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INCLUSIVE

EDUCATION

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INCLUSIVE 2

EDUCATION
TSLB3132
Topic 1
Introduction to
Inclusive Education
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES

CLO1…
Explain the concepts, aims and policy of inclusive
education

Assessment:
Coursework (Academic Writing) & Examination
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INTRODUCTION TO
INCLUSIVE
EDUCATION
•Basics and history of Inclusive Education
•Aims and objectives of Inclusive Education
•International and National Policy on Inclusive Education

•Special Education Program by Ministry of Education Malaysia


-Special School
-Integrated Program
-Inclusive Education Programme

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What Is Inclusive Education?

Inclusive education happens when children with and


without disabilities participate and learn together in the
same classes.

Research shows that when a child with disabilities attends


classes alongside peers who do not have disabilities, good
things happen.
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Inclusive Education…
…is about how we develop and design our
schools, classrooms, programs and
activities so that all students learn and
participate together.

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Let’s Listen to Ruby’s Story

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Benefits of Inclusion …

…for Students with Disabilities …for Students without Disabilities


1) Friendships 1) Meaningful friendships
2) Increased social initiations, relationships and networks 2) Increased appreciation and acceptance
3) Peer role models for academic, social and behaviour skills of individual differences
4) Increased understanding and acceptance of diversity 3) Increased appreciation and acceptance
5) Increased achievement of IEP goals of diversity
6) Greater access to general curriculum 4) Respect for all people
7) Enhanced skill acquisition and generalization 5) Prepares all
8) Increased inclusion in future environments 6) Opportunities to master activities by
9) Greater opportunities for interactions practicing and teaching others
10) Higher expectations 7) Greater academic outcomes
11) Increased school staff collaboration 8) All students needs are better met,
12) Increased parent participation greater resources for everyone
13) Families are more integrated into community

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Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2015

Groups With Specific Needs (pg. 4-15)

The Ministry will ensure that students with specific needs, such
as students with special needs, indigenous and other minority
students like Orang Asli and Penan, gifted students and students
in under-enrolled schools have the opportunity to get a high
quality education that is relevant to their needs.

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Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2015
• The Ministry sees particular promise in expanding the programme to
include schools that cater to more communities with specific needs such
as indigenous and minority groups, students with special needs, and
rural schools. (pg. E-22)
• The Ministry will provide greater support and programmes for students
with special needs, indigenous and other minority groups, as well as
“gifted” students, to allow them to achieve their fullest potential. (pg.
2-3)

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Basics and History
of Inclusive Education
The History Of Special Education

The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA) was


amended in 1997 and is now known as the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). ... Provide all students with
disabilities between the ages of three and 21 with access to an
appropriate and free public education.

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Basics and History
of Inclusive Education

•The fundamental right of children with developmental


disabilities to receive an education was the first issue to
mobilize the community living movement in the 1950s.
•It was widely believed that children with developmental
disabilities could not learn. The government, therefore,
accepted no responsibility for their education

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THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION FOR ALL:
ACCESS AND QUALITY
• 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child

• 1990 World Conference on Education for All (EFA)


by the year 2000, Jomtien, Thailand

• 1993 UN Standard Rules (on Disability)

• 1994 Salamanca Statement – on Special Needs Education: access and quality

• 2000 World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, Review of progress on EFA Conference
Millennium Development Goals (Goal 2 UPE)

• 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of people with Disabilities (Article 24: Education)

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THE UN CONVENTION ON THE
RIGHTS OF THE CHILD, 1989
• Article 2 Non-discrimination
Regardless of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion,
property, disability, birth

• Article 28/29 The right to quality education


develop the child’s personality, talents and mental and physical abilities, develop
respect for the child’s own cultural and national values

• Article 23 Disabled children’s education


ensure disabled children have access to education while recognising their need
for special care and assistance

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THE SALAMANCA STATEMENT,
1994
“… schools should accommodate all children regardless of their physical,
intellectual, social, linguistic or other conditions. This should include disabled
and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote or
nomadic populations, children from linguistic, ethnic, or cultural minorities
and children from other disadvantaged or marginalized areas and groups.”
(Salamanca Statement, para 2)

Inclusive schools are “the most effective means of combating


discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an
inclusive society and achieving education for all; moreover, they provide an
effective education to the majority of children and improve the efficiency and
ultimately the cost-effectiveness of the entire education system.”
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A UNESCO DEFINITION OF
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION, 2001
• Inclusive education starts from the belief that the right to education is a basic human right
and the foundation for a more just society.

• Inclusive education takes the Education for All (EFA) agenda forward by finding ways of
enabling schools to serve all children in their communities….

• Inclusive education is concerned with all learners, with a focus on those who have
traditionally been excluded from educational opportunities – such as learners with special
needs and disabilities, children from ethnic and linguistic minorities”.

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UN Convention On The Rights Of
People With Disabilities, 2006

Article 24: Education

• All disabled children and young people “can access an inclusive, quality, free
primary and secondary education on an equal basis with others in the
communities in which they live.”

• “Reasonable accommodation of the individual’s requirements.”

• Support should be provided, “within the general education system, to facilitate


their effective education.”

• “The education of … children, who are blind, deaf and deafblind, is delivered in
the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication for
the individual, and in environments which maximize academic and social
development.”
THE CONCEPT OF
INCLUSIVE
EDUCATION

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Aims and Objectives of
Inclusive Education
Aims….. are general statements concerning the overall goals, ends or
intentions of teaching.
Objectives…. are the individual stages that learners must achieve on the
way in order to reach these goals

Aims….. are the goal set


Objectives…. are the measurements which we undertake in order to
achieve the aims.

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Aims and Objectives of
Inclusive Education
Aims of Inclusive Education…

…to appropriately integrate persons with disabilities,


particularly children, in inclusive education programs, provide
specific, affordable specialist services facilitating inclusion and
transition from home/centre to school, and empower the role of
communities, families, persons (and children) with disabilities.

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Aims and Objectives of
Inclusive Education
Aims of Inclusive Education…

•Students will have a sense of belonging


•Students will develop natural supports
•Students will display more appropriate behaviour
•Students will develop true friendships
•Create strong educational teams

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Aims and Objectives
of
Inclusive Education

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Aims and Objectives of
Inclusive Education
Aims of Inclusive Education…

• Raising awareness of the benefits of inclusive education for the general


public as well as decision makers
• Enhancing the capacities of policymakers for designing and
implementing inclusive education policies
• Improving the teacher competences and practices for inclusive education

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Aims and Objectives of
Inclusive Education
Main Objective of Inclusive Education …
…Increased enrolment, participation,
opportunities and completion of schooling by
SE learners in academic and non academic
programs to join with normal children in the
mainstream
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Objectives of Inclusive Education
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• To raise awareness among society not to deny the potential of children with special needs and
believe they could minimize their disabilities when given the equal opportunities
• To ensure the children with special needs receive the rights to learn without any obstacles
• To build their confidence to achieve the optimum potential
• To ensure that they could adapt themselves with other children in the mainstream in order to
improve their living skill
• To improve the awareness and create a welcoming community in the school as well as outside
school regarding the different disabilities
International and National Policy
on Inclusive Education
Policy….
… is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational
outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or
protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organization.
…is a set of ideas or a plan of what to do in particular situations that has
been agreed to officially by a group of people, a business organization, a government,
or a political party
…is a guideline, protocol, etc

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International Policy
on Inclusive Education
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation) policy
guidelines on inclusion in education

These guidelines were discussed at the International Conference on Education in


Geneva in November 2008.

The objectives of the guidelines are to assist countries in strengthening the focus on
inclusion in their strategies and plans for education, to introduce the broadened
concept of inclusive education and to highlight the areas that need particular attention
to promote inclusive education and strengthen policy development.

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International Policy
on Inclusive Education
The UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960) and
other international human rights treaties prohibit any exclusion from, or
limitation to, educational opportunities on the basis of socially-ascribed or
perceived differences, such as by sex, ethnic/social origin, language, religion,
nationality, economic condition, ability.

UNESCO works with governments and partners to address exclusion from,


and inequality in, education. Among marginalized and vulnerable groups,
UNESCO pays special attention to children with disabilities as they are
overrepresented in the population of those who are not in education.

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National Policy
on Inclusive Education

Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation


in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United
Nations (UNESCO 1990). United Nations Educational Scientific and
Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). 1990. The world conference on
education for all (Jomtien, Thailand). Paris: UNESCO.

Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of


the continuum of services available for children with special needs.

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National Policy
on Inclusive Education

in the Malaysian context, inclusive education refers to creating schools


which welcome all learners, regardless of their characteristics,
disadvantages or difficulties.

the National Special Needs Education System was introduced in the


Malaysian Education Act (1996), and the Education (Special Education)
Regulations (2013) provide the legal framework for special education for
children with disabilities in the country. These regulations are applicable
to government or government-aided schools.

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National Policy
on Inclusive Education
• is reflected in Chapter 4 (Pages 15 -20) in the Malaysia Education Blueprint (2013-2025),
which states that the MOE is committed to moving more students with special needs towards
the Inclusive Education Programme (IEP) as well as raising the overall quality of provision.
• A series of initiatives under Wave 1 (2013-2015) which focus on strengthening the
foundation are being implemented while Wave 2 (2016-2020) will scale up the initiatives
with Wave 3 (2021-2025) assessing and consolidating the initiatives for further
improvement.
• a guidebook prepared by the Special Education Division of MOE is provided to direct the
implementation of the Inclusive Education Programme (IEP). "Disabled-friendly facilities
are being provided too in the respective schools to cater for the needs of these children."

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INTRODUCTION TO
INCLUSIVE
EDUCATION
•Basics and history of Inclusive Education
•Aims and objectives of Inclusive Education
•International and National Policy on Inclusive Education
•Special Education Program by Ministry of Education
Malaysia
-Special School
-Integrated Program
-Inclusive Education Programme
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INTRODUCTION TO
INCLUSIVE
EDUCATION (Lecture 2)

•Special Education Program by Ministry of Education


Malaysia (Program Pendidikan Khas)
-Special School (Special Education School)
-Integrated Program (Integrated Special Education
Program)
-Inclusive Education Programme (Inclusive Program)

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SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM


• Started before 1957 (for visual and hearing impairment students)
• In 1948 Sek Pend. Khas Princess Elizabeth was built for the visual impairment students
• In 1954 ‘Sek Kanak-kanak Pekak Persekutuan was erected in Penang
• In 1964 the govt. established Special Education Unit ; change to Special Unit Department in
1995 and in Mac 2008 to ‘Bahagian Pendidikan Khas” or Special Education Division
For government and government-aided schools, pupils
with special needs who are educable are eligible to attend
the special education program
c a t i o n
Edu ions
e gu l at Special schools (SPK) for pupils with visual impairment
R c i a l or hearing impairment
(S p e
a t i o n)
Educ 7 Integrated programme (PPKI) in regular schools for
199 pupils with visual impairment or hearing impairment or
learning disabilities

Inclusive education programme for pupils with special


needs and who are able to attend normal classes together
with normal pupils
‘Educable’
Able to manage In implementing the special education curriculum,
himself without teachers may modify the teaching or learning methods
help or techniques, the time for and sequence of activities, the
subjects and the teaching aids in order to achieve the
objectives and aims of Special education.
PWD Act 200
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(1) Persons with disabilities shall not be excluded from the
general education system on the basis of disabilities…
Access to
Education (2) The Government and private educational providers shall,
in order to enable persons and children with disabilities
(Article 28) to pursue education, provide reasonable accommodation
suitable with the requirements of persons and children
with disabilities….
(3) The Government and private educational providers shall
take appropriate steps and measures to enable persons
Categories:
and children with disabilities to learn life and social
1. Hearing impairment development skills……
2. Visual impairment
3. Speech impairment
4. Physical impairment (Article 36)
5. Learning disability
6. Mental impairment Prevention of further occurrence of disabilities
7. Multiple impairment
ACT 685 – PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
ACT
PWDs (2008)
36. (1) The Government and the private healthcare service provider shall
make available essential health services to persons with disabilities
which shall include the following:
a
prevention of further occurrence of disabilities,
Prevention immunization, nutrition, environmental protection and
of further preservation and genetic counselling; and …
occurrence
of
disabilities
Article 36 b
early detection of disabilities and timely intervention to
arrest disabilities and treatment for rehabilitation.
TYPES OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING
DISABILITIES

1. Children with Pervasive Development Disorders (PDD),


Autism, Asperger Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Childhood
Disintegrative Disorder or PDD-NOS.

2. Children with Specific Developmental Disorders – Speech


& Language, Cognitive Skills, Motor Function and mixed
specific developmental disorders.

3. Children with chomosomal disorder :


(Angelman/Prader Willi Syndrome, Down Syndrome ,
Klinefelter Syndrome…)

4. Children with other Developmental Disorders (Apert


Syndrome, Goldenhar, Syndrome, Noonan Syndrome…)
TYPES OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING
DISABILITIES

5. Children with Specific Learning Difficulties – Dyslexia,


Dyspraxia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, etc.

6. Children with Emotional Behavioural Difficulties – ADD,


ADHD, CD, ODD, etc.

7. Children with multiple disabilities.


SPECIAL EDUCATION
Pupils with special needs
DIVISION
Pupils with visual impairment or hearing impairment or learning
disability

Integrated Special
Special Education Inclusive
Education
Schools Programme
Programme

❑ Visual ❑ Visual
❑ Visual impairment impairment
impairment ❑ Hearing ❑ Hearing
❑ Hearing impairment impairment
impairment ❑ Learning ❑ Learning
Disability Disability
Early Identification & Intervention

Early Identification
• Literacy and Numeracy Screening (LINUS)
• Checklist (Screening instrument)
• Identify children for special needs to be referred for diagnosis
by registered doctors.

Early and timely Intervention


• Special Education -
• Trained teachers, teaching styles, classroom environment,
curriculum, extracurricular activities and assistive devices.
• Special Education Service Centres
SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICE CENTRE

Facilities:
Audiology room, Low vision room, Occupational therapy room,
Physiotherapy room, Psychology room, Multi-sensory room,
Common Rehab Corner and Toy library.

Personnel:
Audiologist, Speech pathologist, Peripatetic, Physiotherapist,
Occupational Therapist, Educational and/or Clinical Psychologist.

Services:
Audiology, Individual/Group Speech Therapy, hearing aids and
Braille maintenance, low vision and mobility orientation,
physiotherapy, Occupational therapy, psychology, itinerant service,
ear mould construction/production,
SPECIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM

Special School
- 28 primary and 5 secondary schools
- Pre school age 6-14
- Primary school 6-14
- Secondary school 13- 19
- ‘Teknik and Vokasional’ SRP level
Primary schools offer academic, hostel and food (6 + 2
years)
Secondary schools offer academic and vocational (5 + 2
years)
(Educable and diagnosed by qualified doctors)
SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICE CENTRE

Integrated Program (PPKI)


-started in 1962 for visual impairment children
‘Rancangan Pencantuman’
-selected primary and secondary schools.
-in 1963 classes for hearing impairment children were
introduced.
In 1988 – pilot project/classes for learning disability took
place.
5 OBJECTIVES OF INTEGRATED PROGRAM

Refer to page 25

i. All SNS have the opportunities to have access to


relevant and suitable education
etc
Objectives of Inclusive
Education
Main Objective of Inclusive Education …
…Increased enrolment, participation, opportunities
and completion of schooling by special needs
students in academic and non academic programs
to join with normal children in the mainstream

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•PRINCIPLES OF INCLUSIVE
•EDUCATION
• INCREASED PARTICIPATION OF LEARNERS

• REDUCING EXCLUSION

• FLEXIBLE CURRICULUM

• INCLUSIVE SCHOOL CULTURE

• POLICIES & PRACTICES IN PROMOTING INCLUSION


Topic 1: Introduction of
Inclusive Education

•Basics and history of Inclusive Education


•Aims and objectives of Inclusive Education
•International and National Policy on Inclusive Education

•Special Education Program by Ministry of Education


Malaysia
-Special School
-Integrated Program
-Inclusive Education Programme
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