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Ay last, etymology ng cuttlefish is koddi (Norwegian) which is testicle or cushion, but koddi is

derived from KUDEL that means pouch

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms
and their specific structural features.

A paraphyletic group is a monophyletic group from which one or more subsidiary clades
(monophyletic groups) is excluded to form a separate group.

The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean that is not near the coast or sea floor.

Enigmatic- difficult to interpret or understand; mysterious

Hemocyanin is a protein found in mollusks that carries oxygen in much the same way as
hemoglobin carries oxygen in human blood. Similarly to hemoglobin, a central metal atom binds
oxygen differentially, however in hemocyanin, this central metal atom is copper.

chromatophores - colored pigment cells that expand and contract in accordance with their
counterparts to produce color and pattern - which they can use in a startling array of fashions

Closed circulatory systems have the blood closed at all times within vessels of different size and
wall thickness. In this type of system, blood is pumped by a heart through vessels, and does not
normally fill body cavities.

Branchial hearts are myogenic accessory pumps found in coleoid cephalopods that supplement
the action of the main, systemic heart. Each consists of a single chamber and they are always
paired, being located at the base of the gills. They pump blood through the gills via the afferent
branchial veins.

Hyponome- “Siphon”
Toxic digestive juices, some of which are manufactured by symbiotic algae, used to separate
the flesh of their prey from the bone or shell
Nephridia remove metabolic wastes from an animal's body.
A cirrus (pronounced /ˈsɪrəs/, "SEER-əs", plural cirri, /ˈsɪraɪ/, "SEER-eye"), from the
Latin cirrus meaning a curl-like tuft or fringe, is a term used in biology and zoology for a number
of long, thin structures in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals

In the Nautilus genus, the spadix is a composite erectile organ in the male located in the oral
region which is composed of four highly modified tentacles and which is paired with a somewhat
smaller antispadixthat is also composed of four tentacles. The spadix is normally a concealed
organ but quickly becomes distended upon the animal's death. The exact function of the spadix
and antispadix in Nautilus is not yet known.

The siphuncle is a strand of tissue passing longitudinally through the shell of

a cephalopod mollusk. Only cephalopods with chambered shells have siphuncles, such as the
extinct ammonites and belemnites, and the living nautiluses, cuttlefish, and Spirula. In the case
of the cuttlefish, the siphuncle is indistinct and connects all the small chambers of that animal's
highly modified shell; in the other cephalopods it is thread-like and passes through small
openings in the walls dividing the chambers.

A whorl is a single, complete 360° revolution or turn in the spiral growth of a mollusc shell. A
spiral configuration of the shell is found in of numerous gastropods, but it is also found in
shelled cephalopods including Nautilus, Spirula and the large extinct subclass of cephalopods
known as the ammonites.

A spiral shell can be visualized as consisting of a long conical tube, the growth of which is coiled
into an overall helical or planispiral shape, for reasons of both strength and compactness.

Septa (singular septum) are thin walls or partitions between the internal chambers (camerae) of
the shell of a cephalopod, namelynautiloids or ammonoids.

Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic differentiation between males and females of the

same species. This differentiation happens in organisms who reproduce through sexual
reproduction, with the prototypical example being for differences in characteristics
of reproductive organs. Other possible examples are for secondary sex characteristics, body
size, physical strength and morphology, ornamentation, behavior and other bodily traits. Traits
such as ornamentation and breeding behavior found in one sex only implies that sexual
selection over an extended period of time leads to sexual dimorphism.

In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an organism to avoid observation or detection by other

organisms. It may be either a predation strategy or an antipredator adaptation, and methods
include camouflage, nocturnality, subterranean lifestyle, transparency, andmimicry.[1] The word
can also be used in the context of eggs[2] and pheromone production.[3] Crypsis can in principle
involve visual, olfactory or auditory camouflage.[4]

The shell colouration also keeps the animal cryptic in the water. When seen from above, the
shell is darker in color and marked with irregular stripes, which helps it blend into the dark water
below. The underside is almost completely white, making the animal indistinguishable from
brighter waters near the surface.

The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including
bivalves, cnidarians, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.


Iridophores, sometimes also called guanophores, are pigment cells that reflect light using plates
of crystalline chemochromes made from guanine.[9] When illuminated they generate iridescent
colours because of the diffraction of light within the stacked plates. Orientation of the
schemochrome determines the nature of the colour observed.[10] By using biochromes as
coloured filters, iridophores create an optical effect known as Tyndall or Rayleigh scattering,
producing bright-blue or -green colours.[11]

Leucophores are the last layer of cells (Hanlon and Messneger 1996). These cells are
responsible for the white spots occurring on some species of cuttlefish, squid and octopus.


Di-2, branchaee-gills