it seems that I didn’t give that impression to some of my readers. such as his argument about the rice agriculture revolution that ushered in the Yayoi period. thinking of eachother as brothers progresses the debate in the peaceful direction. I am both stunned and excited that my post is being discussed on Crooked Timber. I tried in my post over at Frog in a Well to be generous in my reading of his article. If there is any universal political responsibility for the scientist or scholar. I don’t mean any disrespect and I welcome any thoughts on my reading of Jared Diamond’s essay. but does this warrant an attack of this magnitude? That being said. epecially the parts in the middle where he describes what they ate. see here. I’ve been busy and just haven’t had time to respond. etc. Check out the rebuttals by our own Jonathan and Konrad. the American racial studies and Japanese internment camps. this post has been taken up by Henry at Crooked Timber. Of course. Thanks Tak. As the readers here probably know. Perhaps my reading was sloppy and my argument weak. For a list of links on the discussion generated by the posts at Savage Minds. what sort of language they spoke. if done right (and so perhaps its time to open up the Imperial tombs). I honestly appreciate the chance to re-work my thoughts and to discover a new audience outside my disciplinary shelters. I cringe to think about the origin of anti-semitism. So here’s my second go at it. I am also mirroring here my response to Henry (comment #52). ————– Hi Henry. live vivisections and germ research by Japanese scientists. I think shedding lite on the current political debate is one of them.
to beget the modern Japanese. from Jomon to the nearpresent. Your closest ancestors your parents. His opening and closing sections led me to think that he intended his article to be a corrective to the widespread historical misunderstanding of how East Asian “peoples” came to be. you will be familiarizing yourselves with the stories of your ancestors — your blood relatives. which he casts in a simplistic narrative of the conqueror and the conquered. In this regard. all interacting among themselves.g. in this article he avoids the term “race” and instead uses “people. as “race.. but it reminds me. As you go back further in time. This paragraph emphasizes the fact that these ancestors. I was disturbed by some of his assumptions. I am guilty of laziness. his statement about “culture” is touted as a given. I wanted Diamond to go a little further in thinking about the conceptual genealogy of the term “people.” he embarks on the twists and turns of the history of these peoples. I also felt that he was sensitive. Yet despite the things I liked about the article. Then you realize that the humans populated the Japanese Archipelago are ancestors you share with the other students in classroom.” e. Japanese history was made by ancestors common to all of us. “the Japanese people. quite naively at first but now confirmed by my second reading of the article. and that of my fellow Frog in a Well contributors. Although Diamond does provide evidence as to the environmental uniqueness of the archipelago. among other wartime and imperialist era details that cast Japan in a negative light. linguistic) and causal explanations (technology and the environment seems to be his favorites).” which I read. take this opening paragraph from the new middle-school textbook (in English. if the very terms for comparison must be defined according to the dictates of each individual culture? So without giving any evidence for Japan’s “unique culture.) Reading him I did not think that he was racist. In every era. are “blood relatives.” I can say. who were preceded by your four grandparents. These textbooks have hence been the target of protests from governments and citizens in East Asia: The history you are about to study is the history of Japan.” and so on. the Japanese are the most distinctive in their culture and environment. In other words. pdf) that was approved by Japan’s Ministry of Education earlier this year. I don’t think evidence is enough. Rather he was trying to find a way to debunk the racist sentiment between Japanese and Korean by presenting several mediating layers of evidence (archaelogical. from my own partial education in Japan and . as you point out Henry. My beef with him is that I don’t think the enmity between Korea and Japan. Besides. (By the way. to the history of the politics surrounding the scholarship on the origin of the Japanese.would help me figure them out (as some did). what “culture” is not by definition unique. from the school curriculum.” “the East Asian peoples. which in my opinion are the kind that help fuel the very racism abound in East Asia today. of the same language used by Japan’s cultural nationalists. if only mildly. can be helped by “find[ing] common ground” in the intertwined prehistories of these peoples.” This may seem innocuous to some. number of ancestors increases with each generation. This textbook was written by right-wing revisionist historians who are seeking to erase any mention of the Nanjing Massacre and sexual slavery. This is what I meant by him perpetuating racism. Now. As some others have already commented. Somehow this uniqueness is an essential part of the Japanese people from antiquity. physical-anthropological.” I cringed when I read the following sentence (in the second paragraph of the Discover article): “Among world powers today.
drink from the same river of 19th century ethnology. that this rhetoric of “ancestors” and “blood relatives” in classrooms did not exist prior to this textbook. including the research results of Japanese archaeologists and physical anthropologists which Diamond neatly synthesized in his essay. these facts are always interpreted to serve the respective nationalisms of the two (or three?) countries. as well as the genetic disconnect in an industrialized society where humans can alter their environment and ‘fitness’ as measured in social success has more to do with social position than genetic makeup. Piles of evidence shown to Japanese revisionist historians. there is perhaps no direct connection between Diamond and these efforts by Japan’s revisionist historians. Henry. . Social Darwinism is a good example. Also there has been no proof so far that arguing on the basis of historical evidence has actually changed the minds of these revisionist historians. and me too in varying guises. His thesis of environmental determinism is Eurocentric at worst and Eurasiancentric at best. too. And for students of Japanese history. However. But does that really matter to the Koreans and Japanese? As he himself notes in the second section. 17. genetic traits that contribute to fitness under one set of conditions may lead to an evolutionary dead end under a different set of conditions.” Reportedly. of which Diamond would probably consider himself to be a part. and I bet that Japanese archaeologists. Sure. Archaeology and ethnology in Japan share a history together with their Western counterparts. Diamond might respond by mentioning that Koreans. do not read Diamond’s work (although Diamond relies heavily on Japanese scholarship). Diamond is dangerously close to making the same mistake. Fitness is a fluid concept and is dependent on the environmental conditions of a given moment in time and space. But I was suggesting that they. environment. the revisionist textbook’s take on the Jomon people falls into the first of the three theories of the Yayoi transformation considered by Diamond. here (in Japanese). Diamond is attuned to this dilemma. As environmental change is constant. Perhaps re-thinking the history of the concept of race. are “blood relatives. This means that at least one item in the sometimes contentious relationship between Japan and her continental neighbors will never be resolved. and culture might be the next move. these phrases come right out of Japan’s wartime propaganda. Diamond also makes a convincing argument that the comparatively more nutritious and more easily stored cereals crops such as wheat and rice has allowed the agrarian societies of Eurasia to develope while the farmers in the highlands of New Guinea did not “develope’ beyond subsistence farming because their tuber crops such as taro are nutrient poor and are cannot be stored.from the textbooks I have seen since. Social Darwinism ignores this fact. I can hear you saying that what I am claiming here—of a connection between Diamond and these revisionist historians—is based solely on resemblence and association. but not enough. have not helped change their minds. Survival of the fittest in nature is based on the concept of the existence of genetic diversity and the resulting influence of these differences on the ability of organisms to thrive or perish in a given environment. The constrast in the development of civilizations between agrarian societies and hunt-andgathering societies is well made. Titus Tao says: 7/31/2005 at 1:29 pm Stretching biological theory to the social sphere is never a good idea. and the textbook authors.
webtv. this is still insufficient.000 BC. corn is more productive than wheat and rice and the argument that MesoAmerican agriculture is less advanced is invalid. after many centuries of mixing the aboriginal Black Anu and Black Oceanic Negro Africoids of Southern Japan became mixed and lightened till they became more Mongol. Now who in Japan looks like a ‘pale-skinned’ version of the prehistoric Black Anu of Africa? It is the Ainu of Japan.000 BC) state that in North Africa particularly the region between Dafur and Egypt.” I also found the reference to “blood relatives” in the new textbook particularly troubling. the present Fijian Representative to Los Angeles. are environmentally very similar to many parts of Eurasia. The Anu and other Africans in the Egyptian region were at war about 10. . The Anu and their heiracy including one Tera Neter lost out to the Black Egyptians who were of the same Black Negro race as the Anu.where Diamond’s argument breaks down is in the Americas. language types were used to determine migration patterns. Another group of Africoids settled in the southern part of Japan and that group was also found in Melanesia. While Diamond is careful in referring to the Japanese and Koreans as ‘peoples’ and not ‘races’. A more explicit differentiation should be made regarding the cultural basis of ethnicity. Indonesia and parts of Polynesia. The Korean/Japanese ancestry debate is even more tenuous. Germs and Steel.html and http://community. Japan (according to ‘The Book of Ani’ one of hte most ancient African religious books dating to traditions that go to about 15. it operates on a civilizational macro-scale that cannot possibly be applied to account for differences between Korea and Japan. SE Asia. The prime minister of Senegal.000 years ago). the Foreign Minister of Papua New Guinea. Agriculturally. Southern China. then to Southern Asia all the way to Melanesia and Australia.com/~lucumi/runoko. the Pacific Islands and to Japan. which essentially are of the same civilization operating on similar technology.net/nubianem ) Ivan Van Sertima. The Anu migrated from Africa to India. and many others have pointed out that there were constant migrations from the African continent to India. which often times does not have a genetic basis. and it made me rethink my own opinion of Jared Diamond’s book. Nevin T says: 8/1/2005 at 2:11 am Good post. Runoko Rashidi http://www. Many parts of the Americas.cwo. especially in the temperate latitudes. 18. Papua. 19. a Black race similar to Aboriginals and Africans called the Anu lived in the region. says the ancient texts. Even if Diamond’s environmental theory is valid. “Guns. Another migration took place from Africa to India to Central Asia then to Europe (after the ice finally melted about 20. Eventually. Susunomics says: 12/20/2005 at 12:33 am The Japanese origins particularly in the are of Language was determined by African scientists during the 1960’s.
stewartsynopsis. the Mersi and others. Marty Gensler says: 5/31/2006 at 12:29 am haven’t read enuf of diamond to judge whether he know’s what he’s talking about. the Mangbetu. These include the !Kong.Genetic testing may or may not determine that. it is also in the Sahara that straight hair and kinky hair among Blacks developed during the ‘wet’ phase and the very dry and hot phase of the Sahara about 50.net/paulnubiaempire see “African Presence in Early Asia. by http://www. Top of Form Name (required) Mail (will not be published) (required) Website Bottom of Form 14 . In fact. In fact. a few African tribes also have faces similar to many Chinese people. the Nama. nubianem@webtv.” by Ivan Van Sertima 20. These features we call ‘Mongoloid’ developed in very old Southern Africa’s high veldt or in the very hot by day and icy cold by night Sahara desert region. see http://www. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. some Zulu. many Sahara Africans. it also has its ancient varient in Africa in the region called Cameroon and in the Western Sudan.htm Both Korean and Japanese map to African languages and it is facinating why people continue to say that Japanese is not related to any other language when the facts are right there in Africa for them to research. some Twana.com ) Furthermore. phrases and other features that are identical to that of the Chinese.AuthorHouse. As for Chinese. In fact both Japanese and Korean ponit to that particular African region. but one thing is very clear.000 years ago.net http://community.” pub. Africans who head the Japanes language have concluded that it is basically an African language and they have determined that its ancient origins is East Africa and the Calabar region of Nigeria. a research that Africans have done since the sixties ( see the references at “Susu Economics.webtv.com/links_to_japanese_and_african_la. anyone who studies the very ancient Buddhist statues (including the Black one ) or the very ancient statues or the culture (including the round huts built by the prehistoric Blacks of Japan) one will find an African connection. where many ethnic groups have names.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.