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RIYADH METRO PROJECT

STATIONS AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

REF DIVISION - SECTION TITLE

DIVISION 01 – GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

01000 TRAFFIC CONTROL


01710 HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

DIVISION 02 - SITE CONSTRUCTION


02810 IRRIGATION SYSTEM
02584 UNDERGROUND DUCTS AND UTILITY STRUCTURES
02780 UNIT PAVERS
02870 SITE AND STREET FURNISHINGS
02930 EXTERIOR PLANTS

DIVISION 03 - CONCRETE

03300 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE


03332 ARHITECTURAL CONCRETE
03365 POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE
03532 CONCRETE FLOOR TOPPING
03544 CEMENT-BASED SCREED

DIVISION 04 - MASONRY

04810 UNIT MASONRY ASSEMBLIES


04815 GLASS UNIT MASONRY ASSEMBLIES
04851 EXTERIOR STONE CLADDING

DIVISION 05 - METALS

05120 STRUCTURAL STEEL


05121 ARCHITECTURALLY EXPOSED STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMING
05500 METAL FABRICATIONS
05521 PIPE AND TUBE RAILINGS
05522 ALUMINUM TUBE RAILINGS – PARK-AND-RIDE
05530 GRATINGS
05721 ORNAMENTAL RAILINGS
05811 ARCHITECTURAL JOINT SYSTEMS

DIVISION 06 - WOOD AND PLASTICS

06105 MISCELLANEOUS CARPENTRY


06402 INTERIOR ARCHITECTURAL WOODWORK

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STATIONS AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

REF DIVISION - SECTION TITLE

DIVISION 07 - THERMAL AND MOISTURE PROTECTION

07115 BITUMINOUS DAMPPROOFING


07131 SELF-ADHERING SHEET WATERPROOFING
07135 APP-MODIFIED BITUMINOUS SHEET WATERPROOFING
07141 COLD FLUID-APPLIED WATERPROOFING
07162 CRYSTALLINE WATERPROOFING
07180 TRAFFIC COATINGS
07190 WATER REPELLENTS
07415 COMPOSITE WALL PANELS
07531 ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE-DIENEMONOMER (EPDM) ROOFING
07841 THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEMS
07920 JOINT SEALANTS

DIVISION 08 - DOORS AND WINDOWS

08110 STEEL DOORS AND FRAMES


08211 FLUSH WOOD DOORS
08311 ACCESS DOORS AND FRAMES
08331 OVERHEAD COILING DOORS
08412 ALUMINUM-FRAMED STOREFRONTS AND DOORS
08460 AUTOMATIC ENTRANCE DOORS
08520 ALUMINUM WINDOWS
08712 DOOR HARDWARE (SCHEDULED BY DESCRIBING PRODUCTS)
08716 AUTOMATIC DOOR OPERATORS
08800 GLAZING
08830 MIRRORS
08911 GLAZED ALUMINUM CURTAIN WALLS
08912 GLAZED ALUMINUM CURTAIN WALLS – PARK-AND-RIDE
08961 SLOPED GLAZED AND METAL ROOF PANEL ASSEMBLIES
08962 OVERHEAD GLAZING ASSEMBLIES
08970 MECHANICALLY ATTACHED STRUCTURAL GLASS CURTAIN WALLS

DIVISION 09 - FINISHES

09111 NON-LOAD-BEARING STEEL FRAMING


09220 PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER
09250 GYPSUM BOARD
09310 CERAMIC TILE
09511 ACOUSTICAL PANEL CEILINGS
09514 ACOUSTICAL METAL PAN CEILINGS
09580 SUSPENDED DECORATIVE GRIDS

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STATIONS AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

REF DIVISION - SECTION TITLE

09634 STONE FLOORING


09652 SHEET VINYL FLOOR COVERINGS
09653 RESILIENT WALL BASE AND ACCESSORIES
09661 STATIC-CONTROL RESILIENT FLOOR COVERINGS
09671 RESINOUS FLOORING
09750 STONE WALL FACING
09911 EXTERIOR PAINTING
09912 INTERIOR PAINTING
09960 HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATINGS
09981 CONCRETE ROOF DECK COATING

DIVISION 10 - SPECIALTIES

10200 LOUVERS AND VENTS


10245 EXTERIOR SCREENS
10431 SIGNS
10505 METAL LOCKERS
10520 FIRE-PROTECTION SPECIALTIES
10710 EXTERIOR SHADING ASSEMBLIES
10750 TELEPHONE SPECIALTIES
10801 TOILET AND BATH ACCESSORIES

DIVISION 12 - FURNISHINGS

12481 ENTRANCE FLOOR GRILLES

DIVISION 13 - SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION

13651 PHOTOVOLTAIC COLLECTORS


13652 PHOTOVOLTAIC COLLECTORS – PARK-AND-RIDE
13845 LIGHTING CONTROLS
13851 FIRE ALARM
13915 FIRE-SUPPRESSION PIPING
13916 FIRE-SUPPRESSION SPRINKLERS
13921 ELECTRIC-DRIVE, HORIZONTAL FIRE PUMPS
13967 CLEAN-AGENT EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS
13975 STANDPIPES AND HOSES

DIVISION 14 - CONVEYING SYSTEMS

14210 ELECTRIC TRACTION ELEVATORS


14310 ESCALATORS

DIVISION 15 – MECHANICAL

15050 BASIC MECHANICAL MATERIALS AND METHODS

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STATIONS AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

REF DIVISION - SECTION TITLE

15060 HANGERS AND SUPPORTS


15071 MECHANICAL VIBRATION CONTROLS AND SEISMIC RESTRAINTS
15075 MECHANICAL IDENTIFICATION
15081 DUCT INSULATION
15082 EQUIPMENT INSULATION
15083 PIPE INSULATION
15110 VALVES
15121 PIPE EXPANSION FITTINGS AND LOOPS
15122 METERS AND GAGES
15170 MOTORS
15182 STEAM AND CONDENSATE PIPING
15183 REFRIGERANT PIPING
15191 FUEL OIL PIPING
15411 WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPING
15420 DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPING
15430 PLUMBING SPECIALTIES
15440 PLUMBING FIXTURES
15441 WATER DISTRIBUTION PUMPS
15444 PACKAGED BOOSTER PUMPS
15445 SEWAGE PUMPS
15446 SUMP PUMPS
15450 POTABLE-WATER STORAGE TANKS
15485 ELECTRIC, DOMESTIC WATER HEATERS
15671 CONDENSING UNITS
15736 SELF-CONTAINED AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS (15 TONS AND SMALLER)
15737 SELF-CONTAINED AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS (LARGER THAN 15 TONS)
15738 SPLIT-SYSTEM AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS
15763 FAN-COIL UNITS
15782 ROOFTOP UNITS
15815 METAL DUCTS
15816 HVAC CASINGS
15820 DUCT ACCESSORIES
15836 AXIAL FANS
15837 CENTRIFUGAL FANS
15853 POWER VENTILATORS
15854 CENTRAL-STATION AIR-HANDLING UNITS
15855 DIFFUSERS, REGISTERS AND GRILLES
15861 AIR FILTERS
15900 BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
15990 TESTING, ADJUSTING AND BALANCING

DIVISION 16 - ELECTRICAL

16050 BASIC ELECTRICAL MATERIALS AND METHODS


16060 GROUNDING AND BONDING
16120 CONDUCTORS AND CABLES
16124 MEDIUM VOLTAGE CABLES

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STATIONS AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

REF DIVISION - SECTION TITLE

16130 RACEWAYS AND BOXES


16139 CABLE TRAYS
16140 WIRING DEVICES
16145 LIGHTING CONTROL DEVICES
16231 PACKAGED ENGINE GENERATORS
16264 STATIC UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
16265 CENTRAL BATTERY INVERTER
16280 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CAPACITOR
16312 SECONDARY UNIT SUBSTATION

16341 MEDIUM-VOLTAGE SWITCHGEAR


16350 MEDIUM-VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
16410 ENCLOSED SWITCHES AND CIRCUIT BREAKERS
16415 TRANSFER SWITCHES
16441 SWITCHBOARDS
16442 PANELBOARDS
16450 ENCLOSED BUS ASSEMBLIES
16482 MOTOR CONTROL CENTERS
16511 INTERIOR LIGHTING
16521 EXTERIOR LIGHTING

Initial Date

PM Confirmed

Initial Date

PMC Verified

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TRAFFIC CONTROL

SECTION 01000 – TRAFFIC CONTROL

PART 1- GENERAL

1.1 DESCRIPTION

A. This Section includes:

1. Traffic Control Requirements.


2. Quality Assurance.
3. Dust Control.

1.2 SUBMITTALS

A. Shop Drawings

1. Shop drawings for all areas requiring traffic regulation, even if such areas are not
shown on the contract drawings to include but not be limited to:

a. Identify existing services and access to adjacent properties


b. Detail congested areas at a scale of 1:250.
c. Vehicular segregation and routing.
d. Proposed detours during construction.
e. Employee parking areas

B. Method statement for dust control.

1.3 GENERAL TRAFFIC CONTROL REQUIREMENTS

A. Contractor shall maintain and protect vehicular and pedestrian traffic (including plant
staff) through all construction areas.

1. Work shall include but not necessarily be limited to furnishing, erecting and
maintaining temporary traffic control devices including barriers, barricades, cones,
drums, warning signs directional signage and lights.

C. Contractor shall ensure that adequate access is maintained at all times to properties
affected by construction activities.

1. Replace access ways with the same width, standard and surface type as the
existing access facilities.

a. A minimum width of 3 m shall be provided.


b. The Engineer shall agree to the layout, width and construction details of all
access ways prior to construction.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL

2. The access locations to be maintained are not shown on the Drawings.


3. All existing access ways; paved or unpaved, shall be maintained at all times during
the contract period unless specifically authorized otherwise by the Engineer in
writing.

D. Detour Works and access to the site shall include but not necessarily be limited to:

1. Field surveys,
2. Construction and maintenance of paved and unpaved detour carriage ways
including earthwork,
3. Providing and installing barriers, drainage, lighting, traffic signals, signs,
barricades, and other traffic control devices.
4. Drawings showing details of the proposed Detour Works shall be submitted to the
Engineer for approval.
5. Temporary protection of existing utility services as required by the Engineer.
6. Restoration of the Detour sites to their original condition (or such other condition
as directed or approved by the Engineer) when the Detours are no longer required.

1.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Traffic Safety Supervisor

1. Provide a competent Traffic Safety Supervisor approved by the Engineer, to


oversee the maintenance of vehicular and pedestrian traffic operations. This
supervisor may have collateral duties but he must give adequate time and attention
to traffic safety as required by job site conditions.

a. Supervisor shall be available at all times,


b. Supervisor shall have received traffic safety training or shall have had
previous experience regulating traffic flow through construction work areas.

2. The Traffic Safety Supervisor's duties and responsibilities shall include but not
necessarily be limited to the following:

a. Maintain traffic flow through and around the construction site as required by
these Contract Documents.
b. Coordinate traffic control procedures with all relevant authorities including
the plant operating staff,
c. Inspect the condition and location of traffic control devices to ensure that they
are in proper working order, clean, visible and conform to these specifications.
d. Establish traffic control requirements and develop the appropriate control
procedures.
e. Provide and maintain such devices as are necessary for safe and efficient
traffic movement. Ensure that these devices are in place at the required time.
There will include backup alarms on equipment and haul trucks.
f. Coordinate traffic control operations, including maintenance, with the
Engineer.
g. Review the Contractor's material storage and handling procedures with respect
to traffic safety and operation.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL

h. Conduct an initial traffic safety meeting with Contractor, Subcontractor


Superintendents and other Contractors prior to beginning construction.
Review traffic control procedures, safety, barricading, traffic speeds, flagman,
diversion on the site.
i. Conduct periodic meetings at least monthly to review traffic control problems
and implement solutions.

1. Provide the Engineer with minutes summarizing all discussions.


2. The Engineer may elect to attend these meetings.

B. Flagmen

1. Persons acting as flagmen shall be:

a. Physically and mentally qualified


b. Trained in their duties, and
c. Courteous.

2. Each flagman on duty shall wear appropriate and distinctive apparel as approved
by the Engineer.

a. Shall be equipped with a STOP/GO sign conforming to these Specifications.


b. Reflective apparel is required for flagging during darkness.

1.5 DUST CONTROL

A. Contractor shall prevent nuisance conditions from developing as a result of dust.

B. Dust control shall be by watering using tanker trucks with spray attachments or by
other approved methods at no additional cost to the Employer.

C. Submit for approval by the Engineer.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

A. All traffic control devices shall be approved by the Engineer before being used on the
Site.

1. After the initial use is complete, the Contractor may reuse any approved items as
the need arises.

B. All sign panels, barricades, drums, vertical panels and flagmen's paddles shall be
reflectorized.

1. Painting shall not constitute an approved substitute for reflectorization.

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C. Barricades shall be made of metal or plastic and shall collapse when tipped over.

1. Barricades made of wood will not be permitted.

D. Cones shall be manufactured of a material capable of withstanding impact without


damage to the cones or vehicles.

1. All cones shall be red and shall have a white reflectorized band.
2. Cones shall be capable of remaining upright during normal traffic flow and wind
conditions in the area where they are used.

E. Vertical panels shall be constructed of metal or plastic.

1. Wood construction will not be permitted.

F. Warning lights shall be Type A (low intensity flashing), or Type C (steady burn).

1. Shall meet the minimum requirement of the Institute of Transportation Engineers


"Standard for Flashing and Steady-Burn Barricade Warning Lights".

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 APPLICATION OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES

A. Provide and maintain traffic control devices, both inside and outside the Contract
Limits, as needed to direct traffic and ensure vehicular and pedestrian safety.

B. Prior to beginning construction, erect the necessary signs, barricades, and other traffic
control devices.

1. Remove or cover all warning signs except those required for public safety during
non-working hours or when construction in that area is completed.
2. Cover signs with either metal or plywood sheets so that the entire sign cannot be
seen by on-coming traffic.

C. Use traffic Control devices only as long as they are needed.

1. Only those devices that apply to conditions actually in existence shall be in place.

D. Reflective materials on signs, drums, barricades, and other devices shall be kept clean,
free from dirt, mud and road grime.

1. Scratches, rips, and tears in the sheeting shall be promptly repaired by the
Contractor to the Engineer's satisfaction.
2. Reflective sheeting materials shall maintain a reflectivity of not less than 50% of
their design intensity values.

E. Traffic Control Devices

1. Shall be supplied and maintained by the Contractor.

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TRAFFIC CONTROL

2. Shall be relocated, realigned or replaced as necessary.


3. Which are damaged, lost, stolen, destroyed or deemed unacceptable shall be
promptly replaced by the Contractor without additional payment or compensation.

F. Warning lights shall be securely fixed to barricades or drums used singly or in


combination with other devices, unless otherwise specified.

END OF SECTION 01000

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SECTION 01710 - HEALTH AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.01 SUMMARY

A. The Employer and Engineer are committed to the safety and health of all persons
associated with the operations of the Riyadh Metro Project and its surroundings.
However, the Contractor has the sole responsibility for developing and implementing
the health and safety plan for all work. Safety is a cornerstone of operations and must be
regarded as a paramount priority for every Contractor engaging in work at the Project.
These Contract specifications must not be considered as inclusive of all safety and
health requirements for work at the Project. Instead they are a guideline that must be
addressed while developing the approved Contractor site specific health and safety plan
(SSSP). The Contractor’s SSSP shall be submitted and approved by Engineer prior to
mobilization to the Site.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

Not used.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 CONTRACTOR’S SAFETY OBLIGATIONS

A. The Contractor shall be solely and completely responsible for safety conditions on the
site including the safety of all persons and property inside and adjacent to the site during
the Contract. These requirements shall apply continuously for the duration of the
Contract and shall not be limited to normal business hours or other time constraints, nor
be reduced or diminished in any way because the Contractor is not given sole
occupation of the site (total or partial). The Contractor is fully responsible for the safety
of workers engaged upon the works, and of all other persons working at or visiting the
site including any employees of other contractors working within the site, and for the
protection of the public in the vicinity of the site. The Contractor shall formulate and
implement their safety plan, in accordance with the requirements of this section.

B. In accordance with the Contract documents, the Contractor shall submit the proposed
Contractor SSSP and following receipt of Engineer’s Representative’s written notice of
“no objection” it shall become the Contractor’s SSSP.

3.2 LAWS AND REGULATIONS

A. The Contractor shall ensure that all operations carried-out under the Contract shall, at all
times, comply in all respects with all applicable laws and best industry practices.

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3.3 CONTRACTOR’S SAFETY ORGANIZATION

A. The Contractor shall designate a senior member of its staff who shall be responsible and
directly accountable to the Engineer’s Representative in all matters concerning safety.

B. The Contractor shall provide and maintain an organizational structure of safety staff to
effectively implement and manage occupational safety and health on site. Such staff
shall be engaged solely in safety assurance. Responsibilities and task subdivision shall
be clearly identified in the SSSP, and shall show direct lines of communication and
reporting between the Contractor’s safety manager and the Contractor’s representative.

C. The Contractor shall, within 30 days of the notice to proceed, appoint a safety manager
whose full-time duties shall be solely connected with the safety (environmental,
industrial health, and hygiene) aspects of the works and who shall report directly to the
Contractor’s designated program manager. Such an appointment shall be subject to a
statement of no objection by the Engineer’s Representative. The safety manager shall be
suitably qualified and experienced, and shall implement, maintain, and monitor
compliance with the SSSP and all safety procedures, and be based full-time on site.

D. The Contractor shall not remove the appointed safety manager without the prior written
consent of the Engineer’s Representative, and any replacement shall be nominated by
the Contractor at the same time consent is sought.

E. The Contractor shall authorize the safety manager and safety staff to issue stop orders to
employees of the Contractor and its Subcontractors of any tier, including labor-only, to
cease operations and take urgent and appropriate action to make safe the site and
prevent unsafe working practices or other infringements of the SSSP or breach of any
applicable laws.

F. The Contractor shall ensure that each Subcontractor of every tier, including labor-only,
shall have safety supervisory staff that shall have appropriate experience and training.
Such staff shall be responsible for implementing and maintaining the appropriate
elements of the SSSP. They shall devote a substantial amount of their time to such
duties. All Subcontractors shall, at all times, conform to the SSSP.

G. The Contractor shall not commence any work on site until the safety manager has been
appointed, and commenced duties on the site and the appropriate Subcontractor’s safety
staff are in place and the Contractor’s SSSP has been reviewed and approved by the
Engineer.

3.3 RISK ASSESSMENT

A. In order to formulate a specific and competent SSSP, the Contractor shall carry-out a
detailed risk assessment against the scope and nature of the Contracted works and the
particular site conditions. The risk assessment shall be conducted by a qualified and
suitably experienced team comprising planning, design, and supervisory staff led by the
safety manager. The documentation arising from this process shall contain a
comprehensive schedule of all perceived risks and the proposed elimination and
mitigation measures necessary to reduce the risk to a minimum. Risk assessment
documentation shall form part of the auditable safety records.

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3.4 THE SITE SPECIFIC SAFETY PLAN

A. Content of the SSSP.

− The SSSP shall be subject to regular review against evolving regulations, the
scope and program of the works, ambient conditions, or as directed by
Engineer’s Representative. For it to be considered adequate, the SSSP shall
contain, but not be limited to, the following elements developed to suit the
works:
− A policy statement signed by the Consortium’s Authorized Representative
declaring that occupational health and safety shall be given the highest
practicable priority in all aspects of the Contract and in the discharge of their
contractual obligations. It shall also clearly state that the Contractor’s
representative shall be directly accountable in all matters of safety at the site.
− An organization chart identifying all full-time safety personnel and all site staff
with particular responsibilities for safety under the Contract and the SSSP. The
chart shall indicate seniority and show reporting lines. In particular, the direct
relationship between the safety manager and the Contractor’s representative
shall be clearly shown. A safety responsibility statement for each position
shown on the chart shall be appended to the chart.
− Details of the authority vested in the safety manager and their staff, which
would enable them to take or instruct appropriate action, including the stoppage
of activities likely to cause injury, in the event of a contravention of the SSSP.
− Details of radio or other communication facilities necessary to enable the safety
manager and the Contractor’s key staff to communicate efficiently and
effectively on safety matters with the Contractor’s personnel at all Site
workplaces and with Engineer’s staff.
− The means by which the Contractor shall ensure that specialist health and safety
procedures proposed by Subcontractors of all levels will be reviewed and
assimilated into the Contractor’s safety plan.
− The means by which the Contractor shall ensure that Subcontractors of all levels
comply with their occupational health and safety standards, and all applicable
laws. This section should include details of any health and safety promotion
initiatives and award scheme.
− Emergency procedures that detail the organization of rescue and damage
limitation teams to deal with emergency situations on site such as, but not
limited to: seismic activity, fire, loss of power, flooding, or the evacuation of a
seriously injured person from a remote or difficult site location, etc. The
emergency procedures shall specify the equipment, its location and the
frequency of practice drills. The Contractor shall also detail how information on
such services and arrangements will be made known to those at work on the
Site.
− Arrangements for training the Contractor’s entire site staff to enable them to
properly undertake their health and safety responsibilities. The Contractor shall
keep records of such training for health and safety audit purposes. Upon
completion of their training, the Contractor’s site staff shall sign a copy of their
assigned safety responsibilities statement which shall also be kept by the
Contractor for audit purposes.

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− Arrangements for the induction and job specific health and safety training of all
workers including those of Subcontractors at all level. The proposals shall
include the syllabus, frequency, and application of such training courses. Such
training shall be conducted by suitably qualified persons and repeated at
intervals of six months. All workers shall receive the agreed induction training
before they are allowed to commence work on Site. The identification card
numbers and names of attendees shall be kept for audit purposes. In addition, all
visitors shall receive the agreed to induction safety training prior to being
allowed onto the construction site.
− Arrangements which allows the Contractor to positively identify each individual
who has successfully completed safety training. Those who can not be
identified positively shall not be allowed to work on site.
− Arrangements to ensure that, at least once every week, all workers shall receive,
and participate in, a toolbox talk with their immediate supervisor. Records of
this activity shall be kept for audit purposes. The topic of these talks shall be
decided at the site safety meeting. Guidance notes and advice on how to present
the talks shall be prepared by the Contractor’s safety manager and issued to
those giving the talk. The names of those attending the toolbox talk shall be
noted on the toolbox talk form and initialled by all attending.
− Details of the quantity and specification of all necessary safe condition
monitoring equipment which shall include as a minimum, but is not be limited
to, temperature and sound level meters and appropriate gas monitors.
− The means and frequency by which safety facilities such as scaffolds,
guardrails, working platforms, ladders and other means of access, lifting
appliances, lighting, signing and guarding equipment, shall be inspected, tested,
and maintained. Maintenance and monitoring records for all of the
aforementioned equipment shall be kept for audit purposes. The Contractor
shall ensure that all the inspections and verifications are undertaken by qualified
and competent persons.
− Details of how the Contractor will ensure the protection of authorized visitors
and the prevention of unauthorized entry to site.
− Details of the proposed first aid provisions including medical personnel and
facilities appropriate to site conditions. This shall include arrangements for
transporting the injured (ambulance, stretcher, etc).
− Details of how where and by whom auditable health and safety related records
shall be kept and maintained. In addition to these records, the safety manager
should keep a safety diary to record all safety-related activities and events on a
daily basis. The diary shall be made available to Engineer’s staff on request.
− Details of the Contractor’s arrangements for site safety inspections to be
conducted by the Contractor’s representative. These inspections shall take place
at least monthly by the safety manager and daily by the supporting safety staff.
Reports of these inspections shall include the actions taken to resolve any
problems or shortcomings discovered during the inspection, shall be made
available for audit purposes.
− Details of material and equipment storage.
− Terms of reference, membership, and the proposed frequency of site safety
committee meetings. These meetings shall be chaired by the Contractor’s
representative.

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− A comprehensive health and safety inspection checklist for the use of the
Contractor’s site staff when inspecting the site. The checklist shall indicate the
standard to be achieved on any particular aspect of health and safety and be
compiled in such a way that will allow the inspector to easily record actual
findings. Critical substandard items shall be rectified on the spot and signed off
as such. Non-critical substandard items that are not rectified on the spot shall be
brought to the attention of the appropriate manager via the sign off portion of
the checklist for subsequent rectification. When completed the checklist shall be
kept for audit purposes.
− Details of the Contractor’s internal safety audit scheme to be implemented
regarding the safety management system and the physical Site conditions. The
audits shall be performed, against the conditions specified in the SSSP at least
every three months. The audit shall include the work of Subcontractors of all
levels. The documentation generated by the audit process, including score
sheets, shall be made available to Engineer for audit purposes.
− Detailed procedures covering all health and safety aspects of the Contract are
included, but not limited to, the following list when applicable. The Contractor
is advised that, in order to facilitate efficient document and standards review,
they shall consult with Engineer’s safety staff and use Client/Engineer’s
construction health and safety manual for guidance and assistance when
formulating these procedures for inclusion in the SSSP.
i. Work at height,
ii. Control of noise,
iii. Control of dust,
iv. Temporary illumination,
v. Worker welfare and hygiene facilities,
vi. Housekeeping,
vii. Traffic control and site transportation,
viii. Fire control precautions and fire procedures,
ix. Working in confined spaces,
x. Excavation,
xi. Tunneling Works,
xii. Hand held electrical tools,
xiii. Temporary electrical distribution network,
xiv. Welding/cutting operations and equipment,
xv. Personal protective equipment and clothing,
xvi. Lifting accessories (slings and shackles, etc.),
xvii. Cranes, hoists and lifting appliances,
xviii. Scaffolding and work platforms,
xix. Ladders,
xx. Contractor’s plant, machinery and vehicles,
xxi. Work over water,

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xxii. Structural steel erection,


xxiii. Blasting and explosives,
xxiv. Control of hazardous substances,
xxv. Hot working,
xxvi. Floor and wall openings and stairways, and
xxvii. Protection from falling objects.

B. Revisions of safety plan including procedures.

− 1. At any time, and in accordance with Contract Documents, a revision to the


safety plan or any safety procedure may be required in order to ensure
compliance with the Contract, the Contractor shall, following discussion with
the Engineer’s Representative, issue such revision which shall include an
addition, omission, or revision as applicable.
− 2. The Contractor shall review, on a continuous basis, the safety plan and
procedures and shall revise them as required in accordance with activities and
experiences on site. Such revisions, from time to time, shall enhance the
standards of safety being implemented on site. Procedures shall be reviewed
and new procedures issued whenever the character or extent of any activity is
changed or a new activity of different nature is introduced which necessitates
such revision.
− 3. In addition to revisions, the Contractor shall make a formal review once
every 12 months on the anniversary of the notice to proceed date. Such formal
review, which shall take no more than 30 days, shall consider all matters
pertaining to safety planning and implementation including accident reports,
inspections, audits, suggestions from meetings, and other sources including the
Engineer’s Representative and the Engineer’s insurance representative and
hazard analysis reviews. Within seven days of finishing this review, the
Contractor shall issue a review report to the Engineer’s Representative giving
the conclusions of the review and identifying the revisions to be made to the
safety plan.
− 4. Within 30 days of the issue of the review report, if required, the Contractor
shall issue a revised safety plan for consideration by the Engineer’s
Representative in accordance with the Contract Documents.

3.5 GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

A. Emergency and rescue procedures.

− 1. The Contractor shall develop site emergency response and rescue


procedures before any work commences at the site, but in any event not later
than three months after the notice to proceed. These procedures shall provide
clear instructions to be followed in the event of an emergency, naming of
responsible personnel, notification and cooperation proposals with appropriate
rescue services, and other authorities who would be involved and methods of
evacuation including use of helicopters and other necessary measures. The
procedures shall be coordinated with local fire and rescue and emergency
services as required. Emergency procedures giving full instructions and

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telephone numbers shall be posted at appropriate locations and in the languages


in common usage on site.
− 2. For underground works, trained rescue teams shall be designated for each
working shift. These teams shall receive professional training in emergency
response, rescue and first aid, particularly suited for the work at hand. Members
of the rescue teams may be workers assigned to underground work or other
duties.
− 3. Emergency drills including both the rescue teams and outside rescue and
emergency services shall be executed within one month of commencing
construction on any section and shall be repeated at no less than 6-month
intervals. Where circumstances justify it, the Contractor may be required to
carry out emergency drills more frequently.

B. Public convenience and safety.

− 1. All work shall be conducted so obstructions to traffic are minimized. The


safety and convenience of the public and the protection of persons and property
shall be provided as specified in the Contract Documents.
− 2. Barriers, barricades, and warning signs: The Contractor shall provide,
erect, and maintain barriers, barricades, lights, signals, signs, and other traffic
control devices in accordance with the applicable laws and to the extent
necessary to enable the Contractor to meet their obligations under the Contract
Documents.
− 3. Structural steel beams and other major structural components or heavy and
potentially hazardous components shall not be lifted and/or placed over
roadways or walkways that are open to the public.

C. Personal protective equipment (PPE).

− The Contractor shall ensure that all persons working on or visiting the site wear,
at least, a safety hard hat of an approved type, safety glasses, strong appropriate
footwear, and high visibility vest. The Contractor shall assess all works areas
and specify the appropriate personal protective equipment according to the
applicable laws, standards and codes of practice. The Contractor shall ensure
that Subcontractor’s workers of any tier, including labor-only, are issued with
the specified PPE.
− The hard hat designation on site is as follows:

o Engineer - White Helmet

o Contractor’s Supervisors/Foremen - Yellow Helmet

o Contractor’s Safety Staff - Green Helmet

o Contractor’s Banksmen - Red Helmet

o Contractors Other Labor - Color other than those listed before.


Changes to the project helmet color scheme are at the discretion of Engineer.

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− All PPE shall be properly maintained and replaced before the period of
permitted use expires.
− The Contractor shall ensure that all persons on site use the appropriate PPE at
all times. Training in its use shall be provided where necessary. Failure to use
such equipment shall be considered as conduct prejudicial to safety. The use of
safety helmets on site shall be mandatory except in designated areas such as
offices and canteens.

D. No minors (under 18 years of age) are to be permitted access.

E. Control of substances hazardous to health.

− The Contractor shall assess all materials for their occupational health and
environmental compatibility. A less hazardous product shall be used to replace
any material that is toxic, explosive, carcinogenic, flammable, or which may
otherwise create a hazard. Where this cannot be done, the Contractor shall
conduct a risk assessment and, if appropriate, produce a method statement
specifying the safe method of use or application which shall be sent to the
Engineer’s Representative, in advance, for a statement of no objection. The
Contractor shall maintain a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for all such
materials in the auditable health and safety records.
− Non-prescription drugs and alcohol. Controls shall be established and
maintained to prevent persons under the influence of drugs or alcohol entering
and/or working on the site. No alcohol or non-prescription drugs shall be
allowed on the site.

F. First aid.

− All parts of the Site where work is being carried out and all site offices shall be
provided with appropriately equipped first aid kits. First aid kits shall be in
sturdy weatherproof containers clearly identified and fixed in an obvious and
readily accessible location. All work sites shall have readily accessible first aid
facilities fully equipped and staffed during working hours by appropriately
qualified medical personnel. At all times, at least one person staffing the facility
shall be at least qualified as a registered medical technician. Such facility shall
be able to provide immediate medical assistance for serious injuries, and to deal
with minor injuries. The Contractor shall maintain an adequate number of
personnel trained in basic first aid. Such number shall be not less than one
trained personnel per 50 employees.

G. Fire prevention.

− The Contractor shall establish a fire prevention strategy for all of the Works
under its control and shall provide all necessary and appropriate fire detection
and fire fighting equipment, facilities, and personnel trained in fire fighting.
Warning systems shall be installed at all places where persons may be at risk
from fire and all personnel shall be given instruction in evacuation procedures
and basic fire fighting.

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H. Noise.

− In addition to complying with this section, all necessary procedures shall be


established and maintained to prevent people working on site or members of the
public in the area being exposed to unreasonable levels of noise. Such
procedures shall, where necessary, include the provision of noise containment
barriers and the issue of protective equipment to people working on site.

I. Contractor’s plant, equipment, and vehicles.

− All construction plant, equipment, and vehicles brought onto site shall be
inspected and tested, as appropriate. Each vehicle, item of Contractor’s Plant,
and equipment shall be given a unique identity number. This number shall be
clearly displayed on the machine at all times. The Contractor’s Plant,
equipment, and vehicles shall fully comply with the applicable laws, be
properly licensed and certificated, and be maintained in line with the
manufacturer’s specification. Copies of all such licences, certificates, and
maintenance sheets, etc. shall be kept in the safety-related documentation files
in the main site office. A system to control delivery vehicles and short term
hired plant shall also be established.

J. Communications and signs.

− General communication requirements.


o All signs, labels, warnings, posters, and safety information directed at
people working on site shall be in English and in any other language
used by a significant number of people working at the site.
o Communications regarding sub standard safety items may be verbal in
the first instance to be followed by written communication, as
necessary.
− Electronic communications.
o The Contractor shall ensure that radio and telephone communication is
available at all times between all parts of the site and the main site
offices. Such communication system shall provide a dedicated channel
for use in case of emergencies involving accidents, injuries, fatalities,
serious damage or dangerous occurrences.

K. Temporary access and temporary work.

− The Contractor shall provide all necessary temporary access facilities, which
shall be constructed, installed and maintained in accordance with the applicable
laws and codes of practice. In particular, ladders and any supporting structures
shall be regularly inspected to ensure that they are fit for purpose and free from
defects. Any temporary access shall be secured against movement, provide a
good walking surface and incorporate fall protection measures.
− All temporary works shall be checked, approved and marked as approved, prior
to use.

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L. Control of employees and visitors.

− All Contractor employees and Subcontractors of every tier, including labor-


only, all other Contractor employees of Engineer who are working within the
site, and all visitors to the site, including staff and agents of Engineer, shall be
obliged to conform to the provisions of the safety plan.
− The Contractor shall provide visitors viewing or inspecting any work site with
personal protective equipment and shall provide appropriate safety instruction
to the visitors. They shall be accompanied at all times by a full-time site
employee of the Contractor or Subcontractor as the case may be. They shall not
be permitted to enter high-risk areas unless for purposes of inspection and with
written permission of appropriate parties. Such high-risk areas shall include
areas requiring the use of safety harness, uncertified areas of temporary works,
lifting zones and other areas as designated from time to time by the safety
manager.
− All employees of the Contractor and all Subcontractors of every tier, including
labor-only, and all employees of other contractors who are working within the
site shall at all times wear suitable identification when on site and display a
permit. The permit shall be dated and clearly show the person’s name and their
employer.

M. Electrical equipment.

− All electrical equipment, including the construction site supply layout, shall be
supplied, operated, and maintained in accordance with the applicable laws,
manufacturers' instructions, and site procedures. Procedures for the operation of
the construction supplies, and the repair and maintenance of electrical
equipment shall be developed as part of the safety plan.

N. Hoisting and lifting operations.

− Competent operators and lifting supervisors.


o Only persons holding valid certificates or licences issued by a
recognized training body, and authorized in writing by the Contractor’s
safety manager, shall be allowed to operate Contractor’s Plant,
equipment, and vehicles. In addition, a trained and authorized person
shall be assigned to supervise every lifting operation. Lifting
supervisors shall be equipped with radio equipment to enable
uninterrupted communication with the crane operator. All cranes shall
have appropriate certifications and current inspection records on site.
Lift plans shall be developed for all major lifts. Crane lift equal to or
greater than 75% of the crane’s net capacity shall be considered a
‘critical lift’. All critical lift plans shall be prepared according to ASME
standards and reviewed by a competent engineer.
− Lifting accessories.
o Prior to use on site, lifting accessories, such as chains, slings, shackles,
etc., shall be tested and certified to an approved safety margin
according to the applicable laws. Each item must be clearly and
indelibly marked with a unique identifier and its safe working load

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(SWL). The original certificate shall be kept in the lifting accessory


register as part of the Contractor’s auditable safety records. The
Contractor shall arrange for a thorough examination to be carried out
every three months during the course of the Contract. All such items
should be color-coded to aid inspection. Any lifting accessory found
unmarked or unregistered shall immediately be put out of use until re-
certified.
o Procedures for operation of hoists shall be prominently displayed by
each hoist. Only trained and authorized personnel shall operate hoists.

O. Explosives.

− Explosives shall not be used unless unavoidable. Such use shall only be
permitted upon approval from the Employer and the relevant authorities.
Storage and use of explosives shall be in compliance with safety regulations and
permits and all applicable laws.

P. Work at height and over water.

− All work at a height shall be executed within a properly secured and otherwise
protected area. If such enclosure and protection is impracticable, work shall
only be permitted with the use of well-secured safety lines and safety harness
that meets industry standards or equivalent and appropriate local government
regulations. All personnel in such locations must wear approved and tested
safety harness 100% of the time secured to such safety lines. All personnel
required to wear a safety harness shall be adequately trained in fall protection
before they are allowed to wear the harness and work at heights.
− Where work is being carried out on, over, or adjacent to water, a safe system of
work shall be devised to prevent persons from falling into the water. A suitably
designed and equipped safety boat, or boats as appropriate, shall be provided
and used solely for rescue work. They shall be continuously manned with
appropriately trained staff and be ready to work whenever personnel are at risk
of falling into the water. Suitable and sufficient back-up staff and equipment
should be planned into the operation.

Q. Tunneling operations.

− The safety requirements for tunnelling operations shall comply with the
requirements of the safety plan and applicable standards.

R. Sanitation, housekeeping, and inspection.

− The site shall be kept in a clean, clear, and uncluttered condition, free of
obstructions and hazards at all times. All material and equipment that is not
used shall be removed, particularly on access routes and walkways. Sanitary
facilities shall be provided within a five minute walk from all intensive work
sites.
− The Contractor shall regularly inspect, test, and maintain all safety equipment,
scaffolds, guardrails, working platforms, hoists, ladders and other means of
access, lifting, lighting, signing and guarding equipment. Such inspection shall
include checks on temporary works certificates, safe working procedures and
personnel protection equipment. Inspection reports shall be filed for each

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individual inspection. Lighting shall clearly and uniformly illuminate the


working site. Signs shall be kept clear of obstructions and easy to read.
Equipment that is damaged, dirty, not presently required in that location, or not
in working order shall be repaired, removed, or replaced immediately.
− The Contractor shall establish and maintain a system for the issue of non
compliance notices by their safety manager regarding safety violations and
procedures for expeditiously rectifying such violations. The processing of
notices of non compliance from the Engineer’s Representative shall also be
included within the same system.

S. Radiation protection.

− The use of radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus shall comply with
the applicable laws. No operation involving ionizing radiation shall be carried
out without the approval of the Engineer’s Representative. The Contractor shall
ensure that site personnel and members of the public are not exposed to
radiation.

T. Health and safety publicity.

− The Contractor shall ensure that health and safety matters are given a high
degree of publicity on site. Posters and signs written in the languages
understood by the workers which draw attention to site safety, rescue, and
occupational health, shall be made or obtained from appropriate sources and
shall be displayed prominently in relevant areas of the site.

3.6 SAFETY MEETINGS

A. Contractor site safety meetings.

− The Contractor shall establish site safety meetings chaired by the Contractor’s
representative. Attendance shall include the Contractor’s safety manager and
appropriate senior construction personnel. Attendance shall also include senior
representatives of each of the currently active Subcontractors. These meetings
shall be held at least once each month and be scheduled to precede Engineer’s
safety management committee meeting. All such meetings and the agenda shall
be notified in advance to Engineer’s Representative who may attend in person
or send a representative at their discretion. Minutes of meetings shall be kept for
audit purposes and forwarded to Engineer for discussion.

B. Engineer's safety meetings.

− Engineer shall establish a safety management committee to formally review the


safety management performance of the Contractor and to monitor the
implementation and sufficiency of the safety plan. Engineer’s Representative,
or their nominee, shall act as chairman of this committee with members of
Engineer’s staff attending as appropriate. Mandatory attendance from the
Contractor shall include the Contractor’s Representative, the safety manager,
and key staff as appropriate. Representatives from third parties, including
statutory bodies, may be invited as necessary by Engineer. The committee shall
meet at least once per month. The Contractor shall act without delay upon such
decisions or recommendations as may be made by the committee on matters of

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health and safety. The meeting may, from time to time at the discretion of
Engineer’s Representative, be held as a regional or central forum. In such a case
the same obligations will apply.

3.7 SAFETY RELATED DOCUMENTATION

A. All safety related documentation including, but not limited to, permits, certificates,
reports, and records shall be kept at the site office in a readily accessible location in an
auditable indexed system.

B. All safety records shall be kept in a properly indexed and readily accessible system.

C. Site safety diary.

− The safety manager will maintain a daily site safety diary. It shall
comprehensively record all matters pertaining to safety including, but not
limited to: records of inspections, audits, injuries, dangerous occurrences, and
safety violations. It shall be brought up to date by the end of each shift.
− The supporting safety staff shall maintain a daily site safety diary. This diary
shall comprehensively record all matters pertaining to safety including records
of inspections, audits, accidents, dangerous occurrences, safety violations and
rectification, notices of non compliance, stop orders, and other related matters.

D. Non-compliance notice system.

− The Contractor shall establish a system for the safety manager to issue non
compliance notices for safety violations and procedures for expeditiously
rectifying such violations.

E. Reporting adverse events.

− The Contractor shall notify the Engineer’s Representative immediately of any


dangerous occurrence or incident that results in, or had the potential to cause,
bodily injury or incapacity of any person for more than three days. This will
include, but not be limited to: the overturning, collapse, or failure of any lifting
equipment or structure. Initial notification may be verbal but shall, in every
event, be followed by a written initial report within 24 hours and a detailed
resolution report within five days. The Contractor shall at the same time,
provide the Engineer’s Representative with a copy of any statutory accident,
injury, or dangerous occurrence report that they submit to any statutory
authority.

F. Monthly safety report.

− The Contractor shall submit a comprehensive safety report to the Engineer’s


Representative each month in an agreed format. The report shall be submitted in
line with a timescale agreed with the Engineer’s Representative. Prior to
submission, the Contractor’s Representative shall endorse the report. The report
shall comprehensively address all relevant aspects of occupational health and
safety, and shall contain certain standard forms supplied by the Engineer’s

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Representative for use in statistical analysis of the whole project. The report
should include a 90-day forward planning section in which construction issues
with a significant safety implication can be discussed.

END OF SECTION 01710

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 02584 - UNDERGROUND DUCTS AND UTILITY STRUCTURES

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including Conditions of Contract and
Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes underground conduits and ducts, duct banks, pull boxes and
handholes, manholes, and other underground utility structures.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 2 Section "Earthwork" for excavation, backfill, and related items for ducts,
manholes, and handholes.
2. Division 3 Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete" for concrete requirements.
3. Division 7 Section "Self-Adhering Sheet Waterproofing" for waterproofing of
manholes and handholes.
4. Division 7 Section "APP Modified Bituminous Sheet Waterproofing" for
waterproofing of manholes and handholes.
5. Division 7 Section "Bituminous Dampproofing" for dampproofing of manholes and
handholes.
6. Division 16 Section "Basic Electrical Materials and Methods".
7. Division 16 Section "Grounding and Bonding" for ground rods at manholes.

1.3 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

A. Underground Ducts for Electrical Utility Service: PVC encased in concrete.

B. Underground Ducts for Electrical Feeders: PVC encased in concrete.

C. Underground Ducts for Electrical Branch Circuits: PVC conduit [encased in concrete].

D. Underground Ducts for Telephone Utility Service: PVC utility duct encased in concrete.

E. Underground Ducts for Communication Circuits: PVC underground conduit encased in


concrete.

F. Manholes: Cast-in-place concrete.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For metal accessories for manholes and handholes, conduits and ducts, duct-
bank materials, and miscellaneous components.

B. Coordination Drawings: Show duct profiles and coordination with other utilities and
underground structures. Include plans and sections drawn to scale.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

C. Field Test Reports: Indicate and interpret test results for compliance with performance
requirements.

D. Record (as-Built) Documents: Show dimensioned locations of underground ducts,


handholes, and manholes.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Comply with specified Standards.

1.6 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Deliver ducts to Project site with ends capped. Store nonmetallic ducts with supports to
prevent bending, warping, and deforming.

B. Lift and support precast concrete units only at designated lifting or supporting points.

1.7 COORDINATION

A. Coordinate layout and installation of ducts, manholes, and handholes with final arrangement
of other utilities as determined in the field.

B. Coordinate elevations of duct and duct-bank entrances into manholes and handholes with
final profiles of conduits as determined by coordination with other utilities and underground
obstructions. Revise locations and elevations from those indicated as required to suit field
conditions and to ensure duct runs drain to manholes and handholes, and as approved by
Engineer.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) DUCTS

A. PVC Ducts for Outdoor Power and Lighting Cable Installations: Non-sparking type,
suitable for direct burial in ground, minimum tensile strength 500 kg/cm2, impact strength 5
kg/cm2, supplied in standard 6 m lengths, with one end of each length tapered.

1. Nominal Size: As shown on Drawings.


2. Minimum Wall Thickness: 3.2 mm for 100-mm ducts; 4.7 mm for 150-mm ducts.

B. Duct Supports: Rigid PVC spacers selected to provide minimum duct spacings and concrete
cover depths indicated, while supporting ducts during concreting.

C. Duct Sealing Compound: Non-hardening, safe for human skin contact, not deleterious to
cable insulation, and workable at temperatures as low as 1 deg C. Capable of withstanding
temperature of 149 deg C without slump and of adhering to clean surfaces of plastic ducts,
metallic conduits, conduit coatings, concrete, masonry, lead, cable sheaths, cable jackets,
insulation materials, and common metals.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

2.2 COVERS FOR MANHOLES AND HANDHOLES

A. Frames and Covers: BS 497, checkered cast iron or cast steel, recessed type, and of suitable
duty for the particular application. Machine cover-to-frame bearing surfaces

1. Covers: Cast-in legend "ELECTRIC" or "TELEPHONE" as appropriate..

2.3 COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

A. Concrete: Comply with Division 3 Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete" for concrete and
reinforcement.

B. Concrete Envelope: For duct banks for power distribution systems and outdoor lighting
cable installations crossing water, gas and sewage mains, under roadways and where
required or shown on the Drawings, is to be 21 MPa, 28-day, compressive-strength
reinforced concrete using sulfate-resisting Portland cement. Reinforcement is to consist of
12-mm diameter longitudinal bars at approximately 300-mm centers along bottom and sides
of duct bank with 10-mm diameter U-shaped transversal bars at 400-mm centers. Extend
concrete envelope at least 300 mm beyond each side of crossing, etc.

C. Cable Manholes and Handholes: 21 MPa, 28-day, compressive strength reinforced concrete
using sulfate-resisting Portland cement, with approved waterproof membrane on external
surfaces, and with cable supports where necessary, pull-eyes, and drain pit and drain pipe as
required. Dimensions and reinforcement are to be as shown on the Drawings or in
accordance with approved standard details shown on shop and construction drawings.

2.4 UNDERGROUND, PRECAST CONCRETE UTILITY STRUCTURES

A. Precast Units: Interlocking, mating sections, complete with accessory items, hardware, and
features as indicated. Include concrete knockout panels for conduit entrance and sleeve for
ground rod.

B. Design structure according to details on Drawings.

C. Structural Design Loading: Light traffic.

D. Covers: Recess on cover accepts finish material in landscaped and paved areas.

E. Joint Sealant: Continuous extrusion of asphaltic-butyl material with adhesion, cohesion,


flexibility, and durability properties necessary to withstand maximum hydrostatic pressures
at the installation location with the ground water level at grade.

2.5 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

A. Waterproofing: Comply with Division 7 Section "Self-Adhering Sheet Waterproofing."

B. Waterproofing: Comply with Division 7 Section "APP Modified Bituminous Sheet


Waterproofing."

C. Dampproofing: Comply with Division 7 Section "Bituminous Dampproofing."

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine substrates, areas, and conditions to receive ducts and utility structures for
compliance with requirements for installation tolerances and other conditions affecting
performance of underground ducts and utility structures. Do not proceed with installation
until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.2 EARTHWORK

A. Excavation and Backfill: Comply with Division 2 Section "Earthwork" but do not use
heavy-duty, hydraulic-operated, compaction equipment.

B. Trenches: Width is to be as small as practicable with sides vertical. Remove mud, rock
projections, boulders and hard spots from trench bottom and trim level. Inform the Engineer
in advance to give him reasonable opportunity to inspect trench for each section of the work.

C. Restore surface features at areas disturbed by excavation and reestablish original grades,
unless otherwise indicated. Replace removed sod immediately after backfilling is
completed.

D. Restore all areas disturbed by trenching, storing of dirt, cable laying, and other work.
Restore vegetation and include necessary topsoiling, fertilizing, liming, seeding, sodding,
sprigging, and mulching. Perform according to Division 2 Section "Landscaping."

E. Restore Disturbed Pavement. Refer to Division 1 Section "Cutting and Patching."

3.3 DIRECTLY BURIED PVC CABLE DUCTS

A. Lay and join ducts to required line and level on sand bed, cover with sand and backfill
trench to ground level with excavated soil, free from stones and other debris, well
compacted in layers not exceeding 300 mm thick.

B. Lay approved concrete tiles to fully cover cable duct, extending minimum 50 mm beyond
sides of duct and placed 300 mm below ground level.

C. Provide warning tape or galvanized steel mesh along duct runs at a depth 200 mm below
ground level.

3.4 UNDERGROUND CABLE DUCT ASSEMBLIES

A. Install duct as indicated, according to manufacturer's written instructions.

B. Form duct assembly to required line and level, using duct supports spaced to prevent
sagging of ducts and breaking of couplings and watertight seals, and secured with cords (not
tie wires) where necessary.

C. Slope: Pitch ducts a minimum of 1:300 (preferably 1% slope) to drain toward manholes and
handholes and away from buildings and equipment. Slope ducts from a high point in runs
between 2 manholes to drain in both directions.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

D. Join ducts using waterproof cement, to manufacturer's recommendations, to give waterproof


and sand-proof joint with at least 80 mm overlap.

E. Provide 3 mm galvanized steel wire inside empty ducts, for future pulling of cables,
extending 1 m beyond duct banks at both ends and securely fixed to wooden bungs sealing
the duct.

F. Concrete-Encased Ducts: Support on plastic separators coordinated with duct size and
required duct spacing, and install according to the following:

1. Separator Installation: Space separators close enough to prevent sagging and


deforming of ducts, and secure separators to the earth and to ducts to prevent floating
during concreting. Do not use tie wires or reinforcing steel that may form conductive
or magnetic loops around ducts or duct groups.
2. Concreting: Spade concrete carefully during pours to prevent voids under and
between conduits and at exterior surface of envelope. Do not use power-driven
agitating equipment unless specifically designed for duct-bank application. Pour each
run of envelope between manholes or other terminations in one continuous operation.
When more than 1 pour is necessary, terminate each pour in a vertical plane and
install 19-mm reinforcing rod dowels extending 450 mm into the concrete on both
sides of joint near the corners of the envelope.
3. Reinforcement: Reinforce duct banks where they cross disturbed-earth and where
indicated.
4. Forms: Use the walls of the trench to form the side walls of the duct bank where the
soil is self-supporting and concrete envelope can be poured without soil inclusions;
otherwise, use forms.
5. Minimum Clearances between Ducts: 75 mm between ducts and exterior envelope
wall, 50 mm between ducts for like services, and 100 mm between power and signal
ducts.

G. Sealing: Provide temporary closure at terminations of ducts that have cables pulled. Seal
spare ducts at terminations. Use sealing compound and plugs.

3.5 ENDS OF DUCTS

A. Ducts ending in cable manholes or handholes are to be neatly cut and reamed and set behind
chamfered precast concrete duct end blocks or terminated with appropriate bell-mouth
bushing set in concrete wall. Ducts not ending in cable manholes or handholes are to be
properly capped.

B. Sealing Ends Of Ducts: Completely seal conduits and ducts, active or spare, at entry into
buildings or manholes, with approved plastic moulds or wooden bungs to prevent entry of
rodents, gas and vapor.

3.6 SLEEVES OR DUCTS IN EQUIPMENT FOUNDATIONS

A. Provide sleeves or ducts in equipment foundations, whether or not shown on Drawings, in


accordance with approved shop and construction drawings or as instructed by the Engineer.
Obtain approval of sleeve or duct installation prior to pouring concrete.

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3.7 UNDERGROUND UTILITY STRUCTURE INSTALLATION

A. Drainage: Install drains in bottom of units. Coordinate with drainage provisions indicated.

B. Waterproofing: Apply waterproofing to exterior surfaces of units after concrete has cured at
least 3 days. Apply according to Division 7 Section <"Self-Adhering Sheet
Waterproofing."> <"APP Modified Bituminous Sheet Waterproofing."> After ducts have
been connected and grouted, and before backfilling, waterproof joints and connections and
touch up abrasions and scars. Waterproof exterior of manhole and handhole chimneys after
brick mortar has cured at least 3 days.

C. Dampproofing: Apply dampproofing to exterior surfaces of units after concrete has cured at
least 3 days. Apply according to Division 7 Section "Bituminous Dampproofing." After
ducts have been connected and grouted, and before backfilling, dampproof joints and
connections and touch up abrasions and scars. Dampproof exterior of manhole and
handhole chimneys after brick mortar has cured at least 3 days.

D. Cast-in-Place, Underground Structure Installation: Comply with applicable requirements of


Division 3 Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete."

1. Finish interior surfaces with a smooth troweled finish.

3.8 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A. Inspection of Duct Systems: Inspect directly buried ducts and underground duct assemblies
in the presence of the Engineer, before backfilling or concreting. Steel mandrel or other
approved device, diameter equal to 90% of inside diameter of duct and 500 mm long, is to
be pulled through entire run of duct and is to pass through without getting stuck. Ducts,
which do not allow mandrel to be pulled through, are to be repaired or replaced to the
satisfaction of the Engineer.

B. Testing: Demonstrate capability and compliance with requirements on completion of


installation of underground ducts and utility structures.

C. Correct installations where possible and retest to demonstrate compliance. Remove and
replace defective products and retest.

3.9 CLEANING

A. Clean ducts with stiff bristle brush pulled through each duct prior to pulling in cables. Pull
brush through full length of ducts. Use round-bristle brush with a diameter 12 mm larger
than the ID of duct.

B. Clean internal surfaces of manholes, including sump. Remove foreign material.

END OF SECTION 02584

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 02780 - UNIT PAVERS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes the following:

1. Brick pavers set in aggregate setting bed (interlocking).


2. Rough-stone pavers set in mortar setting bed.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 2 Section "Earthwork" for compacted subgrade and subbase course, if any,
under unit pavers.
2. Division 2 Section "Cement Concrete Pavement" for concrete base course under unit
pavers and for cast-in-place concrete curbs and gutters serving as edge restraint for
unit pavers.
3. Division 9 Section "Stone Paving and Flooring" for dimension stone paving set in
mortar.
4. Division 7 Section "Composite Sheet Waterproofing" for waterproofing and
protection board under plaza deck pavers.
5. Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants" for sealing control and expansion joints in unit
pavers with elastomeric sealants.
6. Division 9 Section "Brick Flooring" for brick flooring for interior applications where
chemical-resistant performance is not the primary requirement.
7. Division 9 Section "Chemical-Resistant Brick Flooring" for brick flooring set with
chemical-resistant materials.

1.3 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For the following:

1. Brick pavers.
2. Concrete pavers.
3. Asphalt pavers.
4. Stone pavers.
5. Bituminous setting materials.
6. Mortar and grout materials.
7. Edge restraints.

B. Samples for Initial Selection: Manufacturer's color charts consisting of units or sections of
units showing the full range of colors, textures, and patterns available for each type of unit
paver indicated.

1. Include similar Samples of material for joints and accessories involving color
selection.

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C. Samples for Verification: Full-size units of each type of unit paver indicated; in sets for
each color, texture, and pattern specified, showing the full range of variations expected in
these characteristics.

1. Provide Samples with joints grouted and cured, showing the full range of colors to be
expected in the completed Work.
2. Include Samples of exposed edge restraints.

D. Qualification Data: For firms and persons specified in "Quality Assurance" Article to
demonstrate their capabilities and experience. Include lists of completed projects with
project names and addresses, names and addresses of architects and owners, and other
information specified.

E. Compatibility and Adhesion Test Reports: From latex-additive manufacturer indicating the
following:

1. Mortar and grout containing latex additives have been tested with pavers for
compatibility and adhesion.
2. Interpretation of test results relative to mortar and grout performance and written
recommendations for installation practices needed for adhesion.

1.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Installer Qualifications: An experienced installer who has completed unit paver installations
similar in material, design, and extent to that indicated for this Project and whose work has
resulted in construction with a record of successful in-service performance.

B. Source Limitations: Obtain each type of unit paver, joint material, and setting material from
one source with resources to provide materials and products of consistent quality in
appearance and physical properties.

C. Preconstruction Compatibility and Adhesion Testing: Submit to latex-additive


manufacturer, for testing indicated below, samples of paving materials that will contact or
affect mortar and grout that contain latex additives.

1. Use manufacturer's standard test methods to determine whether mortar and grout
materials are required to obtain optimum adhesion with, and will be nonstaining to,
installed pavers and other materials constituting paver installation.
2. Submit a sufficient number of pavers and other materials involved in installation to
allow comprehensive testing.
3. Schedule sufficient time for testing and analyzing results to prevent delaying the
Work.
4. For materials failing tests, obtain mortar and grout manufacturer's written instructions
for corrective measures, including the use of alternative materials to obtain optimum
bond and prevent staining.

D. Mockups: Before installing unit pavers, build mockups for each form and pattern of unit
pavers required to verify selections made under sample Submittals and to demonstrate
aesthetic effects and qualities of materials and execution. Build mockups to comply with
the following requirements, using materials indicated for the completed Work, including
same base construction, special features for expansion joints, and contiguous work as
indicated:

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1. Build mockups in the location and of the size indicated or, if not indicated, as directed
by Architect.
2. Notify Architect seven days in advance of dates and times when mockups will be
constructed.
3. Demonstrate the proposed range of aesthetic effects and workmanship.
4. Obtain Architect's approval of mockups before starting unit paver installation.
5. Maintain mockups during construction in an undisturbed condition as a standard for
judging the completed Work.
6. Demolish and remove mockups when directed.
7. Approved mockups may become part of the completed Work if undisturbed at time of
Substantial Completion.

1.5 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Protect unit pavers and aggregate during storage and construction against soiling or
contamination from earth and other materials.

1. Cover pavers with plastic or use other packaging materials that will prevent rust
marks from steel strapping.

B. Store cementitious materials on elevated platforms, under cover, and in a dry location. Do
not use cementitious materials that have become damp.

C. Store liquids in tightly closed containers protected from freezing.

D. Store asphalt cement and other bituminous materials in tightly closed containers.

1.6 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Cold-Weather Protection: Do not use frozen materials or materials mixed or coated with ice
or frost. Do not build on frozen subgrade or setting beds. Remove and replace unit paver
work damaged by frost or freezing.

B. Weather Limitations for Bituminous Setting Bed: Comply with the following requirements:

1. Apply asphalt adhesive when ambient temperature is above 50 deg F (10 deg C) and
when temperature has not been below 35 deg F (2 deg C) for 12 hours immediately
before application. Do not apply when base is wet or contains excess moisture.
2. Install bituminous setting bed only when atmospheric temperature is above 40 deg F
(4 deg C) and when base is dry.

C. Weather Limitations for Mortar and Grout: Comply with the following requirements:

1. Cold-Weather Requirements: Protect unit paver work against freezing when


atmospheric temperature is 40 deg F (4 deg C) and falling. Heat materials to provide
mortar and grout temperatures between 40 and 120 deg F (4 and 49 deg C). Provide
the following protection for completed portions of work for 24 hours after installation
when the mean daily air temperature is as indicated: below 40 deg F (4 deg C), cover
with weather-resistant membrane; below 25 deg F (minus 4 deg C), cover with
insulating blankets; below 20 deg F (minus 7 deg C), provide enclosure and
temporary heat to maintain temperature above 32 deg F (0 deg C).
2. Hot-Weather Requirements: Protect unit paver work when temperature and humidity
conditions produce excessive evaporation of setting beds and grout. Provide artificial

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shade and windbreaks and use cooled materials as required. Do not apply mortar to
substrates with temperatures of 100 deg F (38 deg C) and higher.

a. When ambient temperature exceeds 100 or 90 deg F (38 or 32 deg C) with a


wind velocity greater than 8 mph (13 km/h), set pavers within 1 minute of
spreading setting-bed mortar.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MANUFACTURERS

A. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

B. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, provide products by one of the


following or similar approved:

1. Brick Pavers:

a. Acme Brick Co.


b. Belden Brick Co.
c. Boral Bricks, Inc.
d. Canada Brick.
e. Endicott Clay Products Co.
f. General Shale Products Corp.
g. Glen-Gery Corporation.
h. Hastings Pavement Co., Inc.
i. I-XL Industries, Ltd.
j. Pacific Coast Building Products, Inc.; Interstate Brick Div.
k. Pine Hall Brick Co.
l. Redland Brick Inc.; subsidiary of Belden Brick Co.
m. Richtex Corp.
n. Whitacre-Greer.

2. Concrete Pavers:

a. Licensee of Symrah Licensing Inc. that markets unit pavers in Project location.
b. Licensee of Uni-Group U.S.A. that markets unit pavers in Project location.
c. Capitol Ornamental Concrete Specialties, Inc.
d. Hanover Architectural Products, Inc.
e. Hastings Pavement Co., Inc.
f. Nicolock.
g. Oldcastle Architectural Products.
h. Sunny Brook Pressed Concrete Co.
i. Wassau Tile, Inc.; Terra-Paving Div.

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3. Rough-Stone Pavers:

a. Buechel Stone Corp.


b. Cold Spring Granite Co.
c. New England Stone Industries, Inc.
d. North Carolina Granite Corp.

4. Plastic Edge Restraints:

a. Pave Tech Inc.


b. Ryerson: J. T. Ryerson & Son, Inc.

5. Steel Edge Restraints:

a. Border Concepts, Inc.


b. Ryerson: J. T. Ryerson & Son, Inc.

6. Aluminum Edge Restraints:

a. BrickStop Corporation.
b. Permaloc Corporation.
c. Sure-loc Aluminum Edging.

7. Precast Concrete Edge Restraints:

a. Hanover Architectural Products, Inc.

8. Latex-Portland Cement Mortars and Grouts:

a. American Olean Tile Co.


b. Boiardi Products Corp.
c. Bonsal: W. R. Bonsal Company.
d. Bostik.
e. C-Cure Corporation.
f. Custom Building Products.
g. Dal-Tile Corporation.
h. DAP Inc.
i. Laticrete International, Inc.
j. Mapei Corp.
k. Southern Grouts & Mortars, Inc.
l. Summitville Tiles, Inc.
m. TEC Incorporated.

2.2 COLORS AND TEXTURES

A. Colors and Textures: As selected by Architect from manufacturer's full range.

2.3 UNIT PAVERS

A. Brick Pavers: Light-traffic paving brick; ASTM C 902, Class SX MX, Type I II III,
Application PS PX PA. Provide brick without frogs or cores in surfaces exposed to view in
the completed Work.

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B. Brick Pavers: Heavy vehicular paving brick; ASTM C 1272, Type F, Application PX
Type R, Application PS Type R, Application PX Type R, Application PA. Provide brick
without frogs or cores in surfaces exposed to view in the completed Work.

1. Temporary Protective Coating: Precoat exposed surfaces of brick pavers with a


continuous film of a temporary protective coating that is compatible with brick,
mortar, and grout products and can be removed without damaging grout or brick. Do
not coat unexposed brick surfaces; handle brick to prevent coated surfaces from
contacting backs or edges of other units. If, despite these precautions, coating does
contact bonding surfaces of brick, remove coating from bonding surfaces before
setting brick.

C. Concrete Pavers: Solid, interlocking paving units, ASTM C 936, made from normal-weight
aggregates in sizes and shapes indicated.

D. Stone Pavers: as indicated on drawings, made from granite complying with ASTM C 615.

1. Granite Color and Grain: Mid gray, Light beige and light grey.
2. Size: Mid grey and Beige Granite Pavers; 20 by 500 by 500 mm, 15mm thick.
3. Size: Light Grey Granite pavers; 200 by 200mm, 30mmthick.

E. Asphalt-Block Pavers: Manufacturer's standard solid units consisting of coarse aggregate,


inorganic dust as filler, and asphalt cement; in sizes and shapes indicated.

1. Coarse Aggregate: Clean, hard, unweathered stone crushed into angular particles
varying in size up to 3/8 inch (9.5 mm).
2. Filler: Dust produced from limestone or other material as standard with
manufacturer.
3. Asphalt Cement: ASTM D 312, Type III.
4. Dimensional Tolerances: Manufacture unit to standard dimensions indicated with
deviations in any dimension not exceeding plus or minus 1/16 inch (1.6 mm).
5. Finish: Natural smooth finish.
6. Finish: Ground finish.
7. Finish: Ground and sandblasted finish.

2.4 ACCESSORIES

A. Plastic Edge Restraints: Manufacturer's standard triangular PVC extrusions designed to


serve as edge restraints for unit pavers; rigid type for straight edges and flexible type for
curved edges, with pipe connectors and 3/8-inch (9.5-mm) diameter by 12-inch- (300-mm-)
long steel spikes. Size of edging is as follows:

1. 1-3/4 inches (45 mm) high by 3-1/2 inches (89 mm) wide.
2. 3-1/8 inches (79 mm) high by 9-1/2 inches (241 mm) wide.

B. Steel Edge Restraints: Painted commercial steel edging with loops pressed from or welded
to face to receive stakes at 36 inches (900 mm) o.c., and steel stakes 15 inches (380 mm)
long for each loop. Size of edging is as follows:

1. 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) thick by 4 inches (100 mm) high.


2. 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) thick by 5 inches (125 mm) high.

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C. Aluminum Edge Restraints: Extruded-aluminum edging with loops pressed from face to
receive stakes at 12 inches (300 mm) o.c., and aluminum stakes 12 inches (300 mm) long
for each loop. Type and size of edging is as follows:

1. Straight, 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) thick by 4 inches (100 mm) high.
2. L-shaped, 3/16 inch (4.8 mm) thick by 2-1/4 inches (57 mm) high.

D. Precast Concrete Edge Restraints: Precast concrete curbing, made from normal-weight
aggregate, in shapes and sizes indicated.

E. Job-Built Concrete Edge Restraints: Comply with requirements in Division 3 Section


"Cast-in-Place Concrete" for normal-weight, air-entrained, ready-mixed concrete with
minimum 28-day compressive strength of 3000 psi (20 MPa).

F. Cork Joint Filler: Preformed strips complying with ASTM D 1752, Type II.

G. Compressible Foam Filler: Preformed strips complying with ASTM D 1056, Grade 2A1.

2.5 AGGREGATE SETTING-BED MATERIALS

A. Graded Aggregate for Subbase: Sound crushed stone or gravel complying with
ASTM D 448 for Size No. 57.

B. Graded Aggregate for Subbase: ASTM D 2940, subbase material.

C. Graded Aggregate for Base: Sound crushed stone or gravel complying with ASTM D 448
for Size No. 8.

D. Graded Aggregate for Base: ASTM D 2940, base material.

E. Geotextile: Woven or nonwoven geotextile manufactured from polyester or polypropylene


fibers, with a permeability rating 10 times greater than that of soil on which paving is
founded and an apparent opening size small enough to prevent passage of fines from
leveling course into graded aggregate of base course below.

F. Sand for Leveling Course: Sound, sharp, washed, natural sand or crushed stone complying
with gradation requirements of ASTM C 33 for fine aggregate.

G. Stone Screenings for Leveling Course: Sound stone screenings complying with
ASTM D 448 for Size No. 10.

H. Sand for Joints: Fine, sharp, washed, natural sand or crushed stone with 100 percent
passing No. 16 (1.18-mm) sieve and no more than 10 percent passing No. 200 (0.075-mm)
sieve.

1. Provide sand of color needed to produce required joint color.

2.6 BITUMINOUS SETTING-BED MATERIALS

A. Primer for Base: ASTM D 2028, cutback asphalt, grade as recommended by unit paver
manufacturer.

B. Fine Aggregate for Setting Bed: ASTM D 1073, No. 2 or No. 3.

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C. Asphalt Cement: ASTM D 946, for penetrating graded materials; Grade 60-70 (mixing
temperature 145 deg C – 165 deg C).

D. Neoprene-Modified Asphalt Adhesive: Paving manufacturer's standard adhesive consisting


of oxidized asphalt combined with 2 percent neoprene and 10 percent long-fibered mineral
fibers containing no asbestos.

E. Sand for Joints: Fine, sharp, washed natural sand or crushed stone with 100 percent
passing No. 16 (1.18-mm) sieve and no more than 10 percent passing No. 200 (0.075-mm)
sieve.

1. Provide sand of color needed to produce required joint color.

2.7 PORTLAND CEMENT MORTAR SETTING-BED MATERIALS

A. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or II.

B. Hydrated Lime: ASTM C 207, Type S.

C. Aggregate: ASTM C 144.

D. Latex Additive: Styrene-butadiene-rubber or acrylic-resin water emulsion serving as


replacement for part or all of gaging water, of type specifically recommended by
manufacturer for use with job-mixed portland cement and aggregate, and not containing a
retarder.

E. Water: Potable.

2.8 GROUT MATERIALS

A. Latex-Portland Cement Grout: ANSI A118.6, composition as follows:

1. Packaged, dry grout mix consisting of portland cement, graded aggregate, and
ethylene vinyl acetate in the form of a reemulsifiable powder to which only water is
added at Project site.
2. Dry grout mixture indicated below combined at Project site with styrene-butadiene-
rubber or acrylic-resin water emulsion serving as replacement for part or all of gaging
water.

a. Dry Grout Mixture: Factory-mixed, sanded grout complying with ANSI


A118.6 and recommended by latex-additive manufacturer; in color indicated.
Use latex additive without retarder with dry-set grout.
b. Dry Grout Mixture: Factory-mixed or job-mixed sanded grout consisting of
the following:

1) Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or II, of natural color or white


as required to produce color indicated.
2) Aggregate: ASTM C 144, graded to comply with latex-additive
manufacturer's requirements.

a) White Aggregate: Natural white sand or ground white stone.


b) Colored Aggregate: Ground marble, granite, or other sound
stone; selected to produce required grout color.

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3) Colored Mortar Pigments for Grout: Natural and synthetic iron and
chromium oxides, compounded for use in mortar and grout mixes. Use
only pigments that have proved through testing and experience to be
satisfactory for use in portland cement grout.

B. Water: Potable.

2.9 BITUMINOUS SETTING-BED MIX

A. Mix bituminous setting-bed materials at an asphalt plant in approximate proportion, by


weight, of 7 percent asphalt cement to 93 percent fine aggregate, unless otherwise indicated.
Heat mixture to 300 deg F (149 deg C).

2.10 MORTAR AND GROUT MIXES

A. General: Comply with referenced standards and with manufacturers' written instructions for
mix proportions, mixing equipment, mixer speeds, mixing containers, mixing times, and
other procedures needed to produce setting-bed and joint materials of uniform quality and
with optimum performance characteristics. Discard mortars and grout when they have
reached their initial set.

B. Cement-Paste Bond Coat: Mix bond coat to a consistency similar to that of thick cream and
consisting of either neat cement and water or cement, sand, and water.

1. For latex-modified portland cement setting-bed mortar, substitute latex admixture for
part or all of water per directions of latex-additive manufacturer.

C. Portland Cement-Lime Setting-Bed Mortar: Type M complying with ASTM C 270,


Proportion Specification.

D. Latex-Modified Portland Cement Setting-Bed Mortar: Proportion and mix portland cement,
aggregate, and latex additive for setting bed to comply with directions of latex-additive
manufacturer and as necessary to produce stiff mixture with a moist surface when bed is
ready to receive pavers.

E. Latex-Modified Portland Cement Slurry Bond Coat: Proportion and mix portland cement,
aggregate, and latex additive for slurry bond coat to comply with directions of latex-additive
manufacturer.

F. Latex-Modified Portland Cement Grout: Add latex additive to dry grout mix in proportion
and concentration recommended by latex-additive manufacturer. Proportion cement and
aggregate to comply with directions of latex-additive manufacturer.

1. Job-Mixed, Pigmented Grout: Select and proportion pigments with other ingredients
to produce color required. Do not exceed pigment-to-cement ratio of 1 to 10, by
weight.
2. Job-Mixed, Colored-Aggregate Grout: Produce color required by combining colored
aggregates with portland cement of selected color.

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PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine areas indicated to receive paving, with Installer present, for compliance with
requirements for installation tolerances and other conditions affecting performance.
Proceed with installation only after unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

1. Where pavers are to be installed over waterproofing, examine waterproofing


installation, with waterproofing Installer present, for protection from paving
operations. Examine areas where waterproofing system is turned up or flashed
against vertical surfaces and horizontal waterproofing. Proceed with installation only
after protection is in place.

3.2 PREPARATION

A. Vacuum clean concrete substrates to remove dirt, dust, debris, and loose particles.

B. Remove substances, from concrete substrates, that could impair mortar bond, including
curing and sealing compounds, form oil, and laitance.

C. Proof-roll prepared subgrade surface to check for unstable areas and areas requiring
additional compaction. Proceed with unit paver installation only after deficient subgrades
have been corrected and are ready to receive subbase for unit pavers.

3.3 INSTALLATION, GENERAL

A. Do not use unit pavers with chips, cracks, voids, discolorations, and other defects that might
be visible or cause staining in finished work.

B. Mix pavers from several pallets or cubes, as they are placed, to produce uniform blend of
colors and textures.

C. Cut unit pavers with motor-driven masonry saw equipment to provide clean, sharp,
unchipped edges. Cut units to provide pattern indicated and to fit adjoining work neatly.
Use full units without cutting where possible. Hammer cutting is not acceptable.

1. For concrete pavers, a block splitter may be used.

D. Joint Pattern: As indicated.

E. Pavers over Waterproofing: Exercise care in placing pavers and setting materials over
waterproofing so protection materials are not displaced and waterproofing is not punctured
or otherwise damaged. Carefully replace protection materials that become displaced and
arrange for repair of damaged waterproofing before covering with paving.

1. Provide joint filler, where indicated, at waterproofing that is turned up on vertical


surfaces; or, if not indicated, provide temporary filler or protection until paver
installation is complete.

F. Tolerances: Do not exceed 1/32-inch (0.8-mm) unit-to-unit offset from flush (lippage)
nor 1/8 inch in 10 feet (3 mm in 3 m) from level, or indicated slope, for finished surface of
paving.

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G. Tolerances: Do not exceed 1/16-inch (1.6-mm) unit-to-unit offset from flush (lippage)
nor 1/8 inch in 24 inches (3 mm in 600 mm) and 1/4 inch in 10 feet (6 mm in 3 m) from
level, or indicated slope, for finished surface of paving.

H. Expansion and Control Joints: Provide for sealant-filled joints at locations and of widths
indicated. Provide joint filler as backing for sealant-filled joints where indicated. Install
joint filler before setting pavers. Sealant materials and installation are specified in
Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants."

I. Expansion and Control Joints: Provide joint filler at locations and of widths indicated.
Install joint filler before setting pavers. Make top of joint filler flush with top of pavers.

J. Provide edge restraints as indicated. Install edge restraints before placing unit pavers.

1. Install edge restraints to comply with manufacturer's written instructions. Install


stakes at intervals required to hold edge restraints in place during and after unit paver
installation.
2. For metal edge restraints with top edge exposed, drive stakes at least 1 inch (25 mm)
below top edge.
3. Install job-built concrete edge restraints to comply with requirements in Division 3
Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete."
4. Where pavers set in mortar bed are indicated as edge restraints for pavers set in
aggregate setting bed, install pavers set in mortar and allow mortar to cure before
placing aggregate setting bed and remainder of pavers. Cut off mortar bed at a steep
angle so it will not interfere with aggregate setting bed.
5. Where pavers embedded in concrete are indicated as edge restraints for pavers set in
aggregate setting bed, install pavers embedded in concrete and allow concrete to cure
before placing aggregate setting bed and remainder of pavers. Hold top of concrete
below aggregate setting bed.

K. Provide steps made of pavers as indicated. Install paver steps before installing adjacent
pavers.

1. Where pavers set in mortar bed are indicated for steps constructed adjacent to pavers
set in aggregate setting bed, install steps and allow mortar to cure before placing
aggregate setting bed and remainder of pavers. Cut off mortar bed at a steep angle so
it will not interfere with aggregate setting bed.

3.4 AGGREGATE SETTING-BED PAVER APPLICATIONS

A. Compact soil subgrade uniformly to at least 95 percent of ASTM D 1557 laboratory density.

B. Place geotextile over prepared subgrade, overlapping ends and edges at least 12 inches (300
mm).

C. Place aggregate subbase and base in thickness indicated. Compact by tamping with plate
vibrator and screed to depth required to allow setting of pavers.

D. Place aggregate subbase and base over compacted subgrade. Provide compacted thickness
indicated. Compact subbase and base to 100 percent of ASTM D 1557 maximum
laboratory density and screed to depth required to allow setting of pavers.

E. Place geotextile over compacted base course, overlapping ends and edges at least 12 inches
(300 mm).

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F. Place leveling course and screed to a thickness of 1 to 1-1/2 inches (25 to 38 mm), taking
care that moisture content remains constant and density is loose and constant until pavers
are set and compacted.

G. Treat leveling base with soil sterilizer to inhibit growth of grass and weeds.

H. Set pavers with a minimum joint width of 1/16 inch (1.6 mm) and a maximum of 1/8 inch (3
mm), being careful not to disturb leveling base. If pavers have spacer bars, place pavers
hand tight against spacer bars. Use string lines to keep straight lines. Fill gaps between
units that exceed 3/8 inch (10 mm) with pieces cut to fit from full-size unit pavers.

1. When installation is performed with mechanical equipment, use only unit pavers with
spacer bars on sides of each unit.

I. Vibrate pavers into leveling course with a low-amplitude plate vibrator capable of a 3500- to
5000-lbf (16- to 22-kN) compaction force at 80 to 90 Hz. Perform at least three passes
across paving with vibrator. Vibrate under the following conditions:

1. After edge pavers are installed and there is a completed surface or before surface is
exposed to rain.
2. Before ending each day's work, fully compact installed concrete pavers to within 36
inches (900 mm) of the laying face. Cover open layers with nonstaining plastic
sheets overlapped 48 inches (1200 mm) on each side of the laying face to protect it
from rain.

J. Spread dry sand and fill joints immediately after vibrating pavers into leveling course.
Vibrate pavers and add sand until joints are completely filled, then remove excess sand.
Leave a slight surplus of sand on the surface for joint filling.

K. Do not allow traffic on installed pavers until sand has been vibrated into joints.

L. Repeat joint-filling process 30 days later.

3.5 BITUMINOUS SETTING-BED APPLICATIONS

A. Apply primer to concrete slab or binder course immediately before placing setting bed.

B. Prepare for setting-bed placement by locating 3/4-inch- (19-mm-) deep control bars
approximately 11 feet (3.3 m) apart and parallel to one another, to serve as guides for
striking board. Adjust bars to subgrades required for accurate setting of paving units to
finished grades indicated.

C. Place bituminous setting bed where indicated, in panels, by spreading bituminous material
between control bars. Strike setting bed smooth, firm, even, and not less than 3/4 inch (19
mm) thick. Add fresh bituminous material to low, porous spots after each pass of striking
board. After each panel is completed, advance first control bar to next position in readiness
for striking adjacent panels. Carefully fill depressions that remain after removing depth-
control bars.

1. Roll setting bed with power roller to a nominal depth of 3/4 inch (19 mm) while still
hot. Adjust thickness as necessary to allow accurate setting of unit pavers to finished
grades indicated.

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2. Apply neoprene-modified asphalt adhesive to cold setting bed by squeegeeing or


troweling. If troweled on, use trowel with serrations not exceeding 1/16 inch (1.6
mm). Proceed with setting of paving units only after adhesive is dry to the touch.

D. Place pavers carefully by hand in straight courses, maintaining accurate alignment and
uniform top surface. Protect newly laid pavers with plywood panels on which workers can
stand. Advance protective panels as work progresses, but maintain protection in areas
subject to continued movement of materials and equipment to avoid creating depressions or
disrupting alignment of pavers. If additional leveling of paving is required, and before
treating joints, roll paving with power roller after sufficient heat has built up in the surface
from several days of hot weather.

E. Joint Treatment: Place unit pavers with hand-tight joints. Fill joints with sand by sweeping
over paved surface until joints are filled.

F. Joint Treatment: Place brick pavers with spaced joints of 3/8-inch (10-mm) width. Fill
joints solid with grout, free of voids and pits. Tool joints as indicated. Clean excess grout
from face of paving units as work progresses. Cure joints to comply with grout
manufacturer's written instructions.

3.6 MORTAR SETTING-BED APPLICATIONS

A. Saturate concrete subbase with clean water several hours before placing setting bed.
Remove surface water about one hour before placing setting bed.

B. Apply cement-paste bond coat over surface of concrete subbase about 15 minutes before
placing setting bed. Limit area of bond coat to avoid its drying out before placing setting
bed. Do not exceed 1/16-inch (1.6-mm) thickness for bond coat.

C. Apply mortar bed over bond coat immediately after applying bond coat. Spread and screed
setting bed to uniform thickness at subgrade elevations required for accurate setting of
pavers to finished grades indicated.

D. Mix and place only that amount of mortar bed that can be covered with pavers before initial
set. Cut back, bevel edge, remove, and discard setting-bed material that has reached initial
set before placing pavers.

E. Wet brick pavers before laying if the initial rate of absorption exceeds 30 g/30 sq. in. (30
g/194 sq. cm) per minute when tested per ASTM C 67. Allow units to absorb water so they
are damp but not wet at the time of laying.

F. Place pavers before initial set of cement occurs. Immediately before placing pavers on
setting bed, apply uniform 1/16-inch- (1.5-mm-) thick, slurry bond coat to bed or to back of
each paver with a flat trowel.

G. Tamp or beat pavers with a wooden block or rubber mallet to obtain full contact with setting
bed and to bring finished surfaces within indicated tolerances. Set each paver in a single
operation before initial set of mortar; do not return to areas already set and disturb pavers for
purposes of realigning finished surfaces or adjusting joints.

H. Spaced Joint Widths: Provide 3/8 inch (10 mm) nominal joint width with variations not
exceeding plus or minus 1/8 inch (3 mm).

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I. Grout joints as soon as possible after initial set of setting bed. Force grout into joints, taking
care not to smear grout on adjoining pavers and other surfaces. After initial set of grout,
finish joints by tooling to produce a slightly concave polished joint, free from drying cracks.

J. Cure grout by maintaining in a damp condition for seven days, unless otherwise
recommended by latex-additive manufacturer.

3.7 REPAIR, POINTING, CLEANING, AND PROTECTION

A. Remove and replace unit pavers that are loose, chipped, broken, stained, or otherwise
damaged or that do not match adjoining units as intended. Provide new units to match
adjoining units and install in same manner as original units, with same joint treatment and
with no evidence of replacement.

B. Pointing: During tooling of joints, enlarge voids or holes and completely fill with mortar or
grout. Point up joints at sealant joints to provide a neat, uniform appearance, properly
prepared for sealant application.

C. Cleaning: Remove excess grout from exposed paver surfaces; wash and scrub clean.

1. Remove protective coating as recommended by protective coating manufacturer and


acceptable to unit paver and grout manufacturer. Trap and remove coating to prevent
it from clogging drains.

END OF SECTION 02780

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 02810 - IRRIGATION SYSTEM

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including Conditions of Contract


and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes piping, valves, sprinklers and devices, specialties, controls, and
wiring for the irrigation system.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 2 Section "Earthworks" for excavating, trenching and backfilling.

2. Division 2 Section 02510 “Water Distribution” for butterfly valves and valve
chambers and related accessories.

1.3 DEFINITIONS

A. Irrigation System: Exterior water piping for irrigation piping.

B. Circuit Piping: Downstream from control valves to sprinklers, specialties, and drain
valves. Piping is under pressure during flow.

C. Pressure Piping: Downstream from point of connection to irrigation system control


valves.

D. The following are industry abbreviations for materials:

1. PE: Polyethylene plastic.


2. DI: Ductile iron.
3. HDPE : High Density Poly Ethylene.
4. LDPE: Low Density Poly Ethylene.

1.4 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Minimum Water Coverage: 100 percent of planting areas.

B. Location of Sprinklers and Specialties: Design location is approximate. Make minor


adjustments, acceptable to the Engineer, necessary to avoid plantings and obstructions
such as signs and light standards.

C. Minimum Working Pressures: The following are minimum pressure requirements for
piping, valves, and specialties, unless otherwise indicated:

1. Main Pressure Piping: 10 bars


2. Circuit Piping: 6 bars.

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1.5 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: Include pressure rating, rated capacity, settings, and electrical data of
selected models for the following:

1. Water regulators.
2. Valves. Include underground; general-duty, manual control, and quick-coupler types.
3. Valve boxes.
4. Site control including remote control pressure reducing valves-RCPRV, controllers,
drip emitters, drip lines, bubbler assemblies, weather stations, sprayers and sprinklers

B. Shop Drawings: Show combined irrigation system, including plan layout and
locations, types, sizes, capacities, and flow characteristics of piping components.
Include valves, piping, irrigators, accessories, controls, and wiring. Show areas of
sprinkler spray and overspray.

C. Coordination Drawings: Show piping and major system components. Indicate


interface and spatial relationship between piping, system components, adjacent
utilities, and proximate structures.

D. Test Reports: As specified in "Field Quality Control" Article in Part 3.

E. Operation and Maintenance Data: For specialties to include in emergency, operation,


and maintenance manuals. In addition to items specified in Division 1 Section
“Closeout Procedures”, and “Operation and Maintenance Data”, include the
following:

1. Automatic, pressure-reducing control valves.


2. Irrigators.
3. Specialties.
4. Controllers.
5. Site control
6. Valves

F. As-Built Drawings: At project close-out, submit record drawings of installed pipe


work and products, in accordance with requirements of the Specification, Division 1.

G. Certificate of Compliance

1.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Product Options: Drawings indicate size, profiles, and dimensional requirements of


irrigation system components and are based on specific types and models selected.
Other manufacturers' products with equal performance characteristics may be
considered. Refer to Division 1 Section "Product Requirements."

B. Regulatory Requirements:

1. Comply with requirements of utility supplying water and authorities having


jurisdiction for preventing backflow and back siphonage.
2. Comply with ASTM F 645, "Standard Guide for Selection, Design, and Installation
of Thermoplastic Water Pressure Piping Systems."

C. Piping materials shall bear label, stamp, or other markings of specified testing agency.
IRRIGATION SYSTEM 02810 - Page 2 of 19
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D. Special Tests: Whenever required by the Engineer, supply and transport to a testing
laboratory samples of materials selected by the Engineer. Number of samples is not to
be more than 0.5% of total supplied, with at least one from each class, diameter and
manufacturer. Failure of any sample is to be followed by a second and if necessary a
third test from the same batch. A third test failure will result in all material from that
manufacturer being rejected and replaced by material from a different manufacturer,
subject to approval and satisfactory tests. Provide laboratory test report in an
approved form.

1.7 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Preparation for Transport: Prepare valves according to the following:

1. Ensure that valves are dry and internally protected against rust and corrosion.
2. Protect valves against damage to threaded ends and flange faces.
3. Set valves in best position for handling. Set valves closed to prevent rattling.

B. During Storage: Use precautions for valves according to the following:

1. Do not remove end protectors unless necessary for inspection; then, reinstall for
storage.
2. Protect from weather. Store indoors and maintain temperature higher than ambient
dew-point temperature. Support off ground or pavement in watertight enclosures
when outdoor storage is necessary.

C. Handling: Use sling to handle valves if size requires handling by crane or lift. Rig
valves to avoid damage to exposed parts. Do not use handwheels or stems as lifting
or rigging points.

D. Deliver piping with factory-applied end caps. Maintain end caps through shipping,
storage, and handling to prevent pipe-end damage and to prevent entrance of dirt,
debris, and moisture.

E. Protect stored piping from moisture and dirt. Elevate above grade. Do not exceed
structural capacity of floor when storing inside.

F. Protect flanges, fittings, and specialties from moisture and dirt.

G. Store plastic piping protected from direct sunlight. Support to prevent sagging and
bending.

H. Manufacturer’s recommendations on handling, repairing, laying, jointing, anchoring,


cutting and other works for pipes and fittings are to be strictly followed.

1.8 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Perform site survey, research public utility records, and verify existing utility
locations.

B. Existing Utilities: Do not interrupt or interfere with utilities serving facilities on the
Project site or on adjoining property unless permitted by the Engineer under the
following conditions and then only after arranging to provide temporary utility
services according to requirements indicated or directed:

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

1. Notify the Engineer not less than 72 hours in advance of proposed utility
interruptions.
2. Do not proceed with utility interruptions without the Engineer's written permission.

1.9 SEQUENCING AND SCHEDULING

A. Coordinate landscape irrigation system installations with Landscaping work, "Lawns


and Grasses", "Trees and Shrubs" and "Ground Cover and Plants."

B. Coordinate irrigation piping installations with work of other utilities.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 PIPING MATERIALS

A. Refer to Part 3 "Piping Applications" and "Valve Applications" articles for


application of pipe and tube materials, joining methods, and valve applications.

B. Marking: Unless otherwise specified in the relevant Standards products are to have
legibly cast, stamped or indelibly painted on, the following marks, as appropriate:

1. Manufacturer’s name, initials and identification mark,


2. Nominal diameter,
3. Class designation,
4. Initials and number of relevant standard,
5. Length of pipe if shorter that standard length,
6. Angle of bends in degrees,
7. Date of manufacture.

2.2 PIPES AND TUBES

A. Ductile Iron: Pipes and Fittings:

1. Ductile iron pipe for water shall be to BS EN 545 or equivalent. Unless otherwise
indicated in the Bill of Quantities or the Drawings, Class K9 shall be used.
2. Spigot and socket ended pipes shall be used for straight runs and adjacent to elbows
or fittings. These joints shall be provided with rubber gaskets, and an external
thrust block is required at elbows or fittings. Anchored or self restrained joints shall
be used for sections adjacent to elbows in areas where space is restricted or indicated
on the Drawings or BOQ. Anchored joints are to be push-in, self anchored type able
to take up the axial forces thus allowing concrete thrust blocks to be dispensed with.
The Contractor shall submit calculations verifying the number of restrained joints
required noting that pipe pressure testing will be made when pipes are partially
backfilled.
3. Flanged pipes wherever specified shall have screwed-on or cast-on flanges to sustain
working pressure of NP 16 minimum.
4. Flanges shall conform to BS EN 1092, Part 2.
5. Factory protection for pipes:

- Pipes shall be internally cement lined to BS EN 545 with ordinary Portland


cement to BS EN 197-1 to specified thicknesses

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

- Externally, pipe shall be coated with metallic zinc to BS EN 545 and followed
by a bitumen coat to BS 3416 of minimum thickness 120 microns. A hot
applied coal tar based material to BS 4164 may replace the bitumen coat.
6. Factory protection for fittings:

- Fittings shall be coated internally and externally by dipping, or other method,


using hot applied coal tar based material to BS 4164 or hot applied bitumen to
BS 4147, Type 1, grade d, minimum thickness 200 microns.

B. HDPE PIPE AND FITTINGS

1. PIPE, Pressure Pipe: DIN 8074 and DIN 8075, Class 10 or 16 kg/cm2 (as applicable)
or BS 3284 with straight ends for butt welding.

2. FITTINGS for PE Pipe: to be moulded and suitable for class of pipe. IN-line fittings
including couplings, unions, bushing and nipples may be extruded or machined from
extruded stock.

3. JOINTS: for fittings are to be socket or insert fused.

4. TESTS ON PE COMPUNDS: PE compounds are to be tested and certified suitable


for potable water by the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Testing Laboratory –
USA or the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) Testing Laboratory. Or other
accredited testing agency. Tests are to be made in accordance with requirements no
less restrictive than those in NSF 14, Sections 3 and 4. The seal and mark of the
testing laboratory are to be included on pipes and fittings.

2.3 JOINING MATERIALS

A. Refer to Division 2 Section "Piped Utilities – Basic Materials and Methods" for
commonly used joining materials.

B. Transition Couplings:

1. Underground Piping, DN 40 and Smaller: Manufactured fitting or coupling same size


as, with pressure rating at least equal to and ends compatible with, piping to be
joined.
2. Underground Piping, DN 50 and Larger: AWWA C219, metal, sleeve-type coupling
same size as, with pressure rating at least equal to and ends compatible with, piping to
be joined.
3. Aboveground Piping: Pipe fitting same size as, with pressure rating at least equal to
and ends compatible with, piping to be joined.

C. Plastic Pipe-Flange Gasket, Bolts, and Nuts: Type and material of gaskets to be as
recommended by piping system manufacturer, unless otherwise indicated. Bolts, nuts
and washer to be stainless steel grade 316.

D. Pipes utilities inside culverts should be joined using SADIP anchored standard/triduct
joints or approved equal as specified by the manufacturer.

2.4 PIPING SPECIALTIES

A. Dielectric Fittings: Combination of copper alloy and ferrous; threaded, solder, or


plain end types; and matching piping system materials.
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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

1. Dielectric Unions: Factory-fabricated union assembly, designed for 10 bars


minimum working pressure at 82 deg. C (180 deg. F). Include insulating material
that isolates dissimilar metals and ends with inside threads according to
ASME B1.20.1.
2. Dielectric Flanges: Factory-fabricated companion-flange assembly, for 1035 or 10
bar minimum working pressure to suit system pressures.
3. Dielectric-Flange Insulation Kits: Field-assembled companion-flange assembly, full-
face or ring type. Components include neoprene or phenolic gasket, phenolic or
polyethylene bolt sleeves, phenolic washers, and steel backing washers.
a. Provide separate companion flanges and steel bolts and nuts for 10 bar
minimum working pressure to suit system pressures.
4. Dielectric Couplings: Galvanized-steel couplings with inert and noncorrosive
thermoplastic lining, with threaded ends and 10 bar minimum working pressure at
107 deg C.
5. Dielectric Nipples: Electroplated steel nipples with inert and noncorrosive
thermoplastic lining, with combination of plain, threaded, or grooved end types and
10 bar minimum working pressure at 107 deg. C (225 deg. F).

2.5 VALVES AND VALVE SPECIALTIES

A. Non-rising-Stem, High-Pressure, Resilient-Seated Gate Valves: BS 5163, or


AWWA C509, ductile-iron body and bonnet; with bronze or ductile-iron gate,
resilient seats, bronze stem, and stem nut.

a. Minimum Working Pressure: 16bars.


b. End Connections: Flanged, push-on or mechanical joint.
c. Interior and exterior Coating: To be 300 microns fusion bonded epoxy coating.

B. Cast-Iron Gate Valves: AWWA C500, cast-iron double disc, bronze disc, and seat
rings or AWWA C509, resilient seated; bronze stem, cast-iron, or ductile-iron body
and bonnet, stem nut, 16 bar working pressure; and ends that fit HDPE pipe flanged
push-on or mechanical joint. Include elastomeric gaskets.

C. Cast-Iron, Nonrising-Stem Gate Valves: MSS SP-70, Type I, solid wedge; nonrising
stem and flanged ends. Include all bronze trim; Class 125, ASTM A 126, cast-iron
body; and handwheel. Interior and Exterior coating to be 300 microns fusion bonded
epoxy coating.

D. Cast-Iron, Rising-Stem Gate Valves: MSS SP-70, Type I, solid wedge; rising stem
and flanged ends. Include all bronze trim; Class 125, ASTM A 126, cast-iron body;
and handwheel.

E. Tapping-Sleeve Assemblies: Comply with MSS SP-60. Include sleeve and valve
compatible with drilling machine.

1. Tapping Sleeve: Ductile-iron or stainless steel, two-piece bolted sleeve with flanged
outlet for new branch connection. Include sleeve matching size and type of pipe
material being tapped and with recessed flange for branch valve.
2. Valve: AWWA, ductile-iron, nonrising-stem, resilient-seated gate valve with one
raised face flange mating tapping-sleeve flange.

F. Electric Remote Control Valves with Pressure Regulation: Heavy-duty, glass-filled, UV-
resistant, nylon body and bonnet with stainless steel studs and flange nuts, and a nylon
reinforced rubber diaphragm. Normally closed, and operated by 24 V, ac solenoid actuated
IRRIGATION SYSTEM 02810 - Page 6 of 19
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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

globe pattern with balanced pressure diaphragm design. Remote Control Valves shall have a
self cleaning scrubber and screen. The Solenoid shall generally be from Rainbird, Hunter,
Toro companies, or approved equal

1. Operating Pressure Range: Between 1.5 and 14 bars.


2. Outlet Pressure Regulating Capability: Between 1 and 7 bars.

G. Automatic Drain Valves: Spring-loaded, ball valve of corrosion-resistant


construction and designed to open for drainage if line pressure drops below 10 bar.

H. Quick-Couplers: Factory-fabricated, bronze or brass, two-piece assembly. Include


coupler water-seal valve; removable upper body with spring-loaded or weighted,
rubber-covered cap; hose swivel with ASME B1.20.7, 3/4-11.5NH threads for garden
hose on outlet; and operating key.

1. Locking Top Option: Include vandal-resistant, locking feature with two matching
keys.

I. Curb-Stop Service Boxes: Cast iron with telescoping top section of length required
for depth of bury of valve, cover with lettering "IRRIGATION," bottom section with
base of size to fit over curb stop, and 75- mm diameter barrel. Include steel tee-
handle shutoff rod with one pointed end, stem of length to operate curb stop, and
slotted end fitting curb-stop head.

J. Valve Boxes for gate valves: Cast iron with top section and cover with lettering
"IRRIGATION," bottom section with base to fit over valve, 127 mm diameter barrel,
and adjustable cast-iron extension of length required for depth of bury of valve.
Include steel tee-handle, shutoff rod with one pointed end, stem of length to operate
valve, and end fitting valve operating nut.

K. Control-Valve Boxes: PE, ABS, fiberglass, polymer concrete, or precast concrete


box and cover, with open bottom, openings for piping, and designed for installing
flush with grade. Include size as required for valves and service.

1. Drainage Backfill: Cleaned gravel or crushed stone, graded from 75 mm maximum


to 19 mm minimum.

L. Butterfly Valves: Cast Iron

1. Type: To BS EN 593 [27], double flange with resilient seating, for horizontal use and
suitable for NP 16.

2. Size: For 350 mm and larger.

3. Material of component parts shall be from basic materials listed in BS EN 593 [27]
Table 3.

4. End Connections: Flanged to BS 4504: PT3 [2].

5. Operation by hand wheel. Maximum shut off pressure against which valve is
operated is to be 15 kg/cm2.

6. Factory Protection: Casting surfaces are to be given an initial coat of protective paint
immediately after shot blasting and a second coat on assembly. Protective coating is
to be hot applied coal tar or bitumen to BS 4164 [5], or BS 3416 [4] respectively.
Thickness of coat shall be 250 microns.
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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

M. Flap Valves

1. Type: To be flange mounted, designed for use on end closures to prevent entrance of
backwater. Seating plane is to have 10 deg. inclination.

2. Materials: Cast iron body and cover, bronze seat faces, bronze hinge pins and spring
pins, cast iron follow ring and plated steel ring draw bolts. Materials subject to de-
zincification or de-aluminuzation are not to be used.

3. End Connections: If flange mounted, flanges are to be to BS 4504.

4. Factory Protection: Casting surfaces are to be given an initial coat of protective paint
immediately after shot blasting and a second coat on assembly. Protective coating is
to be hot applied coal tar or bitumen to BS 4164 or BS 3416 respectively. Thickness
of coat shall be at least 250 microns.

2.6 IRRIGATORS

A. Description: Manufacturer's standard sprinklers designed for uniform coverage over


entire spray area indicated, at available water pressure.

B. Components: Brass or plastic housing and corrosion-resistant interior parts.

C. Irrigators shall generally be from Rainbird, Hunter, Toro companies, or approved


equal

D. Root area watering system with associated bubblers

1. Type: Subsurface Root Area Watering System with associated pressure compensating
bubblers.

2. Construction: it shall consist of a perforated polyethylene cylinder with approximate


length of 36 inch (91 cm). The rigid mesh material shall help support the horizontal
movement of water into the root zone and adjacent soil. The cylinder shall support
gravel fill to provide better top-to-bottom water dispersion and firmness against root
compression. The factory-assembled Root Area Watering System shall come
configured with swing assemblies and/or spiral barbed fittings. The Root Area
Watering System shall be installed at finish grade level and shall support an extra-
wide molded collar to provide convenient access to the bubbler and drip line fastener.
It shall support a locking grate cover to help deter vandalism.

3. Performance: bubbler to operate at constant flow discharge over a pressure range


specified on the Drawings.

E. Emitters

1. Type: pressure compensating, single outlet.

2. Construction: emitter shall have self piercing inlet barb constructed of durable ultra-
violet resistant plastic.

3. Performance: the emitter shall have a self flushing action to minimize clogging, and
shall operate at a constant flow discharge over a pressure range specified on the
Drawings.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

4. Exterior Finish: Red alkyd-gloss enamel paint, unless otherwise indicated.

F. Pop-Up Spray Sprinkler

1. Type: fixed, non-rotating spray or stream spray adaptable for full circle, part circle, or
strip wetting pattern, suitable for installation on a pop-up mechanism. Spray head to
have built in check valve and pressure regulated stem.

2. Material: the sprinkler body, stem, nozzle, and screen shall be constructed of heavy
duty, ultra-violet resistant plastic, with a heavy-duty stainless steel retract spring.

3. Construction: spray head to retract flush with the finished ground level when not in
operation. When spraying, net pop-up height to be 150 mm from finished ground
level.

4. Performance: to meet requirements of discharge and spray radius as specified on the


Drawings for the given nozzle pressure. The sprinkler shall have a matched
precipitation rate nozzle with an adjusting screw capable of regulating the radius of
flow.

5. Tests: provide test results carried out at factory substantiating required performance
(discharge and radius of throw at prescribed operating pressure and height above
ground) and giving actual precipitation rate and its uniformity as obtained for
uniformity test carried out using catch cans.

G. Pop-Up Rotor Sprinkler

1. Type: full or part circle pop-up rotor sprinkler, single nozzle. The part circle sprinkler
shall have adjustable arc coverage from 25° to 360°. The sprinkler shall have a built
in check valve and pressure regulated stem.

2. Material: the sprinkler body, stem, nozzle, and screen shall be constructed of heavy
duty, ultra-violet resistant plastic, with a heavy duty stainless steel retract spring.

3. Construction: sprinkler head to retract flush with the finished ground level when not
in operation. When operating, net pop-up height to be 100 mm from finished ground
level.

4. Performance: to meet requirements of discharge, radius and rotation angle as


specified on the Drawings for the given nozzle pressure. The sprinkler shall have a
matched precipitation rate nozzle, with an adjusting screw capable of regulating the
radius and the flow.

5. Tests: provide test results carried out at factory substantiating required performance
(discharge and radius of throw at prescribed operating pressure and height above
ground) and giving actual precipitation rate and its uniformity as obtained for
uniformity test carried out using catch cans.

2.7 SPECIALTIES

A. Single and Multiple-Outlet Emitters: Plastic body, with pressure compensation


feature.

B. Drip Tubes: DN15 to DN25 flexible PE or PVC for emitters and other devices, of
length indicated, and with plugged end.
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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

2.8 CHECK VALVES

A. Check Valves:

1. Check Valves: AWWA C508, swing-check type with 16 bar working-pressure rating
and resilient seat. Include interior and exterior protection to be 300 microns fusion
bonded epoxy coating" and ends to match piping.

2.9 RELIEF VALVES

A. Air-Release Valves: AWWA C512, hydromechanical device to automatically release


accumulated air. Include 16 bar working-pressure design.

B. Air/Vacuum Valves: AWWA C512, direct-acting, float-operated, hydromechanical


device with large orifice to automatically release accumulated air or to admit air
during filling of piping. Include 16 bar working-pressure design.

C. Combination Air Valves: AWWA C512, float-operated, hydromechanical device to


automatically release accumulated air or to admit air. Include 16 bar working-
pressure design.

D. Interior and Exterior coating to be 300 microns (minimum) fusion bonded epoxy.

2.10 Ball Valves

A. 50 mm and under to be full port of 2-piece construction, lever operated with bronze
body and stem, chrome-plated brass ball, replaceable PTFE seats and packing, plastic
coated steel handle, threaded end connection for stell piping, and copper compression
or solder end connections for copper piping.

2.11 SPECIALTIES

A. Single and Multiple-Outlet Emitters: Plastic body, with pressure compensation


feature.

B. Drip Tubes: DN13 to DN18 flexible PE for emitters and other devices, of length
indicated, and with plugged end.

2.12 CONTROL SYSTEM

2.12.1 Individual Programme Controllers for Streetscape

A. TYPE: solid state or hybrid (combining electro-mechanical and micro-electronic circuiting),


capable of fully automatic or manual operation of the remote solenoid valves, with dual
programmed, independent station timing, 14-day calendar dial for every day or every other
day or any sequence starts, time-setting control up to 60 minutes per station in 2 minutes
increments 23 starts per day. Number of stations to be as indicated. Maximum number of
24 VAC solenoid valves that can be controlled by a station is 4. Controller is to allow for
valve power output to be interrupted without affecting the controller timers.

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B. OPERATION: the controller shall have a remote pump start circuit to activate a remote
pump start relay to run the pump during the irrigation cycle.

C. OPERATION: the controller shall allow for opening the first remote control valve before
operating the pump and also for closing the last remote control valve within 15 seconds after
stopping the pump.

D. INSTALLATION: controller to be installed in pedestal weatherproof, heavy-duty, locking,


steel cabinet adequately protected. Pedestal mount is to include terminal strips for the quick
connection of cables.

E. ELECTRICAL FEATURES: to accept 220 V 50/60 cycle current; to command 24 VAC


solenoid valves; to include output surge protection to protect controller from power surges; to
include one arrestor for each valve wire and one for the common or ground wire; to include a
master on-off switch.

F. THE CONTROLLER without exception shall be of the same manufacturer as the remote
control valve.

2.12.2 Central Control for Street Scape

2.12.2.1 Main Control System

The system shall be Rainbird, Hunter, Toro or approved equal.

The computerized central control system shall be capable of controlling a single site with up
to at least 8 locations, upgradable to 16. The control shall include a computer system, as
hereinafter specified. The control equipment shall include Two-wire decoder interface,
decoders, solenoids, isolation valves and flow sensors. The decoder interface shall be
upgradable from 1 wire group to 4 wire groups with the purchase of an “additional wire path”
software module.

Software Specifications

The Site Control software shall operate in the Microsoft® Windows® operating system
environment and shall be capable of operating the "hard-wired" Two-wire interface units. The
control system shall provide continuous "on-line", two-way communication between the
central computers, the interface unit providing "true" central control.
Continuous field unit "feedback" status information shall register at the computer and also at
the decoder interface unit (TWI).
Site Control system shall be capable of operating 50 programs residing in the system at any
one time. The system shall provide up to 6 “start times” per individual schedule and up to 6
“start times” per individual program.
The weather station shall provide automatic response or alarm to the PC. Water Budget
function shall adjust watering time from 0 to 200% in 1% increments. Automatic Rain
Shutdown shall function with the integration of a Rain Sensor. “Dry run” feature shall provide
data for testing and adjustments. Built-in rotor and spray head database shall provide custom
irrigation programs and automatically calculate precipitation rates for each sprinkler model.

Software to allow wireless access via a wireless phone or handheld is required. (Software
shall come pre-installed on a computer)
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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

Software Module Options

The software shall have the following options:


• Connection to weather station
• Automatic ET
• Smart Sensors
• Map Utilities

TWI Hardware specifications

The Two-Wire Interface (TWI) shall serve as an interface between the central controller and
the Two-Wire Decoder interfacce on the Site Control System.

Features

• TWI operates up to 500 decoder and up to 1000 solenoids, pulse decoders or sensor
decoders per wire group.
• UL-Listed
• Wall Mount: drawn steel, seamless, cabinet with hinged front panel
• Computer data path: hardwire
• Satellite data path: hardwire/2-wire path

Electrical Specifications

As per manufacturer recommendations

Grounding – Surge protection for each wire path.

2.13 FLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

The system shall have flow meters on the main line connected by sensors to the main control
system. The main isolation gate valves shall be replaced by isolation valves that are
electrically operated. They are to be connected also to the main control system. The system
shall be capable of sensing an excessive flow in the system and shall shut down the section
that has breakage.

2.14 WEATHER STATION

Weather station is to have the following features

Superior ET Model –weather sensor input to determine evapotranspiration (ET) rates based
upon a field-proven proprietary equation for ET.

Automatic ET Download/Selective Usage – Automatically download weather data daily and


calculate ET to determine irrigation times for the entire system or specific areas, holes or
stations.

ET Override – Allows you to easily set certain programs to ignore ET values when
determining run times.

Rain Bucket – Allows rainfall from one day to be carried over to the following day(s) for
more accurate ET calculations.

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Max Rain Fall – User-defined Max Rain Fall can be set to limit the amount of acceptable
rainfall for clay soil types or other areas that are subject to high runoff.

Weather Data Reports – Generate reports to show current or past weather conditions by the
hour, day, week, month or year.

Unlimited Data Storage – Store unlimited weather data at the central control.

Metric Measurement Units –Metric units of measure.

The Weather Station should be capable of working with the central control system, generating
alarms that exceed user-defined thresholds in user-defined time periods for:

• Rain
• High or Low Ambient Temperatures
• High Winds
• Rainfall Intensity

The system will reset alarms automatically when temperature, rain or wind conditions are
again within acceptable ranges for irrigation.

• Automatic Shut Off/Turn On – the Control Systems shall automatically shut OFF irrigation
to the entire system or to specific areas only, when alarm conditions are detected at the
weather station. They also automatically turn ON irrigation when weather conditions return to
the acceptable range for irrigation.

• Automatic Pause/Resume – the Central Control Systems automatically suspend irrigation to


the entire system or specific areas only when alarm conditions are detected by the weather
station. They also automatically resume irrigation when weather conditions return to the
acceptable range for irrigation.

• Automatic Notification – The Weather Station can automatically notify via paging, text
messaging or e-mail when alarm conditions exist.

2.15 IDENTIFICATION

A. Refer to Division 2 Section "Earthwork" for plastic underground warning-tape materials.

1. Solid blue film with metallic core and continuously printed black-letter caption,
"CAUTION--WATER LINE BURIED BELOW."

2.16 ITEMS RELATED TO IRRIGATION RESERVOIR

A. GALVANIZED STEEL STEPS: to comply with the latest edition of BS 970.

B. LADDERS : to be fabricated in GRP as shown on the Drawings.GRP ladders shall be


obtained from an approved experienced manufacturer, fabricated to an approved
pattern and purpose made to suit the depth of each installation as shown on the
drawings. The ladders shall be drilled for wall fixing at both ends and additional
intermediate fixing connections shall be provided at centers not greater than 1.5
meters. Rungs shall be at 300 mm centers and at a distance of not less than 150 mm
from the wall. The resins, glasses and synthetic fabrics used in the manufacture of the
ladders shall be chosen to produce a chemically resistant product with a resin-rich
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surface layer suitable for use in aggressive atmospheres likely to the encountered in
sewers and sewage pumping stations. Rungs of tubular construction shall be no less
than 30 mm outer diameter and stringers shall be of a rectangular or channel section,
no less than 70 mm x 25 mm in size. The upper face of non-tubular rungs shall be
finished with a non-slip surface such as silica sand. All remaining surfaces shall be
free of sharp edges, protrusions etc. Each rung shall be able to withstand a point load
of 5000 N. When supported horizontally over a span of 1 m with the climbing face
uppermost and with a load of 1000 N applied at the centre of the span the ladder shall
not deflect more than 15 mm at the point of application of the load and shall show no
permanent deflection after removal of the load. Each ladder fixing shall be capable of
withstanding shear and pull-out loads of 5000 N. All ladders shall comply with BS
5395: Part 3. All fixings shall be stainless steel. When the height of the ladder
exceeds 6m, safety cages shall be used.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 GENERAL

A. Installation and testing shall be according to NFPA 14 and 24 and according to the
articles of this part. In case of contradiction, the most stringent standard shall apply.

3.2 PREPARATION

A. Set stakes to identify locations of proposed irrigation system components. Obtain the
Engineer's approval before excavation.

3.3 TRENCHING AND BACKFILLING

A. Refer to Division 2 Section "Earthwork" for excavating, trenching, and backfilling.

B. Install warning tape directly above pressure piping, 300 mm below finished grades,
except 150 mm below subgrade under pavement and slabs.

C. Install piping and wiring in sleeves under sidewalks, roadways, parking lots, and the
like.

D. Drain Pockets: Excavate to sizes indicated or required. Backfill with cleaned gravel
or crushed stone, graded from 75 to 19 mm minimum, to 300 mm below grade.
Cover gravel or crushed stone with sheet of asphalt-saturated felt and backfill
remainder with excavated material.

E. Provide minimum cover over top of underground piping according to the following:

1. Pressure Piping: Minimum of 1200 mm below finished unless otherwise indicated.


2. Circuit Piping: 300 mm.
3. Drain Piping: 300 mm.
4. Sleeves: 600 mm.

3.4 PIPING APPLICATIONS

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A. Install components having pressure rating equal to or greater than system operating
pressure.

B. Piping in control-valve boxes and aboveground may be joined with flanges instead of
joints indicated.

C. Underground, Pressure Piping: Use the following:

1. DN 65 and Smaller: PE controlled ID pipe, PE threaded fittings, and threaded joints.


2. DN 250 and Larger: DI to BS EN 545 to withstand at least 16 bars pressure-rated
pipe, with flexible tensile resistant rubber seal lock joint.

D. Circuit Piping: Use the following:

1. DN65 and Smaller: PE to BS 6437 Class C or DIN 8074 and DIN 8075 Class 10 or 6
bars pipe (as applicable), PE socket or butt-fusion fittings, and heat-fusion joints.

E. Risers to Aboveground Specialties: DIN 8074/8075 Class 10 kg/cm² HDPE pipe.


Straight with straight ends suitable for heat fusion. HDPE socket fittings, and solvent-
cemented joints.

F. Sleeves: DIN 8074/8075 Class 6 kg/cm² HDPE pipe. Straight with straight ends
suitable for heat fusion. HDPE socket fittings, and solvent-cemented joints.

3.5 VALVE APPLICATIONS

A. Aboveground, Shutoff-Duty Valves: Use the following:

1. DN50 and Smaller: Bronze ball valve.


2. DN65 and Larger: Cast-iron, nonrising-stem gate valve.

B. Underground, Shutoff-Duty Valves: Use the following:

1. DN80 and Larger: Gate valve, with elastomeric gaskets and stem nut, valve box, and
shutoff rod.

C. Underground, Manual Control Valves: Bronze globe valve with control-valve service
box and valve key.

D. Control Valves: Use the following:

1. DN50 and Smaller: Bronze ball valve.


2. DN65 and DN80: Cast-iron, nonrising-stem gate valve.

3.6 JOINT CONSTRUCTION

A. Refer to Division 2 Section "Piped Utilities - Basic Materials and Methods" for pipe
joint construction requirements.

B. HDPE Piping Gasketed Joints: Construct underground joints between cast-iron


valves and HDPE pipe with elastomeric seals that fit pipe and valve ends. Use
lubricant according to ASTM D 3139.

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C. Dissimilar Piping Material Joints: Construct joints using adapters or couplings that
are compatible with both piping materials, outside diameters, and system working
pressure.

D. DI piping, as recommended by manufacturer.

3.7 PIPING INSTALLATION

A. Follow the manufacturer's instructions regarding placement of bedding and


backfilling, cleanliness of joint surfaces, lubricant used, correct location of
components, provision of correct gaps between end of spigot and back of socket,
maximum permissible deflection of joints for detachable couplings and flexible joints,
provision of flexible joints for connections to pipes built into structures.

B. Locations and Arrangements: Drawings indicate location and arrangement of piping


systems, which were used to size pipe and calculate friction loss, and other design
considerations. Install piping as indicated, unless deviations are approved on the
Coordination Drawings.

C. Install piping at uniform slope of 0.5 percent minimum, wherever possible.

D. Install piping free of sags and bends.

E. Install groups of pipes parallel to each other, spaced to permit valve servicing.

F. Install fittings for changes in direction and branch connections.

G. Install unions adjacent to valves and final connections to other components with
DN50 or smaller pipe connection.

H. Install flanges adjacent to valves and final connections to other components with
DN65 or larger pipe connection.

I. Install underground thermoplastic piping according to ASTM D 2774 and


ASTM F 690.

J. Lay piping on solid subbase, uniformly sloped without humps or depressions.

K. Install HDPE piping in dry weather when temperature is above 4.4 deg. C (40 deg. F).
Allow joints to cure at least 24 hours at temperature above 4.4 deg. C (40 deg. F)
before testing, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.

3.8 ANCHORAGE INSTALLATION

A. Install anchorages for tees, plugs and caps, bends, crosses, valves, and hydrant
branches.

B. Apply full coat of asphalt or other acceptable corrosion-resistant material to surfaces


of installed ferrous anchorage devices.

3.9 VALVE INSTALLATION

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

A. Underground Gate Valves: Install valve with stem pointing up in a valve box with
top flush with grade, comply with AWWA C600 and AWWA M44.

1. Install valves and HDPE pipe with restrained, gasketed joints.

B. Drain Valves: Install in a control-valve box.

3.10 AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM INSTALLATION

A. Install controllers according to the manufacturer's written instructions and as


indicated.

B. Install freestanding controllers on precast concrete bases not less than 914 by 610 by
100 mm thick, and not less than 150 mm greater in each direction than overall
dimensions of controller.

C. Install control wiring in same trench with piping. Install wiring with loops at control
valves and controllers, at intervals not greater than 30 m, and changes in direction to
allow for expansion. Bundle wiring in same trench at 3 m intervals.

3.11 CONNECTIONS

A. Connect piping to valves, sprinklers, and specialties.

B. Connect irrigation system to lawn sprinkler piping.

C. Ground electric-powered controllers, valves, and devices.

1. Tighten electrical connectors and terminals according to the manufacturer's published


torque-tightening values. If the manufacturer's torque values are not indicated, use
those specified in UL 486A and UL 486B.

D. Arrange for electric-power connections to controllers, control valves, and devices that
require power. Electric power, wiring, and disconnect switches are specified in
Division 16 Sections.

3.12 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A. Field testing generally:

1. Provision of test equipment: All items for test have to be provided on site before the
test i.e. pressure gages, instruments, water etc.
2. Carry out tests in the presence of the Engineer's Representative.
3. Fittings and joints: Permanently anchor fittings before testing and leave all joints
exposed for checking.
4. Test sections: Limit test sections to not more than 500 m.
5. Test sections: Test pressure lines between valve chambers whenever possible.
6. Test sections: No testing shall be carried out against or through the pressure reducing
valves. The setting of the pressure reducing valves shall not be changed for testing
purposes.
7. Test plug: Secure end of main and test plug by struts.
8. Closed valve: Do not test against a closed valve unless there is no acceptable
alternative.
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9. Apply pressure by manually operated test pump or, in the case of large diameter
mains, by power driven test pump, if approved.
10. Examine exposed joints and repair visible leaks.
11. Failure: Should a test fail, locate and replace or make good defective pipe or replace
and make good faulty joint. Retest main.
12. Records: Keep test records in an approved form. Hand original copy to the Engineer
immediately after completion of test.
13. Carry out hydrostatic test while pipeline is partially backfilled.

B. Hydrostatic testing of pressure pipelines:

1. Fill pipe slowly with water from lowest point. Do not use power-driven pump unless
approved.
2. Fill absorbant pipes with water and allow to stand for at least 24 hours to allow
complete absorption.
3. Entrapped air is to be bled before pressurizing.
4. Pressurizing is to continue until specified test pressure is reached in lowest part of
section under test. Bleed further quantities of entrapped air while raising pressure.
5. Maintain test pressure for specified test duration with pumping stopped.
6. Repressurize to original test pressure and record respective volumes of water
pumped.
7. Failure: Pipeline will be deemed to have failed test if:
a. Visible leaks are detected, regardless of leakage being within specified limits.
b. Volume of water lost during period when pumping was stopped exceeds
allowable leakage.
8. Test pressure: Generally 1.5 times the maximum sustained pressure, minimum
12 kg/cm2 for main lines and 8 kg/cm2 for circuit piping.
9. Test period: 2 hours.
10. Allowable leakage: 0.1 liter/mm diameter/km length/day/30 m of applied pressure.

C. Visual Inspection Test:

1. Timing: Carry out test after total backfilling of length under test.
2. Limit of length to be tested at one time is 3 full length pipes unless otherwise
approved.
3. Apparatus: Use rubber ty`red bogies which do not damage lining of pipe and an
adequate supply of electric lamps.
4. Check joints by means of feelers to ensure rubber rings are correctly located.
5. Check pipe barrel for visible cracks.

3.13 IDENTIFICATION

A. Install continuous underground detectable warning tape during backfilling of trench


for underground irrigation piping. Locate below finished grade, directly over piping.
See Division 2 Section "Earthwork" for underground warning tapes.

3.14 CLEANING AND ADJUSTING

A. Flush dirt and debris from piping before installing sprinklers and other devices.

B. Adjust automatic control valves to provide flow rate of rated operating pressure
required for each sprinkler circuit.

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C. Carefully adjust sprinklers so they will be flush with, or not more than 13 mm above,
finish grade.

D. Adjust settings of controllers and automatic control valves.

3.15 COMMISSIONING

A. Starting Procedures: Follow the manufacturer's written procedures. If no procedures


are prescribed by the manufacturers, proceed as follows:

1. Verify that specialty valves and their accessories are installed and operate correctly.
2. Verify that specified tests of piping are complete.
3. Verify that sprinklers and devices are correct type.
4. Verify that damaged sprinklers and devices are replaced with new materials.
5. Energize circuits to electrical equipment and devices.
6. Adjust operating controls.

B. Operational Tests: Measure and record water flow rate and area coverage at each
sprinkler. Adjust to achieve indicated values.

3.16 DEMONSTRATION

A. Train the Employer's maintenance personnel to adjust, operate, and maintain


irrigation system controls and equipment, sprinklers, specialties and accessories.
Refer to Division 1 Section "Demonstration and Training” and “Closeout Procedures”

END OF SECTION 02810

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 02870 - SITE AND STREET FURNISHINGS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 GENERALLY

A. This Section includes the following site and street furnishings:

1. Benches.
2. Trash receptacles.
3. Phone Booths
4. Banner Poles
5. Bollards
6. Map Boards and Signs
7. Shade Structures

1.2 PROJECT INCLUDES

A. Reinforced stone benches

B. Reinforced stone trash receptacles

C. Walk-up Aluminum phone enclosure

D. Aluminum Banner Poles

E. Concrete Bollards

F. Illuminated Map Board and signage system

G. Steel Shade Structures with Teflon material shades.

H. Steel tree grate

1.3 SYSTEM PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Design Criteria: Design, fabricate, and install site furniture to withstand high climate
temperatures.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each type of product indicated. Include construction details, material
descriptions, dimensions of individual components and profiles, finishes, field-assembly
requirements, and installation details.

B. Samples for Initial Selection: For units with factory-applied color finishes

C. Samples for Verification: For each type of exposed finish required, prepared on Samples of
size indicated below.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

1. Size: Not less than 150-mm long linear components and 100-mm square sheet
components.

2. Full Size: Bench, Trash receptacle, signs & phone booths.

D. Product Schedule: For site and street furnishings. Use same designations indicated on
Drawings.

E. Material Certificates: For site and street furnishings, signed by manufacturers.

F. Maintenance Data: For site and street furnishings to include in maintenance manuals.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Source Limitations: Obtain each type of site and street furnishings through one source from
a single manufacturer or as indicated on drawings.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 BENCHES

A. Seat: Stone.

B. Base: Concrete

C. Installation Method: Attached below finished grade.

D. Manufacturer / product: Escofet Mayo bench or similar approved

2.2 TRASH RECEPTACLES

A. Facing Surrounds: Stone.

B. Support Frames: Stainless Steel.

C. Installation Method: Freestanding with weighted base.

D. Manufacturer / product: Escofet Net or similar approved

2.3 WALK-UP PHONE ENCLOSURE

A. Dimensions: 87.5 cmH x 43.00 cm W x 28.50 cm D

B. Frame: Aircraft grade aluminum

C. Finish: Silver Powder Coat Paint Finish

D. Installation Method: Wall mounting bracket

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

2.4 BANNER POLES

A. Dimensions: 5m H x 20cm dia. Pole

B. Material: Aircraft grade aluminum

C. Finish: Silver Powder Coat Paint Finish

D. Installation Method: Attached below finished grade.

2.5 CONCRETE BOLLARDS

A. Dimensions: 750 x 400 x 150mm

B. Materials: Cast concrete with smooth Cement Finish.

C. Installation method: Attached below finished grade.

D. Manufacturer / product: Escofet Borne Icaria or similar approved

E.

2.6 ILLUMINATED MAP BOARD AND SIGNAGE SYSTEM

A. Placement: At locations indicated on drawings

B. Technical details as required by transit authorities.

2.7 SHADE STRUCTURES

A. Frame: Mild steel power coated or hot dipped galvanized

B. Fabric: Architectural PVC coated polyester (15 years life)

C. Fittings: Cables and connections 316 stainless steel

D. Installation method: Attached below finished grade

E. Shape: As Drawn.

2.8 Tree Grate

A. Dimensions: 1200mm dia.

B. Materials: Cast Iron

C. Manufacturer / product: Broxap BX1201 -STD

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 INSTALLATION - GENERAL

A. Comply with manufacturer's written installation instructions, unless more stringent


requirements are indicated. Complete field assembly of site and street furnishings, where
required.

B. Unless otherwise indicated, install site and street furnishings after landscaping and paving
have been completed.

C. Install site and street furnishings level, plumb, true, and securely anchored or positioned at
locations indicated on Drawings.

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D. Post Setting: Set cast-in support posts in concrete footing with smooth top, shaped to shed
water. Protect portion of posts above footing from concrete splatter. Verify that posts are
set plumb or at correct angle and are aligned and at correct height and spacing. Hold posts
in position during placement and finishing operations until concrete is sufficiently cured.

E. Provision of warranties on all site furniture

END OF SECTION 02870

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 02930 - EXTERIOR PLANTS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes the following:

1. Trees and palms trees.


2. Shrubs.
3. Ground cover.
4. Plants.
5. Edgings.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 2 Section "Site Clearing" for protection of existing trees and planting,
topsoil stripping and stockpiling, and site clearing.
2. Division 2 Section "Earthwork" for excavation, filling, and rough grading and for
subsurface aggregate drainage and drainage backfill materials.
3. Division 2 Section "Subdrainage" for below-grade drainage of landscaped areas,
paved areas, and wall perimeters.

1.3 DEFINITIONS

A. Balled and Burlapped Stock: Exterior plants dug with firm, natural balls of earth in which
they are grown, with ball size not less than sizes indicated and diameter and depth
recommended by ANSI Z60.1 for type and size of tree or shrub required; wrapped, tied,
rigidly supported, and drum-laced as recommended by ANSI Z60.1.

B. Balled and Potted Stock: Exterior plants dug with firm, natural balls of earth in which they
are grown and placed, unbroken, in a container. Ball size is not less than sizes indicated and
diameter and depth recommended by ANSI Z60.1 for type and size of exterior plant
required.

C. Bare-Root Stock: Exterior plants with a well-branched, fibrous-root system developed by


transplanting or root pruning, with soil or growing medium removed, and with not less than
minimum root spread according to ANSI Z60.1 for kind and size of exterior plant required.

D. Container-Grown Stock: Healthy, vigorous, well-rooted exterior plants grown in a


container with well-established root system reaching sides of container and maintaining a
firm ball when removed from container. Container shall be rigid enough to hold ball shape
and protect root mass during shipping and be sized according to ANSI Z60.1 for kind, type,
and size of exterior plant required.

E. Fabric Bag-Grown Stock: Healthy, vigorous, well-rooted exterior plants established and
grown in-ground in a porous fabric bag with well-established root system reaching sides of

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fabric bag. Fabric bag size is not less than diameter, depth, and volume required by
ANSI Z60.1 for type and size of exterior plant.

F. Finish Grade: Elevation of finished surface of planting soil.

G. Manufactured Topsoil: Soil produced off-site by homogeneously blending mineral soils or


sand with stabilized organic soil amendments to produce topsoil or planting soil.

H. Planting Soil: Native or imported topsoil, manufactured topsoil, or surface soil modified to
become topsoil; mixed with soil amendments.

I. Subgrade: Surface or elevation of subsoil remaining after completing excavation, or top


surface of a fill or backfill, before placing planting soil.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each type of product indicated.

B. Samples for Verification: For each of the following:

1. 5 lb (2.2 kg) of mineral mulch for each color and texture of stone required, in labeled
plastic bags.
2. Edging materials and accessories, of manufacturer's standard size, to verify color
selected.

C. Product Certificates: For each type of manufactured product, signed by product


manufacturer, and complying with the following:

1. Manufacturer's certified analysis for standard products.


2. Analysis of other materials by a recognized laboratory made according to methods
established by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, where applicable.

D. Qualification Data: For landscape Installer.

E. Material Test Reports: For existing surface soil and imported topsoil.

F. Planting Schedule: Indicating anticipated planting dates for exterior plants.

G. Maintenance Instructions: Recommended procedures to be established by Owner for


maintenance of exterior plants during a calendar year. Submit before expiration of required
maintenance periods.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Installer Qualifications: A qualified landscape installer whose work has resulted in


successful establishment of exterior plants.

1. Installer's Field Supervision: Require Installer to maintain an experienced full-time


supervisor on Project site when exterior planting is in progress.

B. Soil-Testing Laboratory Qualifications: An independent laboratory, recognized by the State


Department of Agriculture, with the experience and capability to conduct the testing
indicated and that specializes in types of tests to be performed.

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C. Topsoil Analysis: Furnish soil analysis by a qualified soil-testing laboratory stating


percentages of organic matter; gradation of sand, silt, and clay content; cation exchange
capacity; sodium absorption ratio; deleterious material; pH; and mineral and plant-nutrient
content of topsoil.

1. Report suitability of topsoil for plant growth. State recommended quantities of


nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash nutrients and soil amendments to be added to
produce a satisfactory topsoil.

D. Provide quality, size, genus, species, and variety of exterior plants indicated, complying
with applicable requirements in ANSI Z60.1, "American Standard for Nursery Stock."

1. Selection of exterior plants purchased under allowances will be made by Architect,


who will tag plants at their place of growth before they are prepared for transplanting.

E. Tree and Shrub Measurements: Measure according to ANSI Z60.1 with branches and
trunks or canes in their normal position. Do not prune to obtain required sizes. Take caliper
measurements 6 inches (150 mm) above ground for trees up to 4-inch (100-mm) caliper
size, and 12 inches (300 mm) above ground for larger sizes. Measure main body of tree or
shrub for height and spread; do not measure branches or roots tip-to-tip.

F. Observation: Architect may observe trees and shrubs either at place of growth or at site
before planting for compliance with requirements for genus, species, variety, size, and
quality. Architect retains right to observe trees and shrubs further for size and condition of
balls and root systems, insects, injuries, and latent defects and to reject unsatisfactory or
defective material at any time during progress of work. Remove rejected trees or shrubs
immediately from Project site.

1. Notify Architect of sources of planting materials seven days in advance of delivery to


site.

G. Preinstallation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site to comply with requirements


in Division 1 Section "Project Management and Coordination."

1.6 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Deliver exterior plants freshly dug.

1. Immediately after digging up bare-root stock, pack root system in wet straw, hay, or
other suitable material to keep root system moist until planting.

B. Do not prune trees and shrubs before delivery, except as approved by Architect. Protect
bark, branches, and root systems from sun scald, drying, sweating, whipping, and other
handling and tying damage. Do not bend or bind-tie trees or shrubs in such a manner as to
destroy their natural shape. Provide protective covering of exterior plants during delivery.
Do not drop exterior plants during delivery.

C. Handle planting stock by root ball.

D. Deliver exterior plants after preparations for planting have been completed and install
immediately. If planting is delayed more than six hours after delivery, set exterior plants
trees in shade, protect from weather and mechanical damage, and keep roots moist.

1. Heel-in bare-root stock. Soak roots in water for two hours if dried out.

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2. Set balled stock on ground and cover ball with soil, peat moss, sawdust, or other
acceptable material.
3. Do not remove container-grown stock from containers before time of planting.
4. Water root systems of exterior plants stored on-site with a fine-mist spray. Water as
often as necessary to maintain root systems in a moist condition.

1.7 COORDINATION

A. Planting Restrictions: Plant during one of the following periods. Coordinate planting
periods with maintenance periods to provide required maintenance from date of Substantial
Completion.

1. Spring Planting:
2. Fall Planting:

B. Weather Limitations: Proceed with planting only when existing and forecasted weather
conditions permit.

C. Coordination with Lawns: Plant trees and shrubs after finish grades are established and
before planting lawns, unless otherwise acceptable to Architect.

1. When planting trees and shrubs after lawns, protect lawn areas and promptly repair
damage caused by planting operations.

1.8 WARRANTY

A. Special Warranty: Warrant the following exterior plants, for the warranty period indicated,
against defects including death and unsatisfactory growth, except for defects resulting from
lack of adequate maintenance, neglect, or abuse by Owner, or incidents that are beyond
Contractor's control.

1. Warranty Period for Trees and Shrubs: One year from date of Substantial
Completion.
2. Warranty Period for Ground Cover and Plants: Six months from date of Substantial
Completion.
3. Remove dead exterior plants immediately. Replace immediately unless required to
plant in the succeeding planting season.
4. Replace exterior plants that are more than 25 percent dead or in an unhealthy
condition at end of warranty period.
5. A limit of one replacement of each exterior plant will be required, except for losses or
replacements due to failure to comply with requirements.

1.9 MAINTENANCE

A. Trees and Shrubs: Maintain for the following maintenance period by pruning, cultivating,
watering, weeding, fertilizing, restoring planting saucers, tightening and repairing stakes and
guy supports, and resetting to proper grades or vertical position, as required to establish
healthy, viable plantings. Spray as required to keep trees and shrubs free of insects and
disease. Restore or replace damaged tree wrappings.

1. Maintenance Period: 12 months from date of Substantial Completion.

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B. Ground Cover and Plants: Maintain for the following maintenance period by watering,
weeding, fertilizing, and other operations as required to establish healthy, viable plantings:

1. Maintenance Period: Six months from date of Substantial Completion.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 TREE AND SHRUB MATERIAL

A. General: Furnish nursery-grown trees and shrubs complying with ANSI Z60.1, with healthy
root systems developed by transplanting or root pruning. Provide well-shaped, fully
branched, healthy, vigorous stock free of disease, insects, eggs, larvae, and defects such as
knots, sun scald, injuries, abrasions, and disfigurement.

B. Grade: Provide trees and shrubs of sizes and grades complying with ANSI Z60.1 for type of
trees and shrubs required. Trees and shrubs of a larger size may be used if acceptable to
Architect, with a proportionate increase in size of roots or balls.

C. Label each tree and shrub with securely attached, waterproof tag bearing legible designation
of botanical and common name.

D. Label at least one tree and one shrub of each variety and caliper with a securely attached,
waterproof tag bearing legible designation of botanical and common name.

E. If formal arrangements or consecutive order of trees or shrubs is shown, select stock for
uniform height and spread, and number label to assure symmetry in planting.

2.2 SHADE AND FLOWERING TREES

A. Shade Trees: Single-stem trees with straight trunk, well-balanced crown, and intact leader,
of height and caliper indicated, complying with ANSI Z60.1 for type of trees required.

1. Provide bare-root or container-grown trees and palm trees as per Engineer’s approval.
2. Branching Height: One-third to one-half of tree height.

B. Small Upright and Spreading Trees: Branched or pruned naturally according to species and
type, with relationship of caliper, height, and branching according to ANSI Z60.1; stem
form as follows:

1. Stem Form: Single stem, Multistem, clump, with two or more main stems and
Multistem, shrub, with multiple stems.
2. Provide balled and burlapped, balled and potted, bare-root, container-grown and
fabric bag-grown trees.

C. Multistem Trees: Branched or pruned naturally according to species and type, with
relationship of caliper, height, and branching according to ANSI Z60.1; stem form as
follows:

1. Stem Form: Clump and Shrub.


2. Provide balled and burlapped, balled and potted, bare-root, container-grown and
fabric bag-grown trees as per Engineer’s approval.

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2.3 DECIDUOUS SHRUBS

A. Form and Size: Deciduous shrubs with not less than the minimum number of canes required
by and measured according to ANSI Z60.1 for type, shape, and height of shrub.

1. Provide container-grown shrubs.

2.4 BROADLEAF EVERGREENS

A. Form and Size: Normal-quality, well-balanced, broadleaf evergreens, of type, height,


spread, and shape required, complying with ANSI Z60.1.

1. Provide bare–root or container-grown fabric bag-grown trees.

2.5 GROUND COVER PLANTS

2.6 Ground Cover: Provide ground cover of species indicated on drawings, established and well
rooted in pots or similar containers, and complying with ANSI Z60.1 PLANTS

A. Annuals: Provide healthy, disease-free plants of species and variety shown or listed.
Provide only plants that are acclimated to outdoor conditions before delivery and that are in
bud but not yet in bloom.

B. Perennials: Provide healthy, field-grown plants from a commercial nursery, of species and
variety shown or listed.

C. Fast-Growing Vines: Provide vines of species indicated complying with requirements in


ANSI Z60.1 as follows:

1. Two-year plants with heavy, well-branched tops, with not less than 3 runners 18
inches (450 mm) or more in length, and with a vigorous well-developed root system.
2. Provide field-grown vines. Vines grown in pots or other containers of adequate size
and acclimated to outside conditions will also be acceptable.

2.7 TOPSOIL

A. Topsoil: ASTM D 5268, pH range of 5.5 to 7, a minimum of 6 percent organic material


content; free of stones 1 inch (25 mm) or larger in any dimension and other extraneous
materials harmful to plant growth.

1. Topsoil Source: Reuse surface soil stockpiled on-site. Verify suitability of


stockpiled surface soil to produce topsoil. Clean surface soil of roots, plants, sod,
stones, clay lumps, and other extraneous materials harmful to plant growth.

a. Supplement with imported or manufactured topsoil from off-site sources when


quantities are insufficient. Obtain topsoil displaced from naturally well-
drained construction or mining sites where topsoil occurs at least 4 inches (100
mm) deep; do not obtain from agricultural land, bogs or marshes.

2. Topsoil Source: Import topsoil or manufactured topsoil from off-site sources. Obtain
topsoil displaced from naturally well-drained construction or mining sites where

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topsoil occurs at least 4 inches (100 mm) deep; do not obtain from agricultural land,
bogs or marshes.
3. Topsoil Source: Amend existing in-place surface soil to produce topsoil. Verify
suitability of surface soil to produce topsoil. Clean surface soil of roots, plants, sod,
stones, clay lumps, and other extraneous materials harmful to plant growth.

a. Surface soil may be supplemented with imported or manufactured topsoil from


off-site sources. Obtain topsoil displaced from naturally well-drained
construction or mining sites where topsoil occurs at least 4 inches (100 mm)
deep; do not obtain from agricultural land, bogs or marshes.

2.8 INORGANIC SOIL AMENDMENTS

A. Lime: ASTM C 602, agricultural limestone containing a minimum 80 percent calcium


carbonate equivalent and as follows:Class: Class T, with a minimum 99 percent passing
through No. 8 (2.36-mm) sieve and a minimum 75 percent passing through No. 60 (0.25-
mm) sieve.
1. Class: Class O, with a minimum 95 percent passing through No. 8 (2.36-mm) sieve
and a minimum 55 percent passing through No. 60 (0.25-mm) sieve.
2. Provide lime in form of dolomitic limestone.

B. Sulfur: Granular, biodegradable, containing a minimum of 90 percent sulfur, with a


minimum 99 percent passing through No. 6 (3.35-mm) sieve and a maximum 10 percent
passing through No. 40 (0.425-mm) sieve.

C. Iron Sulfate: Granulated ferrous sulfate containing a minimum of 20 percent iron and 10
percent sulfur.

D. Aluminum Sulfate: Commercial grade, unadulterated.

E. Perlite: Horticultural perlite, soil amendment grade.

F. Agricultural Gypsum: Finely ground, containing a minimum of 90 percent calcium sulfate.

G. Sand: Clean, washed, natural or manufactured, free of toxic materials.

H. Diatomaceous Earth: Calcined, diatomaceous earth, 90 percent silica, with approximately


140 percent water absorption capacity by weight.

I. Zeolites: Mineral clinoptilolite with at least 60 percent water absorption by weight.

2.9 ORGANIC SOIL AMENDMENTS

A. Compost: Well-composted, stable, and weed-free organic matter, pH range of 5.5 to 8;


moisture content 35 to 55 percent by weight; 100 percent passing through 1-inch (25-
mm) 3/4-inch (19-mm) 1/2-inch (13-mm) sieve; soluble salt content of 5 to 10
decisiemens/m; not exceeding 0.5 percent inert contaminants and free of substances toxic to
plantings; and as follows:

1. Organic Matter Content: 50 to 60 percent of dry weight.


2. Feedstock: Agricultural, food, or industrial residuals; biosolids; yard trimmings; or
source-separated or compostable mixed solid waste.

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B. Peat: Sphagnum peat moss, partially decomposed, finely divided or granular texture, with a
pH range of 3.4 to 4.8.

C. Peat: Finely divided or granular texture, with a pH range of 6 to 7.5, containing partially
decomposed moss peat, native peat, or reed-sedge peat and having a water-absorbing
capacity of 1100 to 2000 percent.

D. Wood Derivatives: Decomposed, nitrogen-treated sawdust, ground bark, or wood waste; of


uniform texture, free of chips, stones, sticks, soil, or toxic materials.

1. In lieu of decomposed wood derivatives, mix partially decomposed wood derivatives


with at least 0.15 lb (2.4 kg) of ammonium nitrate or 0.25 lb (4 kg) of ammonium
sulfate per cubic foot (cubic meter) of loose sawdust or ground bark.

E. Manure: Well-rotted, unleached, stable or cattle manure containing not more than 25
percent by volume of straw, sawdust, or other bedding materials; free of toxic substances,
stones, sticks, soil, weed seed, and material harmful to plant growth.

2.10 FERTILIZER

A. Bonemeal: Commercial, raw or steamed, finely ground; a minimum of 4 percent nitrogen


and 20 percent phosphoric acid.

B. Superphosphate: Commercial, phosphate mixture, soluble; a minimum of 20 percent


available phosphoric acid.

C. Commercial Fertilizer: Commercial-grade complete fertilizer of neutral character,


consisting of fast- and slow-release nitrogen, 50 percent derived from natural organic
sources of urea formaldehyde, phosphorous, and potassium in the following composition:

1. Composition: 1 lb/1000 sq. ft. (0.45 kg/92.9 sq. m) of actual nitrogen, 4 percent
phosphorous, and 2 percent potassium, by weight.
2. Composition: Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium in amounts recommended in
soil reports from a qualified soil-testing agency.

D. Slow-Release Fertilizer: Granular or pelleted fertilizer consisting of 50 percent water-


insoluble nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the following composition:

1. Composition: 20 percent nitrogen, 10 percent phosphorous, and 10 percent


potassium, by weight.
2. Composition: Nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium in amounts recommended in
soil reports from a qualified soil-testing agency.

2.11 MULCHES

A. Organic Mulch: Free from deleterious materials and suitable as a top dressing of trees and
shrubs, consisting of one of the following:

1. Type: Shredded hardwood, Ground or shredded bark, Pine straw, Salt hay or
threshed straw, Wood and bark chips, Pine needles, Peanut, pecan, and cocoa-bean
shells as per Engineer’s approval.

B. Compost Mulch: Well-composted, stable, and weed-free organic matter, pH range of 5.5 to
8; moisture content 35 to 55 percent by weight; 100 percent passing through 1-inch (25-

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mm) sieve; soluble salt content of 5 to 10 decisiemens/m; not exceeding 0.5 percent inert
contaminants and free of substances toxic to plantings; and as follows:

1. Organic Matter Content: 50 to 60 percent of dry weight.


2. Feedstock: Agricultural, food, or industrial residuals; biosolids; yard trimmings; or
source-separated or compostable mixed solid waste.

C. Mineral Mulch: Hard, durable stone, washed free of loam, sand, clay, and other foreign
substances, of following type, size range, and color:

1. Type: Rounded riverbed gravel or smooth-faced stone, Crushed stone or gravel


Marble chips or Granite chips as per Engineer’s approval.
2. Size Range: 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) maximum, 3/4 inch (19 mm) minimum 3/4 inch
(19 mm) maximum, 1/4 inch (6 mm) minimum.
3. Color: Uniform tan-beige color range, acceptable to Architect Readily available
natural gravel color range as per Engineer’s approval.

2.12 WEED-CONTROL BARRIERS

A. Polyethylene Sheeting: ASTM D 4397, black, 0.006-inch- (0.15-mm-) minimum thickness.

B. Nonwoven Fabric: Polypropylene or polyester fabric, 3 oz./sq. yd. (101 g/sq. m) minimum.

C. Composite Fabric: Woven, needle-punched polypropylene substrate bonded to a nonwoven


polypropylene fabric, 4.8 oz./sq. yd. (162 g/sq. m).

2.13 STAKES AND GUYS

A. Upright and Guy Stakes: Rough-sawn, sound, new hardwood, redwood, or pressure-
preservative-treated softwood, free of knots, holes, cross grain, and other defects, 2 by 2
inches (50 by 50 mm) by length indicated, pointed at one end.

B. Guy and Tie Wire: ASTM A 641/A 641M, Class 1, galvanized-steel wire, 2-strand,
twisted, 0.106 inch (2.7 mm) in diameter.

C. Guy Cable: 5-strand, 3/16-inch- (4.8-mm-) diameter, galvanized-steel cable, with zinc-
coated turnbuckles, a minimum of 3 inches (75 mm) long, with two 3/8-inch (10-mm)
galvanized eyebolts.

D. Hose Chafing Guard: Reinforced rubber or plastic hose at least 1/2 inch (13 mm) in
diameter, black, cut to lengths required to protect tree trunks from damage.

E. Flags: Standard surveyor's plastic flagging tape, white, 6 inches (150 mm) long.

2.14 LANDSCAPE EDGINGS

A. Steel Edging: Standard commercial-steel edging, rolled edge, fabricated in sections of


standard lengths, with loops stamped from or welded to face of sections to receive stakes.

1. Edging Size: 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) wide by 5 inches (125 mm) deep.
2. Stakes: Tapered steel, a minimum of 15 inches (380 mm) long.
3. Accessories: Standard tapered ends, corners, and splicers.
4. Finish: Zinc coated.

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5. Paint Color: Brown.

B. Polyethylene Edging: Standard black polyethylene edging, V-lipped bottom horizontally


grooved, extruded in standard lengths, with 9-inch (228-mm) steel angle stakes.

1. Edging Size: 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) wide by 5 inches (125 mm) deep.
2. Top Profile: Straight, with top 2 inches (50 mm) being 1/4 inch (6.4 mm) thick.
3. Top Profile: Round top, 1/2 inch (13 mm) in diameter.
4. Accessories: Manufacturer's standard connecting clips or plugs.

C. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

D. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, provide products by one of the


following or similar approved:

1. Steel Edging:

a. Border Concepts, Inc.


b. Collier Metal Specialties, Inc.
c. Russell, J. D. Company (The).
d. Ryerson Tull, Inc.
e. Sure-loc Aluminum Edging Corporation.

2. Aluminum Edging:

a. Curv-Rite Aluminum Edgings.


b. Permaloc Aluminum Edging.
c. Russell, J. D. Company (The).
d. Sure-loc Aluminum Edging Corporation.

3. Plastic Edging:

a. Oly-Ola Sales, Inc.


b. Valley View Industries.

2.15 MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS

A. Antidesiccant: Water-insoluble emulsion, permeable moisture retarder, film forming, for


trees and shrubs. Deliver in original, sealed, and fully labeled containers and mix according
to manufacturer's written instructions.

B. Trunk-Wrap Tape: Two layers of crinkled paper cemented together with bituminous
material, 4-inch- (100-mm-) wide minimum, with stretch factor of 33 percent.

C. Tree Grates and Frames: ASTM A 48, Class 35 (ASTM A 48M, Class 250) or better, gray-
iron castings of shape, pattern, and size indicated.

D. Tree Grates and Frames: ASTM A 48, Class 35 (ASTM A 48M, Class 250) or better, gray-
iron castings and ASTM A 36/A 36M steel-angle frames of shape, pattern, and size
indicated.

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2.16 PLANTING SOIL MIX

A. Planting Soil Mix: Mix topsoil with the following soil amendments and fertilizers in the
following quantities:

1. Ratio of Loose Compost to Topsoil by Volume: to be approved by Engineer’s.


2. Ratio of Loose Peat to Topsoil by Volume to be approved by Engineer’s.
3. Ratio of Loose Wood Derivatives to Topsoil by Volume: to be approved by
Engineer’s.
4. Weight of Lime per 1000 Sq. Ft. (92.9 Sq. m): to be approved by Engineer’s.
5. Weight of Sulfur per 1000 Sq. Ft. (92.9 Sq. m):
6. Weight of Agricultural Gypsum per 1000 Sq. Ft. (92.9 Sq. m)
7. Volume of Sand Plus 10 Percent Diatomaceous Earth per 1000 Sq. Ft. (92.9 Sq. m)
8. Weight of Bonemeal per 1000 Sq. Ft. (92.9 Sq. m):
9. Weight of Superphosphate per 1000 Sq. Ft. (92.9 Sq. m):
10. Weight of Commercial Fertilizer per 1000 Sq. Ft. (92.9 Sq. m):
11. Weight of Slow-Release Fertilizer per 1000 Sq. Ft. (92.9 Sq. m):

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine areas to receive exterior plants for compliance with requirements and conditions
affecting installation and performance. Proceed with installation only after unsatisfactory
conditions have been corrected.

3.2 PREPARATION

A. Protect structures, utilities, sidewalks, pavements, and other facilities, and lawns and
existing exterior plants from damage caused by planting operations.

B. Provide erosion-control measures to prevent erosion or displacement of soils and discharge


of soil-bearing water runoff or airborne dust to adjacent properties and walkways.

C. Lay out individual tree and shrub locations and areas for multiple exterior plantings. Stake
locations, outline areas, adjust locations when requested, and obtain Architect's acceptance
of layout before planting. Make minor adjustments as required.

D. Lay out exterior plants at locations directed by Landscape Architect. Stake locations of
individual trees and shrubs and outline areas for multiple plantings.

E. Apply antidesiccant to trees and shrubs using power spray to provide an adequate film over
trunks, branches, stems, twigs, and foliage to protect during digging, handling, and
transportation.

1. If deciduous trees or shrubs are moved in full leaf, spray with antidesiccant at nursery
before moving and again two weeks after planting.

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3.3 PLANTING BED ESTABLISHMENT

A. Loosen subgrade of planting beds to a minimum depth of 8 inches (200 mm). Remove
stones larger than 1 inch (25 mm) in any dimension and sticks, roots, rubbish, and other
extraneous matter and legally dispose of them off Owner's property.

1. Apply superphosphate fertilizer directly to subgrade before loosening.


2. Thoroughly blend planting soil mix off-site before spreading or spread topsoil, apply
soil amendments and fertilizer on surface, and thoroughly blend planting soil mix.

a. Delay mixing fertilizer with planting soil if planting will not proceed within a
few days.
b. Mix lime with dry soil before mixing fertilizer.

3. Spread planting soil mix to a depth of 8 inches (200 mm) but not less than required to
meet finish grades after natural settlement. Do not spread if planting soil or subgrade
is frozen, muddy, or excessively wet.

a. Spread approximately one-half the thickness of planting soil mix over loosened
subgrade. Mix thoroughly into top 4 inches (100 mm) of subgrade. Spread
remainder of planting soil mix.

B. Finish Grading: Grade planting beds to a smooth, uniform surface plane with loose,
uniformly fine texture. Roll and rake, remove ridges, and fill depressions to meet finish
grades.

C. Restore planting beds if eroded or otherwise disturbed after finish grading and before
planting.

3.4 TREE AND SHRUB EXCAVATION

A. Pits and Trenches: Excavate circular pits with sides sloped inward. Trim base leaving
center area raised slightly to support root ball and assist in drainage. Do not further disturb
base. Scarify sides of plant pit smeared or smoothed during excavation.

1. Excavate approximately three times as wide as ball diameter for balled and
burlapped, balled and potted, container-grown and fabric bag-grown stock.
2. Excavate at least 12 inches (300 mm) wider than root spread and deep enough to
accommodate vertical roots for bare-root stock.
3. If drain tile is shown or required under planted areas, excavate to top of porous
backfill over tile.

B. Subsoil removed from excavations may not be used as backfill. Subject to Engineer’s
approval.

C. Obstructions: Notify Architect if unexpected rock or obstructions detrimental to trees or


shrubs are encountered in excavations.

1. Hardpan Layer: Drill 6-inch- (150-mm-) diameter holes into free-draining strata or to
a depth of 10 feet (3 m), whichever is less, and backfill with free-draining material.

D. Drainage: Notify Architect if subsoil conditions evidence unexpected water seepage or


retention in tree or shrub pits.

E. Fill excavations with water and allow to percolate away before positioning trees and shrubs.

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3.5 TREE AND SHRUB PLANTING

A. Set balled and burlapped stock plumb and in center of pit or trench with top of root ball 1
inch (25 mm) above adjacent finish grades.

1. Remove burlap and wire baskets from tops of root balls and partially from sides, but
do not remove from under root balls. Remove pallets, if any, before setting. Do not
use planting stock if root ball is cracked or broken before or during planting
operation.
2. Place planting soil mix around root ball in layers, tamping to settle mix and eliminate
voids and air pockets. When pit is approximately one-half backfilled, water
thoroughly before placing remainder of backfill. Repeat watering until no more water
is absorbed. Water again after placing and tamping final layer of planting soil mix.

B. Set container-grown stock plumb and in center of pit or trench with top of root ball 1 inch
(25 mm) above adjacent finish grades.

1. Carefully remove root ball from container without damaging root ball or plant.
2. Place planting soil mix around root ball in layers, tamping to settle mix and eliminate
voids and air pockets. When pit is approximately one-half backfilled, water
thoroughly before placing remainder of backfill. Repeat watering until no more water
is absorbed. Water again after placing and tamping final layer of planting soil mix.

C. Set fabric bag-grown stock plumb and in center of pit or trench with top of root ball 1 inch
(25 mm) above adjacent finish grades.

1. Carefully remove root ball from fabric bag without damaging root ball or plant. Do
not use planting stock if root ball is cracked or broken before or during planting
operation.
2. Place planting soil mix around root ball in layers, tamping to settle mix and eliminate
voids and air pockets. When pit is approximately one-half backfilled, water
thoroughly before placing remainder of backfill. Repeat watering until no more water
is absorbed. Water again after placing and tamping final layer of planting soil mix.

D. Set and support bare-root stock in center of pit or trench with root collar or trunk flare 1 inch
(25 mm) below adjacent finish grade. Spread roots without tangling or turning toward
surface, and carefully work backfill around roots by hand. Puddle with water until backfill
layers are completely saturated. Plumb before backfilling, and maintain plumb while
working backfill around roots and placing layers above roots. Tamp final layer of backfill.
Remove injured roots by cutting cleanly; do not break.

E. Organic Mulching: Apply 3-inch (75-mm) average thickness of organic mulch extending 12
inches (300 mm) beyond edge of planting pit or trench. Do not place mulch within 3 inches
(75 mm) of trunks or stems.

F. Wrap trees of 2-inch (50-mm) caliper and larger with trunk-wrap tape. Start at base of trunk
and spiral cover trunk to height of first branches. Overlap wrap, exposing half the width,
and securely attach without causing girdling. Inspect tree trunks for injury, improper
pruning, and insect infestation; take corrective measures required before wrapping.

3.6 TREE AND SHRUB PRUNING

A. Prune, thin, and shape trees and shrubs as directed by Architect.

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B. Prune, thin, and shape trees and shrubs according to standard horticultural practice. Prune
trees to retain required height and spread. Unless otherwise indicated by Architect, do not
cut tree leaders; remove only injured or dead branches from flowering trees. Prune shrubs
to retain natural character. Shrub sizes indicated are sizes after pruning.

3.7 GUYING AND STAKING

A. Upright Staking and Tying: Stake trees of 2- through 5-inch (50- through 125-mm) caliper.
Stake trees of less than 2-inch (50-mm) caliper only as required to prevent wind tip-out.
Use a minimum of 2 stakes of length required to penetrate at least 18 inches (450 mm)
below bottom of backfilled excavation and to extend at least 72 inches (1830 mm) above
grade. Set vertical stakes and space to avoid penetrating root balls or root masses. Support
trees with two strands of tie wire encased in hose sections at contact points with tree trunk.
Allow enough slack to avoid rigid restraint of tree. Use the number of stakes as follows:

1. Use 2 stakes for trees up to 12 feet (3.6 m) high and 2-1/2 inches (63 mm) or less in
caliper; 3 stakes for trees less than 14 feet (4.2 m) high and up to 4 inches (100 mm)
in caliper. Space stakes equally around trees.

B. Guying and Staking: Guy and stake trees exceeding 14 feet (4.2 m) in height and more
than 3 inches (75 mm) in caliper, unless otherwise indicated. Securely attach no fewer than
3 guys to stakes 30 inches (760 mm) long, driven to grade.

1. For trees more than 6 inches (150 mm) in caliper, anchor guys to pressure-
preservative-treated deadmen 8 inches (200 mm) in diameter and 48 inches (1200
mm) long buried at least 36 inches (900 mm) below grade. Provide turnbuckles for
each guy wire and tighten securely.
2. Attach flags to each guy wire, 30 inches (760 mm) above finish grade.
3. Paint turnbuckles with luminescent white paint.

3.8 PLANTERS

A. Planters: Place a layer of gravel at least 4 inches (100 mm) thick in bottom of planters,
cover with nonwoven fabric, and fill with planter soil mix. Place soil in lightly compacted
layers to an elevation of 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) below top of planter, allowing natural
settlement.

1. Planter Soil Mix: One part topsoil, one part coarse sand, one part peat, and 3 lb (1.36
kg) of dolomitic limestone per cubic yard (cubic meter) of mix.

3.9 GROUND COVER AND PLANT PLANTING

A. Set out and space ground cover and plants as indicated.

B. Dig holes large enough to allow spreading of roots, and backfill with planting soil.

C. Work soil around roots to eliminate air pockets and leave a slight saucer indentation around
plants to hold water.

D. Water thoroughly after planting, taking care not to cover plant crowns with wet soil.

E. Protect plants from hot sun and wind; remove protection if plants show evidence of recovery
from transplanting shock.

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3.10 PLANTING BED MULCHING

A. Install weed-control barriers before mulching according to manufacturer's written


instructions. Completely cover area to be mulched, overlapping edges a minimum of 6
inches (150 mm).

1. Material and Seam Treatment: Nonwoven fabric with seams pinned.

B. Mulch backfilled surfaces of planting beds and other areas indicated.

1. Organic Mulch: Apply 3-inch (75-mm) average thickness of organic mulch, and
finish level with adjacent finish grades. Do not place mulch against plant stems.
2. Mineral Mulch: Apply 3-inch (75-mm) average thickness of mineral mulch, and
finish level with adjacent finish grades. Do not place mulch against plant stems.

3.11 EDGING INSTALLATION

A. Wood Edgings: Install wood headers or edgings where indicated. Anchor with wood stakes
spaced up to 36 inches (900 mm) apart, driven at least 1 inch (25 mm) below top elevation
of header or edging. Use 2 galvanized nails per stake to fasten headers and edging; length
as needed to penetrate both members and provide 1/2-inch (13-mm) clinch at point. Predrill
stakes if needed to avoid splitting.

B. Steel Edging: Install steel edging where indicated according to manufacturer's written
instructions. Anchor with steel stakes spaced approximately 30 inches (760 mm) apart,
driven below top elevation of edging.

C. Aluminum Edging: Install aluminum edging where indicated according to manufacturer's


written instructions. Anchor with aluminum stakes spaced approximately 36 inches (900
mm) apart, driven below top elevation of edging.

D. Plastic Edging: Install plastic edging where indicated according to manufacturer's written
instructions. Anchor with steel stakes spaced approximately 36 inches (900 mm) apart,
driven through upper base grooves or V-lip of edging.

3.12 TREE GRATE INSTALLATION

A. Tree Grates: Set grate segments flush with adjoining surfaces as shown on Drawings. Shim
from supporting substrate with soil-resistant plastic. Maintain a 3-inch- (75-mm-) minimum
growth radius around base of tree; break away units of casting, if necessary, according to
manufacturer's written instructions.

3.13 CLEANUP AND PROTECTION

A. During exterior planting, keep adjacent pavings and construction clean and work area in an
orderly condition.

B. Protect exterior plants from damage due to landscape operations, operations by other
contractors and trades, and others. Maintain protection during installation and maintenance
periods. Treat, repair, or replace damaged exterior planting.

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3.14 DISPOSAL

A. Disposal: Remove surplus soil and waste material, including excess subsoil, unsuitable soil,
trash, and debris, and legally dispose of them off Owner's property.

END OF SECTION 02930

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SECTION 03300 - CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including Conditions of Contract and
Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section specifies cast-in-place concrete, including formwork, reinforcement, concrete


materials, mix design, placement procedures, and finishes.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 2 Section "Earthwork" for drainage fill under slabs-on-grade.


2. Division 2 Section "Cement Concrete Pavement" for concrete pavement and walks.
3. Division 3 Section "Concrete Floor Toppings" for metallic and nonmetallic concrete
floor toppings.
4. Division 3 Section "Lightweight Concrete Roof Insulation" for cast-in-place
lightweight concrete roof insulation.

1.3 DEFINITIONS

A. Cementitious Materials: Portland cement alone or in combination with one or more of


blended hydraulic cement, fly ash and other pozzolans, ground granulated blast-furnace
slag, and silica fume.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each type of manufactured material and product indicated.

B. Design Mixes: For each concrete mix. Include alternate mix designs when characteristics
of materials, project conditions, weather, test results, or other circumstances warrant
adjustments.

C. Steel Reinforcement Shop Drawings: Details of fabrication, bending, and placement,


prepared according to ACI 315, "Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement."
Include material, grade, bar schedules, stirrup spacing, bent bar diagrams, arrangement, and
supports of concrete reinforcement. Include special reinforcement required for openings
through concrete structures.

D. Formwork Shop Drawings: Prepared by or under the supervision of a qualified professional


engineer detailing fabrication, assembly, and support of formwork. Design and engineering
of formwork are Contractor's responsibility.

1. Shoring and Reshoring: Indicate proposed schedule and sequence of stripping


formwork, shoring removal, and installing and removing reshoring.

E. Welding Certificates: Copies of certificates for welding procedures and personnel.

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F. Qualification Data: For firms and persons specified in "Quality Assurance" Article to
demonstrate their capabilities and experience. Include lists of completed projects with
project names and addresses, names and addresses of architects/engineers and owners, and
any other information required by Engineer.

G. Material Test Reports: From a qualified testing agency indicating and interpreting test
results for compliance of the following with requirements indicated, based on
comprehensive testing of current materials:

H. Material Certificates: Signed by manufacturers certifying that each of the following items
complies with requirements:

1. Cementitious materials and aggregates.


2. Form materials and form-release agents.
3. Steel reinforcement and reinforcement accessories.
4. Fiber reinforcement.
5. Admixtures.
6. Waterstops.
7. Curing materials.
8. Floor and slab treatments.
9. Bonding agents.
10. Adhesives.
11. Vapor retarders.
12. Epoxy joint filler.
13. Joint-filler strips.
14. Repair materials.

I. Minutes of preinstallation conference.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Professional Engineer Qualifications: A professional engineer who is legally registered and


qualified to practice in jurisdiction where Project is located and who is experienced in
providing engineering services of the kind indicated. Engineering services are defined as
those performed for formwork and shoring and reshoring installations that are similar to
those indicated for this Project in material, design, and extent.

B. Concrete Manufacturer Qualifications: A firm experienced in manufacturing ready-mixed


concrete products complying with ASTM C 94 requirements for production facilities and
equipment.

C. Testing Agency Qualifications: An independent testing agency, acceptable to Engineer and


qualified according to ASTM C 1077 and ASTM E 329 to conduct the testing indicated, as
documented according to ASTM E 548.

D. Source Limitations: Obtain each type or class of cementitious material of the same brand
from the same manufacturer's plant, each aggregate from one source, and each admixture
from the same manufacturer.

E. Welding: Qualify procedures and personnel according to AWS D1.4, "Structural Welding
Code--Reinforcing Steel."

F. ACI Publications: Comply with the following, unless more stringent provisions are
indicated:

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1. ACI 301, "Specification for Structural Concrete."


2. ACI 117, "Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials."

G. Mockups: Before casting concrete that is exposed to view on surfaces of the completed
structure or building, cast a mockup for each exposed element, including slabs if applicable,
to demonstrate typical joints, surface finish, texture, color, tolerances, quality of materials
and standard of workmanship in the completed Work.

1. Build mockups in the location and of the size indicated or, if not indicated, as directed
by Engineer.
2. Notify Engineer seven days in advance of dates and times when mockups will be
constructed.
3. In presence of Engineer, damage parts of exposed surfaces as selected by Engineer,
and demonstrate materials and techniques proposed for repairs to match adjacent
undamaged surfaces
4. Obtain Engineer's approval of mockups before starting cast-in-place concrete
elements exposed to view.
5. If Engineer determines that any mockup does not meet requirements, demolish and
remove from the site and cast another until the mockup is approved.
6. Maintain mockups during construction in an undisturbed condition as a standard for
judging the completed Work.
7. Demolish and remove mockups when directed.

H. Preinstallation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site to comply with requirements


in Division 1 Section "Project Management and Coordination."

1. Before submitting design mixes, review concrete mix design and examine procedures
for ensuring quality of concrete materials. Require representatives of each entity
directly concerned with cast-in-place concrete to attend, including the following:

a. Contractor's superintendent.
b. Independent testing agency responsible for concrete design mixes.
c. Ready-mix concrete producer.
d. Concrete subcontractor.

1.6 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Deliver, store, and handle steel reinforcement to prevent bending and damage.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 FORM-FACING MATERIALS

A. Smooth-Formed Finished Concrete: Form-facing panels that will provide continuous, true,
and smooth concrete surfaces. Furnish in largest practicable sizes to minimize number of
joints.

1. Plywood, metal, or other approved panel materials.


2. Exterior-grade plywood panels, suitable for concrete forms, complying with
DOC PS 1, and as follows:

a. High-density overlay, Class 1, or better.

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b. Medium-density overlay, Class 1, or better, mill-release agent treated and edge


sealed.
c. Structural 1, B-B, or better, mill oiled and edge sealed.
d. B-B (Concrete Form), Class 1, or better, mill oiled and edge sealed.

B. Rough-Formed Finished Concrete: Plywood, lumber, metal, or another approved material.


Provide lumber dressed on at least two edges and one side for tight fit.

C. Forms for Cylindrical Columns, Pedestals, and Supports: Metal, glass-fiber-reinforced


plastic, paper, or fiber tubes that will produce surfaces with gradual or abrupt irregularities
not exceeding specified formwork surface class. Provide units with sufficient wall thickness
to resist plastic concrete loads without detrimental deformation.

D. Pan-Type Forms: Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic or formed steel, stiffened to resist plastic


concrete loads without detrimental deformation.

E. Void Forms: Biodegradable paper surface, treated for moisture resistance, structurally
sufficient to support weight of plastic concrete and other superimposed loads.

F. Chamfer Strips: Wood, metal, PVC, or rubber strips, 20 by 20 mm, unless otherwise
indicated.

G. Form-Release Agent: Commercially formulated form-release agent that will not bond with,
stain, or adversely affect concrete surfaces and will not impair subsequent treatments of
concrete surfaces.

1. Formulate form-release agent with rust inhibitor for steel form-facing materials.

H. Form Ties: Factory-fabricated, removable or snap-off metal or glass-fiber-reinforced plastic


form ties designed to resist lateral pressure of fresh concrete on forms and to prevent
spalling of concrete on removal.

1. Furnish units that will leave no corrodible metal closer than 25 mm to the plane of the
exposed concrete surface.
2. Furnish ties that, when removed, will leave holes not larger than 25 mm in diameter
in concrete surface.
3. Furnish ties with integral water-barrier plates to walls indicated to receive
dampproofing or waterproofing.

2.2 STEEL REINFORCEMENT

A. Reinforcing Bars: BS4449 or ASTM A615M, Grade 420, deformed.

1. Maximum Carbon Content: 0.3%

B. Steel Bar Mats: ASTM A 184M, assembled with clips.

1. Steel Reinforcement: ASTM A 615M, Grade 420, deformed bars.

a. Maximum Carbon Content: 0.3%

C. Plain-Steel Wire: ASTM A 82, as drawn.

D. Deformed-Steel Wire: ASTM A 496.

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E. Plain-Steel Welded Wire Fabric: ASTM A 185, fabricated from as-drawn steel wire into
flat sheets.

F. Deformed-Steel Welded Wire Fabric: ASTM A 497, flat sheet.

2.3 REINFORCEMENT ACCESSORIES

A. Bar Supports: Bolsters, chairs, spacers, and other devices for spacing, supporting, and
fastening reinforcing bars and welded wire fabric in place. Manufacture bar supports
according to CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice" from steel wire, plastic, or precast
concrete or fiber-reinforced concrete of greater compressive strength than concrete, and as
follows:

1. For concrete surfaces exposed to view where legs of wire bar supports contact forms,
use CRSI Class 1 plastic-protected or CRSI Class 2 stainless-steel bar supports.

B. Joint Dowel Bars: Plain-steel bars, ASTM A 615M, Grade 420. Cut bars true to length
with ends square and free of burrs.

2.4 CONCRETE MATERIALS

A. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I, gray color, of same type, brand, and source for
entire Project.

1. Fly Ash: ASTM C 618, Class C or F.


2. Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag: ASTM C 989, Grade 100 or 120.

B. Blended Hydraulic Cement: ASTM C 595M

C. Silica Fume: ASTM C 1240, amorphous silica.

D. Normal-Weight Aggregate: ASTM C 33, from the same source for entire Project, uniformly
graded, and as follows:

1. Class: Moderate weathering region, but not less than 3M.


2. Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size: 38 mm as shown on drawings.
3. Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size: 25 mm. as shown on drawings.
4. Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size: 20 mm as shown on drawings.
5. Combined Aggregate Gradation: Well graded from coarsest to finest with not more
than 18 percent and not less than 8 percent retained on an individual sieve, except that
less than 8 percent may be retained on coarsest sieve and on 0.3-mm sieve, and less
than 8 percent may be retained on sieves finer than 0.3 mm.

a. Material passing the 0.075-mm sieve must not, in any case, exceed 3 percent,
by weight, of the combined aggregate.

E. Lightweight Aggregate: ASTM C 330.

1. Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size: 20 mm as shown on drawings.


2. Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size: 10 mm as shown on drawings.

F. Water: Potable and complying with ASTM C 94.

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1. Non-potable water may be used when potable water is not available, provided its
impurities do not exceed any of the following values:

a. Chloride (Cl): 500 ppm.


b. Sulphates (SO 4 ): 300 ppm.
c. Alkalis (Na2O + 0.658K2O): 600 ppm.
d. Total Solids: 5000 ppm.

2.5 ADMIXTURES

A. General: Admixtures certified by manufacturer to contain not more than 0.1 percent water-
soluble chloride ions by mass of cementitious material and to be compatible with other
admixtures and cementitious materials. Do not use admixtures containing calcium chloride.

B. Water-Reducing Admixture (Plasticizer): ASTM C 494, Type A.

C. High-Range, Water-Reducing Admixture (Superplasticizer): ASTM C 494, Type F.

D. Water-Reducing and Accelerating Admixture: ASTM C 494, Type E.

E. Water-Reducing and Retarding Admixture: ASTM C 494, Type D.

F. Corrosion-Inhibiting Admixture: Commercially formulated, anodic inhibitor or mixed


cathodic and anodic inhibitor; capable of forming a protective barrier and minimizing
chloride reactions with steel reinforcement in concrete.

1. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers


offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited
to, the following:

a. Axim Concrete Technologies.


b. Cortec Corporation.
c. Fosroc.
d. W. R. Grace & Co., Construction Products Div.
e. Master Builders Technologies.
f. Sika Corporation.

2.6 FIBER REINFORCEMENT

A. Carbon-Steel Fiber: ASTM A 820, deformed, minimum 60 mm long, and of diameter or


effective diameter indicated.

1. Fiber: Type 1, cold-drawn wire.


2. Fiber: Type 2, cut sheet.
3. Fiber: Type 1, cold-drawn wire, or Type 2, cut sheet.

B. Synthetic Fiber: Fibrillated polypropylene fibers engineered and designed for use in
concrete, complying with ASTM C 1116, Type III, 15 to 40 mm long.

C. Synthetic Fiber: Fibrillated or monofilament polypropylene fibers engineered and designed


for use in concrete, complying with ASTM C 1116, Type III, 15 to 40 mm long.

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D. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Carbon-Steel Fibers:

a. Bekaert Corporation.
b. Fibercon International.
c. Novocon International Inc.

2. Fibrillated Fibers:

a. Axim Concrete Technologies.


b. Fibermesh, Div. of Synthetic Industries.
c. Forta Corporation.
d. W. R. Grace & Co., Construction Products Div.

3. Monofilament Fibers:

a. Axim Concrete Technologies.


b. Euclid Chemical Co.
c. Fibermesh, Div. of Synthetic Industries.
d. Forta Corporation.
e. W. R. Grace & Co., Construction Products Div.
f. Hi-Tech Fibers, Div. of Martin Color-Fi, Inc.
g. Metalcrete Industries.

2.7 WATERSTOPS

A. Flexible Rubber Waterstops: CE CRD-C 513, for embedding in concrete to prevent passage
of fluids through joints. Factory fabricate corners, intersections, and directional changes.

1. Profile: Flat, dumbbell with center bulb.


2. Profile: Flat, dumbbell without center bulb.
3. Profile: Ribbed with center bulb.
4. Profile: Ribbed without center bulb.
5. Profile: As indicated.

B. Flexible PVC Waterstops: CE CRD-C 572, for embedding in concrete to prevent passage of
fluids through joints. Factory fabricate corners, intersections, and directional changes.

1. Profile: Flat, dumbbell with center bulb.


2. Profile: Flat, dumbbell without center bulb.
3. Profile: Ribbed with center bulb.
4. Profile: Ribbed without center bulb.
5. Profile: As indicated.

C. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Rubber Waterstops:

a. Fosroc.

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b. Greenstreak.
c. Progress Unlimited Inc.
d. Sika Corporation.
e. Westec Barrier Technologies; Div. of Western Textile Products, Inc.
f. Williams Products, Inc.

2. PVC Waterstops:

a. Fosroc.
b. W. R. Grace & Co., Construction Products Div.
c. Greenstreak.
d. W. R. Meadows, Inc.
e. Paul Murphy Plastics Co.
f. Progress Unlimited Inc.
g. Sika Corporation.
h. Sternson Group.
i. Tamms Industries Co.; Div. of LaPorte Construction Chemicals North
America, Inc.
j. Vinylex Corporation.
k. Westec Barrier Technologies; Div. of Western Textile Products, Inc.

D. Self-Expanding Strip Waterstops: Manufactured rectangular or trapezoidal strip, sodium


bentonite or other hydrophylic material for adhesive bonding to concrete.

1. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers


offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited
to, the following:

a. Colloid Environmental Technologies Co.


b. Concrete Sealants Inc.
c. De Neef Construction Chemicals (U.S.) Inc.
d. Fosroc.
e. Greenstreak.
f. Mirafi Moisture Protection, Div. of Royal Ten Cate (USA), Inc.
g. Mitsubishi International Corporation.
h. Progress Unlimited Inc.
i. Sika Corporation.

2.8 VAPOR RETARDERS

A. Vapor Retarder: ASTM E 1745, Class C, of one of the following materials; or polyethylene
sheet, ASTM D 4397, not less than 0.25 mm thick:

1. Nonwoven, polyester-reinforced, polyethylene coated sheet; 0.25 mm thick.


2. Three-ply, nylon- or polyester-cord-reinforced, laminated, high-density polyethylene
sheet; 0.18 mm thick.

B. Vapor Retarder: ASTM E 1745, Class B, five-ply, nylon- or polyester-cord-reinforced,


high-density polyethylene sheet; 0.25 mm thick.

C. Vapor Retarder: ASTM E 1745, Class A, three-ply, nylon- or polyester-cord-reinforced,


high-density polyethylene sheet; laminated to a nonwoven geotextile fabric, 0.76 mm thick.

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D. Vapor Retarder: 2.8-mm- thick, semiflexible, seven-ply sheet membrane consisting of


reinforced core and carrier sheet with fortified asphalt layers, protective weathercoating, and
removable plastic release liner. Furnish manufacturer's accessories including bonding
asphalt, pointing mastics, and self-adhering joint tape.

1. Water-Vapor Permeance: 0.00 ng/Pa x s x sq. m; ASTM E 154.


2. Tensile Strength: 24.5 kN/m; ASTM E 154.
3. Puncture Resistance: 400 N; ASTM E 154.

E. Fine-Graded Granular Material: Clean mixture of crushed stone, crushed gravel, and
manufactured or natural sand; ASTM D 448, Size 10, with 100 percent passing a 4.75-mm
sieve and 10 to 30 percent passing a 0.15-mm sieve; meeting deleterious substance limits of
ASTM C 33 for fine aggregates.

F. Granular Fill: Clean mixture of crushed stone or crushed or uncrushed gravel;


ASTM D 448, Size 57, with 100 percent passing a 38-mm sieve and 0 to 5 percent passing a
2.36-mm sieve.

2.9 FLOOR AND SLAB TREATMENTS

A. Slip-Resistive Aggregate Finish: Factory-graded, packaged, rustproof, nonglazing, abrasive


aggregate of fused aluminum-oxide granules or crushed emery with emery aggregate
containing not less than 50 percent aluminum oxide and not less than 25 percent ferric
oxide; unaffected by freezing, moisture, and cleaning materials.

B. Unpigmented Mineral Dry-Shake Floor Hardener: Factory-packaged dry combination of


portland cement, graded quartz aggregate, and plasticizing admixture.

C. Pigmented Mineral Dry-Shake Floor Hardener: Factory-packaged dry combination of


portland cement, graded quartz aggregate, coloring pigments, and plasticizing admixture.
Use coloring pigments that are finely ground, nonfading mineral oxides interground with
cement.

1. Colors: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range for these


characteristics.

D. Penetrating Liquid Floor Treatment: Chemically reactive, waterborne solution of inorganic


silicate or siliconate materials and proprietary components; odorless; colorless; that
penetrates, hardens, and densifies concrete surfaces.

E. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Unpigmented Mineral Dry-Shake Floor Hardener:

a. Burke Group, LLC (The).


b. ChemMasters.
c. Conspec Marketing & Manufacturing Co., Inc.
d. Dayton Superior Corporation.
e. Euclid Chemical Co.
f. Foscroc.
g. Kaufman Products, Inc.
h. Lambert Corporation.

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i. L&M Construction Chemicals, Inc.


j. Master Builders Technologies.
k. Metalcrete Industries.
l. Richmond Screw Anchor Co.
m. L. M. Scofield Co.
n. Sonneborn, Div. of ChemRex, Inc.
o. Sternson Group.
p. Symons Corporation.

2. Pigmented Mineral Dry-Shake Floor Hardener:

a. Burke Group, LLC (The).


b. ChemMasters.
c. Conspec Marketing & Manufacturing Co., Inc.
d. Dayton Superior Corporation.
e. Euclid Chemical Co.
f. Fosroc.
g. Kaufman Products, Inc.
h. Lambert Corporation.
i. L&M Construction Chemicals, Inc.
j. Master Builders Technologies.
k. Metalcrete Industries.
l. L. M. Scofield Co.
m. Sonneborn, Div. of ChemRex, Inc.
n. Sternson Group.

3. Penetrating Liquid Floor Treatment:

a. Burke Group, LLC (The).


b. ChemMasters.
c. Conspec Marketing & Manufacturing Co., Inc.
d. Curecrete Chemical Co., Inc.
e. Dayton Superior Corporation.
f. Euclid Chemical Co.
g. L&M Construction Chemicals, Inc.
h. Vexcon Chemicals, Inc.

2.10 CURING MATERIALS

A. Evaporation Retarder: Waterborne, monomolecular film forming, manufactured for


application to fresh concrete.

B. Absorptive Cover: AASHTO M 182, Class 2, burlap cloth made from jute or kenaf,
weighing approximately 305 g/sq. m when dry.

C. Moisture-Retaining Cover: ASTM C 171, polyethylene film or white burlap-polyethylene


sheet.

D. Water: Potable.

E. Clear, Waterborne, Membrane-Forming Curing Compound: ASTM C 309, Type 1, Class B.

F. Clear, Waterborne, Membrane-Forming Curing Compound: ASTM C 309, Type 1, Class B,


18 to 22 percent solids.

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G. Clear, Waterborne, Membrane-Forming Curing and Sealing Compound: ASTM C 1315,


Type 1, Class A.

H. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Curing Materials:

a. Burke Chemicals.
b. ChemMasters.
c. Conspec Marketing & Manufacturing Co., Inc.
d. Dayton Superior Corporation.
e. Euclid Chemical Co.
f. Fosroc.
g. Kaufman Products, Inc.
h. Lambert Corporation.
i. L&M Construction Chemicals, Inc.
j. Master Builders Technologies.
k. W. R. Meadows, Inc.
l. Metalcrete Industries.
m. Richmond Screw Anchor Co.
n. Sika Corporation.
o. Symons Corporation.
p. Vexcon Chemicals, Inc.

2.11 RELATED MATERIALS

A. Joint-Filler Strips: ASTM D 1751, asphalt-saturated cellulosic fiber, or ASTM D 1752,


cork or self-expanding cork.

B. Epoxy Joint Filler: Two-component, semirigid, 100 percent solids, epoxy resin with a
Shore A hardness of 80 per ASTM D 2240.

C. Bonding Agent: ASTM C 1059, Type II, non-redispersible, acrylic emulsion or styrene
butadiene.

D. Epoxy-Bonding Adhesive: ASTM C 881, two-component epoxy resin, capable of humid


curing and bonding to damp surfaces, of class and grade to suit requirements, and as
follows:

1. Type II, non-load bearing, for bonding freshly mixed concrete to hardened concrete.
2. Types I and II, non-load bearing, for bonding hardened or freshly mixed concrete to
hardened concrete.
3. Types IV and V, load bearing, for bonding hardened or freshly mixed concrete to
hardened concrete.

E. Reglets: Fabricate reglets of not less than 0.55-mm- thick galvanized steel sheet.
Temporarily fill or cover face opening of reglet to prevent intrusion of concrete or debris.

F. Dovetail Anchor Slots: Hot-dip galvanized steel sheet, not less than 0.85 mm thick, with
bent tab anchors. Temporarily fill or cover face opening of slots to prevent intrusion of
concrete or debris.

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2.12 REPAIR MATERIALS

A. Repair Underlayment: Cement-based, polymer-modified, self-leveling product that can be


applied in thicknesses from 3 mm and that can be feathered at edges to match adjacent floor
elevations.

1. Cement Binder: ASTM C 150, portland cement or hydraulic or blended hydraulic


cement as defined in ASTM C 219.
2. Primer: Product of underlayment manufacturer recommended for substrate,
conditions, and application.
3. Aggregate: Well-graded, washed gravel, 3 to 6 mm or coarse sand as recommended
by underlayment manufacturer.
4. Compressive Strength: Not less than 30 MPa at 28 days when tested according to
ASTM C 109M.

B. Repair Topping: Traffic-bearing, cement-based, polymer-modified, self-leveling product


that can be applied in thicknesses from 6 mm.

1. Cement Binder: ASTM C 150, portland cement or hydraulic or blended hydraulic


cement as defined in ASTM C 219.
2. Primer: Product of topping manufacturer recommended for substrate, conditions, and
application.
3. Aggregate: Well-graded, washed gravel, 3 to 6 mm or coarse sand as recommended
by topping manufacturer.
4. Compressive Strength: Not less than 40 MPa at 28 days when tested according to
ASTM C 109M.

2.13 CONCRETE MIXES

A. Prepare design mixes for each type and strength of concrete determined by either laboratory
trial mix or field test data bases, as follows:

1. Proportion normal-weight concrete according to ACI 211.1 and ACI 301.


2. Proportion lightweight structural concrete according to ACI 211.2 and ACI 301.

B. Use a qualified independent testing agency for preparing and reporting proposed mix
designs for the laboratory trial mix basis.

C. Blinding and Cyclopean Concrete: Proportion normal-weight concrete mix as follows:

1. Compressive Strength (28 Days): 14 MPa.


2. Maximum Slump: 100 mm.

D. Footings, Upstands, Parapets, Fascia Elements and slab on grade: Proportion normal-
weight concrete mix as follows:

1. Compressive Strength (28 Days): 30 MPa.


2. Maximum Slump: 125 mm.
3. Maximum Slump for Concrete Containing High-Range Water-Reducing Admixture:
200 mm after admixture is added to concrete with 50- to 100-mm slump.

E. Abutment Walls, Underpass Walls, Retaining Walls, Station Building Frame Members,
Suspended Sabs: Proportion normal-weight concrete mix as follows:

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1. Compressive Strength (28 Days): 35 MPa.


2. Minimum Cementations Materials Content: 390 kg/cu. m.
3. Maximum Slump: 125 mm.

F. Viaduct and Bridge Piers, Special Station Columns, Bearing Plinths: Proportion normal-
weight concrete mix as follows:

1. Compressive Strength (28 Days): 40 MPa.


2. Minimum Cementations Materials Content: 410 kg/cu.m
3. Maximum Slump: 125 mm.

G. Prestressed Concrete Viaduct and Bridge Decks and Suspended Slabs: Proportion normal-
weight concrete mix as follows:

1. Compressive Strength (28 Days): 45 MPa.


2. Minimum Cementitious Materials Content: 420 kg/cu.m
3. Maximum Slump: 125 mm.
4. Maximum Slump for Concrete Containing High-Range Water-Reducing Admixture:
200 mm after admixture is added to concrete with 50- to 100-mm slump.

H. Cementitious Materials: Limit percentage, by weight, of cementitious materials other than


portland cement in concrete as follows:

1. Fly Ash: 25 percent.


2. Combined Fly Ash and Pozzolan: 25 percent.
3. Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag: 50 percent.
4. Combined Fly Ash or Pozzolan and Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag: 50
percent portland cement minimum, with fly ash or pozzolan not exceeding 25
percent.
5. Silica Fume: 10 percent.
6. Combined Fly Ash, Pozzolans, and Silica Fume: 35 percent with fly ash or pozzolans
not exceeding 25 percent and silica fume not exceeding 10 percent.
7. Combined Fly Ash or Pozzolans, Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag, and Silica
Fume: 50 percent portland cement minimum, with fly ash or pozzolans not
exceeding 25 percent and silica fume not exceeding 10 percent.

I. Maximum Water-Cementitious Materials Ratio: 0.50 for concrete required to have low
water permeability.

J. Maximum Water-Cementitious Materials Ratio: 0.50 for concrete subject to moderate


sulfate or chloride exposure.

K. Maximum Water-Cementitious Materials Ratio: 0.45 for concrete subject to severe or very
severe sulfate or chloride exposure.

L. Limit water-soluble, chloride-ion content in hardened concrete to 0.15 percent by weight of


cement.

M. Steel-Fiber Reinforcement: Add to concrete mix, according to manufacturer's written


instructions, at a rate of 30 kg/cu. m.

N. Synthetic Fiber: Uniformly disperse in concrete mix at manufacturer's recommended rate,


but not less than 0.60 kg/cu. m.

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O. Synthetic Fiber: Uniformly disperse in concrete mix at manufacturer's recommended rate,


but not less than 0.90 kg/cu. m.

P. Admixtures: Use admixtures according to manufacturer's written instructions.

1. Use water-reducing admixture or high-range water-reducing admixture


(superplasticizer) in concrete, as required, for placement and workability.
2. Use water-reducing and retarding admixture when required by high temperatures, low
humidity, or other adverse placement conditions.
3. Use water-reducing admixture in pumped concrete, concrete required to be
watertight, and concrete with a water-cementitious materials ratio below 0.50.
4. Use corrosion-inhibiting admixture in concrete mixes where indicated.

2.14 FABRICATING REINFORCEMENT

A. Fabricate steel reinforcement according to CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice."

2.15 CONCRETE MIXING

A. Ready-Mixed Concrete: Measure, batch, mix, and deliver concrete according to


ASTM C 94 and ASTM C 1116, and furnish batch ticket information.

1. When air temperature is between 30 and 32 deg C, reduce mixing and delivery time
from 1-1/2 hours to 75 minutes; when air temperature is above 32 deg C, reduce
mixing and delivery time to 60 minutes.

B. Project-Site Mixing: Measure, batch, and mix concrete materials and concrete according to
ASTM C 94. Mix concrete materials in appropriate drum-type batch machine mixer.

1. For mixer capacity of 0.75 cu. m or smaller, continue mixing at least one and one-
half minutes, but not more than five minutes after ingredients are in mixer, before any
part of batch is released.
2. For mixer capacity larger than 0.75 cu. m, increase mixing time by 15 seconds for
each additional 0.75 cu. m.
3. Provide batch ticket for each batch discharged and used in the Work, indicating
Project identification name and number, date, mix type, mix time, quantity, and
amount of water added. Record approximate location of final deposit in structure.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 FORMWORK

A. Design, erect, shore, brace, and maintain formwork, according to ACI 301, to support
vertical, lateral, static, and dynamic loads, and construction loads that might be applied,
until concrete structure can support such loads.

B. Construct formwork so concrete members and structures are of size, shape, alignment,
elevation, and position indicated, within tolerance limits of ACI 117.

C. Limit concrete surface irregularities, designated by ACI 347R as abrupt or gradual, as


follows:

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1. Class A, 4 mm.
2. Class B, 6 mm.
3. Class C, 10 mm.
4. Class D, 25 mm.

D. Construct forms tight enough to prevent loss of concrete mortar.

E. Fabricate forms for easy removal without hammering or prying against concrete surfaces.
Provide crush or wrecking plates where stripping may damage cast concrete surfaces.
Provide top forms for inclined surfaces steeper than 1.5 horizontal to 1 vertical. Kerf wood
inserts for forming keyways, reglets, recesses, and the like, for easy removal.

1. Do not use rust-stained steel form-facing material.

F. Set edge forms, bulkheads, and intermediate screed strips for slabs to achieve required
elevations and slopes in finished concrete surfaces. Provide and secure units to support
screed strips; use strike-off templates or compacting-type screeds.

G. Provide temporary openings for cleanouts and inspection ports where interior area of
formwork is inaccessible. Close openings with panels tightly fitted to forms and securely
braced to prevent loss of concrete mortar. Locate temporary openings in forms at
inconspicuous locations.

H. Chamfer exterior corners and edges of concrete receiving applied waterproofing


membranes.

I. Do not chamfer corners or edges of concrete unless otherwise indicated.

J. Form openings, chases, offsets, sinkages, keyways, reglets, blocking, screeds, and bulkheads
required in the Work. Determine sizes and locations from trades providing such items.

K. Clean forms and adjacent surfaces to receive concrete. Remove chips, wood, sawdust, dirt,
and other debris just before placing concrete.

L. Retighten forms and bracing before placing concrete, as required, to prevent mortar leaks
and maintain proper alignment.

M. Coat contact surfaces of forms with form-release agent, according to manufacturer's written
instructions, before placing reinforcement.

3.2 EMBEDDED ITEMS

A. Place and secure anchorage devices and other embedded items required for adjoining work
that is attached to or supported by cast-in-place concrete. Use Setting Drawings, templates,
diagrams, instructions, and directions furnished with items to be embedded.

1. Install anchor bolts, accurately located, to elevations required.


2. Install reglets to receive top edge of foundation sheet waterproofing and to receive
through-wall flashings in outer face of concrete frame at exterior walls, where
flashing is shown at lintels, shelf angles, and other conditions.
3. Install dovetail anchor slots in concrete structures as indicated.

3.3 REMOVING AND REUSING FORMS

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A. General: Formwork, for sides of beams, walls, columns, and similar parts of the Work, that
does not support weight of concrete may be removed after cumulatively curing at not less
than 10 deg C for 24 hours after placing concrete provided concrete is hard enough to not be
damaged by form-removal operations and provided curing and protection operations are
maintained.

B. Leave formwork, for beam soffits, joists, slabs, and other structural elements, that supports
weight of concrete in place until concrete has achieved the following:

1. At least 70 percent of 28-day design compressive strength.


2. Determine compressive strength of in-place concrete by testing representative field-
or laboratory-cured test specimens according to ACI 301.
3. Remove forms only if shores have been arranged to permit removal of forms without
loosening or disturbing shores.

C. Clean and repair surfaces of forms to be reused in the Work. Split, frayed, delaminated, or
otherwise damaged form-facing material will not be acceptable for exposed surfaces. Apply
new form-release agent.

D. When forms are reused, clean surfaces, remove fins and laitance, and tighten to close joints.
Align and secure joints to avoid offsets. Do not use patched forms for exposed concrete
surfaces unless approved by Engineer.

3.4 SHORES AND RESHORES

A. Comply with ACI 318M, ACI 301, and recommendations in ACI 347R for design,
installation, and removal of shoring and reshoring.

B. In multistory construction, extend shoring or reshoring over a sufficient number of stories to


distribute loads in such a manner that no floor or member will be excessively loaded or will
induce tensile stress in concrete members without sufficient steel reinforcement.

C. Plan sequence of removal of shores and reshore to avoid damage to concrete. Locate and
provide adequate reshoring to support construction without excessive stress or deflection.

3.5 VAPOR RETARDERS

A. Vapor Retarder: Place, protect, and repair vapor-retarder sheets according to ASTM E 1643
and manufacturer's written instructions.

B. Fine-Graded Granular Material: Cover vapor retarder with fine-graded granular material,
moisten, and compact with mechanical equipment to elevation tolerances of plus 0 mm or
minus 20 mm.

C. Granular Fill: Cover vapor retarder with granular fill, moisten, and compact with
mechanical equipment to elevation tolerances of plus 0 mm or minus 20 mm.

1. Place and compact a 15-mm- thick layer of fine-graded granular material over
granular fill.

3.6 STEEL REINFORCEMENT

A. General: Comply with CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice" for placing reinforcement.

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1. Do not cut or puncture vapor retarder. Repair damage and reseal vapor retarder
before placing concrete.

B. Clean reinforcement of loose rust and mill scale, earth, ice, and other foreign materials.

C. Accurately position, support, and secure reinforcement against displacement. Locate and
support reinforcement with bar supports to maintain minimum concrete cover. Do not tack
weld crossing reinforcing bars.

1. Shop- or field-weld reinforcement according to AWS D1.4, where indicated.

D. Set wire ties with ends directed into concrete, not toward exposed concrete surfaces.

E. Install welded wire fabric in longest practicable lengths on bar supports spaced to minimize
sagging. Lap edges and ends of adjoining sheets at least one mesh spacing. Offset laps of
adjoining sheet widths to prevent continuous laps in either direction. Lace overlaps with
wire.

3.7 JOINTS

A. General: Construct joints true to line with faces perpendicular to surface plane of concrete.

B. Construction Joints: Install so strength and appearance of concrete are not impaired, at
locations indicated or as approved by Engineer.

1. Place joints perpendicular to main reinforcement. Continue reinforcement across


construction joints, unless otherwise indicated. Do not continue reinforcement
through sides of strip placements of floors and slabs.
2. Form from preformed galvanized steel, plastic keyway-section forms, or bulkhead
forms with keys, unless otherwise indicated. Embed keys at least 40 mm into
concrete.
3. Locate joints for beams, slabs, joists, and girders in the middle third of spans. Offset
joints in girders a minimum distance of twice the beam width from a beam-girder
intersection.
4. Locate horizontal joints in walls and columns at underside of floors, slabs, beams,
and girders and at the top of footings or floor slabs.
5. Space vertical joints in walls as indicated. Locate joints beside piers integral with
walls, near corners, and in concealed locations where possible.
6. Use a bonding agent at locations where fresh concrete is placed against hardened or
partially hardened concrete surfaces.
7. Use epoxy-bonding adhesive at locations where fresh concrete is placed against
hardened or partially hardened concrete surfaces.

C. Contraction Joints in Slabs-on-Grade: Form weakened-plane contraction joints, sectioning


concrete into areas as indicated. Construct contraction joints for a depth equal to at least
one-fourth of concrete thickness, as follows:

1. Grooved Joints: Form contraction joints after initial floating by grooving and
finishing each edge of joint to a radius of 3 mm Repeat grooving of contraction joints
after applying surface finishes. Eliminate groover tool marks on concrete surfaces.
2. Sawed Joints: Form contraction joints with power saws equipped with shatterproof
abrasive or diamond-rimmed blades. Cut 3-mm wide joints into concrete when
cutting action will not tear, abrade, or otherwise damage surface and before concrete
develops random contraction cracks.

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D. Isolation Joints in Slabs-on-Grade: After removing formwork, install joint-filler strips at


slab junctions with vertical surfaces, such as column pedestals, foundation walls, grade
beams, and other locations, as indicated.

1. Extend joint-filler strips full width and depth of joint, terminating flush with finished
concrete surface, unless otherwise indicated.
2. Terminate full-width joint-filler strips not less than 12 mm or more than 25 mm
below finished concrete surface where joint sealants, specified in Division 7 Section
"Joint Sealants," are indicated.
3. Install joint-filler strips in lengths as long as practicable. Where more than one length
is required, lace or clip sections together.

E. Dowel Joints: Install dowel sleeves and dowels or dowel bar and support assemblies at
joints where indicated.

1. Use dowel sleeves or lubricate or asphalt-coat one-half of dowel length to prevent


concrete bonding to one side of joint.

3.8 WATERSTOPS

A. Flexible Waterstops: Install in construction joints as indicated to form a continuous


diaphragm. Install in longest lengths practicable. Support and protect exposed waterstops
during progress of Work. Field-fabricate joints in waterstops according to manufacturer's
written instructions.

B. Self-Expanding Strip Waterstops: Install in construction joints and at other locations


indicated, according to manufacturer's written instructions, bonding or mechanically
fastening and firmly pressing into place. Install in longest lengths practicable.

3.9 CONCRETE PLACEMENT

A. Before placing concrete, verify that installation of formwork, reinforcement, and embedded
items is complete and that required inspections have been performed.

B. Do not add water to concrete during delivery, at Project site, or during placement, unless
approved by Engineer.

C. Before placing concrete, water may be added at Project site, subject to limitations of
ACI 301.

1. Do not add water to concrete after adding high-range water-reducing admixtures to


mix.

D. Deposit concrete continuously or in layers of such thickness that no new concrete will be
placed on concrete that has hardened enough to cause seams or planes of weakness. If a
section cannot be placed continuously, provide construction joints as specified. Deposit
concrete to avoid segregation.

E. Deposit concrete in forms in horizontal layers no deeper than 600 mm and in a manner to
avoid inclined construction joints. Place each layer while preceding layer is still plastic, to
avoid cold joints.

1. Consolidate placed concrete with mechanical vibrating equipment. Use equipment


and procedures for consolidating concrete recommended by ACI 309R.

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2. Do not use vibrators to transport concrete inside forms. Insert and withdraw vibrators
vertically at uniformly spaced locations no farther than the visible effectiveness of the
vibrator. Place vibrators to rapidly penetrate placed layer and at least 150 mm into
preceding layer. Do not insert vibrators into lower layers of concrete that have begun
to lose plasticity. At each insertion, limit duration of vibration to time necessary to
consolidate concrete and complete embedment of reinforcement and other embedded
items without causing mix constituents to segregate.

F. Deposit and consolidate concrete for floors and slabs in a continuous operation, within
limits of construction joints, until placement of a panel or section is complete.

1. Consolidate concrete during placement operations so concrete is thoroughly worked


around reinforcement and other embedded items and into corners.
2. Maintain reinforcement in position on chairs during concrete placement.
3. Screed slab surfaces with a straightedge and strike off to correct elevations.
4. Slope surfaces uniformly to drains where required.
5. Begin initial floating using bull floats or darbies to form a uniform and open-textured
surface plane, free of humps or hollows, before excess moisture or bleedwater
appears on the surface. Do not further disturb slab surfaces before starting finishing
operations.

G. Cold-Weather Placement: Comply with ACI 306.1 and as follows. Protect concrete work
from physical damage or reduced strength that could be caused by frost, freezing actions, or
low temperatures.

1. When air temperature has fallen to or is expected to fall below 5 deg C, uniformly
heat water and aggregates before mixing to obtain a concrete mixture temperature of
not less than 10 deg C and not more than 27 deg C at point of placement.
2. Do not use frozen materials or materials containing ice or snow. Do not place
concrete on frozen subgrade or on subgrade containing frozen materials.
3. Do not use calcium chloride, salt, or other materials containing antifreeze agents or
chemical accelerators, unless otherwise specified and approved in mix designs.

H. Hot-Weather Placement: Place concrete according to recommendations in ACI 305R and as


follows, when hot-weather conditions exist:

1. Cool ingredients before mixing to maintain concrete temperature below 32 deg C at


time of placement. Chilled mixing water or chopped ice may be used to control
temperature, provided water equivalent of ice is calculated to total amount of mixing
water. Using liquid nitrogen to cool concrete is Contractor's option.
2. Cover steel reinforcement with water-soaked burlap so steel temperature will not
exceed ambient air temperature immediately before embedding in concrete.
3. Fog-spray forms, steel reinforcement, and subgrade just before placing concrete.
Keep subgrade moisture uniform without standing water, soft spots, or dry areas.

3.10 FINISHING FORMED SURFACES

A. Rough-Formed Finish: As-cast concrete texture imparted by form-facing material with tie
holes and defective areas repaired and patched. Remove fins and other projections
exceeding ACI 347R limits for class of surface specified.

B. Smooth-Formed Finish: As-cast concrete texture imparted by form-facing material,


arranged in an orderly and symmetrical manner with a minimum of seams. Repair and

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patch tie holes and defective areas. Remove fins and other projections exceeding 3 mm in
height.

1. Apply to concrete surfaces exposed to public view or to be covered with a coating or


covering material applied directly to concrete, such as waterproofing, dampproofing,
veneer plaster, or painting.
2. Do not apply rubbed finish to smooth-formed finish.

C. Rubbed Finish: Apply the following to smooth-formed finished concrete:

1. Smooth-Rubbed Finish: Not later than one day after form removal, moisten concrete
surfaces and rub with carborundum brick or another abrasive until producing a
uniform color and texture. Do not apply cement grout other than that created by the
rubbing process.
2. Grout-Cleaned Finish: Wet concrete surfaces and apply grout of a consistency of
thick paint to coat surfaces and fill small holes. Mix one part portland cement to one
and one-half parts fine sand with a 1:1 mixture of bonding admixture and water. Add
white portland cement in amounts determined by trial patches so color of dry grout
will match adjacent surfaces. Scrub grout into voids and remove excess grout. When
grout whitens, rub surface with clean burlap and keep surface damp by fog spray for
at least 36 hours.
3. Cork-Floated Finish: Wet concrete surfaces and apply a stiff grout. Mix one part
portland cement and one part fine sand with a 1:1 mixture of bonding agent and
water. Add white portland cement in amounts determined by trial patches so color of
dry grout will match adjacent surfaces. Compress grout into voids by grinding
surface. In a swirling motion, finish surface with a cork float.

D. Related Unformed Surfaces: At tops of walls, horizontal offsets, and similar unformed
surfaces adjacent to formed surfaces, strike off smooth and finish with a texture matching
adjacent formed surfaces. Continue final surface treatment of formed surfaces uniformly
across adjacent unformed surfaces, unless otherwise indicated.

3.11 FINISHING FLOORS AND SLABS

A. General: Comply with recommendations in ACI 302.1R for screeding, restraightening, and
finishing operations for concrete surfaces. Do not wet concrete surfaces.

B. Scratch Finish: While still plastic, texture concrete surface that has been screeded and bull-
floated or darbied. Use stiff brushes, brooms, or rakes.

1. Apply scratch finish to surfaces indicated and to surfaces to receive concrete floor
topping or mortar setting beds for ceramic or quarry tile, portland cement terrazzo,
and other bonded cementitious floor finishes.

C. Float Finish: Consolidate surface with power-driven floats or by hand floating if area is
small or inaccessible to power driven floats. Restraighten, cut down high spots, and fill low
spots. Repeat float passes and restraightening until surface is left with a uniform, smooth,
granular texture.

1. Apply float finish to surfaces indicated, to surfaces to receive trowel finish, and to
floor and slab surfaces to be covered with fluid-applied or sheet waterproofing, built-
up or membrane roofing, or sand-bed terrazzo.

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D. Trowel Finish: After applying float finish, apply first trowel finish and consolidate concrete
by hand or power-driven trowel. Continue troweling passes and restraighten until surface is
free of trowel marks and uniform in texture and appearance. Grind smooth any surface
defects that would telegraph through applied coatings or floor coverings.

1. Apply a trowel finish to surfaces indicated and to floor and slab surfaces exposed to
view or to be covered with resilient flooring, carpet, ceramic or quarry tile set over a
cleavage membrane, paint, or another thin film-finish coating system
2. Finish surfaces to the following tolerances, measured within 24 hours according to
ASTM E 1155/E 1155M for a randomly trafficked floor surface:

a. Specified overall values of flatness, F(F) 25; and levelness, F(L) 20; with
minimum local values of flatness, F(F) 17; and levelness, F(L) 15.
b. Specified overall values of flatness, F(F) 35; and levelness, F(L) 25; with
minimum local values of flatness, F(F) 24; and levelness, F(L) 17; for slabs-
on-grade.
c. Specified overall values of flatness, F(F) 30; and levelness, F(L) 20; with
minimum local values of flatness, F(F) 24; and levelness, F(L) 15; for
suspended slabs.
d. Specified overall values of flatness, F(F) 45; and levelness, F(L) 35; with
minimum local values of flatness, F(F) 30; and levelness, F(L) 24.

3. Finish and measure surface so gap at any point between concrete surface and an
unleveled freestanding 3-m long straightedge, resting on two high spots and placed
anywhere on the surface, does not exceed the following:

a. 5 mm.

E. Trowel and Fine-Broom Finish: Apply a partial trowel finish, stopping after second
troweling, to surfaces indicated and to surfaces where ceramic or quarry tile is to be
installed by either thickset or thin-set method. Immediately after second troweling, and
when concrete is still plastic, slightly scarify surface with a fine broom.

F. Broom Finish: Apply a broom finish to exterior concrete platforms, steps, and ramps, and
elsewhere as indicated.

1. Immediately after float finishing, slightly roughen trafficked surface by brooming


with fiber-bristle broom perpendicular to main traffic route. Coordinate required
final finish with Engineer before application.

G. Slip-Resistive Aggregate Finish: Before final floating, apply slip-resistive aggregate finish
where indicated and to concrete stair treads, platforms, and ramps. Apply according to
manufacturer's written instructions and as follows:

1. Uniformly spread 12 kg/10 sq. m of dampened slip-resistive aggregate over surface in


one or two applications. Tamp aggregate flush with surface, but do not force below
surface.
2. After broadcasting and tamping, apply float finish.
3. After curing, lightly work surface with a steel wire brush or an abrasive stone, and
water to expose slip-resistive aggregate.

H. Mineral Dry-Shake Floor Hardener Finish: After initial floating, apply mineral dry-shake
materials to surfaces according to manufacturer's written instructions and as follows:

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1. Uniformly apply mineral dry-shake materials at a rate of 49 kg/10 sq. m, unless


greater amount is recommended by manufacturer.
2. Uniformly distribute approximately two-thirds of mineral dry-shake materials over
surface by hand or with mechanical spreader, and embed by power floating. Follow
power floating with a second mineral dry-shake application, uniformly distributing
remainder of material, and embed by power floating.
3. After final floating, apply a trowel finish. Cure concrete with curing compound
recommended by dry-shake material manufacturer and apply immediately after final
finishing.

3.12 MISCELLANEOUS CONCRETE ITEMS

A. Filling In: Fill in holes and openings left in concrete structures, unless otherwise indicated,
after work of other trades is in place. Mix, place, and cure concrete, as specified, to blend
with in-place construction. Provide other miscellaneous concrete filling indicated or
required to complete Work.

B. Curbs: Provide monolithic finish to interior curbs by stripping forms while concrete is still
green and by steel-troweling surfaces to a hard, dense finish with corners, intersections, and
terminations slightly rounded.

C. Equipment Bases and Foundations: Provide machine and equipment bases and foundations
as shown on Drawings. Set anchor bolts for machines and equipment at correct elevations,
complying with diagrams or templates of manufacturer furnishing machines and equipment.

D. Steel Pan Stairs: Provide concrete fill for steel pan stair treads, landings, and associated
items. Cast-in inserts and accessories as shown on Drawings. Screed, tamp, and trowel-
finish concrete surfaces.

3.13 CONCRETE PROTECTION AND CURING

A. General: Protect freshly placed concrete from premature drying and excessive cold or hot
temperatures. Comply with ACI 306.1 for cold-weather protection and with
recommendations in ACI 305R for hot-weather protection during curing.

B. Evaporation Retarder: Apply evaporation retarder to unformed concrete surfaces if hot, dry,
or windy conditions cause moisture loss approaching 1 kg/sq. m x h before and during
finishing operations. Apply according to manufacturer's written instructions after placing,
screeding, and bull floating or darbying concrete, but before float finishing.

C. Formed Surfaces: Cure formed concrete surfaces, including underside of beams, supported
slabs, and other similar surfaces. If forms remain during curing period, moist cure after
loosening forms. If removing forms before end of curing period, continue curing by one or
a combination of the following methods:

D. Unformed Surfaces: Begin curing immediately after finishing concrete. Cure unformed
surfaces, including floors and slabs, concrete floor toppings, and other surfaces, by one or a
combination of the following methods:

1. Moisture Curing: Keep surfaces continuously moist for not less than seven days with
the following materials:

a. Water.

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b. Continuous water-fog spray.


c. Absorptive cover, water saturated, and kept continuously wet. Cover concrete
surfaces and edges with 300-mm lap over adjacent absorptive covers.

2. Moisture-Retaining-Cover Curing: Cover concrete surfaces with moisture-retaining


cover for curing concrete, placed in widest practicable width, with sides and ends
lapped at least 300 mm, and sealed by waterproof tape or adhesive. Cure for not less
than seven days. Immediately repair any holes or tears during curing period using
cover material and waterproof tape.

a. Moisture cure or use moisture-retaining covers to cure concrete surfaces to


receive floor coverings.
b. Moisture cure or use moisture-retaining covers to cure concrete surfaces to
receive penetrating liquid floor treatments.
c. Cure concrete surfaces to receive floor coverings with either a moisture-
retaining cover or a curing compound that the manufacturer recommends for
use with floor coverings.

3. Curing Compound: Apply uniformly in continuous operation by power spray or


roller according to manufacturer's written instructions. Recoat areas subjected to
heavy rainfall within three hours after initial application. Maintain continuity of
coating and repair damage during curing period.
4. Curing and Sealing Compound: Apply uniformly to floors and slabs indicated in a
continuous operation by power spray or roller according to manufacturer's written
instructions. Recoat areas subjected to heavy rainfall within three hours after initial
application. Repeat process 24 hours later and apply a second coat. Maintain
continuity of coating and repair damage during curing period.

3.14 LIQUID FLOOR TREATMENTS

A. Penetrating Liquid Floor Treatment: Prepare, apply, and finish penetrating liquid floor
treatment according to manufacturer's written instructions.

1. Remove curing compounds, sealers, oil, dirt, laitance, and other contaminants and
complete surface repairs.
2. Do not apply to concrete that is less than seven days old.
3. Apply liquid until surface is saturated, scrubbing into surface until a gel forms; rewet;
and repeat brooming or scrubbing. Rinse with water; remove excess material until
surface is dry. Apply a second coat in a similar manner if surface is rough or porous.

B. Sealing Coat: Uniformly apply a continuous sealing coat of curing and sealing compound to
hardened concrete by power spray or roller according to manufacturer's written instructions.

3.15 JOINT FILLING

A. Prepare, clean, and install joint filler according to manufacturer's written instructions.

1. Defer joint filling until concrete has aged at least six months. Do not fill joints until
construction traffic has permanently ceased.

B. Remove dirt, debris, saw cuttings, curing compounds, and sealers from joints; leave contact
faces of joint clean and dry.

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C. Install semirigid epoxy joint filler full depth in saw-cut joints and at least 50 mm deep in
formed joints. Overfill joint and trim joint filler flush with top of joint after hardening.

3.16 CONCRETE SURFACE REPAIRS

A. Defective Concrete: Repair and patch defective areas when approved by Engineer. Remove
and replace concrete that cannot be repaired and patched to Engineer's approval.

B. Patching Mortar: Mix dry-pack patching mortar, consisting of one part portland cement to
two and one-half parts fine aggregate passing a 1.2-mm sieve, using only enough water for
handling and placing.

C. Repairing Formed Surfaces: Surface defects include color and texture irregularities, cracks,
spalls, air bubbles, honeycombs, rock pockets, fins and other projections on the surface, and
stains and other discolorations that cannot be removed by cleaning.

1. Immediately after form removal, cut out honeycombs, rock pockets, and voids more
than 13 mm in any dimension in solid concrete but not less than 25 mm in depth.
Make edges of cuts perpendicular to concrete surface. Clean, dampen with water, and
brush-coat holes and voids with bonding agent. Fill and compact with patching
mortar before bonding agent has dried. Fill form-tie voids with patching mortar or
cone plugs secured in place with bonding agent.
2. Repair defects on surfaces exposed to view by blending white portland cement and
standard portland cement so that, when dry, patching mortar will match surrounding
color. Patch a test area at inconspicuous locations to verify mixture and color match
before proceeding with patching. Compact mortar in place and strike off slightly
higher than surrounding surface.
3. Repair defects on concealed formed surfaces that affect concrete's durability and
structural performance as determined by Engineer.

D. Repairing Unformed Surfaces: Test unformed surfaces, such as floors and slabs, for finish
and verify surface tolerances specified for each surface. Correct low and high areas. Test
surfaces sloped to drain for trueness of slope and smoothness; use a sloped template.

1. Repair finished surfaces containing defects. Surface defects include spalls, popouts,
honeycombs, rock pockets, crazing and cracks in excess of 0.25 mm wide or that
penetrate to reinforcement or completely through unreinforced sections regardless of
width, and other objectionable conditions.
2. After concrete has cured at least 14 days, correct high areas by grinding.
3. Correct localized low areas during or immediately after completing surface finishing
operations by cutting out low areas and replacing with patching mortar. Finish
repaired areas to blend into adjacent concrete.
4. Correct other low areas scheduled to receive floor coverings with a repair
underlayment. Prepare, mix, and apply repair underlayment and primer according to
manufacturer's written instructions to produce a smooth, uniform, plane, and level
surface. Feather edges to match adjacent floor elevations.
5. Correct other low areas scheduled to remain exposed with a repair topping. Cut out
low areas to ensure a minimum repair topping depth of 6 mm to match adjacent floor
elevations. Prepare, mix, and apply repair topping and primer according to
manufacturer's written instructions to produce a smooth, uniform, plane, and level
surface.
6. Repair defective areas, except random cracks and single holes 25 mm or less in
diameter, by cutting out and replacing with fresh concrete. Remove defective areas
with clean, square cuts and expose steel reinforcement with at least 20 mm clearance

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all around. Dampen concrete surfaces in contact with patching concrete and apply
bonding agent. Mix patching concrete of same materials and mix as original concrete
except without coarse aggregate. Place, compact, and finish to blend with adjacent
finished concrete. Cure in same manner as adjacent concrete.
7. Repair random cracks and single holes 25 mm or less in diameter with patching
mortar. Groove top of cracks and cut out holes to sound concrete and clean off dust,
dirt, and loose particles. Dampen cleaned concrete surfaces and apply bonding agent.
Place patching mortar before bonding agent has dried. Compact patching mortar and
finish to match adjacent concrete. Keep patched area continuously moist for at least
72 hours.

E. Perform structural repairs of concrete, subject to Engineer's approval, using epoxy adhesive
and patching mortar.

F. Repair materials and installation not specified above may be used, subject to Engineer's
approval.

3.17 WATER-RETAINING CONSTRUCTION

A. General: Water-retaining construction shall comply with this Specification.

B. Joints: Joints shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ACI 504R. Details and
positioning of joints, together with the materials to be used, shall be shown on the
Drawings.

1. Waterstops shall be in accordance with Paragraph 2.7.A. Jointing of waterstops shall


be made by welding in an approved fashion. Lapping of waterstops at joints and the
use of adhesives for jointing purposes shall not be permitted unless specifically
authorized. Waterstops shall not be perforated or damaged. Concrete shall be
carefully placed and compacted to ensure dense impervious concrete, particularly
around the ribs of waterstops. At all joints the concrete shall be placed up to the
centerline of the waterstop. All starters to walls of watertight construction shall be
cast using hung formwork so that the concrete in the starters is placed simultaneously
with the concrete in the slab.

C. Testing: In addition to the testing required in Paragraph 3.18.C, further tests to determine
the water tightness of the structure shall be performed based on the requirements of ACI
350.1-01. Testing shall be performed after completion of the structure, installation of fittings
and accessories, but before the application of internal waterproofing, and before any
backfilling behind the structure's walls has taken place. The following measures should be
considered:

1. All tank penetrations and outlets shall be securely sealed to prevent loss of water
from the tank during the test. Tank penetrations and outlets shall be monitored before
and during the test and shall be repaired from leakage (if any) prior to taking test
measurements.
2. Rate of initial filling of a new tank should not exceed 1.2m/hr (of the tank height).
Tank filling shall be continued until the water surface is at the design maximum water
level or 100 mm below any fixed overflow level, whichever is lower.
3. Test measurements shall be recorded at 24 hr intervals. The test period shall be at
least the theoretical time required to record a drop in the water surface of 10 mm,
which is, according to the acceptance criterion, ( ) days, rounded up, where
h is the water depth in (mm). Test period need not exceed five consecutive days.

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4. The change in water volume in the structure shall be calculated and corrected, if
necessary for evaporation, precipitation and temperature. If loss exceeds the required
criterion, the structure shall be considered to have failed the test. The structure shall
also be considered to have failed the test if observed flowing or seeping from the
structure or if moisture can be transferred from exterior surface to a dry hand. The
structure shall not be considered to have failed the acceptance criterion if dampness
or wetness on top of a footing, in the absence of flowing water, is observed.
5. Acceptance criterion and performance of test shall be in accordance with the
requirements of ACI 350.1, standard criterion HST-050, which requires that the drop
in the water surface not exceed 0.05% in 24 hours.
6. Retesting shall be permitted if the first test fails to satisfy the criterion. A second test
may be performed immediately following the first test, provided that no visible
leakage is exhibited. If the tank fails the second test or if it was not tested
immediately after the first test failure, the tank shall only be retested after probable
areas of leakage have been detected and repaired. Tanks shall be retested until they
meet the required criterion.

3.18 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A. Testing : Sample materials, perform tests, and submit test reports during concrete
placement according to requirements specified in this Article.

B. Testing Services: Testing of composite samples of fresh concrete obtained according to


ASTM C 172 shall be performed according to the following requirements:

1. Testing Frequency: Obtain one composite sample for each day's pour of each
concrete mix exceeding 4 cu. m, but less than 20 cu. m, plus one set for each
additional 40 cu. m or fraction thereof.
2. Testing Frequency: Obtain at least one composite sample for each 75 cu. m or
fraction thereof of each concrete mix placed each day.

a. When frequency of testing will provide fewer than five compressive-strength


tests for each concrete mix, testing shall be conducted from at least five
randomly selected batches or from each batch if fewer than five are used.

3. Slump: ASTM C 143; one test at point of placement for each composite sample, but
not less than one test for each day's pour of each concrete mix. Perform additional
tests when concrete consistency appears to change.
4. Concrete Temperature: ASTM C 1064; one test hourly when air temperature is 5
deg C and below and when 27 deg C and above, and one test for each composite
sample.
5. Unit Weight: ASTM C 567, fresh unit weight of structural lightweight concrete; one
test for each composite sample, but not less than one test for each day's pour of each
concrete mix.
6. Compression Test Specimens: ASTM C 31/C 31M; cast and laboratory cure one set
of four standard cylinder specimens for each composite sample.

a. Cast and field cure one set of four standard cylinder specimens for each
composite sample.

7. Compressive-Strength Tests: ASTM C 39; test two laboratory-cured specimens at 7


days and two at 28 days.

a. Test two field-cured specimens at 7 days and two at 28 days.

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b. A compressive-strength test shall be the average compressive strength from


two specimens obtained from same composite sample and tested at age
indicated.

C. When strength of field-cured cylinders is less than 85 percent of companion laboratory-


cured cylinders, Contractor shall evaluate operations and provide corrective procedures for
protecting and curing in-place concrete.

D. Strength of each concrete mix will be satisfactory if every average of any three consecutive
compressive-strength tests equals or exceeds specified compressive strength and no
compressive-strength test value falls below specified compressive strength by more than 3.4
MPa.

E. Report test results in writing to Engineer within 48 hours of testing. Reports of


compressive-strength tests shall contain Project identification name and number, date of
concrete placement, name of concrete testing and inspecting agency, location of concrete
batch in Work, design compressive strength at 28 days, concrete mix proportions and
materials, compressive breaking strength, and type of break for both 7-and 28-day tests.

F. Nondestructive Testing: Impact hammer, sonoscope, or other nondestructive device may be


permitted by Engineer but will not be used as sole basis for approval or rejection of
concrete.

G. Additional Tests: Make additional tests of concrete when test results indicate that slump,
compressive strengths, or other requirements have not been met, as directed by Engineer.
Conduct tests to determine adequacy of concrete by cored cylinders complying with
ASTM C 42 or by other methods as directed by Engineer.

END OF SECTION 03300

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SECTION 03332 - ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 SUMMARY
A. Section Includes: Exterior cast-in-place architectural concrete, smooth-formed finish.

B. Related Requirements:
1. Division 03 Section “Cast-in-place Concrete,” for concrete materials, mixes and
admixtures and other cast-in-place concrete materials required to achieve
architectural cast-in-place concrete, and; for reinforcement and formwork including
embedded items, shoring and re-shoring.
2. Division 10 Section “Exterior Screen Assemblies,” for anchoring requirements for
exterior screens attached to cast-in-place architectural concrete.
1.2 DEFINITIONS
A. Architectural Concrete or Cast-in-Place Architectural Concrete: Formed concrete that is
exposed to view on surfaces of completed structure or building and that requires special
concrete materials, formwork, placement, or finishes to obtain specified architectural
appearance for both load bearing and non-load bearing elements.

1.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS


A. Provide architectural concrete finishes to match appearance qualities of samples and mock-
ups and of consistent quality in appearance for each type of finish, approved by Engineer.
B. General: Unless the specified standards contain more stringent requirements, provide as-cast
smooth-formed finish, as follows:
1. Smooth-Formed Finish: As-cast concrete texture imparted by form-facing material,
arranged in an orderly and symmetrical manner with a minimum of seams arranged in
an approved pattern.
2. Surfaces shall be free from discolouration caused by release agents, grout leakage or
other sources.
3. Pigmented Colored Concrete: As selected by Engineer, unless otherwise indicated.
4. Generally, surfaces shall be free of voids, honeycombing, segregation and other
defects. Voids shall be kept to an absolute minimum whilst ensuring compliance with
other specified requirements.
a. No voids larger than 5 mm in diameter permitted, and not more than 6 in any
square metre of surface area.
b. No surface blemishes visible to the eye at 3 m.
c. Formwork Tie Holes: Arranged in approved uniform pattern, filled with
matching prepared cement/fine aggregate paste to match approved sample.
5. Fins and Projections: Carefully removed; surface then thoroughly rinsed and most
noticeable surface blemishes filled with cement and fine aggregate paste to match
color and texture of adjacent concrete; as approved by Engineer.
6. Exterior Corners And Edges: With or without chamfers as selected by Engineer,
unless otherwise indicated.
C. Formwork:
1. Comply with ACI 303.1 limits on form-facing panel deflection, limit cast-in-place
architectural concrete surface irregularities designated by ACI 347 as abrupt or
gradual, as follows:

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a. Smooth-Formed Finish: Class A, 3.2 mm.


2. Fabricate forms to result in cast-in-place architectural concrete that complies with
ACI 117, "Specifications for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials,"
and appearance specified.
3. Form panels: Comply with the following, as approved by Engineer.
a. Joint lines smooth and consistent with surface geometry,
b. Use same size panels for formwork for each finish, in joint pattern approved by
Engineer.
D. Repairs:
1. Develop appropriate repair mixtures and techniques during production sample
submittal process.
2. Repair and cure damaged finished surfaces of cast-in-place architectural concrete
when approved by Engineer. Match repairs to color, texture, and uniformity of
surrounding surfaces and to repairs on approved mockups.
1.4 PREINSTALLATION MEETINGS
A. Before submitting design mixtures, Convene a meeting at Project site to review concrete
design mixture and examine procedures for ensuring quality of concrete materials. Require
the following persons to attend:
1. Contractor's superintendent.
2. Independent testing agency responsible for concrete design mixtures.
3. Ready-mix concrete manufacturer.
4. Cast-in-place architectural concrete subcontractor.
5. Formwork designer.
6. Engineer.
B. Review concrete finishes and finishing, hot-weather concreting procedures, curing
procedures, construction joints, forms and form-removal limitations, reinforcement
accessory installation, concrete repair procedures, and protection of cast-in-place
architectural concrete.

1.5 ACTION SUBMITTALS


A. Product Data: For each type of product.
B. Formwork Shop Drawings: Show formwork construction including form-facing joints,
construction and contraction joints, form tie locations and patterns, and items that visually
affect architectural concrete.
C. Placement Schedule: Submit concrete placement schedule before start of placement
operations. Include locations of joints including construction joints.
D. Samples: For each of the following materials:
1. Form facing panel.
2. Form ties.
3. Coarse and fine aggregate gradations.
4. Joints and corners.
5. Formwork release agent.
E. Samples of Architectural Concrete: Cast vertically, approximately 600 by 600 by 50 mm for
each finish, color, and texture. Include range samples showing expected variations.

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1.6 INFORMATIONAL SUBMITTALS


A. Qualification Data: For manufacturer and testing agency.
B. Material Certificates: For each of the following:
1. Cementitious materials.
2. Admixtures.
3. Form materials and form-release agents.
4. Repair materials.
C. Material Test Reports: For the following, by a qualified testing agency:
1. Aggregates. Include service record data indicating absence of deleterious expansion
of concrete due to alkali-aggregate reactivity.

1.7 QUALITY ASSURANCE


A. Manufacturer Qualifications: A firm experienced in manufacturing ready-mixed concrete
products and that complies with ASTM C 94/C 94M requirements for production facilities
and equipment.
B. ACI Publications: Comply with ACI 303.1, "Specification for Cast-in-Place Architectural
Concrete." unless otherwise specified.
C. Source Limitations for Cast-in-Place Architectural Concrete: Obtain each color, size, type,
and variety of concrete material and concrete mixture from single manufacturer with
resources to provide cast-in-place architectural concrete of consistent quality in appearance
and physical properties.
D. Mockups: Before casting architectural concrete, build mockups to verify selections made
under Sample submittals and to demonstrate typical joints, expected range of finish, color,
and texture variations, tolerances, and standard of workmanship. Build mockups to comply
with the following requirements, using materials specified.
1. Build mockups in the locations as directed by Engineer.
2. Build mock-ups representing three structural bays for each type of smooth finish cast-
in-place architectural concrete, including construction joints.
3. Demonstrate method of placement and compaction, appropriate choice of mix design,
curing, cleaning, and protecting of cast-in-place architectural concrete, finishes,
construction and contraction joints, as applicable.
4. Illustrate corners, joints, formwork workmanship quality, and form tie appearance in
finished surface.
5. In presence of Engineer, damage part of the exposed-face surface for each finish,
color, and texture, and demonstrate materials and techniques proposed for repair of
tie holes and surface blemishes to match adjacent undamaged surfaces.
6. Repeat mock-ups until finishes are approved.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 FORM-FACING MATERIALS


A. Form-Facing Panels: Panel materials that will provide continuous, true, and smooth
architectural concrete surfaces. Furnish in largest practicable sizes to minimize number of
joints.
B. Form Ties: Factory-fabricated, internally disconnecting ties designed to resist lateral
pressure of fresh concrete on forms and to prevent spalling of concrete on removal.

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1. Furnish ties with tapered tie cone spreaders that, when removed, will leave holes 19
mm in diameter on concrete surface.
2. Furnish internally disconnecting ties that will leave no metal closer than 38 mm, after
exposing aggregate, from the architectural concrete surface.
C. Form Release Agents: Commercially formulated, colorless form-release agents that will not
bond with, stain, discolor or adversely affect architectural concrete surfaces and will not
impair subsequent treatments of those surfaces.
1. Formulate form-release agent with rust inhibitor for steel form-facing materials.
D. Form Sealers: Types that that will not stain, discolor or adversely affect architectural
concrete surfaces and will not impair subsequent treatments of those surfaces.
E. Form Joint Tape: Compressible foam tape; pressure sensitive; AAMA 800,
"Specification 810.1, Expanded Cellular Glazing Tape"; minimum 6 mm thick.
F. Form Joint Sealant: Elastomeric sealant complying with ASTM C 920, Type M or Type S,
Grade NS, that adheres to form joint substrates.

2.2 CONCRETE MATERIALS AND MIXES


A. Refer to Division 03 Section “Cast-in-place Concrete,” and as follows.
B. Color Pigment: ASTM C 979, synthetic mineral-oxide pigments or colored water-reducing
admixtures; color stable, non-fading, and resistant to lime and other alkalis.
1. Colors: As selected by Engineer.

2.3 CURING MATERIALS


A. Evaporation Retarder: Waterborne, monomolecular film forming, manufactured for
application to fresh concrete.
B. Absorptive Cover: AASHTO M 182, Class 2, burlap cloth made from jute or kenaf,
weighing approximately 305 g/sq. m when dry.
C. Moisture-Retaining Cover: ASTM C 171, polyethylene film or white burlap-polyethylene
sheet.
D. Clear, Waterborne, Membrane-Forming Curing Compound: ASTM C 309, Type 1, Class B,
dissipating.
E. Clear, Waterborne, Membrane-Forming Curing Compound: ASTM C 309, Type 1, Class B,
non-dissipating, certified by curing compound manufacturer to not interfere with bonding of
floor covering.

2.4 REPAIR MATERIALS


A. Repair Materials: Specially formulated mortar matching concrete color, non-shrink; same
compressive strength as concrete being repaired.

PART 3 - EXECUTION (NOT USED)

END OF SECTION 03332

ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE 03332 – Page 4 of 4


S08035-SPC-AR-01 REV 0
RIYADH METRO PROJECT
STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 03365 - POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE

PART 1 - GENERAL:

1.1 SUMMARY:

A. Work included:

1. Provide prestressing components and accessories and carry out post-tensioning


operations for concrete post-tensioned elements as shown on the drawings, as
specified herein or as required to complete the Work.
2. Work includes post-tensioned concrete for the station floors and any other post-
tensioned elements as indicated on the drawings.

B. Related work:

1. Cast-in-Place Concrete is specified in Section 03300.

C. Related documents:

1. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and


Supplementary Conditions and Division 1 Specifications Sections, apply to this
Section.

1.2 DEFINITIONS:

A. For the purpose of this Contract, cable and tendon both refer to a bundle of prestressing
strands of the same type and size bundled together to be contained within a duct and
stressed collectively from the same anchorage.

B. A prestressing system is defined as a proprietary system of applying prestress and includes


anchorages, couplers and jacks but does not necessarily include prestressing steel and cable
ducts.

1.3 SUBMITTALS:

A. General: Submit the following according to Conditions of Contract and Division 1.

B. Prestressing System: The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for his approval; full
details of the proposed prestressing system, suppliers of the basic materials and
components and shop drawings for main components. No system shall be incorporated in
the Works until approved by the Engineer.

C. Test Certificates: Submit test certificates for all materials to show compliance with the
specification.

D. Friction Losses: Submit calculation of friction losses in the jack and tendon extensions as
applicable to the ducts and prestressing jacks to be used in the works for the approval of the
Engineer who may order the contractor to carry out a friction test.

E. Method Statement: Submit a method statement including the method of handling,


transportation, storage, tensioning and grouting.

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F. Testing Report: Submit a report on the testing of the strands and anchorages, if required,
prepared by an independent testing body/laboratory. The report shall include descriptions of
the test rigs, instrumentation, a comparison of test results and the requirements of the
specification, as well as conclusions.

1.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE:

A. Codes and Standards: Comply with provisions of the following codes, specifications, and
standards, except where more stringent requirements are shown or specified:

1. BS 5400 British standard “Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges”.


2. Prestressing steel shall be low—relaxation super-stabilized strands, conforming to the
requirements of BS 5896, or ASTM-A-416-90 Grade 270.

B. Prestressing operations shall be carried out only under the direction of an experienced and
competent supervisor (minimum experience of 10 years) and all personnel operating the
stressing equipment shall have been properly trained in its use. As an addition to the normal
precautions against accident for the whole of the work, special precautions shall be taken
when working with or near tendons, which have been tensioned or are being tensioned.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS:

2.1 PRESTRESSING STRANDS:

A. All prestressing strands shall be seven-wire super stabilized low relaxation strands -
complying with BS 5896, or ASTM-A-416-90 Grade 270.

2.2 PRESTRESSING COMPONENTS – GENERAL:

A. Prestressing components, such as ducts, anchorages and couplers, shall be of approved


types suitable for types of strands used.

2.3 DUCTS:

A. Ducts for prestressing strands shall be either high density Polyethylene (PE) ducts, or
galvanized steel ducts and shall be clean and free from pitting. They shall be capable of
withstanding concrete pressures without excessive deformations and possess sufficient
rigidity to maintain the required profile between supports. They shall have sufficient bond
with concrete and tests shall be carried out to demonstrate that a force equal to 40 per cent
of the ultimate tensile force of the prestressing tendon can be transferred from the tendon,
through the duct to the surrounding concrete at a length of 750 mm.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

2.4 ANCHORAGES:

A. Anchorages shall be epoxy coated cast steel anchorages and shall be tested in accordance
with BS 4447. No testing is required if certificates are provided. For each anchorage system
used in the works, the characteristic value of anchorage efficiency shall be not less that
90%. Proprietary anchorages shall be handled and used strictly in accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions and recommendations.

2.5 GROUT:

A. The grout shall consist only of ordinary Portland cement and water. The water/cement ratio
shall be as low as possible consistent with the necessary workability. Admixtures may be
used with the written permission of the Engineer and shall be applied strictly in accordance
with the manufacturer's instructions. Admixtures shall be free of chlorides and shall not
release hydrogen ions. Dry materials shall be measured by weight. Refer to section 03300
for compliance with the specifications for cement, admixtures and water for constituents of
grout.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 GENERAL:

A. Prestressing tendons shall be clean and free from pitting, loose rust and loose scale at the
time of incorporation in the work.

B. Prestressing strand shall be in coils of sufficiently large diameter to ensure that the strand
pays off reasonably straight.

C. All cutting of strands shall be carried out using a high-speed abrasive cutting wheel or
friction saw at not less than one diameter from the anchor.

D. Care shall be taken to avoid mechanically damaging, work hardening or heating


prestressing tendons while handling. All prestressing tendons shall be stored clear of the
ground and protected from the weather, and from splashes from any other materials, and
from splashes from the cutting operation of an oxy-acetylene torch, or arc-welding
processes in the vicinity.

E. In no circumstances shall prestressing tendons after manufacture be subjected to any


welding operation, or heat treatment or metallic coating such as galvanising. This does not
preclude cutting as described in Clause D above.

F. Tendons and duct former shall be accurately located and maintained in position both
vertically and horizontally as described in the Contract document. Unless otherwise
described in the Contract document the tolerance in the location of the centre line of duct
shall be within +/-5mm.

G. All strands stressed in one operation shall be taken, where possible, from the same parcel.
Each cable shall be tagged with its number from which the coil numbers of the steel used
can be identified. Cables shall not be kinked or twisted. Individual strands for which
extensions are to be measured shall be readily identifiable at each end of the member. No
strand that has become unraveled shall be used.

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H. Anchor cones, blocks and plates shall be positioned and maintained during concreting so
that the centerline of the ducts passes axially through the anchorage assembly. They shall be
fixed in place securely such that the reinforcement is not in direct contact with any part of
the anchorage. Plastic spacers may be used to achieve this.

3.2 TENSIONING:

A. The tensioning apparatus shall meet the following general requirements:

1. The means of attachment of the tendon to the jack shall be safe and secure;
2. Where two or more strands are stressed simultaneously, they shall be approximately
of equal length between anchorage points at the datum of load and extension
measurement;
3. The tensioning apparatus shall be such that a controlled total force is imposed
gradually and no dangerous secondary stresses are induced in the tendons, anchorage
or concrete;
4. The force in the tendons during tensioning shall be measured by direct-reading load
cells or obtained indirectly from gauges fitted in the hydraulic system to determine
the pressure in the jacks. Facilities shall be provided for the measurement of the
extension of the tendon and of any movement in the gripping devices. The load-
measuring device shall be calibrated to an accuracy within +/-2% and checked at
intervals to the approval of the Engineer; Elongation of the tendon shall be measured
to an accuracy within 2% or 2mm, whichever is the more accurate.
5. The tensioning equipment shall be calibrated before the tensioning operation and at
intervals approved by the Engineer.

B. The Contractor shall satisfy himself that the anchorage reinforcement provided on the
Contract drawings is sufficient to resist anchor block stresses and stresses in the anchorage
zone for the type of anchorages to be used in the Works.

C. The prestressing tendons shall be protected in their permanent positions from both
mechanical damage and corrosion.

D. Before tensioning, the Contractor shall demonstrate that all tendons are free to move in the
ducts unless the geometry of the ducts make this impracticable as agreed by the Engineer.
Tensioning shall be carried out in such a manner that the stress in the tendons increases at a
gradual and steady rate.

E. Unless otherwise described in the Contract, concrete shall not be stressed until it has
reached at least the age at which 2 test cubes taken from it attain the specified transfer
strength. The test cubes shall be made and tested as described in BS 1881. They shall be
cured in similar conditions to the concrete to which they relate, and in a manner approved
by the Engineer.

F. The Contractor shall cast sufficient cubes to demonstrate that the required strength of the
concrete at transfer has been reached.

G. The Contractor shall ensure that personnel carrying out the stressing are provided with
particulars of the required tendon loads, order of stressing and extensions. Allowance shall
be made during stressing for the friction in the jack and in the anchorage, although the
former is not necessary when using load cells.

H. Any allowance for draw-in of the tendon during anchoring shall be in accordance with the
Engineer's instructions.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

I. Stressing shall continue until the required extension and tendon load are reached or are
approved by the Engineer.

J. The extension shall allow for any draw-in of the tendon occurring at the non-jacking end,
but measurement shall not commence until any slack in the tendon has been taken up.

K. Immediately after anchoring, the forces in the prestressing tendons shall not exceed 75% of
their characteristic strength. During stressing the value may exceed 75% of their
characteristic strength, with the approval of the Engineer, but shall not exceed 80%.

L. After the tendons have been anchored, the force exerted by the tensioning apparatus shall be
decreased gradually and steadily so as to avoid shock to the tendon or the anchorage. Full
records shall be kept of all tensioning operations, including the measured extensions,
pressure-gauge or load-cell readings, and the amount of draw-in at each anchorage. Copies
of these records shall be supplied to the Engineer within 24 hours of each tensioning
operation.

M. Unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer tendons shall not be cut less than 3 days after
grouting.

N. If the measured extension differs by more than 5 percent from the estimated extension,
corrective action shall be taken as directed by the Engineer.

O. If the pull-in of the tendons at completion of anchoring is greater than that stipulated by the
Engineer, tensioning shall be carried out afresh.

P. If it is necessary to cut the tendons to enable the ducts to be grouted, this shall be delayed as
long as practicable up to the time of grouting. In all other cases, unless agreed otherwise by
the Engineer, the tendons shall not be cropped less than 3 days after grouting.

Q. Tendons shall be protected and bonded to the member.

R. Anchorages block-outs shall be filled with dense concrete of low permeability of grade
similar to that of the prestressed element.

3.3 GROUTING:

A. The Contractor shall undertake grouting trials.

B. Air vents with transparent standpipes shall be provided at crests in the duct profile and
elsewhere as specified. All ducts shall be thoroughly clean before grouting. Ducts formed
without metal sheathing shall be provided with effective drainage and, unless otherwise
directed by the Engineer, shall be flushed with water before grouting. All surplus water
shall be removed by compressed air injection. All anchorages shall be sealed or fitted with
grouting connections.

C. The mixing equipment shall produce a grout of homogeneous consistency and shall be
capable of providing a continuous supply to the injection equipment.

D. The injection equipment shall be capable of continuous operation with little variation of
pressure and shall include a system for re-circulating the grout while actual grouting is not
in progress. Compressed air shall not be used.

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E. The equipment shall have a sensibly constant delivery pressure not exceeding 1 N/mm2. All
piping to the grout pump shall have a minimum of bends, valves and changes in diameter.
All baffles to the pump shall be fitted with 1.18 mm sieve strainers. All equipment,
especially piping, shall be thoroughly washed through with clean water after every series of
operations and at the end of use for each day. The interval between washings shall not
exceed 3 hours.

F. The equipment shall be capable of maintaining pressure on completely grouted ducts and
shall be fitted with a valve that can be locked off without loss of pressure in the duct.

G. During the grouting operation the Contractor shall provide adequate flushing-out plant to
facilitate complete removal of the grout in the event of breakdown of the grouting
equipment or other disruption before the grouting operation has been completed.

H. Water shall be added to the mixer first, then the cement. When these are thoroughly mixed,
the admixture if any, shall be added. Mixing shall continue until a uniform consistency is
obtained. The water/cement ratio of the mix shall not exceed 0.45 by weight unless
otherwise agreed by the Engineer. Mixing shall not be by hand.

I. Grouting of the ducts shall be carried out as soon as is practicable after stressing and the
Engineer's permission to commence has been obtained. Injection shall be continuous, and it
shall be slow enough to avoid producing segregation of the grout. The method of injecting
grout shall ensure complete filling of the duct and complete surrounding of the steel. Grout
shall be allowed to flow from the free end of the duct until its consistency is equivalent to
that of the grout injected. The opening shall then be firmly closed. Any vents shall be
closed in a similar manner one after another in direction of the flow. The injection tubes
shall then be sealed off under pressure until the grout has set.

J. The filled ducts shall not be subjected to shock or vibration within 1 day of grouting.

K. Not less than 2 days after grouting, the level of grouting, the injection and vent tubes shall
be inspected and made good as necessary.

L. The Contractor shall keep full records of grouting including the date each duct was grouted,
the proportion of the grout and any admixtures used, the pressure, details of any
interruptions and topping up required. Copies of these records shall be supplied to the
Engineer within 3 days of grouting.

M. Where required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall provide facilities and attendance for
the radiographic testing of ducts.

3.4 TESTS:

A. Strands:

Prestressing strands shall be tested as follows:

1. A sample shall be taken from each reel of material on site in the presence of the
Engineer for strength test at an independent laboratory approved by the Engineer. A
reel shall only be accepted if both the breaking load and the 0.1% proof load of the
sample exceed the specified characteristic load given in BS 5896 Table 6.
2. A minimum of 3 samples shall be taken at random from the reels on site in the
presence of the Engineer for relaxation test at an independent laboratory approved by
the Engineer. The reels on site shall only be accepted if the relaxation values

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

determined by the tests are equal to or lower than the specified relaxation class of BS
5896.
2. These requirements shall be additional to any other requirements of the Contract.

B. testing OF GROUT:

1. General Conditions – The grouts shall be tested by competent personnel experienced


in the subject, and in laboratory conditions of temperature and humidity as follows:

Temperature (20 ± 2) °C
Humidity > 65% R.H.

The grout for the tests shall be made from the materials specified in and mixed in
accordance with the requirements of these Specifications. The temperature of the
freshly mixed grout is to be given in all test reports.

2. Fluidity Test – Immersion Method

Principle – The test consists of measuring the time a plunger needs to drop through a
defined amount of grout in a tube.

Apparatus

• Calibrated immersion equipment according to figure 1.


• Wooden measuring rod according to figure 1.

Calibration Procedures – The immersion equipment shall be calibrated with glycerol


(analytical grade) having a density of 1.23 T/M³ at 20 ºC. The temperature of the
room, immersion equipment and glycerol shall be (20 ± 1) ºC during the calibration.

The cylinder shall be filled with about 1.9 liters of glycerol up to approximately
250mm below the rim. After filling the immersion equipment the glycerol shall be
allowed to rest for about 1 hour. The plunger then shall be immersed to expel any air
bubbles from the glycerol, which may have been introduced during the filling of the
cylinder.

After one hour the plunger shall be positioned so that its stop on the tail rod lies on
the spacer placed at the top of the tube. The spacer shall then be pulled away to allow
the plunger to sink to the top of the tube. The immersion time (the time taken for the
plunger to sink shall be recorded in seconds to the nearest second.

The calibration shall be repeated at least 3 times.

The mean value of all measured immersion times shall be (34 ± 1)s. If the mean
value deviates for this figure, the weight of the plunger shall be increased where t
>35s or educed where t <33s. This is done by varying the quantity of the lead pellets
in the plunger. Repeated calibration procedures shall be delayed for at least 30
minutes to ensure expulsion of any air bubbles that may be have been introduced
during a preceding calibration procedure.

Test Procedure

Preparation – The immersion equipment shall be calibrated before it is used.


Calibration of the immersion equipment shall be performed subsequently once a year
and/or after any damage.

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Directly before the test, the inside of the tube and the plunger shall be slightly wetted.

Procedure – The cylinder shall be filled with approximately 1.9 litter of grout up to
approximately 260mm below the rim, so that on introduction the plunger is fully
immersed when its stop on the tail rod lies on the spacer placed at the top of the tube.
The spacer should be pulled away to allow the plunger to sink to the stop on the tube.
Thereafter the plunger should be raised back to its initial position, the spacer inserted
and again pulled away. The immersion time shall be measured, i.e. the time it takes
for the plunger to sink to the point where its tail stop touches on top of the tube. The
immersion times of the grout shall be measured immediately after the mixing process
and after a further 30 minutes. For the latter test, unused grout from the same mix as
that used for the former immersion test shall be used. The grout is to be kept in
motion while carrying out all tests. Each test shall be carried out three times in
succession with the same filling.

Reporting the Results – the result shall be reported as the average of the immersion
times to the nearest second of the second and third immersion, i.e. ignoring the first
immersion time.

3. Fluidity Test – Cone Method

Principle – The fluidity of grout, expressed in seconds, is measured by the time


necessary for a stated quantity of grout to pass through the orifice of the cone, under
stated conditions.

Apparatus – The following apparatus is required for the test:

a) Cone – A cone of dimensions shown in figure 2. The cone shall be robust


and manufactured from materials not reactive with any duct grout materials
specified in these Specifications. The volume of the cone (excluding the
cylindrical portions at top and bottom) shall be 1.7 litters ± 10%.
b) Sieving Medium – The sieving medium aperture shall be 1.5mm and the
medium shall be fitted as shown in figure 2.
c) Stopwatch.
d) Container of 1 liter capacity.

Test Procedure

Preparation – The cone shall be mounted with its axis vertical and its largest diameter
uppermost. The sieving medium shall be fixed at the position indicated in figure 2.
During the test the cone shall be prevented from vibrating the container under the
cone outlet. All surfaces of the cone shall be clean and slightly moistened. Close the
lower cone orifice.

Procedure – Pour 1.5 liters of the grout through the sieving medium into the cone
sufficiently slowly to prevent the build-up of air in the grout in the cone. Open the
lower cone orifice and at the same time, start the stopwatch. Measure the time taken
to the nearest 0.5s to fill the container. The presence of lumps on the sieving medium
shall be reported. Two tests shall be carried out, the second 30 minutes thereafter or
alternatively at the end of the grouting period.
Reporting of Results – Report the time taken to the nearest 0.5s. Report also the
presence of lumps.

4. Bleeding Tests

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Principle – The test consists in measuring the quantity of water remaining on the
surface of the grout, which has been allowed to stand protected from evaporation.

Apparatus – A transparent 100 ml cylinder 25mm in diameter and 250mm in height


graduated in ml. Alternatively a transparent cylinder 50mm in diameter and 200mm
in height graduated in mm.

Procedure

Preparation – Place the cylinder on a surface free from shocks or vibration. The grout
used may be from the same batch as that used for the fluidity test.

Procedure for 25mm diameter cylinder - Pour 95ml to 100ml of grout into the
cylinder. Note the precise level of the grout (v) ignoring the meniscus. After 3 hours,
measure the quantity of water on top of the grout (vl). Taking appropriate measures
to prevent evaporation. The test is carried out on one sample of grout.

Procedure for 50mm diameter cylinder - Pour grout into the cylinder to a height of
approximately 150mm. Note the height to the top of the grout (h) ignoring the
meniscus. After 3 hours, measure the height of water on top of the grout (hl) taking
appropriate measures to prevent evaporation. The test is carried out on one sample of
grout.

Reporting of Results – Bleeding at the end of 3 hours is given by:

vl x 100% for 25mm diameter cylinder


v
and
hl x 100% for 50mm diameter cylinder
h
where

vl is the volume of water on the surface of the grout after 3 hours in ml)

v is the initial volume of grout (in ml)

hl is the height of water on the surface of the grout after 3 hours (in ml)

h is the initial height of grout (in mm)

The report shall state the temperature at the time of test.

5. Volume Change Test

Principle – The volume change is measured as a percentage of the volume of grout


between the start and the end of the test. The test measures mainly the volume
change caused by segregation or expansion.
The grout used in this test may have been used for the bleeding test (see Test 4).

Cylinder Method

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Apparatus – A transparent cylinder 50mm in diameter and 200mm in height as


required for test 4.
Procedure – Place the cylinder on a surface free from shocks and vibration. Fill it
with the grout to a height (h). Twenty-four hours after filling the cylinder measure
the height (h2) to determine the change in volume.
Reporting of Results – The volume change at the end of 24 hours is given by:
h2 − h
Where x100%
h
h is the initial height of grout (in mm)

h2 is the height of grout after 24 hours (in mm)

Can Method

Apparatus

a) Three cans, 120mm high and approximately 100mm in diameter, with lids
capable of preventing the loss of moisture.
b) Measuring rod or sliding callipers
c) Plates

• Stop plate for placing on the can with a diameter of 120mm (see figure
3)
• Stop plate for placing on the grout with a diameter of 96mm (see
figure 4)

d) Filling gauge 100mm high

Procedure – Place the cans on a surface free of vibration and heat radiation and store
for 24 hours. Immediately after mixing pour the grout into each can using the filling
gauge, to a depth of 100mm. The measurement of the distance form the top edge of
the can to the top of the grout is to be taken:

• Immediately after the containers are filled and


• 24 hours after the containers are filled by one of the following
methods:
a) Measurement with the Stop Plate on the Can – immediately
after the cans have been filled with grout, measure the distance
between the surface of the grout and the stop plate on the can in
at least six places with the depth gauge (first measurement).
The marking must coincide with the top edge of the can
(reference point). Then the cans are sealed by covering with the
lid weighted with approximately 300g until the second
measurement is carried out 24 hours after the filling of the cans.
b) Measurement with the Stop Plate on the Grout – Immediately
after filling the cans, put the stop plate (figure4) on the fresh
grout and measure with the depth gauge the distance between
this plate and the top edge of the can in at least six places (first
measurement). Then the cans are sealed. The second
measurement shall be carried out 24 hours after the filling of the
cans. In the second measurement the distance between the stop
plate and the top edge of can is measured at the same places as
for the first measurement. After the second measurement the

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cans are sealed as before, and used as necessary for the


compression strength tests (6).

Reporting of Results – The difference of the average values between first and second
measurement(s) in mm corresponds at 100mm grout level to the volume change in
percent and is reported as the percentage change in volume. Report the percentage
change in volume as the average of the three containers to the nearest 0.1%. Report
increase of volume as (+) and decrease as (-).

6. Compression Strength Test

a) Compression Strength Test - Prism

Principle – The compression strength of grout in this test (which is an adaptation to


grouts of the mechanical tests described in BS EN 196-1) is determined on the broken
halves of prisms.

Apparatus

a. Mixer for grout in accordance with the requirements of these Specifications


for hatching and mixing of grout.
b. Air conditioned cabinet at (20 ± 1) °C and (95 ± 5) % relative humidity.
c. Test machine and the device in accordance with 4.7 and 4.8 of B.S. EN 196-
1.
d. Metal molds in accordance with 4.5 of BS EN 196-1.
e. Metal straight edge in accordance with figure 3 of BS EN 196-1.

Procedure

Molding of the Test Specimens – File moulds and accessories shall be prepared and
the specimens made in accordance with BS EN 196-1, with the exception noted
below.

Each mould (fitted with a hopper) shall be filled with the prepared grout. As an
exception to the procedure in B.S. EN 196-1 and in view of the liquidity of the grout
the test specimens shall not be subjected to any vibration or shock so as to prevent
rapid deterioration of the grout (loss of grout, drying out, bleeding or sedimentation).

Remove the hopper gently. Immediately strike off the excess grout with the metal
straight edge held almost vertically and moved slowly, with a transverse sawing
motion once in each direction. Smooth the surface of the specimens using the same
straight edge held almost flat.

Label or mark moulds to identify the specimens.

Curing of Test Specimens – The curing of test specimens shall be carried out in
accordance with BS EN 196-1, until they are tested.

Compression Test – The compression tests shall be carried out in accordance with BS
EN 196-1. The compression strength shall be measured on six test specimens from
three prisms broken in flexure.

Reporting of Results – The report shall provide all the results of the compression
tests, in Mpa. The value obtained for each test shall be the mean of the individual
results.

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b) Compression Strength Test – Cylinders

Principle – The compressive strength of grout in this test is determined on the three
cylinders used in the volume change test given in Test 5.

Apparatus

a) The cans as described in Test 5.


b) An air conditioning cabinet as described in Test 6.
c) A compression test machine as described in BS EN 196-1
d) Implements for sawing and grinding test specimens.

Procedure

After measuring the volume change (see 5) the three cylinders shall be stored in the
air conditioning cabinet at (20 ± 1) °C until they are to be prepared for test.
Immediately prior to test the specimens shall be carefully demolded.

Each specimen is prepared for test by sawing through the cylinder near the upper
surface and then grinding both circular surfaces of the cylinder until the disc to be
loaded in the test has a thickness of 80mm.

Each specimen shall then be placed in the compression test machine and loaded, at a
uniform rate of 0.5 Mpa/s, on its ends until the maximum load (Fc) is reached.

Reporting of Results – The compressive strength Rc is calculated in Mpa from

Rc = Fc / A

Where
Fc is the failure load

A is the cross sectional area

And shall be measured on three specimens, the mean value of which shall be reported
as the compressive strength.

7. Frequency of Testing – The testing of the grout made from certified or otherwise
quality assured materials shall be carried out prior to the start of grouting operations
and at the following minimum of testing in the course of grouting.

Bleeding: 2 tests per day. One sample is to be taken at the mixer and one sample at
the duct outlet when the grout there has a satisfactory fluidity value.

Volume Change: 1 test per day.


Strength: 1 test per 7 days or a minimum of two tests per grouting operation
whichever is greater.

Fluidity: 1 test per 8 hours.

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Figure 2: Cone for Fluidity Test.

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Figure 4: Plate on the Grout.

END OF SECTION 03365

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SECTION 03532 - CONCRETE FLOOR TOPPING

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. Section Includes cement concrete toppings for internal use as follows::

1. Standard aggregate concrete floor topping

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 3 Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete" for slabs-on-grade concrete construc-
tion and finish.
3. Division 3 Section "Cement-Based Screed" for cementitious screed
4. Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants"
5. Division 9 Section "Ceramic Tile" for medium-set and thickset mortar beds for tile.

1.3 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each type of manufactured material and product indicated.

B. Design Mixes: For each stamped concrete topping mix. Include alternative mix designs
when characteristics of materials, project conditions, weather, test results, or other cir-
cumstances warrant adjustments.

C. Material Test Reports: From a qualified testing agency indicating and interpreting test
results for compliance of the following with requirements indicated, based on compre-
hensive testing of current materials:

D. Material Certificates: Signed by manufacturers certifying that each of the following ma-
terials complies with requirements:

1. Cementitious materials and aggregates.


2. Steel reinforcement and reinforcement accessories.
3. Fiber reinforcement.
4. Admixtures.
5. Applied finish materials.
6. Curing compounds.

E. Prepare shop drawings showing proposed patterns and colours indicating embeded ser-
vices, utilities and proposed joints.

F. Installer Certificates: Signed by product manufacturer certifying that Installer is ap-


proved, authorized, or licensed by manufacturer to install his products.

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G. Installer Experience: List of five projects (minimum) of a similar nature carried out suc-
cessfully by the installer with the same product endorsed by the manufacturer’s repre-
sentative.

1.4 DEFINITION

A. Topping: topping means a layer of cement-sand with or without coarse aggregate or other
material laid on the structural floor or roof to achieve correct level and not receive any
further finish material

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Installer Qualifications: A qualified firm specializing in performing the work of this Sec-
tion with minimum three years documented experience and that is approved, authorized,
or licensed by the product manufacturer to install his product and that is eligible to re-
ceive manufacturer's warranty. Include project names and addresses, names and addresses
of Engineers and Employers, and other information specified

B. Ready-Mixed Manufacturer Qualifications: Manufacturer of ready-mixed concrete prod-


ucts complying with ASTM C 94 requirements for production facilities and equipment.

C. Testing Agency Qualifications: An independent testing agency, acceptable to Engineer,


and qualified according to ASTM C 1077 and ASTM E 329 to conduct the testing indi-
cated, as documented according to ASTM E 548.

D. Concrete Testing Service: Engage a qualified independent testing agency to perform ma-
terial evaluation tests and to design concrete mixes.

E. Mockups: Place concrete floor topping mockups to demonstrate typical joints, surface
finish, bonding, texture, tolerances, and standard of workmanship.

1. Cast mockups approximately 10 sq. m in the location indicated or, if not indicated,
as directed by Engineer.
2. Notify Engineer seven days in advance of dates and times when mockups will be
constructed.
3. Obtain Engineer's approval of mockups before starting construction.
4. If Engineer determines that mockups do not meet requirements, demolish and
remove them from the site and cast others until mockups are approved.
5. Maintain mockups during construction in an undisturbed condition as a standard
for judging the completed Work.
6. Approved mockups may become part of the completed Work if undisturbed at time
of Substantial Completion.

F. Preinstallation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site.

1.6 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Deliver materials in original packages and containers, with seals unbroken, bearing
manufacturer's labels indicating brand name and directions for storage, mixing with other
components, and application.

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B. Store materials to comply with manufacturer's written instructions to prevent


deterioration from moisture or other detrimental effects.

1.7 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Environmental Limitations: Comply with manufacturer's written instructions for


substrate temperature and moisture content, ambient temperature and humidity,
ventilation, and other conditions affecting concrete floor topping performance.

1. Place concrete floor topping only when ambient temperature and temperature of
base slabs are between 10 and 30 deg C.

B. Close areas to traffic during topping application and, after application, for time period
recommended in writing by manufacturer.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 FORMS

A. Form Materials: Plywood, metal, metal-framed plywood, or other approved panel-type


materials to provide full-depth, continuous, true, and smooth exposed surfaces.

1. Use flexible or curved forms that will provide uniform curvature for curves of a
radius of 30.5 m or less.

B. Forms for Textured Finish Concrete: Units of face design, size, arrangement, and confi-
guration indicated. Provide solid backing and form supports to ensure stability of textured
form liners.

C. Form-Release Agent: Commercially formulated form-release agent that will not bond
with, stain, or adversely affect concrete surfaces and will not impair subsequent treat-
ments of concrete surfaces.

2.2 STANDARD AGGREGATE TOPPING MATERIALS

A. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or Type III.

B. Normal Weight Aggregate: ASTM C 33, and as follows:

1. Fine aggregate, consisting of sand or crushed stone screenings, clean, hard, free of
deleterious matter. Grade by weight to conform to ACI 302 and to pass sieves as
follows:

a. 9.5 mm: 100 percent


b. 4.8 mm: 95-100 percent
c. 2.4 mm: 80-90 percent
d. 1.2 mm: 50-75 percent
e. 600 µ m: 30-50 percent
f. 300 µ m: 10-20 percent
g. 150 µ m: 2-5 percent

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2. Coarse aggregate, consisting of gravel or crushed stone, clean, hard, free of delete-
rious matter. Grade by weight to pass sieves as follows:

a. 12.5 mm: 100 percent


b. 9.5 mm: 30-50 percent
c. 4.8 mm: 0-15 percent
d. 2.4 mm: 0-5 percent

C. Fibrous Reinforcement: 100 % virgin polypropylene, fibrillated fibers containing no re-


processed olefin materials and specifically manufactured to an optimum gradation for use
as concrete secondary reinforcement. Proportion shall be not less than 0.9 Kg per m3 of
concrete to give the required strength. Fibrous reinforcement shall be as follows:

1. Specific gravity: 0.91


2. Tensile strength: 345 - 758 N/mm2
3. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers
offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not li-
mited to, the following:

a. Fibermesh Company; Fibermesh

D. Steel Reinforcement

1. Deformed Steel Welded Wire Fabric: ASTM A 497, flat sheet.


2. Reinforcing Bars: ASTM A 615/A 615M, Grade 420, deformed.
3. Steel Bar Mats: ASTM A 184/A 184M; with ASTM A 615/A 615M, Grade 420,
deformed bars; assembled with clips.
4. Joint Dowel Bars: Plain steel bars, ASTM A 615/A 615M, Grade 420. Cut bars
true to length with ends square and free of burrs.
5. Bar Supports: Bolsters, chairs, spacers, and other devices for spacing, supporting,
and fastening reinforcing bars, welded wire fabric, and dowels in place.
Manufacture bar supports according to CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice" from
steel wire, plastic, or precast concrete or fiber-reinforced concrete of greater
compressive strength than concrete.
6. Reinforcement: ASTM A 185, welded steel wire fabric.

2.3 ADMIXTURES

A. General: Admixtures certified by manufacturer to contain not more than 0.1 percent wa-
ter-soluble chloride ions by mass of cement and to be compatible with other admixtures.
Do not use admixtures containing calcium chloride.

B. Air-Entraining Admixture: ASTM C 260.

C. High Range Water-Reducing Admixture: ASTM C 494.

D. Water-Reducing and Accelerating Admixture: ASTM C 494, Type E.

E. Water-Reducing and Retarding Admixture: ASTM C 494, Type D.

2.4 COLOR MATERIALS

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A. Coloring Admixture: ASTM C 979, synthetic mineral-oxide pigments or colored water-


reducing admixtures; color stable, nonfading, and resistant to lime and other alkalis.

1. Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

B. Colored Dry-Shake Hardener: Factory-packaged dry combination of portland cement,


graded quartz aggregate, coloring pigments, and plasticizing admixture. Use coloring
pigments that are finely ground, nonfading mineral oxides interground with cement.

1. Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

C. Colored-Powder Release Agent: Factory-packaged dry combination of surface condition-


ing and dispersing agents interground with coloring pigments that facilitates release of
stamp mats. Use coloring pigments that are finely ground, nonfading mineral oxides in-
terground with cement.

1. Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

2.5 CURING MATERIALS

A. Evaporation Retarder: Waterborne, monomolecular film forming; manufactured for


application to fresh concrete.

B. Absorptive Cover: AASHTO M 182, Class 2, burlap cloth made from jute or kenaf,
weighing approximately 305 g/sq. m when dry.

C. Moisture-Retaining Cover: ASTM C 171, polyethylene film or white burlap-


polyethylene sheet.

D. Water: Potable.

E. Clear, Waterborne, Membrane-Forming Curing Compound: ASTM C 309, Type 1,


Class B, 25 percent solids content, minimum.

2.6 RELATED MATERIALS

A. Semirigid Joint Filler: Two-component, semirigid, 100 percent solids, epoxy resin with a
Type A Shore durometer hardness of 80 per ASTM D 2240.

B. Joint-Filler Strips: ASTM D 1751, asphalt-saturated cellulosic fiber or ASTM D 1752,


cork or self-expanding cork.

C. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or II.

D. Sand: ASTM C 404, fine aggregate passing 1.18-mm sieve.

E. Water: Potable.

F. Acrylic-Bonding Agent: ASTM C 1059, Type II, non-redispersible, acrylic emulsion or


styrene butadiene.

G. Epoxy Adhesive: ASTM C 881/C 881M, Type V, two-component epoxy resin, capable
of humid curing and bonding to damp surfaces, of class and grade to suit requirements.

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H. Bonding Agent: ASTM C 1059, Type II, non-redispersible, acrylic emulsion or styrene
butadiene.

I. Polyethylene Film: ASTM D 4397, 0.025 mm thick, clear.

2.7 TOPPING MIX

A. Prepare design mixes, proportioned according to ACI 211.1 and ACI 301, for each type
and strength of normal-weight concrete determined by either laboratory trial mix or field
test data bases.

B. Use a qualified independent testing agency for preparing and reporting proposed mix de-
signs for the laboratory trial mix basis.

C. Proportion mixes to provide concrete with the following properties:

1. Compressive Strength (28 Days): submit mix for approval to give a 28 day com-
pressive strength of not less than 20 MPa. Minimum cement sand ratio should be
not less than 1 : 4 by volume.
2. Maximum Water-Cementitious Materials Ratio: 0.51.
3. Maximum Slump: 125 mm.

D. Cementitious Materials: Limit percentage, by weight, of cementitious materials other


than portland cement in concrete as follows:

E. Add coloring admixture to mix according to manufacturer's written instructions.

F. Synthetic Fiber: Uniformly disperse in concrete mix at manufacturer's recommended


rate, but not less than 0.90 kg/cu. m.

2.8 MIXING

A. Bonding Slurry: Mix 1 part portland cement and 2 parts sand with water and an acrylic-
bonding agent according to manufacturer's written instructions to a thick paint
consistency.

B. Floor Topping: Mix concrete floor topping materials and water in appropriate drum-type
batch machine mixer or truck mixer according to manufacturer's written instructions and
as per division 3 section “Cast In Place Concrete”.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine substrates, with Installer present, for conditions affecting performance of


concrete floor topping.

B. Verify that base slabs are visibly dry and free of moisture. Test for capillary moisture by
the plastic sheet method according to ASTM D 4263.

C. Proceed with application only after unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

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3.2 PREPARATION

A. Existing Concrete: Remove existing surface treatments and deteriorated and unsound
concrete. Mechanically abrade base slabs to produce a heavily scarified surface profile
with an amplitude of 6 mm.

1. Prepare and clean existing base slabs according to concrete floor topping
manufacturer's written instructions. Fill voids, cracks, and cavities in base slabs.
2. Mechanically remove contaminants from existing concrete that might impair bond
of floor topping.
3. Saw cut contraction and construction joints in existing concrete to a depth of 13
mm and fill with semirigid joint filler.
4. To both sides of joint edges and at perimeter of existing base slab mechanically
remove a 100-mm- wide and 0- to 25-mm- deep, tapered wedge of concrete and
retexture surface .

B. Install joint-filler strips where topping abuts vertical surfaces, such as column pedestals,
foundation walls, grade beams, and other locations, as indicated.

1. Extend joint-filler strips full width and depth of joint, terminating flush with
topping surface, unless otherwise indicated.
2. Terminate full-width, joint-filler strips 13 mm below topping surface where joint
sealants, specified in Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants," are indicated.
3. Install joint-filler strips in lengths as long as practicable. Where more than one
length is required, lace or clip sections together.

3.3 EDGE FORMS AND SCREED CONSTRUCTION

A. Set, brace, and secure edge forms, bulkheads, and intermediate screed guides for pave-
ment to required lines, grades, and elevations. Install forms to allow continuous progress
of work and so forms can remain in place at least 24 hours after placing concrete.

B. Clean forms after each use and coat with form-release agent to ensure separation from
concrete without damage.

3.4 STEEL REINFORCEMENT

A. Comply with CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice" for fabricating reinforcement and
with recommendations in CRSI's "Placing Reinforcing Bars" for placing and supporting
reinforcement.

B. Comply with division 3 section “ Cast In Place Concrete for placing steel reinforcement

3.5 JOINTS

A. General: Construct joints and tool edgings true to line with faces perpendicular to surface
plane of concrete. Construct transverse joints at right angles to centerline, unless other-
wise indicated.

B. Construction Joints: Set construction joints at side and end terminations of pavement and
at locations where pavement operations are stopped for more than one-half hour, unless
pavement terminates at isolation joints.

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1. Continue reinforcement across construction joints, unless otherwise indicated. Do


not continue reinforcement through sides of strip pavement, unless otherwise indi-
cated.
2. Use a bonding agent at locations where fresh concrete is placed against hardened
or partially hardened concrete surfaces.

C. Isolation Joints: Form isolation joints of preformed joint-filler strips abutting concrete
curbs, catch basins, manholes, inlets, structures, walks, other fixed objects, and where in-
dicated.

1. Locate expansion joints at intervals of 15.25 m, unless otherwise indicated.


2. Terminate joint filler not less than 13 mm or more than 25 mm below finished sur-
face if joint sealant, specified in Division 2 Section "Pavement Joint Sealants," is
indicated.
3. Furnish joint fillers in one-piece lengths for full width being placed where possi-
ble. Where more than one length is required, lace or clip joint-filler sections to-
gether.
4. Protect top edge of joint filler during concrete placement with metal, plastic, or
other temporary preformed cap. Remove protective cap after concrete has been
placed on both sides of joint.

D. Dowel Joints: Install dowel sleeves and dowels or dowel bar and support assemblies at
joints where indicated.

1. Use dowel sleeves or lubricate or asphalt-coat one-half of dowel length to prevent


concrete from bonding to one side of joint.

E. Contraction Joints: Form weakened-plane contraction joints, sectioning concrete into


areas as indicated. Construct contraction joints as indicated on shop drawings for a depth
equal to at least one-fourth of the concrete thickness, as follows:

1. Grooved Joints: Form contraction joints after initial floating by grooving and fi-
nishing each edge of joint with groover tool to the following radius. Repeat groov-
ing of contraction joints after applying surface finishes. Eliminate groover marks
on concrete surfaces.

a. Radius: to suit final pattern and layout.

F. Edging: Tool edges of pavement and joints in concrete after initial floating with an edg-
ing tool to the following radius. Repeat tooling of edges after applying surface finishes.
Eliminate tool marks on concrete surfaces.

1. Radius: to suit final pattern and layout.

3.6 FLOOR TOPPING APPLICATION

A. Start floor topping application in presence of manufacturer's technical representative.

B. Fibrous Reinforcement: For fibrous-reinforced toppings, apply fibrous reinforcing as per


manufacturer’s written instructions.

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C. Deferred Floor Topping: Within 72 hours of placing base slabs, mix and scrub bonding
slurry into dampened concrete to a thickness of 1.6 to 3 mm, without puddling. Place
floor topping while slurry is still tacky.

D. Existing Concrete: Apply epoxy-bonding adhesive, mixed according to manufacturer's


written instructions, and scrub into dry base slabs to a thickness of 1.6 to 3 mm, without
puddling. Place floor topping while adhesive is still tacky.

E. Place concrete floor topping continuously in a single layer, tamping and consolidating to
achieve tight contact with bonding surface. Do not permit cold joints or seams to develop
within pour strip.

1. Screed surface with a straightedge and strike off to correct elevations.


2. Slope surfaces uniformly where indicated.
3. Begin initial floating using bull floats to form a uniform and open-textured surface
plane free of humps or hollows.

F. Finishing: Consolidate surface with power-driven floats as soon as concrete floor


topping can support equipment and operator. Restraighten, cut down high spots, and fill
low spots. Repeat float passes and restraightening until concrete floor topping surface
has a uniform, smooth, granular texture.

1. Hard Trowel Finish: After floating surface, apply first trowel finish and
consolidate concrete floor topping by power-driven trowel without allowing
blisters to develop. Continue troweling passes and restraighten until surface is
smooth and uniform in texture.

a. Finish surfaces to specified overall values of flatness, F(F) 25; and


levelness, F(L) 20; with minimum local values of flatness, F(F) 17; and
levelness, F(L) 15, and notify independent testing agency to permit
measurement within 24 hours according to ASTM E 1155M for a randomly
trafficked floor surface.
b. Finish and measure surface so gap at any point between surface and an
unleveled freestanding 3-m- long straightedge, resting on 2 high spots and
placed anywhere on the surface, does not exceed 6 mm.

G. Construction Joints: Construct joints true to line with faces perpendicular to surface
plane of concrete floor topping, at locations indicated or as approved by Engineer.

1. Coat face of construction joint with epoxy adhesive at locations where concrete
floor topping is placed against hardened or partially hardened concrete floor
topping.

H. Contraction Joints: Form weakened-plane contraction joints with power saws equipped
with shatterproof abrasive or diamond-rimmed blades. Cut 3-mm- wide joints into
concrete floor topping when cutting action will not tear, abrade, or otherwise damage
surface and before random contraction cracks develop.

1. Form joints in concrete floor topping over contraction joints in base slabs, unless
otherwise indicated.
2. Construct contraction joints for a combined depth equal to topping thickness and
not less than one-fourth of base-slab thickness.
3. Construct contraction joints for a depth equal to one-half of concrete floor topping
thickness, but not less than 13 mm deep.

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3.7 INITIAL CONCRETE FINISHING

A. General: Wetting concrete surfaces during screeding, initial floating, or finishing opera-
tions is prohibited.

B. Float Finish: Begin the second floating operation when bleedwater sheen has disap-
peared and the concrete surface has stiffened sufficiently to permit operations. Finish
surfaces to true planes. Cut down high spots and fill low spots. Immediately refloat sur-
face to uniform granular texture.

C. Colored Dry-Shake Hardener Finish: After initial floating, apply colored dry-shake ma-
terial to plastic concrete surfaces according to manufacturer's written instructions and as
follows:

1. Uniformly apply at a rate of 49 kg/10 sq. m unless greater amount is recommend-


ed by manufacturer to match pavement color.
2. Distribute approximately two-thirds of colored dry-shake material and embed by
floating. Follow with a second application of colored dry-shake material distri-
buted at right angles to the first to ensure uniform color, and embed by floating.
3. After final floating, apply a light-trowel finish followed by a broom finish. Apply
curing compound immediately after final finishing.

3.8 PROTECTING AND CURING

A. General: Protect freshly placed concrete floor topping from premature drying and
excessive cold or hot temperatures.

B. Evaporation Retarder: Apply evaporation retarder to concrete floor topping surfaces in


hot, dry, or windy conditions before and during finishing operations. Apply according to
manufacturer's written instructions after placing, screeding, and bull floating or darbying
floor topping, but before float finishing.

C. Begin curing immediately after finishing concrete floor topping. Cure by one or a
combination of the following methods, according to concrete floor topping
manufacturer's written instructions:

1. Moisture Curing: Keep surfaces continuously moist for not less than 7 days with
water or absorptive cover, water saturated and kept continuously wet. Cover
topping surfaces and edges with 300-mm lap over adjacent absorptive covers.
2. Moisture-Retaining-Cover Curing: Cover concrete surfaces with moisture-
retaining cover for curing concrete, placed in widest practicable width, with sides
and ends lapped at least 300 mm, and sealed by waterproof tape or adhesive. Cure
for not less than seven days. Immediately repair any holes or tears during curing
period using cover material and waterproof tape.
3. Curing Compound: Apply uniformly in two coats in continuous operations by
power spray or roller according to manufacturer's written instructions. Recoat
areas subjected to heavy rainfall within three hours after initial application.
Maintain continuity of coating and repair damage during curing period.

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3.9 JOINT FILLING

A. Prepare and clean contraction joints and install semirigid joint filler, according to
manufacturer's written instructions, once topping has fully cured.

B. Remove dirt, debris, saw cuttings, curing compounds, and sealers from joints; leave
contact faces of joint clean and dry.

C. Install semirigid joint filler full depth of contraction joints. Overfill joint and trim
semirigid joint filler flush with top of joint after hardening.

3.10 REPAIRS

A. Defective Topping: Repair and patch defective concrete floor topping areas, including
areas that have not bonded to concrete substrate.

3.11 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A. Testing Agency: Engage a qualified independent testing and inspecting agency to


perform field tests and inspections and prepare test reports.

B. Testing Services: Testing and inspecting of completed applications of concrete floor


toppings shall take place in successive stages, in areas of extent and using methods as
follows:

1. Sample Sets: At point of placement, a set of 3 molded-cube samples shall be taken


from the topping mix for the first 93 sq. m, plus 1 set of samples for each
subsequent 464 sq. m of topping, or fraction thereof, but not less than 6 samples
for each day's placement. Samples shall be tested according to
ASTM C 109/C 109M for compliance with compressive-strength requirements.
2. Concrete floor topping shall be tested for delamination by dragging a steel chain
over the surface.
3. Concrete floor topping shall be tested for compliance with surface flatness and
levelness tolerances.

C. Remove and replace applications of concrete floor topping where test results indicate that
it does not comply with specified requirements.

D. Additional testing and inspecting, at Contractor's expense, will be performed to determine


compliance of replaced or additional work with specified requirements.

END OF SECTION 03532

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SECTION 03544 - CEMENT-BASED SCREED

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 DEFINITIONS

A. Screed: a layer of cement-sand, or concrete mix, and other materials, with or without rein-
forcement, laid on the structural floor or roof slab to achieve correct level and receive
another finish material.

1.3 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes:

1. Standard aggregate concrete floor screed underlayment for interior finish flooring.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 3 Section "Concrete Floor Toppings" for cementitious wear toppings applied
over base slabs
3. Division 9 Sections "Resinous Flooring" and "High-Performance Coatings".

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each type of product indicated.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Installer Qualifications: A qualified firm specializing in performing the work of this Section
with minimum three years documented experience and that is approved, authorized, or li-
censed by the product manufacturer to install his product. Include project names and ad-
dresses, names and addresses of Engineers and Employers, and other information specified

1.6 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Deliver materials in original packages and containers, with seals unbroken, bearing manu-
facturer's labels indicating brand name and directions for storage, mixing with other compo-
nents, and application.

B. Store materials to comply with manufacturer's written instructions to prevent deterioration


from moisture or other detrimental effects.

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1.7 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Environmental Limitations: For proprietary products, comply with manufacturer's written


recommendations for substrate temperature and moisture content, ambient temperature and
humidity, ventilation, and other conditions affecting screed performance.

B. Close areas to traffic during screed application and for appropriate time period after applica-
tion as recommended in writing by manufacturer.

1.8 COORDINATION

A. Coordinate cement-based screed with requirements of finish flooring products, including


adhesives, specified in Division 9 Sections.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 SCREED MATERIALS

A. Site-Prepared Mix: Cement-sand mix with admixtures applied over structural deck to re-
ceive another finishing material.

1. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or Type III.


2. Compressive Strength: Not less than 20 MPa at 28 days when tested according to
ASTM C 109M.
3. Slump: Maximum 125 mm
4. Screed Additive: Plasticisers and water-retaining agents formulated for use with
screed when applied to substrate and conditions indicated, and to approval.
5. Mix proportions: submit mix for approval to give a 28 day compressive strength of
not less than 20 MPa. Minimum cement sand ratio should be not less than 1 : 4 by vo-
lume.
6. water-cement ratio: adjust ratio to achieve the required compressive strength and
slump.
7. Where the thickness of the screed exceeds 70 mm, use fine concrete if directed. Sub-
mit mix proportions for approval.

B. Premix Mix: Factory prepared mix with fibrous reinforcement and admixtures applied over
structural deck to receive another finishing material.

1. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or Type III.


2. Compressive Strength: Not less than 20 MPa at 28 days when tested according to
C 109M.
3. Water-cement ratio: Adjust ratio to achieve the required compressive strength and
slump and as per manufacturer’s printed instructions.
4. Where the thickness of the screed exceeds 70 mm, use fine concrete if directed. Sub-
mit mix proportions for approval.

C. Normal Weight Aggregate: ASTM C 33 and as follows:

1. Fine aggregate, consisting of sand or crushed stone screenings, clean, hard, free of de-
leterious matter. Grade by weight to pass sieves as follows:

a. 9.5 mm: 100 percent

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b. 4.8 mm: 95-100 percent


c. 2.4 mm: 80-90 percent
d. 1.2 mm: 50-75 percent
e. 600 µm: 30-50 percent
f. 300 µm: 10-20 percent
g. 150 µm: 2-5 percent

2. Coarse aggregate, consisting of gravel or crushed stone, clean, hard, free of delete-
rious matter. Grade by weight to pass sieves as follows:

a. 12.5 mm : 100 percent


b. 9.5 mm : 30-50 percent
c. 4.8 mm : 0-15 percent
d. 2.4 mm : 0-5 percent

D. Reinforcement: ASTM A 185, welded steel wire fabric.

E. Water: Potable and at a temperature of not more than 21 deg C.

F. Fibrous Reinforcement: 100 % virgin polypropylene, fibrillated fibers containing no repro-


cessed olefin materials and specifically manufactured to an optimum gradation for use as
concrete secondary reinforcement. Proportion shall be 0.9 Kg per m3 of concrete. Fibrous
reinforcement shall be as follows:

1. Specific gravity: 0.91


2. Tensile strength: 345 - 758 N/mm2
3. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers
offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited
to, the following:

a. Fibermesh Company; Fibermesh

2.2 CURING MATERIALS

A. Absorptive Cover: AASHTO M 182, Class 2, burlap cloth made from jute or kenaf, weigh-
ing approximately 305 g/sq. m when dry.

B. Water: Potable.

2.3 DESIGN MIXES

A. Prepare design mixes for each type and strength of lightweight concrete screed by either la-
boratory trial batch or field-test data methods. For trial batch method, use a qualified inde-
pendent testing agency for preparing and reporting proposed mix designs.

B. Limit water-soluble chloride ions to the maximum percentage by weight of cement or ce-
mentitious material permitted by ACI 301.

2.4 RELATED MATERIALS

A. Epoxy Joint Filler: Two-component, semirigid, 100 percent solids, epoxy resin with a
Shore A hardness of 80 per ASTM D 2240.

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B. Joint-Filler Strips: ASTM D 1751, asphalt-saturated cellulosic fiber or ASTM D 1752, cork
or self-expanding cork.

C. Water: Potable.

D. Acrylic-Bonding Agent: ASTM C 1059, Type II, non-redispersible, acrylic emulsion or sty-
rene butadiene.

E. Admixtures: admixtures certified by manufacturer to contain not more than 0.1 % water-
soluble chloride ions by mass of cementitious material and compatible with other admixture
and cementitious materials. Do not admixtures containing calcium chloride.

F. Epoxy Adhesive: ASTM C 881, Type V, two-component epoxy resin, capable of humid
curing and bonding to damp surfaces, of class and grade to suit requirements.

2.5 MIXING

A. Bonding Slurry: Mix 1 part portland cement and 2 parts sand with water and an acrylic-
bonding agent according to manufacturer's written instructions to a thick paint consistency.

B. Screed Mix: Design mix, with or without admixture, to produce concrete floor topping ma-
terial with the following characteristics:

1. Compressive strength: at 28 days not less than 20 Mpa.


2. Slump: maximum 125 mm
3. Mix proportions : submit mix for approval to give a 28 day compressive strength
of not less than 20 MPa. Minimum cement sand ratio should be not less than 1:4 by
volume.
4. Maximum w/cm ratio: 0.51.
5. Mix screed materials, admixtures and water in appropriate drum-type batch machine
mixer or truck mixer according to manufacturer's written instructions.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine substrates, with Installer present, for conditions affecting performance of screed.
Proceed with application only after unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

B. Verify that base slabs meet finish and surface profile requirements in Division 3 Section
"Cast-in-Place Concrete."

3.2 PREPARATION

A. Existing Concrete: Remove existing surface treatments and deteriorated and unsound con-
crete. Mechanically abrade base slabs to produce a heavily scarified surface profile with an
amplitude of 6 mm.

1. Prepare and clean existing base slabs according to topping manufacturer's written in-
structions. Fill voids, cracks, and cavities in base slabs.
2. Mechanically remove contaminants from existing concrete that might impair bond of
topping.

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3. Saw cut existing contraction and construction joints to a depth of 13 mm and fill with
epoxy joint filler.

B. Install joint-filler strips where screed abuts vertical surfaces, such as column pedestals,
foundation walls, grade beams, and other locations, as indicated.

1. Extend joint-filler strips full width and depth of joint, terminating flush with screed
surface, unless otherwise indicated.
2. Terminate full-width joint-filler strips 13 mm below screed surface where joint sea-
lants, specified in Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants," are indicated.
3. Install joint-filler strips in lengths as long as practicable. Where more than one length
is required, lace or clip sections together.

3.3 SCREED APPLICATION

A. Start screed application in presence of manufacturer's technical representative.

B. Fibrous Reinforcement: For reinforced screeds, apply fibrous reinforcing as per manufactur-
er’s written instructions.

C. Deferred Screed: Within 72 hours of placing base slabs, mix and scrub bonding slurry into
dampened concrete to a thickness of 1.5 to 3 mm, without puddling. Place screed while
slurry is still tacky.

D. Place screed continuously in a single layer, tamping and consolidating to achieve tight con-
tact with bonding surface. Do not permit cold joints or seams to develop within pour strip.

1. Screed surface with a straightedge and strike off to correct elevations.


2. Slope surfaces uniformly where indicated.
3. Begin initial floating using bull floats to form a uniform and open-textured surface
plane free of humps or hollows.

E. Finishing: Consolidate surface with hand float as soon as screed can support equipment and
operator. Restraighten, cut down high spots, and fill low spots. Repeat float passes and re-
straightening until surface is left with a uniform, smooth, granular texture.

1. Hard Trowel Finish: After floating surface, apply first trowel finish and consolidate
screed by power-driven trowel so no blisters develop. Continue troweling passes and
restraighten until surface is smooth and uniform in texture.

a. Finish surfaces to specified overall values of flatness, F(F) 25; and levelness,
F(L) 20; with minimum local values of flatness, F(F) 17; and levelness,
F(L) 15, measured within 24 hours according to ASTM E 1155
(ASTM E 1155M) for a randomly trafficked floor surface.
b. Finish and measure surface so gap at any point between screed surface and an
unleveled freestanding 3-m- long straightedge, resting on two high spots and
placed anywhere on the surface, does not exceed 6.4 mm.

F. Construction Joints: Construct joints true to line with faces perpendicular to surface plane of
screed, at locations indicated or as approved by Engineer.

1. Coat face of construction joint with epoxy adhesive at locations where screed is
placed against hardened or partially hardened screed.

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G. Contraction Joints: Form weakened-plane contraction joints with power saws equipped with
shatterproof abrasive or diamond-rimmed blades. Cut 3-mm- wide joints into concrete when
cutting action will not tear, abrade, or otherwise damage surface and before screed develops
random contraction cracks.

1. Form joints in screed over contraction joints in base slabs, unless otherwise indicated.
2. Construct contraction joints for a depth equal to one-half of screed thickness, but not
less than 13 mm deep.

3.4 PROTECTION AND CURING

A. General: Protect freshly placed screed from premature drying and excessive cold or hot
temperatures.

B. Begin curing immediately after finishing screed. Cure by one or a combination of the fol-
lowing methods, according to screed manufacturer's written instructions:

1. Moisture Curing: Keep surfaces continuously moist for not less than seven days with
water or absorptive cover, water saturated and kept continuously wet. Cover screed
surfaces and edges with 300-mm lap over adjacent absorptive covers.

3.5 JOINT FILLING

A. Prepare and clean contraction joints and install epoxy joint filler, according to manufactur-
er's written instructions, once screed has fully cured.

B. Remove dirt, debris, saw cuttings, curing compounds, and sealers from joints; leave contact
faces of joint clean and dry.

C. Install epoxy joint filler full depth of contraction joints. Overfill joint and trim joint filler
flush with top of joint after hardening.

3.6 REPAIRS

A. Defective Screed: Repair and patch defective screed areas, including areas that have not
bonded to concrete substrate.

3.7 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A. Sample Sets: At point of placement, testing and inspecting agency shall take a set of 3
molded-cube samples from the screed mix for the first 90 sq. m plus 1 set of samples for
each subsequent 460 sq. m of screed, or fraction thereof, but not less than 6 samples for each
day's placement. Samples shall be tested according to ASTM C 109M for compliance with
compressive strength requirements.

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3.8 CLEANING AND PROTECTING

A. Protect screeds from damage and wear during the remainder of construction period. Use
protective methods and materials approved by Engineer, including temporary covering.

B. Clean screeds not more than 4 days before dates scheduled for inspections intended to in-
stall final finishes.

END OF SECTION 03544

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SECTION 04810 - UNIT MASONRY ASSEMBLIES

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes unit masonry assemblies consisting of the following:

1. Concrete masonry units.


2. Pre-faced concrete masonry units.
3. Mortar and grout.
4. Ties and anchors.
5. Embedded flashing.
6. Miscellaneous masonry accessories.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 3 Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete" for installing dovetail slots for masonry
anchors.
3. Division 4 Section "Glass Unit Masonry Assemblies" for glass block.
4. Division 5 Section "Structural Steel" for installing anchor sections of adjustable
masonry anchors for connecting to structural steel frame.
5. Division 7 Section "Through-Penetration Firestop Systems" for firestopping at tops of
masonry walls and at openings in masonry walls.

1.3 DEFINITIONS

A. CMU(s): Concrete masonry unit(s).

B. Reinforced Masonry: Masonry containing reinforcing steel in grouted cells.

1.4 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Provide unit masonry that develops the net-area compressive strengths (f'm) at 28 days indi-
cated in part 2. Determine compressive strength of masonry by testing masonry prisms ac-
cording to ASTM C 1314.

1.5 PRECONSTRUCTION TESTING

A. Preconstruction Testing Service: Engage a qualified independent testing agency to perform


preconstruction testing indicated below. Retesting of materials that fail to comply with spe-
cified requirements shall be done at Contractor's expense.

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1. Concrete Masonry Unit Test: For each type of unit required, according to
ASTM C 140 for compressive strength.
2. Mortar Test (Property Specification): For each mix required, according to
ASTM C 109/C 109M for compressive strength, ASTM C 1506 for water retention,
and ASTM C 91 for air content.
3. Prism Test: For each type of construction required, according to ASTM C 1314.

1.6 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each different masonry unit, accessory, and other manufactured product
specified.

B. Shop Drawings: Show fabrication and installation details for the following:

1. Masonry Units: Show sizes, profiles, coursing, and locations of special shapes.
2. Reinforcing Steel: Detail bending and placement of unit masonry reinforcing bars.
Comply with ACI 315, "Details and Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement." Show
elevations of reinforced walls.
3. Fabricated Flashing: Detail corner units, end-dam units, and other special
applications.

C. Samples for Initial Selection: For the following:

1. Pre-faced CMUs.

D. Samples for Verification: For the following showing the full range of exposed colors, tex-
tures, and dimensions:

1. Exposed CMUs.
2. Pre-faced CMUs.
3. Accessories embedded in the masonry.

E. List of Materials Used in Constructing Mockups: List generic product names together with
manufacturers, manufacturers' product names, model numbers, lot numbers, batch numbers,
source of supply, and other information as required to identify materials used. Include mix
proportions for mortar and grout and source of aggregates.

1. Submittal is for information only. Neither receipt of list nor approval of mockup
constitutes approval of deviations from the Contract Documents, unless such
deviations are specifically brought to the attention of the Engineer and approved in
writing.

F. Include Qualification Data: For testing agency.

G. Qualification Data: For firms and persons specified in "Quality Assurance" Article.

H. Material Test Reports: From a qualified testing agency indicating and interpreting test re-
sults of the following for compliance with requirements indicated:

1. Each type of masonry unit required.

a. Include test results, measurements, and calculations establishing net-area com-


pressive strength of masonry units.
2. Mortar complying with property requirements of ASTM C 270.

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3. Grout mixes complying with compressive strength requirements of ASTM C 476.


Include description of type and proportions of grout ingredients.

I. Material Certificates: Signed by manufacturers certifying that each of the following items
complies with requirements:

a. Include material test reports substantiating compliance with requirements.


b. For masonry units, include data and calculations establishing average net-area
compressive strength of units.

2. Cementitious materials. Include brand, type, and name of manufacturer.


3. Preblended, dry mortar mixes. Include description of type and proportions of
ingredients.
4. Grout mixes. Include description of type and proportions of ingredients.
5. Reinforcing bars.
6. Joint reinforcement.
7. Anchors, ties, and metal accessories.

a. Include test data, measurements, and calculations establishing net-area com-


pressive strength of masonry units.

8. Each cement product required for mortar and grout, including name of manufacturer,
brand, type, and weight slips at time of delivery.
9. Each combination of masonry unit type and mortar type. Include statement of net-
area compressive strength of masonry units, mortar type, and net-area compressive
strength of masonry determined according to Tables 1 and 2 in
ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
10. Each material and grade indicated for reinforcing bars.
11. Each type and size of anchor, tie, and metal accessory.

J. Mix Designs: For each type of mortar and grout. Include description of type and
proportions of ingredients.

1. Include test reports for mortar mixes required to comply with property specification.
Test according to ASTM C 109/C 109M for compressive strength, ASTM C 1506 for
water retention, and ASTM C 91 for air content.
2. Include test reports, according to ASTM C 1019, for grout mixes required to comply
with compressive strength requirement.

1.7 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Testing Agency Qualifications: An independent testing agency, acceptable to Engineer,


qualified according to ASTM C 1093 to conduct the testing indicated, as documented ac-
cording to ASTM E 548.

B. Source Limitations for Masonry Units: Obtain exposed masonry units of a uniform texture
and color, or a uniform blend within the ranges accepted for these characteristics, from sin-
gle source from a single manufacturer for each product required.

C. Source Limitations for Mortar Materials: Obtain mortar ingredients of a uniform quality,
including color for exposed masonry, from singlemanufacturer for each cementitious com-
ponent and from one source or producer for each aggregate.

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D. Masonry Standard: Comply with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602 unless modified by
requirements in the Contract Documents.

E. Preconstruction Testing Service: Engage a qualified independent testing agency to perform


the following preconstruction testing:

1. Concrete Masonry Unit Test: For each concrete masonry unit indicated, per
ASTM C 140.
2. Prism Test: For each type of wall construction indicated, per ASTM C 1314.
3. Mortar Test: For mortar properties per ASTM C 270.

F. Fire-Resistance Ratings: Where indicated, provide materials and construction identical to


those of assemblies with fire-resistance ratings determined per ASTM E 119 by a testing
and inspecting agency, by equivalent concrete masonry thickness, or by another means, as
acceptable to Engineer.

G. Sample Panels: Build sample panels to verify selections made under sample submittals and
to demonstrate aesthetic effects. Comply with requirements in Division 1 Section "Quality
Requirements" for mockups.

1. Build sample panels for typical exterior and interior walls in sizes approximately
1500 mm long by 1200 mm high by full thickness.
2. Clean exposed faces of panels with masonry cleaner indicated.
3. Protect approved sample panels from the elements with weather-resistant membrane.
4. Approval of sample panels is for color, texture, and blending of masonry units;
relationship of mortar and sealant colors to masonry unit colors; tooling of joints;
aesthetic qualities of workmanship; and other material and construction qualities
specifically approved by Engineer in writing.

a. Approval of sample panels does not constitute approval of deviations from the
Contract Documents contained in sample panels unless such deviations are
specifically approved by Engineer in writing.

H. Mockups: Build mockups to verify selections made under sample submittals and to
demonstrate aesthetic effects and set quality standards for materials and execution.

1. Build mockups for each type of unit masonry construction in sizes approximately
2400 mm long by 1800 mm high by full thickness, including face and backup wythes
and accessories.

a. Include a sealant-filled joint at least 400 mm long in exterior wall mockup.


b. Include through-wall flashing installed for a 600-mm length in corner of wall
mockup where directed by Engineer, approximately 400 mm down from top of
mockup, with a 300-mm length of flashing left exposed to view (omit masonry
above half of flashing).
c. Include pre-faced CMUs on one face of interior unit masonry wall mockup.

2. Clean exposed faces of mockups with masonry cleaner as indicated.


3. Protect accepted mockups from the elements with weather-resistant membrane.
4. Approval of mockups is for color, texture, and blending of masonry units;
relationship of mortar and sealant colors to masonry unit colors; tooling of joints; and
aesthetic qualities of workmanship.

a. Approval of mockups is also for other material and construction qualities


specifically approved by Engineer in writing.

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b. Approval of mockups does not constitute approval of deviations from the


Contract Documents contained in mockups unless such deviations are
specifically approved by Engineer in writing.

5. Approved mockups may become part of the completed Work if undisturbed at time of
Substantial Completion.

I. Preinstallation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site to comply with requirements


in Division 1 Section "Project Management and Coordination."

1.8 WARRANTIES

A. Unit Masonry Warranty: Provide warranty in which Manufacturer and Contractor are jointly
and severally responsible and agree to repair or replace, without limitations, all or any part
of the unit masonry which fails or becomes defective in materials or workmanship within
specified warranty period. Failure includes, but is not limited to cracking, failure of bonding
to concrete structure, and failure to support safely the required loads.

1. Warranty Period: 10 years from date of Substantial Completion.

1.9 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Store masonry units on elevated platforms in a dry location. If units are not stored in an en-
closed location, cover tops and sides of stacks with waterproof sheeting, securely tied. If
units become wet, do not install until they are dry.

1. Protect Type I concrete masonry units from moisture absorption so that, at the time of
installation, the moisture content is not more than the maximum allowed at the time
of delivery.

B. Deliver preblended, dry mortar mix in moisture-resistant containers designed for lifting and
emptying into dispensing silo. Store preblended, dry mortar mix in delivery containers on
elevated platforms, under cover, and in a dry location or in a metal dispensing silo with wea-
therproof cover.

C. Store masonry accessories, including metal items, to prevent corrosion and accumulation of
dirt and oil.

1.10 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Protection of Masonry: During construction, cover tops of walls, projections, and sills with
waterproof sheeting at end of each day's work. Cover partially completed masonry when
construction is not in progress.

1. Extend cover a minimum of 600 mm down both sides and hold cover securely in
place.

B. Do not apply uniform floor or roof loads for at least 12 hours and concentrated loads for at
least 3 days after building masonry walls or columns.

C. Stain Prevention: Prevent grout, mortar, and soil from staining the face of masonry to be
left exposed or painted. Immediately remove grout, mortar, and soil that come in contact
with such masonry.

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1. Protect base of walls from rain-splashed mud and from mortar splatter by coverings
spread on ground and over wall surface.
2. Protect sills, ledges, and projections from mortar droppings.
3. Protect surfaces of window and door frames, as well as similar products with painted
and integral finishes, from mortar droppings.
4. Turn scaffold boards near the wall on edge at the end of each day to prevent rain from
splashing mortar and dirt onto completed masonry.

D. Hot-Weather Requirements: Protect unit masonry work when temperature and humidity
conditions produce excessive evaporation of water from mortar and grout. Provide artificial
shade and wind breaks and use cooled materials as required.

1. When ambient temperature exceeds 38 deg C, or 32 deg C with a wind velocity


greater than 13 km/h, do not spread mortar beds more than 1200 mm ahead of
masonry. Set masonry units within one minute of spreading mortar.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MASONRY UNITS, GENERAL

A. Defective Units: Referenced masonry unit standards may allow a certain percentage of
units to contain chips, cracks, or other defects exceeding limits stated in the standard. Do
not use units where such defects will be exposed in the completed Work.

B. Fire-Resistance Ratings: Where indicated, provide units that comply with requirements for
fire-resistance ratings indicated as determined by testing according to ASTM E 119, by
equivalent masonry thickness, or by other means, as acceptable to authorities having
jurisdiction.

2.2 CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

A. General: Provide shapes indicated and as follows:

1. Provide special shapes for lintels, corners, jambs, sash, control joints, headers,
bonding, and other special conditions.
2. Provide square-edged units for outside corners, unless indicated as bullnose.

B. CMU units designations: Currently, six ASTM standards apply to units intended primarily
for construction of concrete masonry walls, beams, columns, or specialty applications:

1. Type of Unit ASTM Designation


2. Concrete C 55
3. Non-load bearing Concrete Masonry Units C 129
4. Catch Basins and Manhole Units C 139
5. Prefaced Concrete Units C 744

C. Concrete Masonry Units: ASTM C 129 and as follows:

1. Unit Compressive Strength: Provide units with minimum average net-area


compressive strength of 13.1 MPa [7.5 MPa on gross area].

a. Normal-weight units: more than 125 lb/cu. ft. (2002 kg/cu. m):

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2. Weight Classification: Normal weight, unless otherwise indicated.


3. Pre-faced concrete masonry: light weight hollow units with smooth facing
4. Fire rating for concrete masonry units including 15 mm cement plaster facing on both
sides shall be as follows:

a. 100 mm solid blocks 2 hrs.


b. 150 mm solid blocks 4 hrs.
c. 100 mm hollow blocks 0.5 hrs.
d. 150 mm hollow blocks 1.00 hrs.
e. 200 mm hollow blocks 2.00 hrs.

5. Typical STC rating of concrete masonry walls are as follows:

Thickness w 15 mm plaster
Hollow kg/m2 bare one side both sides
(PSF)
100 mm 90 (18.5) 43 44 45
150 mm 135 45 46 47
(27.75)
200 mm 180 (37) 47 48 49
250 mm 225 48 49 50
(46.25)
300 mm 270 (55.5) 50 51 52

Thickness w 15 mm plaster
Solid kg/m2 bare one side both sides
(PSF)
100 mm 200 47 48 48
(41.50)
150 mm 300 51 52 53
(62.25)
200 mm 400 (83) 55 56 57
250 mm 500 58 59 60
(103.75)
300 mm 600 62 63 64
(124.5)

6. Thermal conductivity for Lightweight units, K: less than 0.29 Watt/m2 deg K
7. Size (Width): Manufactured to the following dimensions:

a. 200 mm nominal; 190 mm actual.

8. Exposed Faces: Manufacturer's standard color and texture, unless otherwise indicated.

a. Where units are to be left exposed, provide color and texture matching the
range represented by Engineer's sample.

9. Where masonry units are to receive a direct application of plaster, provide textured-
face units made with gap-graded aggregates.

D. Insulated Concrete Masonry Units: ASTM C 129 (non-load bearing) and as follows:

1. Sandwich construction comprising two leaves of 95 mm masonry units bonded to an


inner core of 60 mm injected expanded polystyrene thermal insulation.

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2. thermal insulation value: U Value 0.474 w/m2


3. compressive strength: 7.5 N/m2
4. injected polystyrene Density: 22-24 kg/m3
5. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers
offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited
to, the following:

a. CBIS/Korfil www.cbisinc.com
b. Thermo Block; Emirates Concrete Products (Emcon)
http://www.emconblocks.com

2.3 MORTAR AND GROUT MATERIALS

A. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or II, except Type III may be used for cold-weather
construction. Provide natural color or white cement as required to produce mortar color in-
dicated.

B. Hydrated Lime: Do not use lime.

C. Mortar Cement: ASTM C 1329.

D. Aggregate for Mortar: ASTM C 144.

1. For mortar that is exposed to view, use washed aggregate consisting of natural sand
or crushed stone.
2. For joints less than 6 mm thick, use aggregate graded with 100 percent passing the
1.18-mm sieve.

E. Aggregate for Grout: ASTM C 404.

F. Pre-blended, Dry Mortar Mix: Furnish dry mortar ingredients in the form of a pre-blended
mix. Measure quantities by weight to ensure accurate proportions, and thoroughly blend in-
gredients before delivering to Project site. Comply with ASTM C 270 Property Specifica-
tion as specified in other Part 2 Articles.

G. Mortar for Unit Masonry: Comply with ASTM C 270 Property Specification as specified in
other Part 2 Articles.

H. Water: Potable.

2.4 REINFORCEMENT

A. Uncoated Steel Reinforcing Bars: ASTM A 615/A 615M or ASTM A 996/A 996M,
(Grade 420).

B. Masonry Joint Reinforcement, General: ASTM A 951/A 951M.

1. Interior Walls: Hot-dip galvanized, carbon steel.


2. Exterior Walls: Hot-dip galvanized, carbon steel.
3. Wire Size for Side Rods: (4.76-mm) diameter.
4. Wire Size for Cross Rods: (4.76-mm) diameter.
5. Spacing of Cross Rods, Tabs, and Cross Ties: Not more than (407 mm) o.c.
6. Provide in lengths of not less than (3 m), with prefabricated corner and tee units.

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C. Masonry Joint Reinforcement for Single-Wythe Masonry: Either ladder or truss type with
single pair of side rods.

2.5 TIES AND ANCHORS

A. Materials: Provide ties and anchors specified in this article that are made from materials that
comply with the following unless otherwise indicated.

1. Hot-Dip Galvanized, Carbon-Steel Wire: ASTM A 82/A 82M; with ASTM A 153/
A 153M, Class B-2 coating.
2. Stainless-Steel Wire: ASTM A 580/A 580M, Type 316.
3. Galvanized Steel Sheet: ASTM A 653/A 653M, Commercial Steel, Z180 zinc
coating.
4. Steel Sheet, Galvanized after Fabrication: ASTM A 1008/A 1008M, Commercial
Steel, with ASTM A 153/A 153M, Class B coating.
5. Stainless-Steel Sheet: ASTM A 666, Type 316.
6. Steel Plates, Shapes, and Bars: ASTM A 36/A 36M.
7. Stainless-Steel Bars: ASTM A 276 or ASTM a 666, Type 304.

B. Corrugated Metal Ties: Metal strips not less than 22 mm wide with corrugations having a
wavelength of 7.6 to 12.7 mm and an amplitude of 1.5 to 2.5 mm made from 1.52-mm-
thick, steel sheet, galvanized after fabrication.

C. Wire Ties, General: Unless otherwise indicated, size wire ties to extend at least halfway
through veneer but with at least 16-mm cover on outside face. Outer ends of wires are bent
90 degrees and extend 50 mm parallel to face of veneer.

D. Individual Wire Ties: Rectangular units with closed ends and not less than 100 mm wide.

1. Z-shaped ties with ends bent 90 degrees to provide hooks not less than 50 mm long
may be used for masonry constructed from solid units.
2. Where wythes do not align, use adjustable ties with pintle-and-eye connections
having a maximum adjustment of 32 mm.
3. Wire: Fabricate from 6.35-mm- diameter, hot-dip galvanized steel wire.

E. Adjustable Anchors for Connecting to Structural Steel Framing: Provide anchors that allow
vertical or horizontal adjustment but resist tension and compression forces perpendicular to
plane of wall.

1. Anchor Section for Welding to Steel Frame: Crimped 6.35-mm- diameter, hot-dip
galvanized steel wire.
2. Tie Section: Triangular-shaped wire tie, sized to extend within 25 mm of masonry
face, made from 6.35-mm- diameter, hot-dip galvanized steel wire.

F. Adjustable Anchors for Connecting to Concrete: Provide anchors that allow vertical or
horizontal adjustment but resist tension and compression forces perpendicular to plane of
wall.

1. Connector Section: Dovetail tabs for inserting into dovetail slots in concrete and
attached to tie section; formed from 2.66-mm- thick, steel sheet, galvanized after
fabrication.
2. Tie Section: Triangular-shaped wire tie, sized to extend within 25 mm of masonry
face, made from 6.35-mm- diameter, hot-dip galvanized steel wire.

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3. Corrugated Metal Ties: Metal strips not less than 22 mm wide with corrugations
having a wavelength of 7.6 to 12.7 mm and an amplitude of 1.5 to 2.5 mm made from
2.66-mm- thick, steel sheet, galvanized after fabrication with dovetail tabs for
inserting into dovetail slots in concrete and sized to extend to within 25 mm of
masonry face.

G. Partition Top anchors: 2.66-mm- thick metal plate with 9.5-mm- diameter metal rod 152
mm long welded to plate and with closed-end plastic tube fitted over rod that allows rod to
move in and out of tube. Fabricate from steel, hot-dip galvanized after fabrication.

H. Rigid Anchors: Fabricate from steel bars 38 mm wide by 6.35 mm thick by 610 mm long,
with ends turned up 51 mm or with cross pins unless otherwise indicated.

1. Corrosion Protection: Hot-dip galvanized to comply with ASTM A 153/A 153M.

I. Where indicated and directed by Engineer, provide Stainless-Steel for ties and anchors.

2.6 MISCELLANEOUS ANCHORS

A. Unit Type Inserts in Concrete: Cast-iron or malleable-iron wedge-type inserts.

B. Dovetail Slots in Concrete: Furnish dovetail slots with filler strips, of slot size indicated,
fabricated from 0.86-mm, galvanized steel sheet.

C. Anchor Bolts: Headed or L-shaped steel bolts complying with ASTM F 568M, Property
Class 4.6; with ASTM A 563M hex nuts and, where indicated, flat washers; hot-dip
galvanized to comply with ASTM A 153/A 153M, Class C; of dimensions indicated.

D. Postinstalled Anchors: Torque-controlled expansion anchors or chemical anchors.

1. Load Capacity: Capable of sustaining, without failure, a load equal to six times the
load imposed when installed in unit masonry and four times the load imposed when
installed in concrete, as determined by testing according to ASTM E 488, conducted
by a qualified independent testing agency.
2. Material for Interior Locations: Carbon-steel components zinc plated to comply with
ASTM B 633 or ASTM F 1941M, Class Fe/Zn 5 unless otherwise indicated.
3. Material for Exterior Locations and Where Stainless Steel Is Indicated: Alloy Group
A4 stainless-steel bolts, ASTM F 738M, and nuts, ASTM F 836M.

2.7 EMBEDDED FLASHING MATERIALS

A. Metal Flashing: Provide metal flashing complying with SMACNA's "Architectural Sheet
Metal Manual" and as follows:

1. Stainless Steel: ASTM A 240/A 240M, Type 304, 0.40 mm thick.


2. Fabricate continuous flashings in sections 2400 mm long minimum, but not
exceeding 3.7 m. Provide splice plates at joints of formed, smooth metal flashing.
3. Fabricate through-wall metal flashing embedded in masonry from stainless steel ,
with ribs at 76-mm intervals along length of flashing to provide an integral mortar
bond.

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a. Products: Subject to compliance with requirements, available products that


may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1) Cheney Flashing Company; Cheney Flashing (Dovetail) or Cheney 3-


Way Flashing (Sawtooth).
2) Keystone Flashing Company, Inc.; Keystone 3-Way Interlocking
Thruwall Flashing.
3) Sandell Manufacturing Co., Inc.; Mechanically Keyed Flashing.

4. Fabricate through-wall flashing with snaplock receiver on exterior face where


indicated to receive counterflashing.
5. Fabricate through-wall flashing with drip edge unless otherwise indicated. Fabricate
by extending flashing 13 mm out from wall, with outer edge bent down 30 degrees.
6. Fabricate through-wall flashing with sealant stop where indicated and directed by
Engineer. Fabricate by bending metal back on itself 19 mm at exterior face of wall
and down into joint 6 mm to form a stop for retaining sealant backer rod.
7. Fabricate metal drip edges for ribbed metal flashing from plain metal flashing of
same metal as ribbed flashing and extending at least 76 mm into wall with hemmed
inner edge to receive ribbed flashing and form a hooked seam. Form hem on upper
surface of metal so that completed seam will shed water.
8. Metal Drip Edge: Fabricate from stainless steel. Extend at least 76 mm into wall and
13 mm out from wall, with outer edge bent down 30 degrees.
9. Metal Sealant Stop where indicated and directed by Engineer: Fabricate from
stainless steel. Extend at least 76 mm into wall and out to exterior face of wall. At
exterior face of wall, bend metal back on itself for 19 mm and down into joint 6 mm
to form a stop for retaining sealant backer rod.
10. Metal Expansion-Joint Strips: Fabricate from stainless steel to shapes indicated.

B. Flexible Flashing: Use the following unless otherwise indicated:

1. EPDM Flashing: Sheet flashing product made from ethylene-propylene-diene


terpolymer, complying with ASTM D 4637, 1.0 mm thick.

a. Products: Subject to compliance with requirements, available products that


may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1) Carlisle Coatings & Waterproofing; Pre-Kleened EPDM Thru-Wall


Flashing.
2) Firestone Specialty Products; FlashGuard.
3) Heckmann Building Products Inc.; No. 81 EPDM Thru-Wall Flashing.
4) Hohmann & Barnard, Inc.; Epra-Max EPDM Thru-Wall Flashing.
5) Sandell Manufacturing Co., Inc.; EPDM Flashing.

C. Application: Unless otherwise indicated, use the following:

1. Where flashing is indicated to receive counterflashing, use metal flashing.


2. Where flashing is indicated to be turned down at or beyond the wall face, use metal
flashing.
3. Where flashing is partly exposed and is indicated to terminate at the wall face, use
metal flashing with a drip edge or flexible flashing with a metal drip edge.
4. Where flashing is fully concealed, use metal flashing or flexible flashing.

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D. Single-Wythe CMU Flashing System: System of CMU cell flashing pans and interlocking
CMU web covers made from high-density polyethylene incorporating chemical stabilizers
that prevent UV degradation. Cell flashing pans have integral weep spouts that are designed
to be built into mortar bed joints and weep collected moisture to the exterior of CMU walls
and that extend into the cell to prevent clogging with mortar.

1. Products: Subject to compliance with requirements, available products that may be


incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the following:

a. Sandell Manufacturing Co., Inc.; Blok-Flash.

E. Solder and Sealants for Sheet Metal Flashings:

1. Solder for Stainless Steel: ASTM B 32, Grade Sn60, with acid flux of type
recommended by stainless-steel sheet manufacturer.
2. Elastomeric Sealant: ASTM C 920, chemically curing urethane sealant; of type,
grade, class, and use classifications required to seal joints in sheet metal flashing and
trim and remain watertight.

F. Adhesives, Primers, and Seam Tapes for Flashings: Flashing manufacturer's standard
products or products recommended by flashing manufacturer for bonding flashing sheets to
each other and to substrates.

2.8 MISCELLANEOUS MASONRY ACCESSORIES

A. Compressible Filler: Premolded filler strips complying with ASTM D 1056, Grade 2A1;
compressible up to 35 percent; of width and thickness indicated; formulated from neoprene,
urethane or PVC.

B. Preformed Control-Joint Gaskets: Material as indicated below, Made from styrene-


butadiene-rubber compound, complying with ASTM D 2000, Designation M2AA-805 or
PVC, complying with ASTM D 2287, Type PVC-65406, designed to fit standard sash block
and to maintain lateral stability in masonry wall; size and configuration as indicated.

C. Bond-Breaker Strips: Asphalt-saturated, organic roofing felt complying with ASTM D 226,
Type I (No. 15 asphalt felt).

D. Reinforcing Bar Positioners: Wire units designed to fit into mortar bed joints spanning ma-
sonry unit cells and hold reinforcing bars in center of cells. Units are formed from 3.77-mm
steel wire, hot-dip galvanized after fabrication. Provide units designed for number of bars
indicated.

1. Products: Subject to compliance with requirements, available products that may be


incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the following:

a. Dayton Superior Corporation, Dur-O-Wal Division; D/A 810, D/A 812 or


D/A 817.
b. Heckmann Building Products Inc.; No. 376 Rebar Positioner.
c. Hohmann & Barnard, Inc.; #RB or #RB-Twin Rebar Positioner.
d. Wire-Bond; O-Ring or Double O-Ring Rebar Positioner.

2.9 MORTAR AND GROUT MIXES

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A. General: Do not use admixtures, including pigments, air-entraining agents, accelerators, re-
tarders, water-repellent agents, antifreeze compounds, or other admixtures, unless otherwise
indicated.

1. Do not use calcium chloride in mortar or grout.


2. Use mortar cement mortar unless otherwise indicated.
3. For exterior masonry, use mortar cement mortar.

B. Pre-blended, Dry Mortar Mix: Furnish dry mortar ingredients in the form of a pre-blended
mix. Measure quantities by weight to ensure accurate proportions, and thoroughly blend in-
gredients before delivering to Project site. Comply with ASTM C 270 Property Specifica-
tion:

1. Wet mix life: <1.5 hours


2. Initial adhesion at 28 days: > 0.3N/mm2
3. Bending strength: around 1N/ mm2
4. Compressive strength : not less than 5 ±1 N/ mm2
5. Min. cement sand mix: 1:3-4
6. Testing: ASTM C 780

C. Mortar for Unit Masonry: Comply with ASTM C 270 Property Specification. For job-
mixed mortars, minimum properties shall be as follows:

1. Compressive strength : not less than 5 ±1 N/ mm2


2. Min. cement sand mix: 1:3-4
3. Bending strength: around 1N/ mm2
4. Testing: ASTM C 780

D. Property specification ASTM C 270

Mortar Type Average Compressive Air Content


Strength at 28 days, min, Max %
psi (MPa)

Mortar Cement M 2500 (17.2) 12


S 1800 (12.4) 12
N 750 (5.2) 14

Aggregate Ratio (Measured in Damp, Loose Conditions): Not less than 2 1⁄4 and not more
than 3 1⁄2 the sum of the separate volumes of cementitious materials

1. Minimum water retention 75 %


2. For masonry below grade or in contact with earth, use Type M.
3. For reinforced masonry, use Type S.
4. For mortar parge coats, use Type S or Type N.
5. For exterior, above-grade, non-load-bearing walls and parapet walls; for interior non-
load-bearing partitions; and for other applications where another type is not indicated,
use Type N.

E. Grout for Unit Masonry: Comply with ASTM C 476.

1. Use grout of type indicated or, if not otherwise indicated, of type (fine or coarse) that
will comply with Table 1.15.1 in ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602 for dimensions of
grout spaces and pour height.

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2. Proportion grout in accordance with ASTM C 476, Table 1 or paragraph 4.2.2 for
specified 28-day compressive strength indicated, but not less than 14 MPa.
3. Provide grout with a slump of 203 to 279 mm as measured according to
ASTM C 143/C 143M.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine conditions, with Installer present, for compliance with requirements for installation
tolerances and other conditions affecting performance of the Work.

1. For the record, prepare written report, endorsed by Installer, listing conditions
detrimental to performance of work.
2. Verify that foundations are within tolerances specified.
3. Verify that reinforcing dowels are properly placed.

B. Before installation, examine rough-in and built-in construction for piping systems to verify
actual locations of piping connections.

C. Proceed with installation only after unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.2 INSTALLATION, GENERAL

A. Thickness: Build single-wythe walls to actual widths of masonry units, using units of
widths indicated.

B. Build chases and recesses to accommodate items specified in this and other Sections.

C. Leave openings for equipment to be installed before completing masonry. After installing
equipment, complete masonry to match the construction immediately adjacent to opening.

D. Use full-size units without cutting if possible. If cutting is required to provide a continuous
pattern or to fit adjoining construction, cut units with motor-driven saws; provide clean,
sharp, unchipped edges. Allow units to dry before laying unless wetting of units is
specified. Install cut units with cut surfaces and, where possible, cut edges concealed.

E. Select and arrange units for exposed unit masonry to produce a uniform blend of colors and
textures.

1. Mix units from several pallets or cubes as they are placed.

F. Matching Existing Masonry: Match coursing, bonding, color, and texture of existing
masonry.

3.3 TOLERANCES

A. Dimensions and Locations of Elements:

1. For dimensions in cross section or elevation do not vary by more than plus 12 mm or
minus 6 mm.

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2. For location of elements in plan do not vary from that indicated by more than plus or
minus 12 mm.
3. For location of elements in elevation do not vary from that indicated by more than
plus or minus 6 mm in a story height or 12 mm total.

B. Lines and Levels:

1. For bed joints and top surfaces of bearing walls do not vary from level by more than 6
mm in 3 m, or 12 mm maximum.
2. For conspicuous horizontal lines, such as lintels, sills, parapets, and reveals, do not
vary from level by more than 3 mm in 3 m, 6 mm in 6 m, or 12 mm maximum.
3. For vertical lines and surfaces do not vary from plumb by more than 6 mm in 3 m, 9
mm in 6 m, or 12 mm maximum.
4. For conspicuous vertical lines, such as external corners, door jambs, reveals, and
expansion and control joints, do not vary from plumb by more than 3 mm in 3 m, 6
mm in 6 m, or 12 mm maximum.
5. For lines and surfaces do not vary from straight by more than 6 mm in 3 m, 9 mm in 6
m, or 12 mm maximum.
6. For vertical alignment of exposed head joints, do not vary from plumb by more than 6
mm in 3 m, or 12 mm maximum.
7. For faces of adjacent exposed masonry units, do not vary from flush alignment by
more than 1.5 mm except due to warpage of masonry units within tolerances
specified for warpage of units.

C. Joints:

1. For bed joints, do not vary from thickness indicated by more than plus or minus 3
mm, with a maximum thickness limited to 12 mm.
2. For exposed bed joints, do not vary from bed-joint thickness of adjacent courses by
more than 3 mm.
3. For head and collar joints, do not vary from thickness indicated by more than plus 9
mm or minus 6 mm.
4. For exposed head joints, do not vary from thickness indicated by more than plus or
minus 3 mm. Do not vary from adjacent bed-joint and head-joint thicknesses by
more than 3 mm.
5. For exposed bed joints and head joints of stacked bond, do not vary from a straight
line by more than 1.5 mm from one masonry unit to the next.

3.4 LAYING MASONRY WALLS

A. Lay out walls in advance for accurate spacing of surface bond patterns with uniform joint
thicknesses and for accurate location of openings, movement-type joints, returns, and
offsets. Avoid using less-than-half-size units, particularly at corners, jambs, and, where
possible, at other locations.

B. Bond Pattern for Exposed Masonry: Unless otherwise indicated, lay exposed masonry in
running bond unless otherwise indicated; do not use units with less than nominal 100-mm
horizontal face dimensions at corners or jambs.

C. Lay concealed masonry with all units in a wythe in running bond or bonded by lapping not
less than 50 mm. Bond and interlock each course of each wythe at corners. Do not use
units with less than nominal 100-mm horizontal face dimensions at corners or jambs.

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D. Stopping and Resuming Work: Stop work by racking back units in each course from those
in course below; do not tooth. When resuming work, clean masonry surfaces that are to
receive mortar, remove loose masonry units and mortar, and wet brick if required before
laying fresh masonry.

E. Built-in Work: As construction progresses, build in items specified in this and other
Sections. Fill in solidly with masonry around built-in items.

F. Fill space between steel frames and masonry solidly with mortar unless otherwise indicated.

G. Where built-in items are to be embedded in cores of hollow masonry units, place a layer of
metal lath, wire mesh, or plastic mesh in the joint below and rod mortar or grout into core.

H. Fill cores in hollow CMUs with grout 600 mm under bearing plates, beams, lintels, posts,
and similar items unless otherwise indicated.

I. Build non-load-bearing interior partitions full height of story to underside of solid floor or
roof structure above unless otherwise indicated.

1. Install compressible filler in joint between top of partition and underside of structure
above.
2. Fasten partition top anchors to structure above and build into top of partition. Grout
cells of CMUs solidly around plastic tubes of anchors and push tubes down into grout
to provide 13-mm clearance between end of anchor rod and end of tube. Space
anchors 1200 mm o.c. unless otherwise indicated.
3. Wedge non-load-bearing partitions against structure above with small pieces of tile,
slate, or metal. Fill joint with mortar after dead-load deflection of structure above
approaches final position.
4. At fire-rated partitions, treat joint between top of partition and underside of structure
above to comply with Division 7 Section "Fire-Resistive Joint Systems."

3.5 MORTAR BEDDING AND JOINTING

A. Lay hollow CMUs as follows:

1. With face shells fully bedded in mortar and with head joints of depth equal to bed
joints.
2. With webs fully bedded in mortar in all courses of piers, columns, and pilasters.
3. With webs fully bedded in mortar in grouted masonry, including starting course on
footings.
4. With entire units, including areas under cells, fully bedded in mortar at starting course
on footings where cells are not grouted.

B. Lay solid masonry units with completely filled bed and head joints; butter ends with
sufficient mortar to fill head joints and shove into place. Do not deeply furrow bed joints or
slush head joints.

C. Tool exposed joints slightly concave when thumbprint hard, using a jointer larger than joint
thickness unless otherwise indicated.

D. Cut joints flush for masonry walls to receive plaster or other direct-applied finishes (other
than paint) unless otherwise indicated.

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3.6 MASONRY JOINT REINFORCEMENT

A. General: Install entire length of longitudinal side rods in mortar with a minimum cover of
16 mm on exterior side of walls, 13 mm elsewhere. Lap reinforcement a minimum of 150
mm.

1. Space reinforcement not more than 406 mm o.c.


2. Space reinforcement not more than 203 mm o.c. in foundation walls and parapet
walls.
3. Provide reinforcement not more than 203 mm above and below wall openings and
extending 305 mm beyond openings in addition to continuous reinforcement.

B. Interrupt joint reinforcement at control and expansion joints unless otherwise indicated.

C. Provide continuity at wall intersections by using prefabricated T-shaped units.

D. Provide continuity at corners by using prefabricated L-shaped units.

E. Cut and bend reinforcing units as directed by manufacturer for continuity at corners, returns,
offsets, column fireproofing, pipe enclosures, and other special conditions.

3.7 ANCHORING MASONRY TO STRUCTURAL STEEL AND CONCRETE

A. Anchor masonry to structural steel and concrete where masonry abuts or faces structural
steel or concrete to comply with the following:

1. Provide an open space not less than 25 mm wide between masonry and structural
steel or concrete unless otherwise indicated. Keep open space free of mortar and
other rigid materials.
2. Anchor masonry with anchors embedded in masonry joints and attached to structure.
3. Space anchors as indicated, but not more than 610 mm o.c. vertically and 915 mm
o.c. horizontally.

3.8 CONTROL AND EXPANSION JOINTS

A. General: Install control and expansion joint materials in unit masonry as masonry
progresses. Do not allow materials to span control and expansion joints without provision
to allow for in-plane wall or partition movement.

B. Form control joints in concrete masonry using one of the following methods:

1. Fit bond-breaker strips into hollow contour in ends of CMUs on one side of control
joint. Fill resultant core with grout and rake out joints in exposed faces for
application of sealant.
2. Install preformed control-joint gaskets designed to fit standard sash block.
3. Install interlocking units designed for control joints. Install bond-breaker strips at
joint. Keep head joints free and clear of mortar or rake out joint for application of
sealant.
4. Install temporary foam-plastic filler in head joints and remove filler when unit
masonry is complete for application of sealant.

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C. Provide horizontal, pressure-relieving joints by either leaving an air space or inserting a


compressible filler of width required for installing sealant and backer rod specified in
Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants," but not less than 10 mm.

1. Locate horizontal, pressure-relieving joints beneath shelf angles supporting masonry.

3.9 LINTELS

A. Provide concrete lintels where shown and where openings of more than 305 mm for brick-
size units and 610 mm for block-size units are shown without structural steel or other
supporting lintels.

B. Provide minimum bearing of 200 mm at each jamb unless otherwise indicated.

3.10 FLASHING

A. General: Install embedded flashing in masonry at shelf angles, lintels, ledges, other
obstructions to downward flow of water in wall, and where indicated.

B. Install flashing as follows unless otherwise indicated:

1. Prepare masonry surfaces so they are smooth and free from projections that could
puncture flashing. Where flashing is within mortar joint, place through-wall flashing
on sloping bed of mortar and cover with mortar. Before covering with mortar, seal
penetrations in flashing with adhesive, sealant, or tape as recommended by flashing
manufacturer.
2. At lintels and shelf angles, extend flashing a minimum of 150 mm into masonry at
each end. At heads and sills, extend flashing 150 mm at ends and turn up not less
than 50 mm to form end dams.
3. Interlock end joints of ribbed sheet metal flashing by overlapping ribs not less than 38
mm or as recommended by flashing manufacturer, and seal lap with elastomeric
sealant complying with requirements in Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants" for
application indicated.
4. Install metal drip edges with ribbed sheet metal flashing by interlocking hemmed
edges to form hooked seam. Seal seam with elastomeric sealant complying with
requirements in Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants" for application indicated.
5. Cut flexible flashing off flush with face of wall after masonry wall construction is
completed.

C. Install single-wythe CMU flashing system in bed joints of CMU walls where indicated to
comply with manufacturer's written instructions. Install CMU cell pans with upturned edges
located below face shells and webs of CMUs above and with weep spouts aligned with face
of wall. Install CMU web covers so that they cover upturned edges of CMU cell pans at
CMU webs and extend from face shell to face shell.

D. Install reglets and nailers for flashing and other related construction where they are shown to
be built into masonry.

3.11 REINFORCED UNIT MASONRY INSTALLATION

A. Temporary Formwork and Shores: Construct formwork and shores as needed to support
reinforced masonry elements during construction.

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1. Construct formwork to provide shape, line, and dimensions of completed masonry as


indicated. Make forms sufficiently tight to prevent leakage of mortar and grout.
Brace, tie, and support forms to maintain position and shape during construction and
curing of reinforced masonry.
2. Do not remove forms and shores until reinforced masonry members have hardened
sufficiently to carry their own weight and other loads that may be placed on them
during construction.

B. Placing Reinforcement: Comply with requirements in ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.

C. Grouting: Do not place grout until entire height of masonry to be grouted has attained
enough strength to resist grout pressure.

1. Comply with requirements in ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602 for cleanouts and for
grout placement, including minimum grout space and maximum pour height.
2. Limit height of vertical grout pours to not more than 1520 mm.

3.12 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A. Testing and Inspecting: Engage special inspectors to perform tests and inspections and
prepare reports. Allow inspectors access to scaffolding and work areas, as needed to
perform tests and inspections. Retesting of materials that fail to comply with specified
requirements shall be done at Contractor's expense.

B. Inspections: Level 1 special inspections according to the "International Building Code."

1. Begin masonry construction only after inspectors have verified proportions of site-
prepared mortar.
2. Place grout only after inspectors have verified compliance of grout spaces and of
grades, sizes, and locations of reinforcement.
3. Place grout only after inspectors have verified proportions of site-prepared grout.

C. Testing Prior to Construction: One set of tests.

D. Testing Frequency: One set of tests for each 464 sq. m of wall area or portion thereof.

E. Concrete Masonry Unit Test: For each type of unit provided, according to ASTM C 140 for
compressive strength.

F. Mortar Aggregate Ratio Test (Proportion Specification): For each mix provided, according
to ASTM C 780.

G. Prism Test: For each type of construction provided, according to ASTM C 1314 at 7 days
and at 28 days.

3.13 PARGING

A. Parge exterior faces of below-grade masonry walls, where indicated, in 2 uniform coats to a
total thickness of 19 mm. Dampen wall before applying first coat and scarify first coat to
ensure full bond to subsequent coat.

B. Use a steel-trowel finish to produce a smooth, flat, dense surface with a maximum surface
variation of 3 mm per 300 mm. Form a wash at top of parging and a cove at bottom.

C. Damp-cure parging for at least 24 hours and protect parging until cured.

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3.14 REPAIRING, POINTING, AND CLEANING

A. Remove and replace masonry units that are loose, chipped, broken, stained, or otherwise
damaged or that do not match adjoining units. Install new units to match adjoining units;
install in fresh mortar, pointed to eliminate evidence of replacement.

B. Pointing: During the tooling of joints, enlarge voids and holes, except weep holes, and
completely fill with mortar. Point up joints, including corners, openings, and adjacent
construction, to provide a neat, uniform appearance. Prepare joints for sealant application,
where indicated.

C. In-Progress Cleaning: Clean unit masonry as work progresses by dry brushing to remove
mortar fins and smears before tooling joints.

D. Final Cleaning: After mortar is thoroughly set and cured, clean exposed masonry as
follows:

1. Remove large mortar particles by hand with wooden paddles and nonmetallic scrape
hoes or chisels.
2. Test cleaning methods on sample wall panel; leave one-half of panel uncleaned for
comparison purposes. Obtain Engineer's approval of sample cleaning before
proceeding with cleaning of masonry.
3. Clean concrete masonry by cleaning method indicated in NCMA TEK 8-2A
applicable to type of stain on exposed surfaces.

3.15 MASONRY WASTE DISPOSAL

A. Salvageable Materials: Unless otherwise indicated, excess masonry materials are


Contractor's property. At completion of unit masonry work, remove from Project site.

B. Waste Disposal as Fill Material: Dispose of clean masonry waste, including excess or soil-
contaminated sand, waste mortar, and broken masonry units, by crushing and mixing with
fill material as fill is placed.

1. Crush masonry waste to less than 100 mm in each dimension.


2. Mix masonry waste with at least two parts of specified fill material for each part of
masonry waste. Fill material is specified in Division 2 Section "Earthwork."
3. Do not dispose of masonry waste as fill within 450 mm of finished grade.

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C. Excess Masonry Waste: Remove excess clean masonry waste that cannot be used as fill, as
described above, and other masonry waste, and legally dispose of off Owner's property.

END OF SECTION 04810

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 04815 - GLASS UNIT MASONRY ASSEMBLIES

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes glass block set in mortar.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 5 Section "Metal Fabrications" for steel channel frames and loose steel
lintels at glass unit masonry assemblies.
3. Division 8 Section "Aluminum Windows" for aluminum windows installed within
glass unit masonry assemblies.

1.3 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each type of product indicated. Include glass block , cementitious
materials, , waterproofing admixtures for mortar, and accessories.

B. Shop Drawings: Show fabrication and installation details for glass unit masonry, including
vertical and horizontal coursing, anchors, reinforcement, and expansion strips.

1. For installed products indicated to comply with design loads, include structural
analysis data signed and sealed by the qualified professional engineer responsible for
their preparation.

C. Samples for Initial Selection: Manufacturer's actual glass-block units and joint materials
involving color selection.

D. Samples for Verification: Panels consisting of four full-size glass-block units with mortar
joints.

1. Provide Samples for each form, pattern, and color of glass block and color of joint
material indicated or selected by Engineer.

1.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Source Limitations for Glass Block: Obtain each type and pattern of glass block through
one source from a single manufacturer.

B. Source Limitations for Accessory Materials: Obtain each cementitious material, admixture
and accessory component through one source from a single manufacturer and each
aggregate from one source or producer.

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C. Mockups: Build mockups to verify selections made under sample submittals and to
demonstrate aesthetic effects and set quality standards for materials and execution.

1. Build mockup of typical exterior and interior panel, 1200 by 1200 mm in size.
2. Approved mockups may become part of the completed Work if undisturbed at time of
Substantial Completion.

1.5 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Store glass block in unopened cartons on elevated platforms, under cover, and in a dry
location. If units are not stored in an enclosed location, cover tops and sides of stacks with
waterproof sheeting, securely tied.

B. Store cementitious materials on elevated platforms, under cover, and in a dry location. Do
not use cementitious materials that have become damp.

C. Store aggregates where grading and other required characteristics can be maintained and
contamination avoided.

D. Store accessories, including metal items, to prevent corrosion and accumulation of dirt and
oil.

1.6 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Weather Limitations: Proceed with installation of glass unit masonry assemblies only when
ambient and material temperatures are 5 deg C or higher.

1. Maintain temperature in installation areas at 5 deg C or above for 48 hours after


installing.

1.7 SEQUENCING AND SCHEDULING

A. Sequence and coordinate completion of glass unit masonry assemblies so sealants can be
installed immediately after mortar has attained final set.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 GLASS BLOCK

A. Hollow Glass Block: Hollow units made from transparent glass, with manufacturer's
standard edge coating.

1. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers


offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited
to, the following:

a. Fidenza Vetraria SpA.


b. K.I.G.
c. Mulia.
d. Nippon Electric Glass Co., Ltd.
e. Oberland Glas AG, Bauglas Div.; Solaris Glasstein.

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f. Pittsburgh Corning Corporation.


g. J. Weck GmbH.

2. Glass-Block With Plastic Trim

a. SMEB- Curbiver; Bativer

3. Glass Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.


4. Pattern: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.
5. Edge-Coating Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.
6. Unit Sizes: Manufacturer's standard sizes for Thick-faced hollow units corresponding
to nominal sizes indicated on Drawings.

B. Glass Blocks With Plastic Trim: Transparent or translucent proprietary hollow glass blocks
with plastic trim, providing good thermal insulation and protection against burglary and fire,
to the sizes, pattern and color shown on the Drawings and to approval. Provide
manufacturer's standard accessories.

2.2 MORTAR MATERIALS

A. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or Type II, natural color, white, or a blend to
produce mortar color indicated.

1. Where joints are indicated to be raked out and pointed, gray cement may be used for
setting mortar.

B. Hydrated Lime: Do not use lime.

C. Mortar Cement: ASTM C 1329.

D. Pre-blended, Dry Mortar Mix: Furnish dry mortar ingredients in the form of a pre-blended
mix. Measure quantities by weight to ensure accurate proportions, and thoroughly blend in-
gredients before delivering to Project site. Comply with ASTM C 270 Property Specifica-
tion as specified in other Part 2 Articles.

E. Mortar: Comply with ASTM C 270 Property Specification as specified in other Part 2 Ar-
ticles.

F. Mortar Pigments: Natural and synthetic iron oxides and chromium oxides, compounded for
use in mortar mixes. Use only pigments with a record of satisfactory performance in
masonry mortar.

1. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers


offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited
to, the following:

a. Bayer Corporation, Industrial Chemicals Div.; Bayferrox Iron Oxide Pigments.


b. Davis Colors; True Tone Mortar Colors.
c. Solomon Grind-Chem Services, Inc.; SGS Mortar Colors.

G. Aggregate: ASTM C 144, with 100 percent passing 2.36-mm sieve.

1. For pointing mortar and joints narrower than 6 mm, use aggregate graded with 100
percent passing 1.18-mm sieve.
2. White Aggregates: Natural white sand or crushed white stone.

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H. Water-Repellent Admixture: One of the following as approved by Engineer for type of


application:

1. Manufacturer's standard dry mixture of stearates, water-reducing agents, and fine


aggregates intended to reduce capillarity in mortar.

a. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements,


manufacturers offering products that may be incorporated into the Work
include, but are not limited to, the following:

1) Sonneborn, Div. of ChemRex, Inc.; Hydrocide Powder.

2. Liquid polymeric water-repellent mortar admixture that does not reduce flexural bond
strength of mortar.

a. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements,


manufacturers offering products that may be incorporated into the Work
include, but are not limited to, the following:

1) Grace Construction Products, a unit of W. R. Grace & Co. - Conn.; Dry-


Block Mortar Admixture.
2) Laticrete International, Inc.; Laticrete 8510 Bonding Admix.
3) Master Builders, Inc.; Color Cure Mortar Admix or Rheomix Rheopel.

I. Water: Potable.

2.3 GLASS UNIT MASONRY ACCESSORIES

A. Panel Reinforcement: Ladder-type units, butt welded, not lapped and welded; complying
with ASTM A 951 in straight lengths of not less than 3 m, and as follows:

1. Interior Walls: Hot-dip galvanized, carbon-steel wire.


2. Exterior Walls: Stainless-steel wire.
3. Wire Size: W1.7 or 3.8-mm diameter.
4. Width: 50 mm.
5. Spacing of Cross Rods: Not more than 407 mm apart.

B. Panel Anchors: Glass-block manufacturer's standard perforated steel strips, 0.9 mm by 44


mm wide by 600 mm long, hot-dip galvanized after fabrication to comply with
ASTM A 153/A 153M.

C. Fasteners, General: Unless otherwise indicated, provide Type 304 or Type 316 stainless-
steel fasteners at exterior walls and zinc-plated fasteners with coating complying with
ASTM B 633, Class Fe/Zn 5, at interior walls. Select fasteners for type, grade, and class
required.

D. Carbon-Steel Bolts: ASTM F 568M, Property Class 4.6 with hex nuts, ASTM A 563M, if
applicable.

E. Stainless-Steel Bolts: ASTM F 738M, Alloy Group A1 or A4 with hex nuts,


ASTM F 836M, if applicable.

F. Postinstalled Anchors: Provide metal expansion sleeve anchors or metal impact expansion
anchors of type and size necessary for installation indicated, as recommended by
manufacturer, unless otherwise indicated.

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G. Asphalt Emulsion: Cold-applied asphalt emulsion complying with ASTM D 1187 or


ASTM D 1227.

H. Plastic-Foam Expansion Strips: Polyethylene foam complying with requirements of glass-


block manufacturer; 9 mm thick by 100 mm wide.

1. Use plastic-foam expansion strips for non-fire-rated assemblies.

I. Sealants: Manufacturer's standard chemically curing, elastomeric sealants of base polymer


and characteristics indicated below that comply with applicable requirements in Division 7
Section "Joint Sealants."

J. Sealant Accessories: Provide sealant accessories, including primers, bond-breaker tape, and
cylindrical sealant backing, that comply with applicable requirements in Division 7 Section
"Joint Sealants."

2.4 MORTAR MIXES

A. General: Do not use admixtures, including pigments, air-entraining agents, accelerators,


retarders, or antifreeze compounds, unless otherwise indicated.

1. Do not use calcium chloride in mortar.


2. For pointing mortar in exterior panels, use water-repellent admixture according to
admixture manufacturer's written instructions.

B. Mortar for Glass Unit Masonry Assemblies: Comply with ASTM C 270, Proportion
Specification for Type S mortar.

1. Combine and thoroughly mix cementitious materials, water, and aggregates in a


mechanical batch mixer, unless otherwise indicated. Mix mortar to produce a stiff
but workable consistency that is drier than mortar for brick or concrete masonry.
Discard mortar when it has reached initial set.

C. Pre-blended, Dry Mortar Mix: Furnish dry mortar ingredients in the form of a pre-blended
mix. Measure quantities by weight to ensure accurate proportions, and thoroughly blend in-
gredients before delivering to Project site. Comply with ASTM C 270 Property Specifica-
tion:

1. Wet mix life: <1.5 hours


2. Initial adhesion at 28 days:> 0.3N/mm2
3. Bending strength: around 1N/ mm2
4. Compressive strength : not less than 5 ±1 N/ mm2
5. Min. cement sand mix: 1:3-4
6. Testing: ASTM C 780

D. Pigmented Mortar: Use colored cement product or select and proportion pigments with
other ingredients to produce color required. Do not add pigments to colored cement
products.

1. Mix to match Engineer's sample.

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PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine sills, jambs, and heads surrounding glass unit masonry assemblies for compliance
with requirements for installation tolerances and other conditions affecting performance.

1. Proceed with installation only after unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.2 INSTALLING GLASS BLOCK WITH MORTAR

A. Apply a heavy coat of asphalt emulsion to sill and adhere expansion strips to jambs and
heads with asphalt emulsion. Allow asphalt emulsion to dry before placing mortar. Trim
expansion strips to width required to fit glass block and to full lengths of heads and jambs.

B. Set glass block with completely filled bed and head joints, with no furrowing, accurately
spaced and coordinated with other construction. Maintain 6-mm exposed joint widths,
unless otherwise indicated.

C. Install panel reinforcement in horizontal joints at spacing indicated and continuously from
end to end of panels; comply with the following requirements:

1. Vertical Spacing of Panel Reinforcement for Exterior Panels: Every other course but
not more than 407 mm o.c., starting with first course above sill.
2. Vertical Spacing of Panel Reinforcement for Interior Panels: Not more than 407 mm
o.c..
3. Do not bridge expansion joints with panel reinforcement.
4. Place panel reinforcement in joints immediately above and below all openings within
glass unit masonry assemblies.
5. Lap panel reinforcement not less than 150 mm if more than 1 length is necessary.
6. Embed panel reinforcement in mortar bed by placing lower half of mortar bed first,
pressing panel reinforcement into place and covering with upper half of mortar bed.

D. Install panel anchors at locations indicated and in same horizontal joints where panel
reinforcement occurs. Extend panel anchors at least 300 mm into joints, and bend within
expansion joints at edges of panels and across the head. Attach panel anchors as follows:

1. For in-place unit masonry assemblies and concrete, attach panel anchors with 6-mm-
diameter bolt-size, postinstalled anchors, 2 per panel anchor.
2. For new unit masonry assemblies, embed other ends of panel anchors, after bending
portions crossing expansion joint, in horizontal mortar joints closest in elevation to
joints in glass unit masonry assemblies containing panel anchors.
3. For steel members, attach panel anchors with 6-mm- diameter through bolts and nuts
or bolts in tapped holes in steel members.

E. Use rubber mallet to tap units into position. Do not use steel tools, and do not allow units to
come into contact with metal accessories and frames.

F. Use plastic spacers or temporary wedges in mortar joints to produce uniform joint widths
and to prevent mortar from being squeezed out of joints.

1. If temporary wedges are used, remove them after mortar has set and fill voids with
mortar.

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G. Keep expansion joints free of mortar.

H. Rake out joints indicated to be pointed to a uniform depth sufficient to accommodate


pointing material, but not less than joint width.

1. If temporary wedges are used, remove them before raking out and pointing joints.
2. Point joints at both faces of exterior panels with mortar.

I. Point joints with mortar by filling raked joints and voids. Place and compact pointing
mortar in layers not more than 10 mm thick. Compact each layer thoroughly and allow to
become thumbprint hard before applying next layer.

1. Tool exposed joints slightly concave when pointing mortar is thumbprint hard. Use a
smooth plastic jointer larger than joint width.

J. Clean glass unit masonry assemblies as work progresses. Remove mortar fins and smears
immediately, using a clean, wet sponge or a scrub brush with stiff fiber bristles. Do not use
harsh cleaners, acids, abrasives, steel wool, or wire brushes when removing mortar or
cleaning glass unit masonry assemblies.

K. Install sealant at jambs, heads, mullions and other locations indicated. Prepare joints,
including installation of primer and bond-breaker tape or cylindrical sealant backing, and
apply elastomeric sealants to comply with requirements in Division 7 Section "Joint
Sealants."

L. Construction Tolerances: Set glass block to comply with the following tolerances:

1. Variation from Plumb: For lines and surfaces of vertical elements and arris, do not
exceed 6 mm in 3 m, 9 mm in 6 m, or 12 mm in 12 m or more.
2. Variation from Level: For bed joints, and other conspicuous lines, do not exceed 6
mm in 6 m or 12 mm in 12 m or more.
3. Variation of Linear Building Line: For positions shown in plan and related portions
of walls and partitions, do not exceed 12 mm in 6 m or 19 mm in 12 m or more.
4. Variation in Mortar-Joint Thickness: Do not vary from joint thickness indicated by
more than plus or minus 1.5 mm.

3.3 CLEANING

A. On surfaces adjacent to glass unit masonry assemblies, remove mortar, sealants, and other
residue resulting from glass-block installation, in a manner approved by manufacturers of
materials involved.

B. Remove excess sealants with commercial solvents of type recommended by sealant


manufacturer. Exercise care not to damage sealant in joints.

C. Perform final cleaning of glass unit masonry assemblies when surface is not exposed to
direct sunlight. Start at top of panel using generous amounts of clean water. Remove water
with clean, dry, soft cloths; change cloths frequently to eliminate dried mortar particles and
aggregate.

END OF SECTION 04815

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 04851- EXTERIOR STONE CLADDING

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 SUMMARY

A. Section Includes: Exterior stone panels secured with individual anchors.


B. Related Requirements:

1. Division 03 Section “Cast-in-place Concrete,” for concrete surfaces to receive stone wall
facing.
2. Division 04 Section “Unit Masonry,” for masonry walls to receive stone wall facing.

1.2 DEFINITIONS
A. Dimension Stone Cladding Assembly: An exterior wall covering system consisting of
dimension stone panels together with anchors, fasteners, and sealants used to secure the stone to
the building structure and to produce a weather-resistant covering.

1.3 ACTION SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data:

1. For each variety of stone. Include data on physical properties required by referenced
ASTM standards, and chemical analysis.
2. For stone accessories and other manufactured products.
3. Setting and jointing materials.

B. LEED Submittals:

1. Product Certificates for Credit MR 5: For products and materials required to comply
with requirements for regional materials.
2. Product Data for Credit IEQ 4.1: For sealants, documentation including printed
statement of VOC content.

C. Shop Drawings: Show fabrication and installation details for stone paneling system, including
dimensions and profiles of stone units.

1. Show locations and details of joints both within stone paneling system and between stone
paneling system and other finish materials.
2. Show locations and details of anchors, including locations of supporting construction.
3. Show direction of veining, grain, or other directional pattern.

D. Samples:

1. For each stone type indicated. Include at least five samples in each set for each type of
stone, exhibiting extremes of the full range of color and other visual characteristics

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expected in completed Work. Samples will establish the standard by which stone
provided will be judged.
2. For each color of joint material required. Label Samples to indicate types and amounts of
pigments used.

E. Delegated-Design Submittal: For dimension stone cladding assembly indicated, to comply with
performance requirements and design criteria, including analysis data signed and sealed by the
qualified professional engineer responsible for their preparation.

1.4 INFORMATIONAL SUBMITTALS

A. Qualification Data: For installer and professional engineer.

B. Material Test Reports: From a qualified independent testing agency, as follows:

1. Stone Test Reports: For each stone variety proposed for use on Project, provide test data
indicating compliance with required physical properties, other than abrasion resistance,
according to referenced ASTM standards. Base reports on testing done within previous
three years.
2. Compatibility Test Report: From manufacturers’ test laboratories, indicating that
jointing, setting and sealer materials will not discolor or adversely affect the adjoining
stone. Include interpretation of test results and recommendations for primers and
substrate preparation needed for adhesion.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Fabricator Qualifications: A qualified company specializing in performing the specified work,


able to custom fabricate stone of the kind and form indicated, and employing installers having
minimum 5 years successful experience installing the stone by the methods indicated.

1. Fabricator shall employ a professional engineer to assume engineering responsibility.

B. Engineering Responsibility: Comprehensive engineering analysis by a qualified professional


engineer.

C. Installer Qualifications: Stone fabricator.

D. Source Limitations for Stone: Obtain each variety of stone, regardless of finish, from one
quarry, whether specified in this Section or in another Section, with resources to provide
materials of consistent quality in appearance and physical properties.

E. Source Limitations for Mortar Materials: Obtain mortar ingredients of a uniform quality,
including color for exposed masonry, from single manufacturer for each cementitious
component and from single source or producer for each aggregate.

F. Initial Stone Selection:

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1. To be selected from uncut stone at quarry by Engineer in presence of stone supplier, to


verify desired appearances. Supplier to verify sufficient quantities, inclusive of reserves
for breakage.
2. Subsequent pieces to be selected from cut blocks following Engineer’s verification at
quarry.

G. Mockups: Build 2 m by 2 m mockups to verify selections made under sample submittals and to
demonstrate aesthetic effects and set quality standards for materials and execution.

1. Build mockup of each type of wall facing of not less than one structural bay.

a. Show typical components, attachments to building structure, and methods of


installation.
b. Include an opening with stone returns.
c. Include sealant-filled joint complying with requirements in Section specifying joint
sealants.

H. Source Quality-Control Testing Service: Engage an Owner-approved qualified independent


testing agency to perform source quality-control testing indicated below.

1. Flexural Strength Tests: ASTM C 880, performed on specimens of same thickness,


orientation of cut, and finish as installed stone. One set of test specimens is required to
be tested for every 1000 sq. m, but not fewer than 2 sets for each stone variety.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Delegated Design: Engage a qualified professional engineer, experienced in design and


installation of this work and licensed in the place where the Project is located, to design
dimension stone cladding assembly.

B. General: Design stone anchors and anchoring systems according to ASTM C 1242.

1. Stone anchors shall withstand not less than two times the weight of the stone cladding in
both compression and tension.

C. Structural Performance: Provide dimension stone cladding system capable of withstanding the
effects of gravity loads, wind loads and equipment loads, as indicated.

D. Seismic Performance: Provide dimension stone cladding system capable of withstanding the
effects of earthquake motions determined according to ASCE 7 and authorities having
jurisdiction, unless otherwise indicated.

E. Thermal Movements: Allow for thermal movements from ambient and surface temperature
changes.

1. Temperature Change: 67 deg C, ambient; 100 deg C, material surfaces.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

F. Horizontal Building Movement (Interstory Drift): Allow for maximum horizontal building
movement equal to quotient resulting from dividing floor-to-floor height at any floor by 400.

G. Shrinkage and Creep: Allow for progressive vertical shortening of building frame equal to 3
mm in 3 m.

H. Safety Factors for Stone: Design dimension stone cladding system to withstand loads indicated
without exceeding allowable working stress of stone determined by dividing stone's average
ultimate strength, as established by testing, by the following minimum safety factors:

1. Safety Factor for Oolitic Limestone: 8.


2. Safety Factor for Dolomitic Limestone: 6.
3. Safety Factor for Concentrated Stresses: 10.

I. Design stone anchors to withstand loads indicated without exceeding allowable working
stresses established by the following:

1. For Cast-in-Place and Post installed Fasteners in Concrete: One-fourth of tested capacity
when installed in concrete with compressive strength indicated.
2. For Post-Installed Fasteners in Masonry: One-sixth of tested capacity when installed in
masonry units indicated.

J. Provisions for Fabrication and Erection Tolerances: Allow for fabrication and erection
tolerances of building's structural system specified in other Sections.

K. Control of Corrosion and Staining: Prevent galvanic and other forms of corrosion as well as
staining by isolating metals and other materials from direct contact with incompatible materials.
Use materials that do not stain exposed surfaces of stone and joint materials.

L. Joint Appearance:

1. Joint Widths: 3 mm, uniform in width, slightly concave.


2. Joints pointed with pointing mortar, except control joints.

M. Installation Tolerances:

1. Variation from Plumb: For vertical lines and surfaces of walls, do not exceed 6 mm in
3 m, 10 mm in 6 m, or 12 mm in 12 m or more. For external corners, corners and jambs
within 6 m of an entrance, expansion joints, and other conspicuous lines, do not exceed 3
mm in 3 m, 6 mm in 6 m, or 10 mm in 12 m or more.
2. Variation from Level: For lintels, sills, horizontal bands, horizontal grooves, and other
conspicuous lines, do not exceed 3 mm in 3 m, 6 mm in 6 m, or 10 mm maximum.
3. Variation of Linear Building Line: For positions shown in plan and related portions of
walls and partitions, do not exceed 6 mm in 6 m or 12 mm in 12 m or more.
4. Variation in Cross-Sectional Dimensions: For thickness of walls from dimensions
indicated, do not exceed plus or minus 6 mm.
5. Variation in Joint Width: Do not vary from average joint width more than plus or minus
3 mm or a quarter of nominal joint width, whichever is less. For joints within 1500 mm
of each other, do not vary more than 3 mm or a quarter of nominal joint width, whichever
is less from one to the other.

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6. Variation in Plane between Adjacent Stone Units (Lipping): Do not exceed 1.5-mm
difference between planes of adjacent units.

2.2 MATERIALS, GENERAL

A. Use materials that will not stain, discolor or adversely affect mortar and stone.

B. Sustainable Design:

1. Regional Materials: Provide pointing materials that comply with requirements of


Credit MR 5.
2. Maximum VOC Content: Provide sealants with VOC content in compliance with
requirements of Credit IEQ 4.1.

2.3 STONE

A. Stone Types: As selected by Engineer from the specified types. Stone to comply with the
following.

1. Limestone: ASTM C 568 - Standard Specification for Limestone Dimension Stone.

a. Classification: III High-Density.

B. Colors, Color Ranges and Finishes: To match Engineer's samples. Natural variations in
appearance are acceptable if installed stone units match range of colors and other appearance
characteristics represented in approved samples and mockups.

C. Thickness: To comply with performance requirements and not less than thicknesses indicated.

2.4 POINTING MORTAR

A. General: Provide packaged pointing mortar or individual materials for pointing mortar mixed at
Project site, complying with ASTM C 270, Proportion Specification, Type N or Type S as
applicable to stone type, and the following:

1. Portland Cement: ASTM C 150, Type I or Type II. Provide natural color or white
cement as required to produce mortar color indicated.

a. Use low-alkali cement containing not more than 0.60 percent total alkali when
tested according to ASTM C 114, to limit staining, when recommended by stone
source.

2. Hydrated Lime: ASTM C 207, Type S.


3. Mortar Pigments: Natural and synthetic iron oxides and chromium oxides, compounded
for use in mortar mixes and complying with ASTM C 979. Pigments shall have a record
of satisfactory performance in stone masonry mortar.
4. Packaged Portland Cement-Lime Mix: Blend of Portland cement and hydrated lime, of
color selected by Engineer.

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5. Aggregate: ASTM C 144, except with 100 percent passing 1.18 mm sieve.

a. White Aggregates: Natural white sand or ground white stone.


b. Colored Aggregates: Natural-colored sand or ground marble, granite, or other
sound stone; of color necessary to produce required mortar color.
6. Water: Potable.

2.5 ANCHORS AND FASTENERS

A. Fabricate anchors from stainless steel, ASTM A 240/A 240M or ASTM A 666, Type 304,
temper as required to support loads imposed without exceeding allowable design stresses.
Fabricate dowels and pins for anchors from stainless steel, ASTM A 276, Type 304.

B. Fasteners for Stainless-Steel Anchors: Annealed stainless-steel bolts, nuts, and washers;
ASTM F 738M for bolts and ASTM F 836M for nuts, Alloy Group 1 A1.

2.6 STONE ACCESSORIES

A. Temporary Setting Shims: Rigid plastic shims, non-staining to stone, of thickness needed to
prevent point loading of stone on anchors, and of depths to suit anchors without intruding into
required depths of pointing materials.

B. Sealant: As specified in Division 07 Section “Joint Sealants,” and that do not stain stone.

C. Stone Sealer: Colorless, stain-resistant sealer that does not affect color or physical properties of
stone surfaces, hydrophobic water-based impregnating no-sheen type suitable for natural stone.
Sealer shall protect the stone from staining during setting and grouting process and allow
evaporation of water from setting materials, as demonstrated by tests performed by qualified
testing agencies.

2.7 STONE FABRICATION

A. General: Fabricate stone units in sizes and shapes required to comply with requirements
indicated, and on Shop Drawings.

1. For limestone, comply with recommendations in ILI's "Indiana Limestone Handbook."

B. Pattern Arrangement: Fabricate and arrange stone units with veining and other natural
markings on approved mockups.

C. Finish exposed faces and edges of stone to match approved samples and mockups.

PART 3 - EXECUTION (NOT USED)

END OF SECTION 04851

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SECTION 05120 - STRUCTURAL STEEL

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes structural steel.

B. This Section includes structural steel and architecturally exposed structural steel.

C. Related Sections: The following Sections contain requirements that relate to this Section:

1. Division 1 Section "Quality Assurance/Quality Control" for independent testing


agency procedures and administrative requirements.
2. Division 5 Section "Steel Deck" for field installation of shear connectors.
3. Division 7 Section "Cementitious Sprayed-On Fire Proofing" for fire-resistance-rated
intumescent mastic materials

1.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Structural Performance: Engineer structural steel connections required by the Contract


Documents to be completed by the fabricator to withstand design loadings indicated.

B. Engineering Responsibility: Engage a fabricator who utilizes a qualified professional engi-


neer to prepare calculations, Shop Drawings, and other structural data for structural steel
connections subject to the contractor’s design.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. General: Submit each item in this Article according to the Conditions of the Contract and
Division 1 Specification Sections.

B. Product Data for each type of product specified.

C. Shop Drawings detailing fabrication of structural steel components.

1. Include details of cuts, connections, splices, camber, holes, and other pertinent data.
2. Indicate welds by standard AWS symbols, distinguishing between shop and field
welds, and show size, length, and type of each weld.
3. Indicate type, size, and length of bolts, distinguishing between shop and field bolts.
Identify high-strength bolted slip-critical, direct-tension, or tensioned shear/bearing
connections.
4. Include Shop Drawings signed and sealed by a qualified professional engineer re-
sponsible for their preparation.
5. Methods of erection and calculations of erection stresses
6. Methods of bracing and temporary guys.

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7. Include details of cuts, connections, camber, holes, and other pertinent data. Indicate
welds by standard AWS A2.1 and A2.4 symbols, and show size, length, and type of
each weld.
8. Provide setting drawings, templates, and directions for installation of anchor bolts and
other anchorage to be installed as work of others sections.

D. Qualification data for firms and persons specified in the "Quality Assurance" Article to
demonstrate their capabilities and experience. Include lists of completed projects with
project names and addresses, names and addresses of architects/engineers and owners, and
other information specified.

E. Product Data: Submit producer's or manufacturer's specifications and installation instruc-


tions. Include mill test reports in accordance with ASTM A6, laboratory test reports and
other data to show compliance with specifications (including specified standards) for the
following products

1. Structural steel (each type), including certified copies of mill reports covering chemi-
cal and physical properties.
2. Bolts, nuts, and washers, including mechanical properties and chemical analysis.
3. Direct-tension indicators.
4. Shear stud connectors.
5. Shop primers.
6. Shrinkage-resistant grout.
7. Welding electrodes

F. Test Reports: Submit copies of reports of tests conducted on shop and field bolted and
welded connections. Include data on type(s) of tests conducted and test results. State com-
pliance or non-compliance with specifications.

G. Fabricator and Erector: submit the name of the proposed fabricator and erector with refer-
ence of work of a similar nature carried out by him on other projects, with relevant dates.

H. Surveys: Submit for information certified copies of each survey conducted by an approved
engineer, showing elevations and locations of base plates and anchor bolts to receive struc-
tural steel, and final elevations and locations for major members. Indicate discrepancies be-
tween actual installation and contract documents.

I. Paint: Submit manufacturer's full technical specification, method of application and guaran-
tee.

J. Method Statement: Submit for approval, Quality Control method statement in accordance
with quality assurance procedures, and Erection method statement.

K. No fabrication work is to commence before approval of test reports and submittals .

L. As-Built Drawings: At project close-out, submit record “As- Built” drawings of completed
work products, in accordance with requirements of the Specification as indicated in Division
1.

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1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Quality System: Comply with ISO 9001/9002 Quality System as a minimum. Incorporate all
the standard procedures supplied by the Engineer and the Employer.

B. Installer Qualifications: Engage an experienced Installer who has completed structural steel
work similar in material, design, and extent to that indicated for this Project and with a
record of successful in-service performance.
C. Fabricator Qualifications: Engage a firm experienced in fabricating structural steel similar
to that indicated for this Project and with a record of successful in-service performance, as
well as sufficient production capacity to fabricate structural steel without delaying the
Work.

a. Fabricator shall be registered with and approved by authorities having jurisdic-


tion.
D. Comply with applicable provisions of the following specifications and documents:

1. AISC's "Specification for Structural Steel Buildings--Allowable Stress Design and


Plastic Design." including "Commentary" and Supplements thereto as issued.
2. AISC's "Specification for Allowable Stress Design of Single-Angle Members."
3. AISC's "Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings."
4. ASTM A 6 (ASTM A 6M) "Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Steel
Plates, Shapes, Sheet Piling, and Bars for Structural Use."
5. Research Council on Structural Connections' (RCSC) "Specification for Structural
Joints Using ASTM A 325 or A 490 Bolts."
6. Research Council on Structural Connections' (RCSC) "Load and Resistance Factor
Design Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A 325 or A 490 Bolts."
7. American Welding Society (AWS) D1.1 "Structural Welding Code - Steel".
8. AISC "Specifications for Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel".

E. Professional Engineer Qualifications: A professional engineer who is legally authorized to


practice in the jurisdiction where Project is located and who is experienced in providing en-
gineering services of the kind indicated. Engineering services are defined as those per-
formed for projects with structural steel framing that are similar to that indicated for this
Project in material, design, and extent.

F. Welding Standards: Comply with applicable provisions of AWS D1.1 "Structural Welding
Code-Steel."

1. Present evidence that each welder has satisfactorily passed AWS qualification tests
for welding processes involved and, if pertinent, has undergone recertification.

G. Preinstallation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site to comply with requirements


of Division 1 Section "Project Management and Coordination."

H. Quality Control: Submit for approval a method statement of the system of quality control to
be used in fabrication and erection, complying with AISC, and AWS including proposed
welding procedure. An approved quality control engineer is to be assigned for the complete
duration of the work to ensure proper performance.

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1.6 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Deliver structural steel to Project site in such quantities and at such times to ensure continui-
ty of installation.

B. Store materials to permit easy access for inspection and identification. Keep steel members
off ground by using pallets, platforms, or other supports. Protect steel members and pack-
aged materials from erosion and deterioration.

1. Store fasteners in a protected place. Clean and re-lubricate bolts and nuts that be-
come dry or rusty before use.
2. Do not store materials on structure in a manner that might cause distortion or damage
to members or supporting structures. Repair or replace damaged materials or struc-
tures as directed.

C. Deliver anchor bolts and anchorage devices, which are to be embedded in cast-in-place con-
crete or masonry, in ample time to not to delay work.

D. Manufactured items are to be delivered in original packages, containers etc. bearing name of
manufacturer and brand. Each piece of material is to bear the official grade and trade mark
of the association under whose rules it is graded or is to be accompanied by a certificate of
inspection issued by that association.

E. Protect structural steelworks by approved adequate measures from constructional hazards


during and after erection.

1.7 SEQUENCING

A. Supply anchorage items to be embedded in or attached to other construction without delay-


ing the Work. Provide setting diagrams, templates, instructions, and directions, as required,
for installation.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS

A. Metal Surfaces, General: For fabrication of work which will be exposed to view, use only
materials which are smooth and free of surface blemishes including pitting, rust and scale
seam marks, roller marks, rolled trade names and roughness. Remove such blemishes by
grinding, or by welding and grinding, prior to cleaning, treating and application of surface
finishes.

B. Structural Steel Shapes, Plates, and Bars: As follows:

1. Carbon Steel: ASTM A 36M having a minimum yield stress of 240 N/mm2 or equal,
to be used only when specified.
2. High-Strength, Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steel: ASTM A 572M, Grade 50
having a minimum yield stress of 345 N/mm2 or equal typically used unless other-
wise noted.
3. High-Strength, Low-Alloy Structural Steel: ASTM A 913 having a minimum yield
stress 460 N/mm2 or according to BS5950-1:2000 with a minimum yield strength of
460 N/mm2 or equal.

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C. Cold-Formed Structural Steel Tubing: ASTM A 500, Grade C. Having a minimum yield
stress of 345 N/mm2 or equal.

D. Hot rolled steel hollow circular sections are to be:

1. ASTM A53 type E, Grade B, having a minimum yield stress of 246 N/mm2 or equal.
To be used only when specified.
2. ASTM A618, Grade III, having a minimum yield stress of 345 N/mm2 or equal.
3. ASTM A 913 having a minimum yield stress 460 N/mm2 or according to BS5950-
1:2000 with a minimum yield strength of 460 N/mm2 or equal.

E. Cold rolled steel Z and C sections to be ASTM A653M grade HSLAS, type A, Grade 50
(340) and ASTM A924/A924M, having a minimum yield stress 345 Mpa, or equal, and
shall be galvanized in accordance with the ASTM A653 M with zinc coated to achieve the
specified life to first maintenance.

F. Stainless steel plates for Teflon bearings to conform to AISI TP 316 or BS 970, grade 316
S16.

G. Polytetra fluoroethylene (PTFE) sheets are to conform to ASTM D4894 and ASTM D 4895.

H. Headed Stud-Type Shear Connectors: to AWS D1.1, type B, minimum yield strength of
345 N/mm2 [50000 PSI] at 0.2% offset, made from steel to ASTM A108, with mechanical
properties to ASTM A370, and applied in accordance with Recommended Practices for Stud
Welding.

I. Anchor Rods, Bolts, Nuts, and Washers: As follows:

1. Unheaded Rods: ASTM F1554 with minimum yield strength of 248 N/mm2,

2. Unheaded Rods: ASTM F1554, Grade 55 with minimum yield strength of 345
4T T 4

N/mm2.
3. Unheaded Bolts: ASTM F1554, Grade 105 with minimum yield strength of 634
N/mm2, to be used only when specified.
4. Headed Bolts: ASTM A 490M, Type 1, or DIN 6914 gradeb10.9 heavy hex steel
4T 4T

structural bolts and heavy hex carbon-steel nuts.

J. Nonhigh-Strength Bolts, Nuts, and Washers: ASTM A307, Grade A, regular low-carbon
4T

hexagonal head steel bolts and nuts and washers, to be used only when specified.

K. High-Strength Bolts, Nuts, and Washers: ASTM A 490M, Type 1, or DIN 6914 grade 10.9
4T 4T

heavy hex steel structural bolts, heavy hex carbon-steel nuts, and hardened carbon-steel
washers, uncoated. Typically used unless otherwise noted.

1. Direct-Tension Indicators: ASTM F 959, Type 490, uncoated.

L. High Strength Steel castings: conform to ASTH A148M grade 795-655 or approved equal.

M. Welding Materials: Conform to AWS Code and AWS Filler Metal Specifications. Select
materials which are suitable for use with types of steel to be joined. Unless otherwise indi-
cated, connections are designed for:

1. Metal-Arc Welding Electrodes: to E70XX series of the Specification for Mild Steel
Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes, AWS A5.1, or the Specification for Low-Alloy
Steel Covered Arc-Welding Electrodes, AWS A5.5.

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2. Bare Electrodes and Granular Flux used in the submerged-arc process are to conform
to F7 X-EXXX AWS flux classifications of the Specification for Base Mild Steel
Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding, AWS A5.17, or A5.23 or the of
AISC "Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for
Buildings".

N. Carbon - Steel Castings :

ASTM A27 M - Grade 450 - 240, medium - strength carbon steel

O. High Strength Steel Castings:

ASTM A148M, Grade 550 - 345

ASTM A148 M, Grade 795 - 655

P. Structural Steel Painting: the protective coating system is to be one of the systems recom-
mended in SSPC (Steel Structures Painting Council) to give a life to first maintenance of 20
years taking into consideration climatic conditions on site and exposure of the steelworks.

Q. Non-shrink Rheoplastic Expansive Cement Grout: Free flowing, non-shrink, non-ferrous


rheoplastic, oil resistant, water resistant, complying with CE-CRD-C621, having minimum
compressive strength of 60 Mpa.

2.2 FABRICATION

A. Fabricate and assemble structural steel in shop to greatest extent possible. Fabricate struc-
tural steel according to AISC specifications referenced in this Section and in Shop Draw-
to be
ings. used only when specified.

1. Camber structural steel members where indicated.


2. Identify high-strength structural steel according to ASTM A 6M and maintain mark-
ings until steel has been erected.
3. Mark and match-mark materials for field assembly.
4. Fabricate for delivery a sequence that will expedite erection and minimize field han-
dling of structural steel.
5. Complete structural steel assemblies, including welding of units, before starting shop-
priming operations.
6. Comply with fabrication tolerance limits of AISC's "Code of Standard Practice for
Steel Buildings and Bridges" for structural steel.

B. Fabricate architecturally exposed structural steel with exposed surfaces smooth, square, and
free of surface blemishes, including pitting, rust and scale seam marks, roller marks, rolled
trade names, and roughness.

1. Remove blemishes by filling, grinding, or by welding and grinding, prior to cleaning,


treating, and shop priming.
2. Comply with fabrication requirements, including tolerance limits, of AISC's "Code of
Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges" for architecturally exposed struc-
tural steel.

C. Thermal Cutting: Perform thermal cutting by machine to greatest extent possible.

1. Plane thermally cut edges to be welded.

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D. Finishing: Accurately mill ends of columns and other members transmitting loads in bear-
ing.

E. Shear Connectors: Prepare steel surfaces as recommended by manufacturer of shear con-


nectors. Shop weld shear connectors, spaced as shown, to beams and girders in composite
construction. Use automatic end welding of headed-stud shear connectors according to
AWS D1.1 and manufacturer's printed instructions.

F. Steel Wall Framing: Select true and straight members for fabricating steel wall framing to
be attached to structural steel framing. Straighten as required to provide uniform, square,
and true members in completed wall framing.

G. Welded Door Frames: Build up welded door frames attached to structural steel framing.
Weld exposed joints continuously and grind smooth. Plug-weld fixed steel bar stops to
frames. Secure removable stops to frames with countersunk, cross-recessed head machine
screws, uniformly spaced not more than 250 mm o.c., unless otherwise indicated.

H. Holes: Provide holes required for securing other work to structural steel framing and for
passage of other work through steel framing members, as shown on Shop Drawings.

1. Cut, drill, or punch holes perpendicular to metal surfaces. Do not flame-cut holes or
enlarge holes by burning. Drill holes in bearing plates.
2. Weld threaded nuts to framing and other specialty items as indicated to receive other
work.

I. Where finishing is required, complete assembly, including welding of units, before start of
finishing operations. Provide finish surfaces of members exposed in final structure free of
markings, burrs, and other defects.

J. Materials and workmanship are subject to inspection and test by the Engineer, who is to
have access at all times to all parts of the workshop where steelworks is being fabricated and
is to be provided with reasonable inspection facilities.

K. Obtain permission of the Engineer before starting fabrication.

L. Connections: Weld or bolt shop connections.

M. Bolt field connections, except where welded connections or other connections are indicated.

- do not distort or enlarge holes when using drifts


- do not use drifts of larger diameter than holes
- report any misalignment of holes
- reaming of holes will not be allowed except for minor connections
and subject to written approval from the Engineer.
- holes for concrete-inserted anchors are to be furnished with enough
tolerance at the fabrication shop.
- reaming of holes of concrete-inserted anchors will only be allowed
subject to a written approval from the engineer, at no extra cost.

N. High-Strength Bolted Construction: Install high-strength threaded fasteners in accordance


with AISC "Specifications for Structural Joints using A 490 Bolts" (RCSC).

O. Welded Construction: Comply with AWS Code for procedures, appearance and quality of
welds, and methods used in correcting welding work.

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1. Unless shown on the drawings site welding will only be permitted for minor connec-
tions subject to written approval from the Engineer.
2. Do not place any welds, except those shown on the drawings, without approval even
for temporary attachment and repair of faulty plates.
3. Use run on and run off plates to ensure full throat thickness at ends of butt welds as
follows:

- material for plates is to be identical to material being welded


- prepare plates in same manner as parts being joined
- size of run on and run off plates to be 75 mm x 75 mm
- after completion of welding remove plates and grind surfaces of joined parts
where plates are attached to make smooth
- retain and identify plates for inspection when requested.

4. Provide evidence of welder's competence to undertake specified work. Welders must


have been tested to the Standard Code for Welding in Building Construction of the
American Welding Society using same electrodes class and welding positions which
will be used in the work.
5. Test Welders to the Standard Code of Welding in Building Construction of the Ameri-
can Welding Society when instructed using:

- thickest plate specified and/or


- material with highest carbon content
- electrodes of appropriate class
- welding positions which will be used in the
work.

6. Test Welder's competence to undertake special welding procedures when instructed.

2.3 SHOP CONNECTIONS

A. Shop install and tighten high-strength bolts according to RCSC's "Specification for Struc-
tural Joints Using ASTM A 490 Bolts."

1. Bolts: ASTM A 490M high-strength bolts, unless otherwise indicated.


2. Connection Type: Slip-critical, direct-tension, or tensioned shear/bearing connec-
tions as indicated.

B. Weld Connections: Comply with AWS D1.1 for procedures, appearance and quality of
welds, and methods used in correcting welding work.

1. Assemble and weld built-up sections by methods that will maintain true alignment of
axes without warp.
2. Verify that weld sizes, fabrication sequence, and equipment used for architecturally
exposed structural steel will limit distortions to allowable tolerances. Prevent surface
bleeding of back-side welding on exposed steel surfaces. Grind smooth exposed fillet
welds 13 mm and larger. Grind flush butt welds. Dress exposed welds.

2.4 SHOP PRIMING

A. Shop prime steel surfaces, except the following:

1. Surfaces embedded in concrete or mortar. Extend priming of partially embedded

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members to a depth of 50 mm.


2. Surfaces to be field welded.
3. Surfaces to be high-strength bolted with slip-critical connections.
4. Galvanized surfaces.

B. Apply all specified coats of paint to surfaces which are inaccessible after assembly or erec-
tion. Change color of successive coats to distinguish them from previous ones.

C. Surface Preparation: After inspection and before shipping, clean steelworks to be painted.
Remove loose rust, loose mill scale, and spatter, slag or flux deposits. Clean steel in accor-
dance with Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC) to SP-10 "Near - White Blast Clean-
ing" (equivalent to SA 2 1/2).

D. For surfaces to receive fire proof spraying, compatibility of the primer material and the fire
proof spraying should be ensured.

E. Painting: Immediately after surface preparation (in any case within four hours), apply struc-
tural steel primer paint in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and at a rate to pro-
vide the specified dry film thickness. Use painting methods which result in full coverage of
joints, corners, edges and exposed surfaces.

F. Painting: Provide all paint coatings in shop except the final finish coat (which has to be ap-
plied after erection) all in accordance with the requirements of the Steel Structure Painting
Council (SSPC), as specified in Clause 2.1, and as per manufacturer's recommendation.

G. Guarantee: Provide a written guarantee that the protective coating system on all steel
works, including the works subject to fire proof spraying, will give a minimum life to first
maintenance of 20 years in the climatic conditions prevailing on site and for the exposure of
the steel work.

2.5 GALVANIZING

A. Hot-Dip Galvanized Finish: Apply zinc coating by the hot-dip process to structural steel in-
dicated for galvanizing according to ASTM A 123.

2.6 SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL

A. Contractor will engage an independent testing and inspecting agency to perform shop in-
spections and tests and to prepare test reports, subject to the engineer approval, on contrac-
tor expense.

1. Testing agency will conduct and interpret tests and state in each report whether test
specimens comply with or deviate from requirements.
2. Provide testing agency with access to places where structural steel Work is being fa-
bricated or produced so required inspection and testing can be accomplished.

B. Correct deficiencies in or remove and replace structural steel that inspections and test re-
ports indicate do not comply with specified requirements.

C. Additional testing, at Contractor's expense, will be performed to determine compliance of


corrected Work with specified requirements.

D. Shop-bolted connections will be tested and inspected according to AISC specifications and
RCSC's "Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A 490 Bolts."

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1. Direct-tension indicator gaps will be verified to comply with ASTM F 959, Table 2.

E. Testing agency may inspect structural steel at plant before shipment; however. Engineer re-
serves right, at any time before final acceptance, to reject material not complying with speci-
fied requirements.Retain above or below.

F. Shop Welding: Inspect and test during fabrication of structural steel assemblies, as follows:

1. Certify welders and conduct inspections and tests as required. Record types and loca-
tions of defects found in work. Record work required and performed to correct defi-
ciencies.
2. Perform visual inspection of all welds.
3. Perform non destructive tests of welds on 10% of all fillet weld lengths as a first test-
ing round, depending on its results, the Engineer might instruct the Contractor to ex-
tend the testing process and/or to replace welder at no extra cost. Selection of tested
samples to be approved by the Engineer. Non-destructive tests of butt welds to be
done on 100% of the welded lengths.

3.1 Fillet Welds

- Liquid Penetrant Inspection: ASTM E 165, or,


- Magnetic Particle Inspection: ASTM E 709; performed on root pass
and on finished weld of fillet welds at random. Cracks or zones of in-
complete fusion or penetration not acceptable.

3.2 Butt Welds

- Radiographic Inspection: ASTM E 94 and ASTM E 142; minimum


quality level "2-2T", or,
- Ultrasonic Inspection: ASTM E 164 for 100% of full penetration and
partial welds.

G. In addition to visual inspection, shop-welded shear connectors will be inspected and tested
according to requirements of AWS D1.1 for stud welding and as follows:

1. Bend tests will be performed when visual inspections reveal either less than a conti-
nuous 360-degree flash or welding repairs to any shear connector.
2. Tests will be conducted on additional shear connectors when weld fracture occurs on
shear connectors already tested, according to requirements of AWS D1.1.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Before erection proceeds, and with the steel erector present, verify elevations of concrete
and masonry bearing surfaces and locations of anchorages for compliance with require-
ments.

B. Do not proceed with erection until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.2 PREPARATION

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A. Provide temporary shores, guys, braces, and other supports during erection to keep structur-
al steel secure, plumb, and in alignment against temporary construction loads and loads
equal in intensity to design loads. Remove temporary supports when permanent structural
steel, connections, and bracing are in place, unless otherwise indicated.

1. Do not remove temporary shoring supporting composite deck construction until cast-
in-place concrete has attained its design compressive strength.

3.3 ERECTION

A. Set structural steel accurately in locations and to elevations indicated and according to AISC
specifications referenced in this Section.

B. Base and Bearing Plates: Clean concrete and masonry bearing surfaces of bond-reducing
materials and roughen surfaces prior to setting base and bearing plates. Clean bottom sur-
face of base and bearing plates.

1. Set base and bearing plates for structural members on wedges, shims, or setting nuts
as required.
2. Tighten anchor bolts after supported members have been positioned and plumbed.
Do not remove wedges or shims but, if protruding, cut off flush with edge of base or
bearing plate prior to packing with grout.
3. Pack grout solidly between bearing surfaces and plates so no voids remain. Finish
exposed surfaces, protect installed materials, and allow to cure.

a. Comply with manufacturer's instructions for proprietary grout materials.

C. Maintain erection tolerances of structural steel within AISC's "Code of Standard Practice for
Steel Buildings and Bridges."

1. Maintain erection tolerances of architecturally exposed structural steel within AISC's


"Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges."

D. Align and adjust various members forming part of complete frame or structure before per-
manently fastening. Before assembly, clean bearing surfaces and other surfaces that will be
in permanent contact. Perform necessary adjustments to compensate for discrepancies in
elevations and alignment.

1. Level and plumb individual members of structure.


2. Establish required leveling and plumbing measurements on mean operating tempera-
ture of structure. Make allowances for difference between temperature at time of
erection and mean temperature at which structure will be when completed and in ser-
vice.

E. Splice members only where indicated.

F. Remove erection bolts on welded, architecturally exposed structural steel; fill holes with
plug welds; and grind smooth at exposed surfaces.

G. Do not use thermal cutting during erection.

H. Finish sections thermally cut during erection equal to a sheared appearance.

I. Do not enlarge unfair holes in members by burning or by using drift pins. Ream holes that
must be enlarged to admit bolts.

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J. Do not use welding equipment on site without approval.

K. Ensure bolts are in centre of slotted holes after erection of structure.

L. Treat sliding surfaces of proprietary joints in accordance with manufacture's recommenda-


tions before connecting.

M. Raise or lower to correct level using sawn steel packs not larger than necessary for the pur-
pose

N. Notify the Engineer when space beneath any column base is less than 10 mm or more than
50 mm.

O. Touch-up Painting: Immediately after erection, clean field welds, bolted connections, and
abraded areas of shop paint. Apply paint to exposed areas using same material as used for
shop painting.

P. Apply final coat of paint only in accordance with the requirements of the Steel Structures
Painting Council (SSPC), as specified in Clause 2.1 and 2.3, and as per manufacturer's rec-
ommendation.

Q. Comply with AISC Specifications for bearing, adequacy of temporary connections, align-
ment, and removal of paint on surfaces adjacent to field welds.

R. Ensure that the capacity of plant and equipment used for erection are suitable and are in
first class working order.

S. Obtain permission before starting erection of steel work.

T. Inspect foundations before starting erection for line and level, anchor bolts for position, pro-
truding length, condition and slackness.

3.4 FIELD CONNECTIONS

A. Install and tighten high-strength bolts according to RCSC's "Specification for Structural
Joints Using ASTM A 490 Bolts."

1. Bolts: ASTM A 490M high-strength bolts, unless otherwise indicated.


2. Connection Type: Slip-critical, direct-tension, or tensioned shear/bearing connec-
tions as indicated.

B. Weld Connections: Comply with AWS D1.1 for procedures, appearance and quality of
welds, and methods used in correcting welding work.

1. Comply with AISC specifications referenced in this Section for bearing, adequacy of
temporary connections, alignment, and removal of paint on surfaces adjacent to field
welds.
2. Assemble and weld built-up sections by methods that will maintain true alignment of
axes without warp.
3. Verify that weld sizes, fabrication sequence, and equipment used for architecturally
exposed structural steel will limit distortions to allowable tolerances. Prevent surface
bleeding of back-side welding on exposed steel surfaces. Grind smooth exposed fillet
welds 13 mm and larger. Grind flush butt welds. Dress exposed welds.

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3.5 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A. On the contractor’s expenses, employer will engage an independent testing and inspecting
agency to perform field inspections and tests and to prepare test reports.

1. Testing agency will conduct and interpret tests and state in each report whether tested
Work complies with or deviates from requirements.

B. Correct deficiencies in or remove and replace structural steel that inspections and test re-
ports indicate do not comply with specified requirements.

C. Additional testing, at Contractor's expense, will be performed to determine compliance of


corrected Work with specified requirements.

D. Field-bolted connections will be tested and inspected according to RCSC's "Specification


for Structural Joints Using ASTM A 490 Bolts."

1. Direct-tension indicator gaps will be verified to comply with ASTM F 959, Table 2.

E. Field Welding: Inspect and test during erection of structural steel as follows:

1. Certify welders and conduct inspections and tests as required. Record types and loca-
tions of defects found in work. Record work required and performed to correct defi-
ciencies.
2. Perform visual inspection of all welds.
3. Perform non destructive tests of welds on 10% of all fillet weld lengths as a first test-
ing round, depending on its results, the Engineer might instruct the Contractor to ex-
tend the testing process and/or to replace welder at no extra cost. Selection of tested
samples to be approved by the Engineer. Non-destructive tests of butt welds to be
done on 100% of the welded lengths.

3.1 Fillet Welds

- Liquid Penetrant Inspection: ASTM E 165, or,


- Magnetic Particle Inspection: ASTM E 709; performed on root pass
and on finished weld of fillet welds at random. Cracks or zones of in-
complete fusion or penetration not acceptable.

3.2 Butt Welds

- Radiographic Inspection: ASTM E 94 and ASTM E 142; minimum


quality level "2-2T", or,
- Ultrasonic Inspection: ASTM E 164 for 100% of full penetration and
partial welds.

F. Weld defects: cracks, overlaps, lack of penetration or incomplete fusion shall not be al-
lowed.

G. Lamination tests: carry out ultrasonic testing for lamination on all head plates for moment
connections (15 mm thick or above) in accordance with DIN 54120 or ASTM E164.

H. Non-shrink grout: prepare 50 mm cubes and test for compressive strength in accordance
with ASTM C109.

I. In addition to visual inspection, field-welded shear connectors will be inspected and tested
according to requirements of AWS D1.1 for stud welding and as follows:

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1. Bend tests will be performed when visual inspections reveal either less than a conti-
nuous 360-degree flash or welding repairs to any shear connector.
2. Tests will be conducted on additional shear connectors when weld fracture occurs on
shear connectors already tested, according to requirements of AWS D1.1..

J. Tolerances: The permissible deviation of fabricated and erected structures are to be in ac-
cordance with the limitations of the AISC.

K. Equipment: provide necessary facilities and equipment for specified tests in the fabrication
shop and on site. Calibrate load measuring equipment at regular intervals agreed with Engi-
neer.

L. Results: submit three copies of test and examination results to Engineer immediately they
are available.

3.6 CLEANING

A. Touchup Painting: Immediately after erection, clean field welds, bolted connections, and
abraded areas of shop paint. Apply paint to exposed areas using same material as used for
shop painting.

1. Apply by brush or spray to provide a minimum dry film thickness of 1.5 mils (0.038
mm).

B. Touchup Painting: Cleaning and touchup painting of field welds, bolted connections, and
abraded areas of shop paint on structural steel are included in Division 9 Section "Painting."

C. Galvanized Surfaces: Clean field welds, bolted connections, and abraded areas and apply
galvanizing repair paint according to ASTM A 780.

END OF SECTION 05120

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SECTION 05121 - ARCHITECTURALLY EXPOSED STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMING

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 SUMMARY

A. Section Includes: Architecturally exposed structural-steel framing, including shop painting and
field touch-up painting..

1. Requirements in Division 05 Section "Structural Steel Framing" also apply to AESS


framing.

B. Related Requirements:

1. Division 05 Section "Structural Steel," for additional requirements applicable to AESS.


2. Division 05 Section “Metal Fabrications,” for loose steel-bearing plates and
miscellaneous steel framing.

1.2 DEFINITIONS

A. Base category definitions on requirements specified in the referenced Quality Standard,


supplemented as follows:

1. Category 2 AESS: AESS that is within 6 m vertically and horizontally of a walking


surface and is visible to a person standing on that walking surface.
2. Category 3 AESS: AESS that is not defined as Category 2 or that can be viewed at a
distance greater than that specified in Category 2.

1.3 BID SUBMITTALS


A. Submit the following information to demonstrate an ability to perform the work as specified.

1. Design Concept Drawings: Plans, sections, elevations, full size framing details and
details at adjoining construction, and erection tolerances.
2. Outline technical specifications describing proposed materials.
3. Method Statement: For fabrication, handling, installation and protection. Indicate
factory-fabricated and site-assembled items.
4. Maintenance Program: Outline maintenance program identifying service life of products
and maintenance requirements.
5. Quality Control/Assurance:
a. List and details of key personnel to be assigned to the project and a list of previous
projects completed of similar in scope and type to the work indicated.
b. List of tests and inspections included.
6. Items of non-compliance with the specification.
7. Proposed fabricators and installers.

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1.4 CONTRACT ACTION SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each type of product indicated, including finishing materials.

1. Structural steel primer, intermediate and finish paint systems. Submit paint
manufacturer's certification that specified paint will achieve required slip coefficient for
friction type connections and complies with referenced standards.
2. Shrinkage-resistant grout.

B. LEED Submittals:

1. Product Data for Credit EQ 4.1: For paints, primers, coatings, adhesives and sealants,
required to have low VOC content.
2. Product Data for Credit MR 4: For products required to have recycled content.

C. Shop Drawings: Show fabrication of AESS components. Shop Drawings for structural steel
may be used for AESS provided items of AESS are specifically identified and requirements
below are met for AESS.

1. Include details of cuts, connections, splices, camber, holes, and other pertinent data.
2. Include embedment drawings.
3. Indicate welds by standard AWS symbols, distinguishing between shop and field welds,
and show size, length, and type of each weld. Show backing bars that are to be removed
and supplemental fillet welds where backing bars are to remain. Indicate grinding, finish,
and profile of welds.
4. Indicate type, size, and length of bolts, distinguishing between shop and field bolts.
Identify pretensioned and slip-critical high-strength bolted connections. Indicate
orientation of bolt heads.
5. Indicate exposed surfaces and edges and surface preparation being used.
6. Indicate special tolerances and erection requirements.

D. Samples: Submit finished samples of AESS category to set quality standards for exposed welds,
bolts and finishes.

1. Two steel plates, 9.5 by 200 by 100 mm, with long edges joined by a groove weld, and
with weld ground smooth.
2. Steel plate, 9.5 by 200 by 200 mm, with one end of a short length of rectangular steel
tube, 100 by 150 by 9.5 mm, welded to plate with a continuous fillet weld, and with weld
ground smooth and blended.
3. Two bolted connections illustrating bolt heads, nuts, washers and threads, and alignment
of bolts in close proximity.
4. Round steel tube or pipe, of typical diameter, with end of another round steel tube or
pipe, of typical diameter, welded to its side at a 45-degree angle with a continuous fillet
weld, and with weld ground smooth and blended. Include a sample of a reprepresentative
continuous fillet weld joining two tubes or pipes, finished in accordance with AESS
Category 3 AESS.

E. Delegated Design Submittal: Submit calculations of connections according to the requirements


indicated. Calculations shall bear the seal of a qualified professional egineer licensed in the
place where the project is located, and who is responsible for their preparation.

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1.5 CONTRACT INFORMATIONAL SUBMITTALS

A. Qualification Data: For Installer, fabricator and paint applicator

B. Welders’ certificates.

C. Source quality-control reports.

D. Field quality-control reports.

1.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Installer Qualifications: A qualified company specializing in performing the work of this section
with minimum five years documented experience or, an AISC-Certified Erector, Category CSE.

B. Fabricator Qualifications: A qualified company specializing in manufacturing the Products


specified in this section with minimum five years documented experience or, an AISC-Certified
Plant, Category STD.

C. Shop-Painting Applicators: Qualified according to SSPC-QP 3, "Standard Procedure for


Evaluating Qualifications of Shop Painting Applicators."

D. Reference Standards: Except as modified by governing codes and by the Contract Documents,
comply with the applicable provisions and recommendations of the following:

1. AISC "Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for
Buildings" (including all supplements).
2. AISC "Specification for Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel".
3. AISC "Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges", except in Paragraph
4.2.1, delete the first and second sentences.
4. Industrial Fasteners Institute "Fastener Standards Book".
5. AISC "Specifications for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts".
6. AWS D1.1 "Structural Welding Code".
7. SSPC "Steel Structures Painting Manual, Volume 2, Systems and Specifications".
8. Where the language in the documents specified is in the form of a recommendation or
suggestion, such recommendations or suggestions shall be deemed to be mandatory under
this Contract.

E. Mockups: Build mockups of AESS to set quality standards for fabrication and installation.

1. Build mockup of typical portion of AESS as shown on Drawings.


2. Demonstrate proposed range of aesthetic effects regarding each element.
3. Provide finished surfaces, including specified surface preparation, priming and field
painting.
4. Mock-ups shall be representative of the finished work in all respects.
5. Replace unsatisfactory work as directed until final acceptance by the Engineer.
6. Maintain accepted mock-ups throughout Project construction.
7. Mock-up assemblies will be used as a standard for judging acceptability of Work on the
Project.
8. Approved mockups may become part of the completed Work if undisturbed at time of
Substantial Completion.

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F. Preinstallation Meeting:

1. Arrange and conduct meeting at Project site at least 2 weeks prior to the starting of AESS
fabrication operations.
2. Require attendance of Engineer, installer, fabricator, primer manufacturer’s
representatives, painting manufacturer’s field representatives and installers of related
work.
3. Review shipping, special handling, attachment of safety cables and temporary erection
bracing, touch up painting, protection, sequence of work, and other requirements for
AESS.

1.7 SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL

A. Source Quality Control: Testing and inspection of architecturally exposed structural steel will
be performed by a testing agency retained by the Owner, as specified in . Source Quality
Control in Division 05 Section “Structural Steel.”

1.8 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

1. Field Quality Control: Consultant will observe AESS in place to determine acceptability
relating to aesthetic effects, including appearance quality of welds, bolts and surface
finishes including locations.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Performance Criteria: Architecturally exposed structural steel, serves as a support for the
exterior walls and is subject to compliance with performance criteria shown and specified for
the exterior walls. Coordinate with performance criteria on drawings, or specified in Division
08, exterior wall sections as required to provide a complete installation complying with
performance criteria.

B. Design of Members and Connections: Details shown are typical and apply to similar
conditions, unless otherwise indicated. Verify dimensions at the site without causing a delay in
the work. Dimensions are shown based on an assumed design temperature of 21 deg. C.
Fabrication and erection procedures shall take into account the ambient temperature range at the
time of the respective operations.

C. Appearance:

1. Set AESS structural frames accurately to lines and elevations indicated, and free of for
twists, kinks, warping, gouges, and other imperfections, and compliant with specified
requirements.
2. Treatment of Exposed Bolts: Conceal bolts to greatest extent possible. Where exposed
bolts are permitted, use minimal number of bolts, orient in acceptable layout and finish as
selected by Engineer.
3. Finished shop and field-applied touch-up painting shall completely cover surfaces to
provide a smooth, opaque surface of uniform finish, color, appearance, and coverage.

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Cloudiness, spotting, holidays, laps, brush marks, runs, sags, ropiness, or other surface
imperfections are not acceptable.

D. Erection Tolerances:

1. Individual Pieces: Plumbed, leveled and aligned in accordance with the requirements of
the "Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges" except as follows:
a. Plumbness of individual columns shall be held to 1:1000.
b. All measurements relating to the above shall be on the theoretical centerline of the
columns.

2.2 MATERIALS

A. Architecturally Exposed Structural Steel: ASTM A36 unless otherwise indicated.

B. Steel Tubing: ASTM A500, Grade B, custom-formed to profiles and radii indicated.

C. Other Materials: Comply with the requirements Division 05 Section “Structural Steel”,
supplemented by the requirements of this Section.

2.3 SHOP PAINTING

A. Apply prime coats, intermediate coats and finish coats of paint, utilizing contrasting colors
between primer and intermediate coats, to maximum extent possible, in the shop; minimize field
touch painting. Coordinate commencement of painting with requirements of Part 1 “Source
Quality Control” article.

B. Prepare surfaces and apply materials in compliance with paint manufacturer’s instructions;
prepare surfaces to SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3 commercial blast-cleaning, or better and provide
24 hours' drying before recoating.

C. Block out high-strength bolted connections after receiving prime coats, for finishing with
specified intermediate and final coats of paint in the field.

D. Provide the following:

1. Zinc rich primer in a crosslinked epoxy or organic resin, two coats, using one of the
following:

a. "859" (Carboline Co.); 2.5 - 4.0 mils minimum dry film thickness.
b. "90-97 Tneme-Zinc" (Tnemec Company, Inc.); 2.5 - 3.5 mils minimum dry film
thickness.
c. "Amercoat 68HS" (Ameron Protective Coatings), 3 mils minimum dry film
thickness.

2. Intermediate Coat: Compatible with, and of the same manufacturer as, the primer.
Provide the respective dry film thickness specified; satin gloss finish coat; using one of
the following:

a. "Carboguard 888" (Carboline Co.). 4.0 - 6.0 mils dry film thickness.

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b. "Tnemec 69 Hi-Build Epoxoline II" (Tnemec Co. Inc.); 4.0 - 6.0 mils dry film
thickness.
c. "Amerlock 400" (Ameron). 5.0 - 8.0 mils dry film thickness.

3. Final Coat: Compatible with, and of the same manufacturer as, the primer. Provide the
respective dry film thickness specified; satin finish coat; one of the following:

a. "Carbothane 133 Series " (Carboline Co.). 3.0 - 5.0 mils dry film thickness.
b. "Series 175 Endura-Shield III" (Tnemec Co. Inc.); 3.0 - 5.0 mils dry film
thickness.
c. "Amershield" (Ameron Products). 4.0 - 5.0 mils dry film thickness.
E. Field Touch Paint: Same materials as used for shop painting to comply with SSPC-PA 1 for
touching up shop-painted surfaces; clean and prepare surfaces by SSPC-SP 2 hand-tool cleaning
or SSPC-SP 3 power-tool cleaning.

2.4 FABRICATION
A. Shop fabricate and assemble AESS to the maximum extent possible. Fabricate items of
Architecturally exposed structural steel in accordance with AISC Specifications and as
indicated on final shop drawings.

1. Welded members and componenents to greatest extent possible; minimize field weling
and bolting.
2. Where finishing is required, complete assembly, including welding of units, before start
of finishing operations. Provide finish surfaces of members exposed in final structure
free of markings, burrs, and other defects.

B. Architecturally exposed structural steel members including built-up members shall conform to
the tolerance requirements specified in "Specifications for Architecturally Exposed Structural
Steel". Grind abrasions and other defects where finished appearance will be affected.
C. Curved Members: Fabricate indicated members to curved shape by rolling to final shape in
fabrication shop.

1. Distortion of webs, stems, outstanding flanges, and legs of angles shall not be visible
from a distance of 6 m under any lighting conditions.
2. Tolerances for walls of hollow steel sections after rolling shall be approximately 13 mm.

D. Bolt Holes: Cut, drill, or punch standard bolt holes perpendicular to metal surfacesnot more that
1/16 in. larger than the connector diameter. Do not make or enlarge holes by burning.
Remove outside burrs resulting from drilling operations.
E. Fill dents in architecturally exposed structural steel with metallic filler and grind flush and
smooth.
F. Holes: Provide holes, threaded-studs and nuts required for securing other work to structural
steel and for other work to pass through steel framing members.

PART 3 - EXECUTION (NOT USED)

END OF SECTION 05121

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SECTION 05500 - METAL FABRICATIONS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. Section Includes:

1. Steel framing and supports for overhead doors.


2. Steel framing and supports for applications where framing and supports are not
specified in other Sections.
3. Metal ladders.
4. Metal ships' ladders.
5. Metal floor plate and supports.
6. Miscellaneous steel trim including steel angle corner guards.
7. Metal bollards.
8. Pipe guards.
9. Abrasive metal nosings.
10. Loose bearing and leveling plates for applications where they are not specified in
other Sections.

B. Products furnished, but not installed, under this Section:

1. Anchor bolts, steel pipe sleeves, slotted-channel inserts, and wedge-type inserts
indicated to be cast into concrete or built into unit masonry.
2. Steel weld plates and angles for casting into concrete for applications where they are
not specified in other Sections.

C. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 3 Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete" for installing anchor bolts, steel pipe
sleeves, slotted-channel inserts, wedge-type inserts and other items cast into concrete.
3. Division 4 Section "Unit Masonry Assemblies" for installing anchor bolts, and other
items built into unit masonry.
4. Division 5 Section "Pipe and Tube Railings."
5. Division 5 Section "Gratings."
6. Division 5 Section "Ornamental Railings."

1.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Delegated Design: Design ladders, including comprehensive engineering analysis by a


qualified professional engineer, using performance requirements and design criteria
indicated.

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B. Thermal Movements: Allow for thermal movements from ambient and surface temperature
changes acting on exterior metal fabrications by preventing buckling, opening of joints,
overstressing of components, failure of connections, and other detrimental effects.

1. Temperature Change: 67 deg C, ambient; 100 deg C, material surfaces.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For the following:

1. Nonslip aggregates and nonslip-aggregate surface finishes.


2. Metal nosings and treads.
3. Paint products.
4. Grout.

B. Shop Drawings: Show fabrication and installation details for metal fabrications.

1. Include plans, elevations, sections, and details of metal fabrications and their
connections. Show anchorage and accessory items.

C. Delegated-Design Submittal: For installed products indicated to comply with performance


requirements and design criteria, including analysis data signed and sealed by the qualified
professional engineer responsible for their preparation.

D. Qualification Data: For qualified professional engineer.

E. Mill Certificates: Signed by manufacturers of stainless-steel certifying that products


furnished comply with requirements.

F. Welding certificates.

G. Paint Compatibility Certificates: From manufacturers of topcoats applied over shop primers
certifying that shop primers are compatible with topcoats.

H. Warranty: Sample copy of manufacturer's proposed warranty complying with specified re-
quirements, and stating obligations, remedies, limitations, and exclusions of warranty.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Welding Qualifications: Qualify procedures and personnel according to AWS D1.1/D1.1M,


"Structural Welding Code - Steel."

B. Welding Qualifications: Qualify procedures and personnel according to the following:

1. AWS D1.1/D1.1M, "Structural Welding Code - Steel."


2. AWS D1.2/D1.2M, "Structural Welding Code - Aluminum."
3. AWS D1.6, "Structural Welding Code - Stainless Steel."

1.6 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Field Measurements: Verify actual locations of walls and other construction contiguous
with metal fabrications by field measurements before fabrication.

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1.7 COORDINATION

A. Coordinate selection of shop primers with topcoats to be applied over them. Comply with
paint and coating manufacturers' written recommendations to ensure that shop primers and
topcoats are compatible with one another.

B. Coordinate installation of anchorages and steel weld plates and angles for casting into
concrete. Furnish setting drawings, templates, and directions for installing anchorages,
including sleeves, concrete inserts, anchor bolts, and items with integral anchors, that are to
be embedded in concrete or masonry. Deliver such items to Project site in time for
installation.

1.8 WARRANTY

A. Metal Fabrications Warranty: Provide complete warranty in which Manufacturer, Contractor


and Installer are jointly and severally responsible and agree to repair or replace without
limitations, all or any part of the metal fabrications specified in this section which fails or
becomes defective in materials or workmanship within specified warranty period.

1. All metal fabrications are guaranteed to be of good material and workmanship and
free from defects that render it unserviceable for the use for which it is intended.
2. Warranty shall also include:

a. Installation and finishing that may be required due to repair or replacement of


defective metal fabrications.
b. Metal, sealants, insulation, fasteners, and all other components of metal
fabrications specified in this section.

3. Failure includes, but is not limited to:

a. Deterioration in metal fabrications materials and coatings; other than due to


normal ageing and weathering; and any defects in sealants, fixings, coverings
and other components of the work.

4. To be protected by the guarantee, metal fabrications products must be stored suitable


dry enclosure recommended and approved by the manufacturer of metal fabrications
items.
5. Warranty Period: five (5) years Total Warranty from date of Substantial Completion.

B. Special Warranty for Metal Finishes: Provide written warranty signed by Contractor and
backed up by coating Manufacturer in which the contractor agrees to repair finishes that fail
in materials or workmanship within specified warranty period. Failures include, but are not
limited to, the following:

1. Cracking.
2. Checking.
3. Peeling.
4. Chalking: in excess of a No. 8 rating when tested according to ASTM D 4214
5. Crazing.
6. Color Fading: more than 5 Hunter units when tested according to ASTM D 2244
7. Color retention.

C. Warranty Period for Metal Finishes: 10 years for clear anodic finish, from date of
Substantial Completion.

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PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 METALS, GENERAL

A. Metal Surfaces, General: Provide materials with smooth, flat surfaces unless otherwise
indicated. For metal fabrications exposed to view in the completed Work, provide materials
without seam marks, roller marks, rolled trade names, or blemishes.

2.2 FERROUS METALS

A. Steel Plates, Shapes, and Bars: ASTM A 36/A 36M.

B. Stainless-Steel Sheet, Strip, and Plate: ASTM A 240/A 240M or ASTM A 666, Type 304.

C. Stainless-Steel Bars and Shapes: ASTM A 276, Type 304.

D. Rolled-Steel Floor Plate: ASTM A 786/A 786M, rolled from plate complying with
ASTM A 36/A 36M or ASTM A 283/A 283M, Grade C or D.

E. Rolled-Stainless-Steel Floor Plate: ASTM A 793.

F. Steel Tubing: ASTM A 500, cold-formed steel tubing.

G. Steel Pipe: ASTM A 53/A 53M, standard weight (Schedule 40) unless otherwise indicated.

H. Slotted Channel Framing: Cold-formed metal box channels (struts) complying with
MFMA-4.

1. Size of Channels: As indicated.


2. Material: Galvanized steel, ASTM A 653/A 653M, commercial steel, Type B, with
Z275 coating; 2.8-mm nominal thickness.
3. Material: Cold-rolled steel, ASTM A 1008/A 1008M, commercial steel, Type B; 2.5-
mm minimum thickness; hot-dip galvanized after fabrication.

I. Cast Iron: Either gray iron, ASTM A 48/A 48M, or malleable iron, ASTM A 47/A 47M,
unless otherwise indicated.

2.3 NONFERROUS METALS

A. Aluminum Plate and Sheet: ASTM B 209M, Alloy 6061-T6.

B. Aluminum Extrusions: ASTM B 221M, Alloy 6063-T6.

C. Aluminum-Alloy Rolled Tread Plate: ASTM B 632/B 632M, Alloy 6061-T6.

D. Aluminum Castings: ASTM B 26/B 26M, Alloy 443.0-F.

E. Bronze Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Bars: ASTM B 36/B 36M, Alloy UNS No. C28000 (muntz
metal, 60 percent copper).

F. Bronze Extrusions: ASTM B 455, Alloy UNS No. C38500 (extruded architectural bronze).

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G. Bronze Castings: ASTM B 584, Alloy UNS No. C83600 (leaded red brass) or No. C84400
(leaded semired brass).

H. Nickel Silver Extrusions: ASTM B 151/B 151M, Alloy UNS No. C74500.

I. Nickel Silver Castings: ASTM B 584, Alloy UNS No. C97600 (20 percent leaded nickel
bronze).

2.4 FASTENERS

A. General: Unless otherwise indicated, provide Type 304 stainless-steel fasteners for exterior
use and zinc-plated fasteners with coating complying with ASTM B 633 or
ASTM F 1941M, Class Fe/Zn 5, at exterior walls. Select fasteners for type, grade, and class
required.

1. Provide stainless-steel fasteners for fastening aluminum.


2. Provide stainless-steel fasteners for fastening stainless steel.
3. Provide stainless-steel fasteners for fastening nickel silver.
4. Provide bronze fasteners for fastening bronze.

B. Steel Bolts and Nuts: Regular hexagon-head bolts, ASTM F 568M, Property Class 4.6; with
hex nuts, ASTM A 563M; and, where indicated, flat washers.

C. Steel Bolts and Nuts: Regular hexagon-head bolts, ASTM A 325M, Type 3; with hex nuts,
ASTM A 563M, Class 8S3; and, where indicated, flat washers.

D. Stainless-Steel Bolts and Nuts: Regular hexagon-head annealed stainless-steel bolts,


ASTM F 738M; with hex nuts, ASTM F 836M; and, where indicated, flat washers; Alloy
Group A1.

E. Anchor Bolts: ASTM F 1554, Grade 36, of dimensions indicated; with nuts, ASTM A 563;
and, where indicated, flat washers.

1. Hot-dip galvanize or provide mechanically deposited, zinc coating where item being
fastened is indicated to be galvanized.

F. Eyebolts: ASTM A 489.

G. Machine Screws: ASME B18.6.7M.

H. Lag Screws: ASME B18.2.3.8M.

I. Wood Screws: Flat head, ASME B18.6.1.

J. Plain Washers: Round, ASME B18.22M.

K. Lock Washers: Helical, spring type, ASME B18.21.2M.

L. Anchors, General: Anchors capable of sustaining, without failure, a load equal to six times
the load imposed when installed in unit masonry and four times the load imposed when
installed in concrete, as determined by testing according to ASTM E 488, conducted by a
qualified independent testing agency.

M. Cast-in-Place Anchors in Concrete: Either threaded type or wedge type unless otherwise
indicated; galvanized ferrous castings, either ASTM A 47/A 47M malleable iron or

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ASTM A 27/A 27M cast steel. Provide bolts, washers, and shims as needed, all hot-dip
galvanized per ASTM F 2329.

N. Post-Installed Anchors: Torque-controlled expansion anchors or chemical anchors.

1. Material for Interior Locations: Carbon-steel components zinc plated to comply with
ASTM B 633 or ASTM F 1941M, Class Fe/Zn 5, unless otherwise indicated.
2. Material for Exterior Locations and where Stainless Steel is Indicated: Alloy Group
A4 stainless-steel bolts, ASTM F 738M, and nuts, ASTM F 836M.

O. Slotted-Channel Inserts: Cold-formed, hot-dip galvanized-steel box channels (struts)


complying with MFMA-4, 41 by 22 mm by length indicated with anchor straps or studs not
less than 75 mm long at not more than 200 mm o.c. Provide with temporary filler and tee-
head bolts, complete with washers and nuts, all zinc-plated to comply with ASTM B 633,
Class Fe/Zn 5, as needed for fastening to inserts.

2.5 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS

A. Welding Rods and Bare Electrodes: Select according to AWS specifications for metal alloy
welded.

B. Shop Primers: Provide primers that comply with Division 9 Section "High-Performance
Coatings."

C. Galvanizing Repair Paint: High-zinc-dust-content paint complying with SSPC-Paint 20 and


compatible with paints specified to be used over it.

D. Bituminous Paint: Cold-applied asphalt emulsion complying with ASTM D 1187.

E. Nonshrink, Metallic Grout: Factory-packaged, ferrous-aggregate grout complying with


ASTM C 1107, specifically recommended by manufacturer for heavy-duty loading
applications.

F. Nonshrink, Nonmetallic Grout: Factory-packaged, nonstaining, noncorrosive, nongaseous


grout complying with ASTM C 1107. Provide grout specifically recommended by
manufacturer for interior and exterior applications.

G. Concrete: Comply with requirements in Division 3 Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete" for


normal-weight, air-entrained, concrete with a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 20
MPa.

2.6 FABRICATION, GENERAL

A. Shop Assembly: Preassemble items in the shop to greatest extent possible. Disassemble
units only as necessary for shipping and handling limitations. Use connections that
maintain structural value of joined pieces. Clearly mark units for reassembly and
coordinated installation.

B. Cut, drill, and punch metals cleanly and accurately. Remove burrs and ease edges to a
radius of approximately 1 mm unless otherwise indicated. Remove sharp or rough areas on
exposed surfaces.

C. Form bent-metal corners to smallest radius possible without causing grain separation or
otherwise impairing work.

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D. Form exposed work with accurate angles and surfaces and straight edges.

E. Weld corners and seams continuously to comply with the following:

1. Use materials and methods that minimize distortion and develop strength and
corrosion resistance of base metals.
2. Obtain fusion without undercut or overlap.
3. Remove welding flux immediately.
4. At exposed connections, finish exposed welds and surfaces smooth and blended so no
roughness shows after finishing and contour of welded surface matches that of
adjacent surface.

F. Form exposed connections with hairline joints, flush and smooth, using concealed fasteners
or welds where possible. Where exposed fasteners are required, use Phillips flat-head
(countersunk) fasteners unless otherwise indicated. Locate joints where least conspicuous.

G. Fabricate seams and other connections that will be exposed to weather in a manner to
exclude water. Provide weep holes where water may accumulate.

H. Cut, reinforce, drill, and tap metal fabrications as indicated to receive finish hardware,
screws, and similar items.

I. Provide for anchorage of type indicated; coordinate with supporting structure. Space
anchoring devices to secure metal fabrications rigidly in place and to support indicated
loads.

1. Where units are indicated to be cast into concrete or built into masonry, equip with
integrally welded steel strap anchors, 3.2 by 38 mm, with a minimum 150-mm
embedment and 50-mm hook, not less than 200 mm from ends and corners of units
and 600 mm o.c., unless otherwise indicated.

2.7 MISCELLANEOUS FRAMING AND SUPPORTS

A. General: Provide steel framing and supports not specified in other Sections as needed to
complete the Work.

B. Fabricate units from steel shapes, plates, and bars of welded construction unless otherwise
indicated. Fabricate to sizes, shapes, and profiles indicated and as necessary to receive
adjacent construction.

1. Fabricate units from slotted channel framing where indicated.


2. Furnish inserts for units installed after concrete is placed.

C. Galvanize miscellaneous framing and supports where indicated.

D. Prime miscellaneous framing and supports with primer specified in Division 9 Section
"High-Performance Coatings" where indicated.

2.8 METAL LADDERS

A. General:

1. Comply with ANSI A14.3 unless otherwise indicated.

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B. Steel Ladders:

1. Space siderails 457 mm apart unless otherwise indicated.


2. Siderails: Continuous, 12.7-by-64-mm steel flat bars, with eased edges.
3. Rungs: 19-mm- diameter steel bars.
4. Fit rungs in centerline of siderails; plug-weld and grind smooth on outer rail faces.
5. Provide nonslip surfaces on top of each rung by coating with abrasive material
metallically bonded to rung.

a. Products: Subject to compliance with requirements, available products that


may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1) IKG Industries, a division of Harsco Corporation; Mebac.


2) SlipNOT Metal Safety Flooring, a W. S. Molnar company; SlipNOT.

6. Provide platforms as indicated fabricated from welded or pressure-locked steel bar


grating, supported by steel angles. Limit openings in gratings to no more than 12 mm
in least dimension.
7. Support each ladder at top and bottom and not more than 1500 mm o.c. with welded
or bolted steel brackets.
8. Galvanizeladders, including brackets and fasteners.
9. Primeladders, including brackets and fasteners, with primer specified in Division 9
Section "High-Performance Coatings."

2.9 METAL SHIPS' LADDERS

A. Provide metal ships' ladders where indicated. Fabricate of open-type construction with
channel or plate stringers and pipe and tube railings unless otherwise indicated. Provide
brackets and fittings for installation.

1. Fabricate ships' ladders, including railings from steel.


2. Fabricate treads and platforms from welded or pressure-locked steel bar grating.
Limit openings in gratings to no more than 12 mm in least dimension.
3. Fabricate treads and platforms from rolled-steel floor plate.
4. Comply with applicable railing requirements in Division 5 Section "Pipe and Tube
Railings."

B. Galvanize steel ships' ladders, including treads, railings, brackets, and fasteners.

C. Prime steel ships' ladders, including treads, railings, brackets, and fasteners, with primer
specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings."

2.10 METAL FLOOR PLATE

A. Fabricate from rolled-steel floor plate of thickness indicated below:

1. Thickness: As indicated.

B. Provide grating sections where indicated fabricated from welded or pressure-locked steel
bar grating. Limit openings in gratings to no more than 12 mm in least dimension.

C. Provide steel angle supports as indicated.

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D. Include steel angle stiffeners, and fixed and removable sections as indicated.

E. Provide flush steel bar drop handles for lifting removable sections, one at each end of each
section.

2.11 MISCELLANEOUS STEEL TRIM

A. Unless otherwise indicated, fabricate units from steel shapes, plates, and bars of profiles
shown with continuously welded joints and smooth exposed edges. Miter corners and use
concealed field splices where possible.

B. Provide cutouts, fittings, and anchorages as needed to coordinate assembly and installation
with other work.

1. Provide with integrally welded steel strap anchors for embedding in concrete or
masonry construction.

C. Galvanize miscellaneous steel trim.

D. Prime miscellaneous steel trim with primer specified in Division 9 Section "High-
Performance Coatings."

2.12 METAL BOLLARDS

A. Fabricate metal bollards from Schedule 40 steel pipe .

1. Cap bollards with 6.4-mm- thick steel plate.


2. Where bollards are indicated to receive controls for door operators, provide necessary
cutouts for controls and holes for wire.
3. Where bollards are indicated to receive light fixtures, provide necessary cutouts for
fixtures and holes for wire.

B. Fabricate bollards with 9.5-mm- thick steel baseplates for bolting to concrete slab. Drill
baseplates at all four corners for 19-mm anchor bolts.

1. Where bollards are to be anchored to sloping concrete slabs, angle baseplates for
plumb alignment of bollards.

C. Fabricate sleeves for bollard anchorage from steel pipe or tubing with 6.4-mm- thick steel
plate welded to bottom of sleeve. Make sleeves not less than 200 mm deep and 19 mm
larger than OD of bollard.

D. Fabricate internal sleeves for removable bollards from Schedule 40 steel pipe or 6.4-mm
wall-thickness steel tubing with an OD approximately 1.5 mm less than ID of bollards.
Match drill sleeve and bollard for 19 mm steel machine bolt.

E. Prime bollards with primer specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings."

2.13 PIPE GUARDS

A. Fabricate pipe guards from 9.5-mm- thick by 300-mm- wide steel plate, bent to fit flat
against the wall or column at both ends and to fit around pipe with 50-mm clearance
between pipe and pipe guard. Drill each end for two 19-mm anchor bolts.

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B. Galvanize pipe guards.

C. Prime pipe guards with primer specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance


Coatings."

2.14 ABRASIVE METAL NOSINGS

A. Extruded Units: Aluminum, with abrasive filler consisting of aluminum oxide, silicon
carbide, or a combination of both, in an epoxy-resin binder. Fabricate units in lengths
necessary to accurately fit openings or conditions.

1. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers


offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited
to, the following:

a. ACL Industries, Inc.


b. American Safety Tread Co., Inc.
c. Amstep Products.
d. Armstrong Products, Inc.
e. Balco Inc.
f. Granite State Casting Co.
g. Wooster Products Inc.

2. Provide ribbed units, with abrasive filler strips projecting 1.5 mm above aluminum
extrusion.
3. Nosings: Square-back units, 75 mm wide, for casting into concrete steps unless
otherwise indicated.

B. Drill for mechanical anchors and countersink. Locate holes not more than 100 mm from
ends and not more than 300 mm o.c., evenly spaced between ends, unless otherwise
indicated. Provide closer spacing if recommended by manufacturer.

1. Provide two rows of holes for units more than 125 mm wide, with two holes aligned
at ends and intermediate holes staggered.

C. Apply clear lacquer to concealed surfaces of extruded units.

2.15 LOOSE BEARING AND LEVELING PLATES

A. Provide loose bearing and leveling plates for steel items bearing on masonry or concrete
construction. Drill plates to receive anchor bolts and for grouting.

B. Galvanize plates.

C. Prime plates with primer specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings."

2.16 STEEL WELD PLATES AND ANGLES

A. Provide steel weld plates and angles not specified in other Sections, for items supported
from concrete construction as needed to complete the Work. Provide each unit with no
fewer than two integrally welded steel strap anchors for embedding in concrete.

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2.17 FINISHES, GENERAL

A. Comply with NAAMM's "Metal Finishes Manual for Architectural and Metal Products" for
recommendations for applying and designating finishes.

B. Finish metal fabrications after assembly.

C. Finish exposed surfaces to remove tool and die marks and stretch lines, and to blend into
surrounding surface.

2.18 STEEL AND IRON FINISHES

A. Galvanizing: Hot-dip galvanize items as indicated to comply with ASTM A 153/A 153M
for steel and iron hardware and with ASTM A 123/A 123M for other steel and iron
products.

1. Do not quench or apply post galvanizing treatments that might interfere with paint
adhesion.

B. Shop prime iron and steel items unless they are to be embedded in concrete, sprayed-on
fireproofing, or masonry, or unless otherwise indicated.

1. Shop prime with primers specified in Division 9 painting Sections unless primers
specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings" are indicated.

C. Preparation for Shop Priming: Prepare surfaces to comply with requirements indicated
below:

1. Exterior Items: SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3, "Commercial Blast Cleaning."


2. Items Indicated to Receive Zinc-Rich Primer: SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3,
"Commercial Blast Cleaning."
3. Items Indicated to Receive Primers Specified in Division 9 Section "High-
Performance Coatings": SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3, "Commercial Blast Cleaning."
4. Other Items: SSPC-SP 3, "Power Tool Cleaning."

D. Shop Priming: Apply shop primer to comply with SSPC-PA 1, "Paint Application
Specification No. 1: Shop, Field, and Maintenance Painting of Steel," for shop painting.

1. Stripe paint corners, crevices, bolts, welds, and sharp edges.

2. Shop prime uncoated railings with primers specified in Division 9 painting Sections
unless primers specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings" are
indicated.

E. Shop-Painted Finish: Comply with Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings."

1. Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

2.19 STAINLESS-STEEL FINISHES

A. Remove tool and die marks and stretch lines or blend into finish.

B. Bright, Directional Satin: No. 4 finish.

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C. When removing tool and die marks is completed, passivate and rinse surfaces. Remove
embedded foreign matter and leave surfaces chemically clean.

2.20 ALUMINUM FINISHES

A. Finish designations prefixed by AA comply with the system established by the Aluminum
Association for designating aluminum finishes.

B. As-Fabricated Finish for concealed: AA-M10 (Mechanical Finish: as fabricated,


unspecified).

C. Class I, Clear Anodic Finish: AA-M12C22A41 (Mechanical Finish: nonspecular as


fabricated; Chemical Finish: etched, medium matte; Anodic Coating: Architectural
Class I, clear coating 0.018 mm or thicker) complying with AAMA 611.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 INSTALLATION, GENERAL

A. Cutting, Fitting, and Placement: Perform cutting, drilling, and fitting required for installing
metal fabrications. Set metal fabrications accurately in location, alignment, and elevation;
with edges and surfaces level, plumb, true, and free of rack; and measured from established
lines and levels.

B. Fit exposed connections accurately together to form hairline joints. Weld connections that
are not to be left as exposed joints but cannot be shop welded because of shipping size
limitations. Do not weld, cut, or abrade surfaces of exterior units that have been hot-dip
galvanized after fabrication and are for bolted or screwed field connections.

C. Field Welding: Comply with the following requirements:

1. Use materials and methods that minimize distortion and develop strength and
corrosion resistance of base metals.
2. Obtain fusion without undercut or overlap.
3. Remove welding flux immediately.
4. At exposed connections, finish exposed welds and surfaces smooth and blended so no
roughness shows after finishing and contour of welded surface matches that of
adjacent surface.

D. Fastening to In-Place Construction: Provide anchorage devices and fasteners where metal
fabrications are required to be fastened to in-place construction. Provide threaded fasteners
for use with concrete and masonry inserts, toggle bolts, through bolts, lag screws, wood
screws, and other connectors.

E. Provide temporary bracing or anchors in formwork for items that are to be built into
concrete, masonry, or similar construction.

F. Corrosion Protection: Coat concealed surfaces of aluminum that will come into contact
with grout, concrete, masonry, wood, or dissimilar metals with the following:

1. Cast Aluminum: Heavy coat of bituminous paint.


2. Extruded Aluminum: Two coats of clear lacquer.

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3.2 INSTALLING MISCELLANEOUS FRAMING AND SUPPORTS

A. General: Install framing and supports to comply with requirements of items being
supported, including manufacturers' written instructions and requirements indicated on Shop
Drawings.

B. Support steel girders on solid grouted masonry, concrete, or steel pipe columns. Secure
girders with anchor bolts embedded in grouted masonry or concrete or with bolts through
top plates of pipe columns.

1. Where grout space under bearing plates is indicated for girders supported on concrete
or masonry, install as specified in "Installing Bearing and Leveling Plates" Article.

C. Install pipe columns on concrete footings with grouted baseplates. Position and grout
column baseplates as specified in "Installing Bearing and Leveling Plates" Article.

1. Grout base plates of columns supporting steel girders after girders are installed and
leveled.

3.3 INSTALLING METAL BOLLARDS

A. Fill metal-capped bollards solidly with concrete and allow concrete to cure seven days
before installing.

1. Do not fill removable bollards with concrete.

B. Anchor bollards in concrete with pipe sleeves preset and anchored into concrete. Fill
annular space around bollard solidly with nonshrink, nonmetallic grout; mixed and placed to
comply with grout manufacturer's written instructions. Slope grout up approximately 3 mm
toward bollard.

C. Anchor bollards in place with concrete footings for bollards located in landscaping areas.
Center and align bollards in holes 75 mm above bottom of excavation. Place concrete and
vibrate or tamp for consolidation. Support and brace bollards in position until concrete has
cured.
D. Anchor internal sleeves for removable bollards in concrete by inserting into pipe sleeves
preset into concrete . Fill annular space around internal sleeves solidly with nonshrink,
nonmetallic grout; mixed and placed to comply with grout manufacturer's written
instructions. Slope grout up approximately 3 mm toward internal sleeve.

E. Place removable bollards over internal sleeves and secure with 19-mm machine bolts and
nuts. After tightening nuts, drill holes in bolts for inserting padlocks. Employer will furnish
padlocks.

3.4 INSTALLING PIPE GUARDS

A. Provide pipe guards at exposed vertical pipes in parking garage where not protected by
curbs or other barriers. Install by bolting to wall or column with expansion anchors.
Provide four 19-mm bolts at each pipe guard. Mount pipe guards with top edge 660 mm
above driving surface.

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3.5 INSTALLING NOSINGS

A. Center nosings on tread widths unless otherwise indicated.

B. For nosings embedded in concrete steps or curbs, align nosings flush with riser faces and
level with tread surfaces.

3.6 INSTALLING BEARING AND LEVELING PLATES

A. Clean concrete and masonry bearing surfaces of bond-reducing materials, and roughen to
improve bond to surfaces. Clean bottom surface of plates.

B. Set bearing and leveling plates on wedges, shims, or leveling nuts. After bearing members
have been positioned and plumbed, tighten anchor bolts. Do not remove wedges or shims
but, if protruding, cut off flush with edge of bearing plate before packing with grout.

1. Use nonshrink grout, either metallic or nonmetallic, in concealed locations where not
exposed to moisture; use nonshrink, nonmetallic grout in exposed locations unless
otherwise indicated.
2. Pack grout solidly between bearing surfaces and plates to ensure that no voids
remain.

3.7 ADJUSTING AND CLEANING

A. Touchup Painting: Cleaning and touchup painting of field welds, bolted connections, and
abraded areas of shop paint are specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance
Coatings."

B. Galvanized Surfaces: Clean field welds, bolted connections, and abraded areas and repair
galvanizing to comply with ASTM A 780.

END OF SECTION 05500

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

SECTION 05521 - PIPE AND TUBE RAILINGS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. Section Includes:

1. Steel pipe and tube railings.


2. Stainless-steel pipe and tube railings.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 6 Section " Miscellaneous Carpentry" for wood blocking for anchoring
railings.

1.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Delegated Design: Design railings, including comprehensive engineering analysis by a


qualified professional engineer, using performance requirements and design criteria
indicated.

B. General: In engineering railings to withstand structural loads indicated, determine allowable


design working stresses of railing materials based on the following:

1. Steel: 72 percent of minimum yield strength.


2. Stainless Steel: 60 percent of minimum yield strength.

C. Structural Performance: Railings shall withstand the effects of gravity loads and the
following loads and stresses within limits and under conditions indicated:

1. Handrails and Top Rails of Guards:

a. Uniform load of 0.73 kN/m applied in any direction.


b. Concentrated load of 0.89 kN applied in any direction.
c. Uniform and concentrated loads need not be assumed to act concurrently.

2. Infill of Guards:

a. Concentrated load of 0.22 kN applied horizontally on an area of 0.093 sq. m.


b. Infill load and other loads need not be assumed to act concurrently.

D. Thermal Movements: Allow for thermal movements from ambient and surface temperature
changes acting on exterior metal fabrications by preventing buckling, opening of joints,
overstressing of components, failure of connections, and other detrimental effects.

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1. Temperature Change: 67 deg C, ambient; 100 deg C, material surfaces.

E. Control of Corrosion: Prevent galvanic action and other forms of corrosion by insulating
metals and other materials from direct contact with incompatible materials.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For the following:

1. Manufacturer's product lines of mechanically connected railings.


2. Railing brackets.
3. Grout, anchoring cement, and paint products.

B. Shop Drawings: Include plans, elevations, sections, details, and attachments to other work.

C. Samples for Initial Selection: For products involving selection of color, texture, or
design, including mechanical finishes on stainless steel.

D. Samples for Verification: For each type of exposed finish required.

1. Sections of each distinctly different linear railing member, including handrails, top
rails, posts, and balusters.
2. Fittings and brackets.
3. Assembled Sample of railing system, made from full-size components, including top
rail, post, handrail, and infill. Sample need not be full height.

a. Show method of finishing and connecting members at intersections.

E. Delegated-Design Submittal: For installed products indicated to comply with performance


requirements and design criteria, including analysis data signed and sealed by the qualified
professional engineer responsible for their preparation.

F. Qualification Data: For qualified professional engineer and testing agency.

G. Mill Certificates: Signed by manufacturers of stainless-steel products certifying that


products furnished comply with requirements.

H. Welding certificates.

I. Paint Compatibility Certificates: From manufacturers of topcoats applied over shop primers
certifying that shop primers are compatible with topcoats.

J. Product Test Reports: Based on evaluation of comprehensive tests performed by a qualified


testing agency, according to ASTM E 894 and ASTM E 935.

K. Warranty: Sample copy of manufacturer's proposed warranty complying with specified re-
quirements, and stating obligations, remedies, limitations, and exclusions of warranty.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Source Limitations: Obtain each type of railing from single source from single
manufacturer.

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B. Welding Qualifications: Qualify procedures and personnel according to AWS D1.1/D1.1M,


"Structural Welding Code - Steel."

C. Welding Qualifications: Qualify procedures and personnel according to the following:

1. AWS D1.1/D1.1M, "Structural Welding Code - Steel."


2. AWS D1.6, "Structural Welding Code - Stainless Steel."

1.6 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Field Measurements: Verify actual locations of walls and other construction contiguous
with metal fabrications by field measurements before fabrication.

1.7 COORDINATION AND SCHEDULING

A. Coordinate selection of shop primers with topcoats to be applied over them. Comply with
paint and coating manufacturers' written recommendations to ensure that shop primers and
topcoats are compatible with one another.

B. Coordinate installation of anchorages for railings. Furnish setting drawings, templates, and
directions for installing anchorages, including sleeves, concrete inserts, anchor bolts, and
items with integral anchors, that are to be embedded in concrete or masonry. Deliver such
items to Project site in time for installation.

C. Schedule installation so wall attachments are made only to completed walls. Do not support
railings temporarily by any means that do not satisfy structural performance requirements

1.8 WARRANTY

A. Pipe and Tube Railings Warranty: Provide complete warranty in which Manufacturer,
Contractor and Installer are jointly and severally responsible and agree to repair or replace
without limitations, all or any part of the metal fabrications specified in this section which
fails or becomes defective in materials or workmanship within specified warranty period.

1. All pipe and tube railings are guaranteed to be of good material and workmanship and
free from defects that render it unserviceable for the use for which it is intended.
2. Warranty shall also include:

a. Installation and finishing that may be required due to repair or replacement of


defective metal fabrications.
b. Metal, sealants, adhesive, insulation, fasteners, and all other components of
pipe and tube railings specified in this section.

3. Failure includes, but is not limited to:

a. Deterioration in pipe and tube railings materials and coatings; other than due to
normal ageing and weathering; and any defects in adhesives, sealants, fixings,
coverings and other components of the work.

4. To be protected by the guarantee, pipe and tube railings products must be stored in a
suitable enclosure recommended and approved by the manufacturer of pipe and tube
railings items.
5. Warranty Period: five (5) years Total Warranty from date of Substantial Completion.

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PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MANUFACTURERS

A. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Steel Pipe and Tube Railings:

a. Pisor Industries, Inc.


b. Wagner, R & B, Inc.; a division of the Wagner Companies.

2. Stainless-Steel Pipe and Tube Railings:

a. Blum, Julius & Co., Inc.


b. Paragon Aquatics; Division of Pentair, Inc.
c. Pisor Industries, Inc.
d. Stainless Fabricators, Inc.
e. Sterling Dula Architectural Products, Inc.; Div. of Kane Manufacturing.
f. Tri Tech, Inc.
g. Tubular Specialties Manufacturing, Inc.
h. Tuttle Railing Systems; Div. of Tuttle Aluminum & Bronze, Inc.
i. Wagner, R & B, Inc.; a division of the Wagner Companies.

2.2 METALS, GENERAL

A. Metal Surfaces, General: Provide materials with smooth surfaces, without seam marks,
roller marks, rolled trade names, stains, discolorations, or blemishes.

B. Brackets, Flanges, and Anchors: Cast or formed metal of same type of material and finish
as supported rails unless otherwise indicated.

2.3 STEEL AND IRON

A. Tubing: ASTM A 500 (cold formed) or ASTM A 513.

B. Pipe: ASTM A 53/A 53M, Type F or Type S, Grade A, Standard Weight (Schedule 40),
unless another grade and weight are required by structural loads.

1. Provide galvanized finish for exterior installations and where indicated.

C. Plates, Shapes, and Bars: ASTM A 36/A 36M.

D. Cast Iron: Either gray iron, ASTM A 48/A 48M, or malleable iron, ASTM A 47/A 47M,
unless otherwise indicated.

2.4 STAINLESS STEEL

A. Tubing: ASTM A 554, Grade MT 316L.

B. Pipe: ASTM A 312/A 312M, Grade TP 316L.

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C. Castings: ASTM A 743/A 743M, Grade CF 8M or CF 3M.

D. Plate and Sheet: ASTM A 240/A 240M or ASTM A 666, Type 316L.

2.5 FASTENERS

A. General: Provide the following:

1. Hot-Dip Galvanized Railings: Type 304 stainless-steel or hot-dip zinc-coated steel


fasteners complying with ASTM A 153/A 153M or ASTM F 2329 for zinc coating.
2. Stainless-Steel Railings: Type 316 stainless-steel fasteners.

B. Fasteners for Anchoring Railings to Other Construction: Select fasteners of type, grade, and
class required to produce connections suitable for anchoring railings to other types of
construction indicated and capable of withstanding design loads.

C. Fasteners for Interconnecting Railing Components:

1. Provide concealed fasteners for interconnecting railing components and for attaching
them to other work, unless otherwise indicated.

D. Post-Installed Anchors: Torque-controlled expansion anchors or chemical anchors capable


of sustaining, without failure, a load equal to six times the load imposed when installed in
unit masonry and four times the load imposed when installed in concrete, as determined by
testing according to ASTM E 488, conducted by a qualified independent testing agency.

1. Material for Interior Locations: Carbon-steel components zinc-plated to comply with


ASTM B 633 or ASTM F 1941M, Class Fe/Zn 5, unless otherwise indicated.
2. Material for Exterior Locations and Where Stainless Steel is Indicated: Alloy Group
A4 stainless-steel bolts, ASTM F 738M, and nuts, ASTM F 836M.

2.6 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS

A. Welding Rods and Bare Electrodes: Select according to AWS specifications for metal alloy
welded.

1. For stainless-steel railings, provide type and alloy as recommended by producer of


metal to be welded and as required for color match, strength, and compatibility in
fabricated items.

B. Etching Cleaner for Galvanized Metal: Complying with MPI#25.

C. Galvanizing Repair Paint: High-zinc-dust-content paint complying with SSPC-Paint 20 and


compatible with paints specified to be used over it.

D. Shop Primers: Provide primers that comply with Division 9 Section "High-Performance
Coatings."

E. Intermediate Coats and Topcoats: Provide products that comply with Division 9 Section
"High-Performance Coatings."

F. Bituminous Paint: Cold-applied asphalt emulsion complying with ASTM D 1187.

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G. Nonshrink, Nonmetallic Grout: Factory-packaged, nonstaining, noncorrosive, nongaseous


grout complying with ASTM C 1107. Provide grout specifically recommended by
manufacturer for interior and exterior applications.

2.7 FABRICATION

A. General: Fabricate railings to comply with requirements indicated for design, dimensions,
member sizes and spacing, details, finish, and anchorage, but not less than that required to
support structural loads.

B. Assemble railings in the shop to greatest extent possible to minimize field splicing and
assembly. Disassemble units only as necessary for shipping and handling limitations.
Clearly mark units for reassembly and coordinated installation. Use connections that
maintain structural value of joined pieces.

C. Cut, drill, and punch metals cleanly and accurately. Remove burrs and ease edges to a
radius of approximately 1 mm unless otherwise indicated. Remove sharp or rough areas on
exposed surfaces.

D. Form work true to line and level with accurate angles and surfaces.

E. Fabricate connections that will be exposed to weather in a manner to exclude water.


Provide weep holes where water may accumulate.

F. Cut, reinforce, drill, and tap as indicated to receive finish hardware, screws, and similar
items.

G. Connections: Fabricate railings with either welded or nonwelded connections unless


otherwise indicated.

H. Welded Connections (for steel handrails): Cope components at connections to provide close
fit, or use fittings designed for this purpose. Weld all around at connections, including at
fittings.

1. Use materials and methods that minimize distortion and develop strength and
corrosion resistance of base metals.
2. Obtain fusion without undercut or overlap.
3. Remove flux immediately.
4. At exposed connections, finish exposed surfaces smooth and blended so no roughness
shows after finishing and welded surface matches contours of adjoining surfaces.

I. Nonwelded Connections (for stainless steel handrails): Connect members with concealed
mechanical fasteners and fittings. Fabricate members and fittings to produce flush, smooth,
rigid, hairline joints.

1. Fabricate splice joints for field connection using an epoxy structural adhesive if this is
manufacturer's standard splicing method.

J. Form changes in direction as follows:

1. By bending or by inserting prefabricated elbow fittings unless otherwise indicated.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

K. Bend members in jigs to produce uniform curvature for each configuration required;
maintain cross section of member throughout entire bend without buckling, twisting,
cracking, or otherwise deforming exposed surfaces of components.

L. Close exposed ends of railing members with prefabricated end fittings.

M. Provide wall returns at ends of wall-mounted handrails unless otherwise indicated. Close
ends of returns unless clearance between end of rail and wall is 6 mm or less.

N. Brackets, Flanges, Fittings, and Anchors: Provide wall brackets, flanges, miscellaneous
fittings, and anchors to interconnect railing members to other work unless otherwise
indicated.

1. At brackets and fittings fastened to plaster or gypsum board partitions, provide crush-
resistant fillers, or other means to transfer loads through wall finishes to structural
supports and prevent bracket or fitting rotation and crushing of substrate.

O. Provide inserts and other anchorage devices for connecting railings to concrete or masonry
work. Fabricate anchorage devices capable of withstanding loads imposed by railings.
Coordinate anchorage devices with supporting structure.

P. For railing posts set in concrete, provide stainless-steel sleeves not less than 150 mm long
with inside dimensions not less than 13 mm greater than outside dimensions of post, with
metal plate forming bottom closure.

Q. For removable railing posts, fabricate slip-fit sockets from stainless-steel tube or pipe whose
ID is sized for a close fit with posts; limit movement of post without lateral load, measured
at top, to not more than one-fortieth of post height. Provide socket covers designed and
fabricated to resist being dislodged.

1. Provide chain with eye, snap hook, and staple across gaps formed by removable
railing sections at locations indicated. Fabricate from same metal as railings.

R. Toe Boards: Where indicated, provide toe boards at railings around openings and at edge of
open-sided floors and platforms. Fabricate to dimensions and details indicated.

2.8 FINISHES, GENERAL

A. Comply with NAAMM's "Metal Finishes Manual for Architectural and Metal Products" for
recommendations for applying and designating finishes.

B. Protect mechanical finishes on exposed surfaces from damage by applying a strippable,


temporary protective covering before shipping.

C. Appearance of Finished Work: Variations in appearance of abutting or adjacent pieces are


acceptable if they are within one-half of the range of approved Samples. Noticeable
variations in the same piece are not acceptable. Variations in appearance of other
components are acceptable if they are within the range of approved Samples and are
assembled or installed to minimize contrast.

2.9 STEEL AND IRON FINISHES

A. Galvanized Railings:

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

1. Hot-dip galvanize steel and iron railings, including hardware, after fabrication.
2. Comply with ASTM A 123/A 123M for hot-dip galvanized railings.
3. Comply with ASTM A 153/A 153M for hot-dip galvanized hardware.
4. Do not quench or apply post galvanizing treatments that might interfere with paint
adhesion.
5. Fill vent and drain holes that will be exposed in the finished Work, unless indicated to
remain as weep holes, by plugging with zinc solder and filing off smooth.

B. For galvanized railings, provide hot-dip galvanized fittings, brackets, fasteners, sleeves, and
other ferrous components.

C. Preparing Galvanized Railings for Shop Priming: After galvanizing, thoroughly clean
railings of grease, dirt, oil, flux, and other foreign matter, and treat with etching cleaner.

D. For nongalvanized steel railings, provide nongalvanized ferrous-metal fittings, brackets,


fasteners, and sleeves, except galvanize anchors to be embedded in exterior concrete or
masonry.

E. Preparation for Shop Priming: Prepare uncoated ferrous-metal surfaces to comply with
requirements indicated below:

1. Exterior Railings: SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3, "Commercial Blast Cleaning."


2. Railings Indicated to Receive Zinc-Rich Primer: SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3,
"Commercial Blast Cleaning."
3. Railings Indicated to Receive Primers Specified in Division 9 Section "High-
Performance Coatings": SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3, "Commercial Blast Cleaning."
4. Other Railings: SSPC-SP 3, "Power Tool Cleaning."

F. Primer Application: Apply shop primer to prepared surfaces of railings unless otherwise
indicated. Comply with requirements in SSPC-PA 1, "Paint Application Specification
No. 1: Shop, Field, and Maintenance Painting of Steel," for shop painting. Primer need not
be applied to surfaces to be embedded in concrete or masonry.

1. Shop prime uncoated railings with primers specified in Division 9 Section "High-
Performance Coatings" are indicated.
2. Do not apply primer to galvanized surfaces.

G. Shop-Painted Finish: Comply with Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings."

1. Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

2.10 STAINLESS-STEEL FINISHES

A. Remove tool and die marks and stretch lines, or blend into finish.

B. Directional Satin Finish: No. 4.

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STATIONS AND BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine plaster and gypsum board assemblies, where reinforced to receive anchors, to
verify that locations of concealed reinforcements have been clearly marked for Installer.
Locate reinforcements and mark locations if not already done.

3.2 INSTALLATION, GENERAL

A. Fit exposed connections together to form tight, hairline joints.

B. Perform cutting, drilling, and fitting required for installing railings. Set railings accurately
in location, alignment, and elevation; measured from established lines and levels and free of
rack.

1. Do not weld, cut, or abrade surfaces of railing components that have been coated or
finished after fabrication and that are intended for field connection by mechanical or
other means without further cutting or fitting.
2. Set posts plumb within a tolerance of 2 mm in 1 m.
3. Align rails so variations from level for horizontal members and variations from
parallel with rake of steps and ramps for sloping members do not exceed 5 mm in 3
m.

C. Adjust railings before anchoring to ensure matching alignment at abutting joints.

D. Fastening to In-Place Construction: Use anchorage devices and fasteners where necessary
for securing railings and for properly transferring loads to in-place construction.

3.3 RAILING CONNECTIONS

A. Nonwelded Connections (for stainless steel handrails): Use mechanical or adhesive joints
for permanently connecting railing components. Seal recessed holes of exposed locking
screws using plastic cement filler colored to match finish of railings.

B. Welded Connections (for steel handrails): Use fully welded joints for permanently
connecting railing components. Comply with requirements for welded connections in
"Fabrication" Article whether welding is performed in the shop or in the field.

C. Expansion Joints: Install expansion joints at locations indicated but not farther apart than
required to accommodate thermal movement. Provide slip-joint internal sleeve extending
50 mm beyond joint on either side, fasten internal sleeve securely to one side, and locate
joint within 150 mm of post.

3.4 ANCHORING POSTS

A. Use metal sleeves preset and anchored into concrete for installing posts. After posts have
been inserted into sleeves, fill annular space between post and sleeve with nonshrink,
nonmetallic grout, mixed and placed to comply with anchoring material manufacturer's
written instructions.

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B. Form or core-drill holes not less than 125 mm deep and 20 mm larger than OD of post for
installing posts in concrete. Clean holes of loose material, insert posts, and fill annular
space between post and concrete with nonshrink, nonmetallic grout, mixed and placed to
comply with anchoring material manufacturer's written instructions.

C. Cover anchorage joint with flange of same metal as post, welded to post after placing
anchoring material.

D. Leave anchorage joint exposed with 3-mm buildup, sloped away from post.

E. Anchor posts to metal surfaces with oval flanges, angle type, or floor type as required by
conditions, connected to posts and to metal supporting members as follows:

1. For stainless-steel pipe railings, weld flanges to post and bolt to supporting surfaces.
2. For steel pipe railings, weld flanges to post and bolt to metal supporting surfaces.

F. Install removable railing sections, where indicated, in slip-fit metal sockets cast in concrete.

3.5 ATTACHING RAILINGS

A. Anchor railing ends at walls with round flanges anchored to wall construction and welded to
railing ends or connected to railing ends using nonwelded connections as applicable to type
of railing.

B. Anchor railing ends to metal surfaces with flanges bolted to metal surfaces and welded to
railing ends or connected to railing ends using nonwelded connections as applicable to type
of railing.

C. Attach railings to wall with wall brackets, except where end flanges are used. Provide
brackets with 38-mm clearance from inside face of handrail and finished wall surface.
Locate brackets as indicated or, if not indicated, at spacing required to support structural
loads.

1. Use type of bracket with flange tapped for concealed anchorage to threaded hanger
bolt.
2. Locate brackets as indicated or, if not indicated, at spacing required to support
structural loads.

D. Secure wall brackets and railing end flanges to building construction as follows:

1. For concrete and solid masonry anchorage, use drilled-in expansion shields and
hanger or lag bolts.
2. For hollow masonry anchorage, use toggle bolts.
3. For steel-framed partitions, use self-tapping screws fastened to steel framing or to
concealed steel reinforcements.
4. For steel-framed partitions, use toggle bolts installed through flanges of steel framing
or through concealed steel reinforcements.

3.6 ADJUSTING AND CLEANING

A. Clean stainless steel by washing thoroughly with clean water and soap and rinsing with
clean water.

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B. Touchup Painting: Cleaning and touchup painting of field welds, bolted connections, and
abraded areas of shop paint are specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance
Coatings."

C. Galvanized Surfaces: Clean field welds, bolted connections, and abraded areas and repair
galvanizing to comply with ASTM A 780.

3.7 PROTECTION

A. Protect finishes of railings from damage during construction period with temporary
protective coverings approved by railing manufacturer. Remove protective coverings at
time of Substantial Completion.

END OF SECTION 05521

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SECTION 05522 - ALUMINUM TUBE RAILINGS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 SUMMARY

A. Section Includes: Aluminum tube railings with aluminum mesh infill.

B. Related Requirements:

1. Division 03 Section “Cast-in-place Concrete,” for concrete surfaces to receive railings.


2. Division 05 Section “Pipe and Tube Railings,” for steel railings.

1.2 ACTION SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For the following:

1. Manufacturer's product lines of mechanically connected railings.


2. Railing brackets.
3. Grout, anchoring cement, and paint products.

B. LEED Submittals:

1. Product Data for Credit MR 4: For products required to have recycled content.

C. Shop Drawings: Include plans, elevations, sections, details, and attachments to other work.

D. Samples: For each type of exposed finish required.

1. Sections of each distinctly different linear railing member, including top rails, posts, and
infill materials.
2. Assembled Sample of railing system, made from full-size components, including top rail,
post, and infill. Sample need not be full height.

a. Show method of connecting and finishing members at intersections.

E. Delegated-Design Submittal: For railings, including analysis data signed and sealed by the
qualified professional engineer responsible for their preparation.

1.3 INFORMATIONAL SUBMITTALS

A. Qualification Data: For professional engineer, and organic-coating applicator.

B. Welding certificates.

C. Mill Certificates: Signed by manufacturers of metal products certifying that products furnished
comply with requirements.

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D. Evaluation Reports: For post-installed anchors, from ICC-ES.

1.4 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Welding Qualifications: Qualify procedures and personnel according to the following:

1. AWS D1.2/D1.2M, "Structural Welding Code - Aluminum."

B. Organic-Coating Applicator Qualifications: A firm experienced in successfully applying


organic coatings of type indicated to metals of types indicated and that employs competent
control personnel to conduct continuing, effective quality-control program to ensure compliance
with requirements.

A. Mockups: Build mockups to verify selections made under sample submittals and to
demonstrate aesthetic effects and set quality standards for fabrication and installation.

1. Build mockup of typical railing approximately one bay wide.


2. Approval of mockups does not constitute approval of deviations from the Contract
Documents contained in mockups unless Engineer specifically approves such deviations
in writing.
3. Approved mockups may become part of the completed Work if undisturbed at time of
Substantial Completion.

B. Pre-installation Meeting: Conduct meeting at Project site.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Delegated Design: Engage a qualified professional engineer to design railings, including


attachment to building construction.

B. Structural Performance: Railings, including attachment to building construction, shall


withstand the effects of gravity loads and the following loads and stresses within limits and
under conditions indicated, unless more stringent requirements are indicated, or required by
applicable code.

1. Handrails and Top Rails of Guards:

a. Uniform load of 0.73 kN/m applied in any direction.


b. Concentrated load of 0.89 kN applied in any direction.
c. Uniform and concentrated loads need not be assumed to act concurrently.

2. Infill of Guards:

a. Concentrated load of 0.22 kN applied horizontally on an area of 0.093 sq. m.


b. Infill load and other loads need not be assumed to act concurrently.

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C. Thermal Movements: Allow for thermal movements from ambient and surface temperature
changes.

1. Temperature Change (Range): 67 deg C, ambient; 100 deg C, material surfaces.

D. Installation Tolerances:

1. Posts: Plumb within a tolerance of 2 mm in 1 m.


2. Rails: Aligned so variations from level for horizontal members do not exceed 6 mm in
3.5 m.

2.2 MATERIALS, GENERAL

A. Recycled Content: Provide metal materials having recycled content in compliance with Credit
MR 4.

B. Metal Surfaces, General: Provide materials with smooth surfaces, without seam marks, roller
marks, rolled trade names, stains, discolorations, or blemishes.

2.3 ALUMINUM

A. Aluminum, General: Provide alloy and temper recommended by aluminum producer and
finisher for type of use and finish indicated, and with not less than the strength and durability
properties of alloy and temper designated below for each aluminum form required. Increase
alloy and temper values to suit structural performance requirements.

B. Extruded Square Tubing: ASTM B 221M, Alloy 6063-T5/T52.

C. Extruded Structural Round Tubing: ASTM B 429/B 429M, Alloy 6063-T6, Standard Weight
(Schedule 40) pipe.

D. Plate and Sheet: ASTM B 209M, Alloy 6061-T6. Tension-leveled, smooth aluminum sheet free
from alloy and mill stamps.

E. Die and Hand Forgings: ASTM B 247 (ASTM B 247M), Alloy 6061-T6.

F. Castings: ASTM B 26/B 26M, Alloy A356.0-T6.

G. Mesh Infill:

1. Basis of Design: Subject to compliance with requirements provide Futura 240 PC mesh
manufactured by GKD Metal Fabrics, distributed by Fryer Noble, www.fryernoble.com,
and as follows.

a. Base Metal: Aluminum, paint grade, and to comply with structural performance
requirements.

2. Mesh Perimeter Trim: Unless otherwise indicated, edge panels with minimal appearance
U-shaped channels made from aluminum sheet, not less than 1.1 mm thick; welded.
Welds not visible in final construction.

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2.4 FASTENERS AND ANCHORS

A. Fasteners for Interconnecting Railings: Provide concealed fasteners of type, grade, and class
required to produce connections suitable for securing adjoining railing sections indicated and
capable of withstanding design loads.

1. Where exposed fasteners are permitted, provide tamper-resistant flat-head machine


screws with finish matching appearance, including color, of railings.

B. Anchors for Attaching Railings to Other Construction:

1. Provide post-installed anchors to attach brackets and flanges to vertical substrates, and as
follows:

a. Torque-controlled expansion anchors capable of sustaining, without failure, a load


equal to 6 times the load imposed when installed in unit masonry and 4 times the
load imposed when installed in concrete, as determined by testing according to
ASTM E 488/E 488M, conducted by a qualified independent testing agency.
b. Material: Stainless steel, Alloy Group A1 stainless-steel bolts, ASTM F 738M, and
nuts, ASTM F 836M.

2.5 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS

A. Welding Rods and Bare Electrodes: Select according to AWS specifications for metal alloy
welded.

1. Provide type and alloy as recommended by producer of metal to be welded and as


required for color match, strength, and compatibility in fabricated items.

B. Anchoring Cement: Factory-packaged, non-shrink, non-staining, hydraulic-controlled


expansion cement formulation for mixing with water at Project site to create pourable grouting
compound for posts.

1. Water-Resistant Product: Provide formulation that is resistant to erosion from water


exposure without needing protection by a sealer or waterproof coating and that is
recommended by manufacturer for exterior use.

2.6 FABRICATION

A. General: Fabricate railings to comply with requirements indicated for design, dimensions,
member sizes and spacing, details, finish, and anchorage, but not less than that required to
support structural loads.

B. Shop weld railings in largest units possible; minimize field assembly. Use connections that
maintain structural value of joined pieces. Weld infill panels to adjoining rails and post as
indicated.

1. Cope components at connections to provide close fit. Weld all around at connections.
2. Finish exposed surfaces smooth and blended so no roughness shows after finishing and
welded surface matches contours of adjoining surfaces.

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C. Cut, drill, and punch metals cleanly and accurately. Remove burrs and ease edges to a radius of
approximately 1 mm unless otherwise indicated. Remove sharp or rough areas on exposed
surfaces.

D. Form work true to line and level with accurate angles and surfaces.

E. Fabricate connections that are exposed to weather in a manner that excludes water. Provide
weep holes where water may accumulate.

F. Form changes in direction by bending to uniform radii selected by Engineer, unless otherwise
indicated.

G. Cap flush, exposed ends of railing members.

H. Fabricate railing posts for setting in concrete. Provide stainless-steel sleeves not less than 150
mm long with inside dimensions not less than 13 mm greater than outside dimensions of post,
with metal plate forming bottom closure.

I. Brackets and Flanges: Cast or formed metal of same type of material and finish as supported
rails.

2.7 ALUMINUM FINISHES

A. High-Performance Organic Finish: Two-coat fluoropolymer finish complying with


AAMA 2605 and containing not less than 70 percent PVDF resin by weight in color coat.
Prepare, pretreat, and apply coating to exposed metal surfaces to comply with coating and resin
manufacturers' written instructions.

1. Color and Gloss: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

B. Control of Corrosion: Coat, with a heavy coat of bituminous paint, concealed surfaces of
aluminum that are in contact with grout, concrete, masonry, wood, or dissimilar metals.

1. Bituminous Paint: Cold-applied asphalt emulsion complying with


ASTM D 1187/D 1187M.

PART 3 - EXECUTION (NOT USED)

END OF SECTION 05522

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SECTION 05530 - GRATINGS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes the following:

1. Metal bar gratings.


2. Heavy-duty metal bar gratings.
3. Metal frames and supports for gratings.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings"” for painting to steel surfaces.

1.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Structural Performance: Provide gratings capable of withstanding the following structural


loads without exceeding the allowable design working stress of the materials involved, in-
cluding anchors and connections:

1. Floors: Capable of withstanding a uniform load of 11.97 kN/sq. m or a concentrated


load of 13.40 kN, whichever produces the greater stress.
2. Walkways and Elevated Platforms Used as Exits: Capable of withstanding a uniform
load of 4.79 kN/sq. m or a concentrated load of 1.33 kN on an area of 25.8 sq. cm,
whichever produces the greater stress. Limit deflection to L/360 or 6.4 mm, whi-
chever is less.
3. Sidewalks and Vehicular Driveways: Capable of withstanding a uniform load of
11.97 kN/sq. m or a concentrated load of 35.60 kN, whichever produces the greater
stress.
4. Heavy Vehicular Driveways: Capable of withstanding a uniform load of 20 kN/sq. m
or a truck wheel load of 130 kN, whichever produces the greater stress.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For the following:

1. Clips and anchorage devices for gratings.


2. Paint products.

B. Shop Drawings: Show fabrication and installation details for gratings. Include plans, eleva-
tions, sections, and details of connections. Show anchorage and accessory items. Provide
templates for anchors and bolts specified for installation under other Sections.

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1. For installed products indicated to comply with design loads, include structural analy-
sis data signed and sealed by the qualified professional engineer responsible for their
preparation.

C. Mill Certificates: Signed by manufacturers of stainless-steel sheet certifying that products


furnished comply with requirements.

D. Welding Certificates: Copies of certificates for welding procedures and personnel.

E. Qualification Data: For firms and persons specified in "Quality Assurance" Article to dem-
onstrate their capabilities and experience. Include lists of completed projects with project
names and addresses, names and addresses of architects/ engineers and Employers, and any
other information specified or required by Engineer.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Professional Engineer Qualifications: A professional engineer who is legally qualified to


practice in jurisdiction where Project is located and who is experienced in providing engi-
neering services of the kind indicated. Engineering services are defined as those performed
for installations of gratings that are similar to those indicated for this Project in material, de-
sign, and extent.

B. Fabricator Qualifications: A firm experienced in producing gratings similar to those indi-


cated for this Project and with a record of successful in-service performance, as well as suf-
ficient production capacity to produce required units.

C. Metal Bar Grating Standards: Comply with applicable requirements of the following:

1. Non-Heavy-Duty Metal Bar Gratings: Comply with NAAMM MBG 531, "Metal Bar
Grating Manual for Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum Gratings and Stair Treads."
2. Heavy-Duty Metal Bar Gratings: Comply with NAAMM MBG 532, "Heavy-Duty
Metal Bar Grating Manual."

D. Welding: Qualify procedures and personnel according to the following:

1. AWS D1.1, "Structural Welding Code--Steel."


2. AWS D1.3, "Structural Welding Code--Sheet Steel."
3. Certify that each welder has satisfactorily passed AWS qualification tests for welding
processes involved and, if pertinent, has undergone recertification.

1.6 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Field Measurements: Where gratings are indicated to fit to other construction, verify di-
mensions of other construction by field measurements before fabrication and indicate mea-
surements on Shop Drawings. Coordinate fabrication schedule with construction progress
to avoid delaying the Work.

1. Established Dimensions: Where field measurements cannot be made without delay-


ing the Work, establish dimensions and proceed with fabricating gratings without
field measurements. Coordinate construction to ensure that actual dimensions corres-
pond to established dimensions. Allow for trimming and fitting.

1.7 COORDINATION

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A. Coordinate installation of anchorages for gratings, grating frames, and supports. Furnish
setting drawings, templates, and directions for installing anchorages, including sleeves, con-
crete inserts, anchor bolts, and items with integral anchors, that are to be embedded in con-
crete or masonry. Deliver such items to Project site in time for installation.

1.8 WARRANTY

A. Gratings Warranty: Provide complete warranty in which Manufacturer, Contractor and In-
staller are jointly and severally responsible and agree to repair or replace without limita-
tions, all or any part of the gratings specified in this section which fails or becomes defec-
tive in materials or workmanship within specified warranty period.

1. All gratings are guaranteed to be of good material and workmanship and free from
defects that render it unserviceable for the use for which it is intended.
2. Warranty shall also include:

a. Installation and finishing that may be required due to repair or replacement of


defective gratings.
b. Metal, sealants, fasteners, and all other components of gratings specified in this
section.

3. Failure includes, but is not limited to:

a. Deterioration in gratings materials and coatings; other than due to normal age-
ing and weathering; and any defects in sealants, fixings, coverings and other
components of the work.

4. To be protected by the guarantee, metal bar gratings products must be stored suitable
dry enclosure recommended and approved by the manufacturer of gratings items.
5. Warranty Period: five (5) years Total Warranty from date of Substantial Completion.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MANUFACTURERS

A. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the follow-
ing:

1. Metal Bar Gratings:

a. Alabama Metal Industries Corp.


b. All American Grating, Inc.
c. Brickhouse Access Covers And Gratings .
d. IKG Borden.
e. Klemp Corp.
f. Ohio Gratings, Inc.
g. Seidelhuber Metal Products, Inc.

2.2 FERROUS METALS

A. Steel Plates, Shapes, and Bars: ASTM A 36/A 36M.

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B. Wire Rod for Grating Crossbars: ASTM A 510M.

C. Uncoated Steel Sheet: ASTM A 570/A 570M, Grade 33.

D. Galvanized Steel Sheet: ASTM A 653/A 653M, structural quality, Grade 230, with Z275
coating.

E. Welding Rods and Bare Electrodes: Select according to AWS specifications for metal alloy
to be welded.

2.3 STAINLESS STEEL

A. Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Flat Bars: ASTM A 666, Type 316.

B. Bars and Shapes: ASTM A 276, Type 316.

2.4 PAINT

A. Shop Primers: to comply with Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coatings".

B. Galvanizing Repair Paint: High-zinc-dust-content paint for regalvanizing welds in steel,


complying with SSPC-Paint 20.

C. Bituminous Paint: Cold-applied asphalt mastic complying with SSPC-Paint 12, except con-
taining no asbestos fibers, or cold-applied asphalt emulsion complying with ASTM D 1187.

D. Painting to Steel Surfaces: as follows in accordance with Division 9 Section "High-


Performance Coatings."

1. Epoxy Coating System - MPI INT 5.3D:

a. Prime Coat: Cold-curing epoxy primer.


b. Intermediate Coat: Epoxy, cold-cured, gloss.
c. Topcoat: Epoxy, cold-cured, gloss.

2.5 FASTENERS

A. General: Provide Type 304 or 316 stainless-steel fasteners for exterior use and zinc-plated
fasteners with coating complying with ASTM B 633, Class Fe/Zn 5, where built into exte-
rior walls. Select fasteners for type, grade, and class required.

B. Bolts and Nuts: Regular hexagon-head bolts, ASTM F 568M, Property Class 4.6; with hex
nuts, ASTM A 563M; and, where indicated, flat washers.

C. Plain Washers: Round, carbon steel, ASME B18.22M.

D. Lock Washers: Helical, spring type, carbon steel, ASME B18.21.2M.

E. Expansion Anchors: Anchor bolt and sleeve assembly of material indicated below with ca-
pability to sustain, without failure, a load equal to six times the load imposed when installed
in unit masonry and equal to four times the load imposed when installed in concrete, as de-
termined by testing per ASTM E 488, conducted by a qualified independent testing agency.

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1. Material for interior applications: Carbon-steel components zinc-plated to comply


with ASTM B 633, Class Fe/Zn 5.
2. Material for exterior applications: Alloy Group 1 or 2 stainless-steel bolts complying
with ASTM F 738M and nuts complying with ASTM F 836M.

2.6 FABRICATION

A. Shop Assembly: Fabricate grating sections in shop to greatest extent possible to minimize
field splicing and assembly. Disassemble units only as necessary for shipping and handling
limitations. Use connections that maintain structural value of joined pieces. Clearly mark
units for reassembly and coordinated installation.

B. Form from materials of size, thickness, and shapes indicated, but not less than that needed to
support indicated loads.

C. Shear and punch metals cleanly and accurately. Remove burrs.

D. Ease exposed edges to a radius of approximately 1 mm, unless otherwise indicated.

E. Fit exposed connections accurately together to form hairline joints.

F. Welding: Comply with AWS recommendations and the following:

1. Use materials and methods that minimize distortion and develop strength and corro-
sion resistance of base metals.
2. Obtain fusion without undercut or overlap.
3. Remove welding flux immediately.

G. Provide for anchorage of type indicated; coordinate with supporting structure. Fabricate and
space anchoring devices to secure gratings, frames, and supports rigidly in place and to sup-
port indicated loads.

1. Fabricate toeplates to fit grating units and weld to units in shop, unless otherwise in-
dicated.
2. Toeplate Height: 100 mm, unless otherwise indicated.

2.7 METAL BAR GRATINGS

A. Medium duty gratings manufactured from Hot-dip galvanized steel. Bearing bars and cross
bars are to be of rectangular section with size and spacing as per manufacturer's written rec-
ommendation for the span and type of loading indicated. Cross bars are to be locked at right
angles to and in the same plane as, the top surface of bearing bars. Properties shall be as fol-
lows:

1. Grating Mark: As indicated, but with bearing bar size not less than that required com-
plying with structural performance requirements.
2. Type: Pressure locked
3. Traffic Surface for steel Bar Gratings: Plain
4. Steel Finish: Hot-dip galvanized with a coating weight of not less than 550 g/sq. m of
coated surface. Shop paint with epoxy primer, intermediate and top-coats of epoxy
high build coating.
5. Cut Outs: Fabricate cutouts in grating sections for penetrations indicated. Arrange
cutouts to permit grating removal without disturbing items penetrating gratings

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6. Fabricate removable grating sections with banding bars attached by welding to entire
perimeter of each section. Include anchors and fasteners of type indicated or, if not
indicated, as recommended by manufacturer for attaching to supports.

a. Provide not less than four weld lugs for each heavy-duty grating section, with
each lug shop welded to two bearing bars.
b. Furnish threaded bolts with nuts and washers for securing grating to supports.

B. Medium and Heavy duty gratings manufactured from Hot-dip galvanized steel or stainless
steel grade 316. Bearing bars and cross bars are to be of rectangular section with size and
spacing as per manufacturer's written recommendation for the span and type of loading indi-
cated. Cross bars are to be locked at right angles to and in the same plane as, the top surface
of bearing bars. Properties shall be as follows:

1. Grating Mark: As indicated, but with bearing bar size not less than that required com-
plying with structural performance requirements.
2. Type (for steel): Welded.
3. Type (for stainless steel): Pressure locked.
4. Traffic Surface for steel Bar Gratings: Plain or serrated as indicated.
5. Steel Finish: Hot-dip galvanized with a coating weight of not less than 550 g/sq. m of
coated surface. Shop paint with epoxy primer, intermediate and top-coats of epoxy
high build coating.
6. Cut Outs: Fabricate cutouts in grating sections for penetrations indicated. Arrange
cutouts to permit grating removal without disturbing items penetrating gratings
7. Fabricate removable grating sections with banding bars attached by welding to entire
perimeter of each section. Include anchors and fasteners of type indicated or, if not
indicated, as recommended by manufacturer for attaching to supports.

a. Provide not less than four weld lugs for each heavy-duty grating section, with
each lug shop welded to two bearing bars.
b. Furnish threaded bolts with nuts and washers for securing grating to supports.

2.8 GRATING FRAMES AND SUPPORTS

A. Steel Frames and Supports: Fabricate from structural-steel shapes, plates, and bars of
welded construction to sizes, shapes, and profiles indicated and as necessary to receive grat-
ings. Miter and weld connections for perimeter angle frames. Cut, drill, and tap units to re-
ceive hardware and similar items.

B. Equip units with integrally welded anchors for casting into concrete or building into maso-
nry.

1. Unless otherwise indicated, space anchors 600 mm o.c. and provide minimum anchor
units in the form of steel straps 32 mm wide by 6 mm thick by 200 mm long.

C. Galvanize frames and supports in the following locations:

1. Exterior.
2. Interior, where indicated.

2.9 FINISHES

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A. Comply with NAAMM's "Metal Finishes Manual for Architectural and Metal Products" for
recommendations for applying and designating finishes.

B. Finish gratings, frames, and supports after assembly.

C. Galvanizing: For those items indicated for galvanizing, apply zinc coating by the hot-dip
process complying with ASTM A 123.

D. Preparation for Shop Priming: Prepare uncoated ferrous-metal surfaces to comply with min-
imum requirements indicated below for SSPC surface-preparation specifications and envi-
ronmental exposure conditions of installed items:

1. Exteriors (SSPC Zone 1B): SSPC-SP 6/NACE No. 3, "Commercial Blast Cleaning."
2. Interiors (SSPC Zone 1A): SSPC-SP 3, "Power Tool Cleaning."

E. Apply shop primer to uncoated surfaces of gratings, frames, and supports, except those with
galvanized finishes and those to be embedded in concrete or masonry, unless otherwise in-
dicated. Comply with SSPC-PA 1, "Paint Application Specification No. 1," for shop paint-
ing.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 INSTALLATION, GENERAL

A. Fastening to In-Place Construction: Provide anchorage devices and fasteners where neces-
sary for securing gratings to in-place construction. Include threaded fasteners for concrete
and masonry inserts, through-bolts, lag bolts, and other connectors.

B. Cutting, Fitting, and Placement: Perform cutting, drilling, and fitting required for installing
gratings. Set units accurately in location, alignment, and elevation; measured from estab-
lished lines and levels and free from rack.

C. Provide temporary bracing or anchors in formwork for items that are to be built into con-
crete or masonry.

D. Fit exposed connections accurately together to form hairline joints. Weld connections that
are not to be left as exposed joints but cannot be shop welded because of shipping size limi-
tations. Do not weld, cut, or abrade the surfaces of exterior units that have been hot-dip gal-
vanized after fabrication and are for bolted or screwed field connections.

E. Field Welding: Comply with the following requirements:

1. Use materials and methods that minimize distortion and develop strength and corro-
sion resistance of base metals.
2. Obtain fusion without undercut or overlap.
3. Remove welding flux immediately.

3.2 INSTALLING METAL BAR GRATINGS

A. General: Install gratings to comply with recommendations of referenced metal bar grating
standards that apply to grating types and bar sizes indicated, including installation clear-
ances and standard anchoring details.

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B. Attach removable units to supporting members with type and size of clips and fasteners in-
dicated or, if not indicated, as recommended by grating manufacturer for type of installation
conditions shown.

C. Attach non-removable units to supporting members by welding where both materials are the
same; otherwise, fasten by bolting as indicated above.

3.3 ADJUSTING AND CLEANING

A. Touchup Painting: Cleaning and touchup painting of field welds, bolted connections, and
abraded areas of shop paint are specified in Division 9 Section "High-Performance Coat-
ings."

B. Galvanized Surfaces: Clean field welds, bolted connections, and abraded areas and repair
galvanizing to comply with ASTM A 780.

END OF SECTION 05530

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SECTION 05721 - ORNAMENTAL RAILINGS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. Section Includes:

1. Glass-supported railings.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 5 Section "Pipe and Tube Railings" for railings fabricated from pipe and
tube components.
3. Division 6 Section " Miscellaneous Carpentry" for wood blocking for anchoring
railings.
4. Division 8 Section "Glazing" for glazing requirements.

1.3 DEFINITIONS

A. Railings: Guards, handrails, and similar devices used for protection of occupants at open-
sided floor areas, pedestrian guidance and support, visual separation, or wall protection.

1.4 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

A. Delegated Design: Design railings, including comprehensive engineering analysis by a


qualified professional engineer, using performance requirements and design criteria
indicated.

B. General: In engineering railings to withstand structural loads indicated, determine allowable


design working stresses of railing materials based on the following:

1. Stainless Steel: 60 percent of minimum yield strength.


2. Glass: 25 percent of mean modulus of rupture (50 percent probability of breakage),
as listed in "Mechanical Properties" in AAMA's Aluminum Curtain Wall Series
No. 12, "Structural Properties of Glass."

C. Structural Performance: Railings shall withstand the effects of gravity loads and the
following loads and stresses within limits and under conditions indicated:

1. Handrails and Top Rails of Guards:

a. Uniform load of 0.73 kN/m applied in any direction.


b. Concentrated load of 0.89 kN applied in any direction.
c. Uniform and concentrated loads need not be assumed to act concurrently.

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2. Infill of Guards:

a. Concentrated load of 0.22 kN applied horizontally on an area of 0.093 sq. m.


b. Infill load and other loads need not be assumed to act concurrently.

3. Glass-Supported Railings: Support each section of top rail by a minimum of three


glass panels or by other means so top rail will remain in place if any one panel fails.

D. Thermal Movements: Allow for thermal movements from ambient and surface temperature
changes acting on exterior metal fabrications by preventing buckling, opening of joints,
overstressing of components, failure of connections, and other detrimental effects.

1. Temperature Change: 67 deg C, ambient; 100 deg C, material surfaces.

E. Control of Corrosion: Prevent galvanic action and other forms of corrosion by insulating
metals and other materials from direct contact with incompatible materials.

1.5 PRECONSTRUCTION TESTING

A. Preconstruction Testing Service: Engage a qualified testing agency to perform


preconstruction testing on laboratory mockups. Payment for these services will be made by
Contractor. Retesting of products that fail to meet specified requirements shall be done at
Contractor's expense.

1. Build laboratory mockups at testing agency facility; use personnel, materials, and
methods of construction that will be used at Project site.
2. Test railings according to ASTM E 894 and ASTM E 935.
3. Notify Engineer seven days in advance of the dates and times when laboratory
mockups will be tested.

1.6 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For the following:

1. Manufacturer's product lines of railings assembled from standard components.


2. Grout, anchoring cement, and paint products.

B. Shop Drawings: Include plans, elevations, sections, details, and attachments to other work.

C. Samples for Initial Selection: For products involving selection of color, texture, or design.

D. Samples for Verification: For each type of exposed finish required.

1. Sections of each distinctly different linear railing member, including handrails, top
rails, posts, and balusters.
2. Each type of glass required.
3. Fittings and brackets.
4. Assembled Samples of railing systems, made from full-size components, including
top rail, post, handrail, and infill. Show method of finishing members at
intersections. Samples need not be full height.

E. Delegated-Design Submittal: For installed products indicated to comply with performance


requirements and design criteria, including analysis data signed and sealed by the qualified
professional engineer responsible for their preparation.

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F. Qualification Data: For qualified professional engineer and testing agency.

G. Mill Certificates: Signed by manufacturers of stainless-steel products certifying that


products furnished comply with requirements.

H. Product Test Reports: Based on evaluation of comprehensive tests performed by a qualified


testing agency, according to ASTM E 894 and ASTM E 935.

I. Preconstruction test reports.

J. Warranty: Sample copy of manufacturer's proposed warranty complying with specified


requirements, and stating obligations, remedies, limitations, and exclusions of warranty.

1.7 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Fabricator Qualifications: A firm experienced in producing ornamental railings similar to


that indicated for this Project and with a record of successful in-service performance, as well
as sufficient production capacity to produce required units.

B. Installer Qualifications: Fabricator of products.

C. Testing Agency Qualifications: An independent testing agency acceptable to Engineer with


the experience and capability to conduct the testing indicated, as documented according to
ASTM E 548.

D. Source Limitations: Obtain each type of railing from single source from single
manufacturer.

E. Product Options: Information on Drawings and in Specifications establishes requirements


for system's aesthetic effects and performance characteristics. Aesthetic effects are
indicated by dimensions, arrangements, alignment, and profiles of components and
assemblies as they relate to sightlines, to one another, and to adjoining construction.
Performance characteristics are indicated by criteria subject to verification by one or more
methods including structural analysis, preconstruction testing, field testing, and in-service
performance.

1. Do not modify intended aesthetic effects, as judged solely by Engineer, except with
Engineer's approval. If modifications are proposed, submit comprehensive
explanatory data to Engineer for review.

F. Safety Glazing Labeling: Permanently mark glass with certification label of the SGCC or
another certification agency acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction. Label shall
indicate manufacturer's name, type of glass, thickness, and safety glazing standard with
which glass complies.

G. Mockups: Build mockups to verify selections made under sample submittals and to
demonstrate aesthetic effects and set quality standards for fabrication and installation.

1. Build mockups as directed by Engineer.


2. Build mockups for each form and finish of railing consisting of two posts, top rail,
infill area, and anchorage system components that are full height and are not less than
600 mm in length.
3. Approved mockups may become part of the completed Work if undisturbed at time of
Substantial Completion.

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H. Preinstallation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site.

1.8 PROJECT CONDITIONS

A. Field Measurements: Verify actual locations of walls and other construction contiguous
with railings by field measurements before fabrication and indicate measurements on Shop
Drawings.

1.9 COORDINATION AND SCHEDULING

A. Coordinate installation of anchorages for railings. Furnish setting drawings, templates, and
directions for installing anchorages, including sleeves, concrete inserts, anchor bolts, and
items with integral anchors, that are to be embedded in concrete or masonry. Deliver such
items to Project site in time for installation.

B. Schedule installation so wall attachments are made only to completed walls. Do not support
railings temporarily by any means that do not suit structural performance requirements.

1.10 WARRANTY

A. Ornamental Railings Warranty: Provide complete warranty in which Manufacturer,


Contractor and Installer are jointly and severally responsible and agree to repair or replace
without limitations, all or any part of the ornamental railings specified in this section which
fails or becomes defective in materials or workmanship within specified warranty period.

1. All ornamental railings are guaranteed to be of good material and workmanship and
free from defects that render it unserviceable for the use for which it is intended.
2. Warranty shall also include:

a. Installation and finishing that may be required due to repair or replacement of


defective metal fabrications.
b. Metal, glass, sealants, fasteners, and all other components of ornamental
railings specified in this section.

3. Failure includes, but is not limited to:

a. Deterioration in ornamental railings materials and coatings; other than due to


normal ageing and weathering; and any defects in glass, sealants, fixings,
coverings and other components of the work.

4. To be protected by the guarantee, ornamental railings products must be stored


suitable dry enclosure recommended and approved by the manufacturer of
ornamental railings items.
5. Warranty Period: five (5) years Total Warranty from date of Substantial Completion.

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PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MANUFACTURERS

A. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Glass- Supported Railings:

a. Architectural Metal Works.


b. Blum, Julius & Co., Inc.
c. Blumcraft of Pittsburgh.
d. Clearail, Inc.
e. CraneVeyor Corp.
f. Livers Bronze Co.
g. Newman Brothers, Inc.
h. Platers Polishing Company; a division of Rippel Architectural Metals.
i. TACO Metals Inc.
j. Tri Tech, Inc.

2.2 METALS, GENERAL

A. Metal Surfaces, General: Provide materials with smooth surfaces, without seam marks,
roller marks, rolled trade names, stains, discolorations, or blemishes.

B. Brackets, Flanges, and Anchors: Same metal and finish as supported rails unless otherwise
indicated.

1. Provide cast-metal brackets with flange tapped for concealed anchorage to threaded
hanger bolt.
2. Provide either formed- or cast-metal brackets with predrilled hole for exposed bolt
anchorage.

2.3 STAINLESS STEEL

A. Tubing: ASTM A 554, Grade MT 316.

B. Pipe: ASTM A 312/A 312M, Grade TP 316.

C. Castings: ASTM A 743/A 743M, Grade CF 8M or CF 3M.

D. Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Flat Bar: ASTM A 666, Type 316.

E. Bars and Shapes: ASTM A 276, Type 316.

F. Wire Rope and Fittings:

1. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers


offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited
to, the following:

a. Cable Connection (The).

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b. Carl Stahl DecorCable, Inc.


c. Esmet, Inc.
d. Feeney Wire Rope & Rigging.
e. Hayn Enterprises, LLC.
f. Johnson, C. Sherman, Co., Inc.
g. Loos & Co., Inc.; Cableware Division.
h. Ronstan International Inc.
i. Secosouth, Inc.

2. Wire Rope: 7-by-19 wire rope made from wire complying with ASTM A 492,
Type 316.
3. Wire-Rope Fittings: Connectors of types indicated, fabricated from stainless steel,
and with capability to sustain, without failure, a load equal to minimum breaking
strength of wire rope with which they are used.

2.4 GLASS AND GLAZING MATERIALS

A. Glass: Refer to Division 8 Section "Glazing".

2.5 FASTENERS

A. Fastener Materials: Unless otherwise indicated, provide the following:

1. Stainless-Steel Components: Type 316 stainless-steel fasteners.


2. Dissimilar Metals: Type 316 stainless-steel fasteners.

B. Fasteners for Anchoring to Other Construction: Select fasteners of type, grade, and class
required to produce connections suitable for anchoring railings to other types of
construction indicated and capable of withstanding design loads.

C. Provide concealed fasteners for interconnecting railing components and for attaching
railings to other work unless otherwise indicated.

D. Anchors, General: Anchors capable of sustaining, without failure, a load equal to six times
the load imposed when installed in unit masonry and four times the load imposed when
installed in concrete, as determined by testing according to ASTM E 488, conducted by a
qualified independent testing agency.

E. Post-Installed Anchors: Torque-controlled expansion anchors or chemical anchors.

1. Material for Exterior Locations and where Stainless Steel Is Indicated: Alloy Group
A4 stainless-steel bolts, ASTM F 738M, and nuts, ASTM F 836M.

2.6 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS

A. Bituminous Paint: Cold-applied asphalt emulsion complying with ASTM D 1187.

B. Nonshrink, Nonmetallic Grout: Factory-packaged, nonstaining, noncorrosive, nongaseous


grout complying with ASTM C 1107. Provide grout specifically recommended by
manufacturer for interior and exterior applications.

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2.7 FABRICATION

A. General: Fabricate railings to comply with requirements indicated for design, dimensions,
member sizes and spacing, details, finish, and anchorage, but not less than that required to
support structural loads.

B. Assemble railings in the shop to greatest extent possible to minimize field splicing and
assembly. Disassemble units only as necessary for shipping and handling limitations.
Clearly mark units for reassembly and coordinated installation. Use connections that
maintain structural value of joined pieces.

C. Make up wire-rope assemblies in the shop to field-measured dimensions with fittings


machine swaged. Minimize amount of turnbuckle take-up used for dimensional adjustment
so maximum amount is available for tensioning wire ropes. Tag wire-rope assemblies and
fittings to identify installation locations and orientations for coordinated installation.

D. Cut, drill, and punch metals cleanly and accurately. Remove burrs and ease edges to a
radius of approximately 1 mm unless otherwise indicated. Remove sharp or rough areas on
exposed surfaces.

E. Form work true to line and level with accurate angles and surfaces.

F. Fabricate connections that will be exposed to weather in a manner to exclude water.


Provide weep holes where water may accumulate. Locate weep holes in inconspicuous
locations.

G. Cut, reinforce, drill, and tap as indicated to receive finish hardware, screws, and similar
items.

H. Connections: Fabricate railings with nonwelded connections unless otherwise indicated.

I. Mechanical Connections: Connect members with concealed mechanical fasteners and


fittings. Fabricate members and fittings to produce flush, smooth, rigid, hairline joints.

1. Fabricate splice joints for field connection using an epoxy structural adhesive if this is
manufacturer's standard splicing method.

J. Form changes in direction as follows:

1. As detailed.

K. Bend members in jigs to produce uniform curvature for each configuration required;
maintain cross section of member throughout entire bend without buckling, twisting,
cracking, or otherwise deforming exposed surfaces of components.

L. Close exposed ends of hollow railing members with prefabricated end fittings.

M. Provide wall returns at ends of wall-mounted handrails unless otherwise indicated. Close
ends of returns, unless clearance between end of rail and wall is 6 mm or less.

N. Brackets, Flanges, Fittings, and Anchors: Provide wall brackets, flanges, miscellaneous
fittings, and anchors to interconnect railing members to other work unless otherwise
indicated.

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1. At brackets and fittings fastened to plaster or gypsum board partitions, provide crush-
resistant fillers, or other means to transfer loads through wall finishes to structural
supports and prevent bracket or fitting rotation and crushing of substrate.

O. Provide inserts and other anchorage devices for connecting railings to concrete or masonry
work. Fabricate anchorage devices capable of withstanding loads imposed by railings.
Coordinate anchorage devices with supporting structure.

P. For railing posts set in concrete, provide stainless-steel sleeves not less than 150 mm long
with inside dimensions not less than 13 mm greater than outside dimensions of post, with
metal plate forming bottom closure.

Q. Toe Boards: Where indicated, provide toe boards at railings around openings and at edge of
open-sided floors and platforms. Fabricate to dimensions and details indicated.

2.8 GLAZING PANEL FABRICATION

A. General: Fabricate to sizes and shapes required; provide for proper edge clearance and bite
on glazing panels.

1. Clean-cut or flat-grind edges at butt-glazed sealant joints to produce square edges


with slight chamfers at junctions of edges and faces
2. Grind smooth exposed edges, including those at open joints, to produce square edges
with slight chamfers at junctions of edges and faces.

B. Structural Balusters: Provide laminated, tempered glass panels for both straight and curved
sections.

2.9 GENERAL FINISH REQUIREMENTS

A. Comply with NAAMM's "Metal Finishes Manual for Architectural and Metal Products" for
recommendations for applying and designating finishes.

2.10 STAINLESS-STEEL FINISHES

A. Surface Preparation: Remove tool and die marks and stretch lines, or blend into finish.

B. Directional Satin Finish: No. 4.

C. When removing tool and die marks is completed, passivate and rinse surfaces. Remove
embedded foreign matter and leave surfaces chemically clean.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine plaster and gypsum board assemblies, where reinforced to receive anchors, to
verify that locations of concealed reinforcements have been clearly marked for Installer.
Locate reinforcements and mark locations if not already done.

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3.2 INSTALLATION, GENERAL

A. Fit exposed connections together to form tight, hairline joints.

B. Perform cutting, drilling, and fitting required for installing railings. Set railings accurately
in location, alignment, and elevation; measured from established lines and levels and free of
rack.

1. Do not weld, cut, or abrade surfaces of railing components that have been coated or
finished after fabrication and that are intended for field connection by mechanical or
other means without further cutting or fitting.
2. Set posts plumb within a tolerance of 2 mm in 1 m.
3. Align rails so variations from level for horizontal members and variations from
parallel with rake of steps and ramps for sloping members do not exceed 5 mm in
3 m.

C. Adjust railings before anchoring to ensure matching alignment at abutting joints.

D. Fastening to In-Place Construction: Use anchorage devices and fasteners where necessary
for securing railings and for properly transferring loads to in-place construction.

3.3 RAILING CONNECTIONS

A. Nonwelded Connections: Use mechanical or adhesive joints for permanently connecting


railing components. Use wood blocks and padding to prevent damage to railing members
and fittings. Seal recessed holes of exposed locking screws using plastic cement filler
colored to match finish of railings.

B. Expansion Joints: Install expansion joints at locations indicated but not farther apart than
required to accommodate thermal movement. Provide slip-joint internal sleeve extending
50 mm beyond joint on either side, fasten internal sleeve securely to one side, and locate
joint within 150 mm of post.

3.4 ANCHORING POSTS

A. Use steel pipe sleeves preset and anchored into concrete for installing posts. After posts
have been inserted into sleeves, fill annular space between post and sleeve with nonshrink,
nonmetallic grout, mixed and placed to comply with anchoring material manufacturer's
written instructions.

B. Form or core-drill holes not less than 125 mm deep and 20 mm larger than OD of post for
installing posts in concrete. Clean holes of loose material, insert posts, and fill annular
space between post and concrete with nonshrink, nonmetallic grout, mixed and placed to
comply with anchoring material manufacturer's written instructions.

C. Cover anchorage joint with flange of same metal as post, attached to post with set screws.

3.5 ATTACHING RAILINGS

A. Anchor railing ends to concrete and masonry with flanges connected to railing ends and
anchored to wall construction with anchors and bolts.

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B. Anchor railing ends to metal surfaces with flanges bolted to metal surfaces and connected to
railing ends using nonwelded connections.

C. Attach handrails to walls with wall brackets except where end flanges are used. Provide
brackets with 38-mm clearance from inside face of handrail and finished wall surface.
Locate brackets as indicated or, if not indicated, at spacing required to support structural
loads.

1. Use type of bracket with flange tapped for concealed anchorage to threaded hanger
bolt.
2. Locate brackets as indicated or, if not indicated, at spacing required to support
structural loads.

D. Secure wall brackets and railing end flanges to building construction as follows:

1. For concrete and solid masonry anchorage, use drilled-in expansion shields and
hanger or lag bolts.
2. For hollow masonry anchorage, use toggle bolts.
3. For steel-framed partitions, fasten brackets directly to steel framing or concealed steel
reinforcements using self-tapping screws of size and type required to support
structural loads.
4. For steel-framed partitions, fasten brackets with toggle bolts installed through flanges
of steel framing or through concealed steel reinforcements.

3.6 INSTALLING GLASS PANELS

A. Glass-Supported Railings: Install assembly to comply with railing manufacturer's written


instructions.

1. Attach base channel to building structure, then insert and connect factory-fabricated
and -assembled glass panels.
2. Adjust spacing of glass panels so gaps between panels are equal before securing in
position.
3. Erect glass railings under direct supervision of manufacturer's authorized technical
personnel.

3.7 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

A. Testing Agency: Engage a qualified independent testing and inspecting agency to perform
field tests and inspections and to prepare test reports.

B. Extent and Testing Methodology: Testing agency will randomly select completed railing
assemblies for testing that are representative of different railing designs and conditions in
the completed Work. Railings will be tested according to ASTM E 894 and ASTM E 935
for compliance with performance requirements.

C. Remove and replace railings where test results indicate that they do not comply with
specified requirements unless they can be repaired in a manner satisfactory to Engineer and
will comply with specified requirements.

D. Additional testing and inspecting, at Contractor's expense, will be performed to determine


compliance of replaced or additional work with specified requirements.

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3.8 CLEANING

A. Clean stainless steel by washing thoroughly with clean water and soap, rinsing with clean
water, and wiping dry.

B. Clean and polish glass as recommended in writing by manufacturer. Wash both exposed
surfaces in each area of Project not more than four days before date scheduled for
inspections that establish date of Substantial Completion.

3.9 PROTECTION

A. Protect finishes of railings from damage during construction period with temporary
protective coverings approved by railing manufacturer. Remove protective coverings at
time of Substantial Completion.

B. Restore finishes damaged during installation and construction period so no evidence


remains of correction work. Return items that cannot be refinished in the field to the shop;
make required alterations and refinish entire unit, or provide new units.

END OF SECTION 05721

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SECTION 05811 - ARCHITECTURAL JOINT SYSTEMS

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes the following:

1. Architectural joint systems for building interiors.


2. Architectural joint systems for building exteriors.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.


2. Division 4 Section "Unit Masonry Assemblies" for masonry wall joint systems.
3. Division 7 Section "Joint Sealants" for liquid-applied joint sealants.

1.3 DEFINITIONS

A. Maximum Joint Width: Widest linear gap a joint system tolerates and in which it performs
its designed function without damaging its functional capabilities.

B. Construction joint: The surface where two successive placements of concrete meet, across
which it may be desirable to achieve bond and through which reinforcement may be
continuous.

C. Contraction Joint or Control joint: Formed, sawed, or tooled groove in a concrete structure
to create a weakened plane and regulate the location of cracking resulting from the
dimensional change of different parts of the structure.

D. Expansion joint:

1. A separation provided between adjoining parts of a structure to allow movement


where expansion is likely to exceed contraction;
2. A separation between pavement slabs on grade, filled with a compressible filler
material;
3. An isolation joint intended to allow independent movement between adjoining parts.

E. Isolation joint: A separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure, usually a


vertical plane, at a designated location such as to interfere least with performance of the
structure, yet such as to allow relative movement in three directions and avoid formation of
cracks elsewhere in the concrete and through which all or part of the bonded reinforcement
is interrupted.

F. Minimum Joint Width: Narrowest linear gap a joint system tolerates and in which it
performs its designed function without damaging its functional capabilities.

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G. Movement Capability: Value obtained from the difference between widest and narrowest
widths of a joint opening typically expressed in numerical values (mm or inches) or a
percentage (plus or minus) of nominal value of joint width.

H. Nominal Joint Width: The width of the linear opening specified in practice and in which the
joint system is installed. For joint widths refer to TCA Handbook for Ceramic Tile
Installation

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Shop Drawings: Provide the following for each joint system specified:

1. Placement Drawings: Include line diagrams showing plans, elevations, sections,


details, splices, blockout requirement, entire route of each joint system, and
attachments to other work. Where joint systems change planes, provide isometric or
clearly detailed drawing depicting how components interconnect.
2. Architectural Joint System Schedule: Prepared by or under the supervision of the
supplier. Include the following information in tabular form:

a. Manufacturer and model number for each joint system.


b. Joint system location cross-referenced to Drawings.
c. Nominal joint width.
d. Movement capability.
e. Classification as thermal or seismic.
f. Materials, colors, and finishes.
g. Product options.
h. Fire-resistance ratings.

B. Samples for Initial Selection: For each type of joint system indicated.

1. Include manufacturer's color charts showing the full range of colors and finishes
available for each exposed metal and elastomeric seal material.

C. Samples for Verification: For each type of architectural joint system indicated.

1. Full width by 150 mm long, for each system required.

D. Warranty: Sample copy of manufacturer's proposed warranty complying with specified


requirements, and stating obligations, remedies, limitations, and exclusions of warranty.

E. Product Test Reports: Based on evaluation of comprehensive tests performed by a qualified


testing agency, for current products.

1.5 QUALITY ASSURANCE

A. Installer Qualifications: An employer of workers trained and approved by manufacturer.

B. Source Limitations: Obtain architectural joint systems through one source from a single
manufacturer.

C. Product Options: Drawings indicate size, profiles, and dimensional requirements of


architectural joint systems and are based on the specific systems indicated. Refer to
Division 1 Section "Product Requirements."

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1. Do not modify intended aesthetic effects, as judged solely by Engineer, except with
Engineer's approval. If modifications are proposed, submit comprehensive
explanatory data to Engineer for review.

D. Fire-Test-Response Characteristics: Where indicated, provide architectural joint system and


fire-barrier assemblies identical to those of assemblies tested for fire resistance per
UL 2079 or ASTM E 1966 by a testing and inspecting agency acceptable to authorities
having jurisdiction.

1. Hose Stream Test: Wall-to-wall and wall-to-ceiling assemblies shall be subjected to


hose stream testing.

1.6 WARRANTY

A. Architectural Joint Systems Warranty: Provide complete warranty in which Manufacturer,


Contractor and Installer are jointly and severally responsible and agree to repair or replace
without limitations, all or any part of the architectural joint systems specified in this section
which fails or becomes defective in materials or workmanship within specified warranty
period.

1. All Architectural Joint Systems are guaranteed to be of good material and


workmanship and free from defects that render it unserviceable for the use for which
it is intended.
2. Warranty shall also include:

a. Installation and finishing that may be required due to repair or replacement of


defective metal fabrications.
b. Metal, sealants, fasteners, and all other components of architectural joint
systems specified in this section.

3. Failure includes, but is not limited to:

a. Deterioration in architectural joint systems materials and coatings; other than


due to normal ageing and weathering; and any defects in glass, sealants,
fixings, coverings and other components of the work.
b. Failure to withstand structural movement.

4. To be protected by the guarantee, architectural joint systems products must be stored


suitable dry enclosure recommended and approved by the manufacturer of ornamental
railings items.
5. Warranty Period: five (5) years Total Warranty from date of Substantial Completion.

1.7 COORDINATION

A. Coordinate installation of exterior wall and soffit joint systems with roof expansion
assemblies to ensure that wall transitions are watertight.

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PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 MATERIALS

A. Aluminum: ASTM B 221M, Alloy 6063-T5 for extrusions; ASTM B 209M, Alloy 6061-T6
for sheet and plate.

1. Apply manufacturer's standard protective coating on aluminum surfaces to be placed


in contact with cementitious materials.
2. Class I, Clear Anodic Finish: AA-M12C22A41 (Mechanical Finish: nonspecular as
fabricated; Chemical Finish: etched, medium matte; Anodic Coating: Architectural
Class I, clear coating 0.018 mm or thicker) complying with AAMA 611.

B. Elastomeric Seals: Preformed elastomeric membranes or extrusions to be installed in metal


frames.

C. Compression Seals: ASTM E 1612; preformed rectangular elastomeric extrusions having


internal baffle system and designed to function under compression.

D. Strip Seals: ASTM E 1783; preformed elastomeric membrane or tubular extrusions having
an internal baffle system and secured in or over a joint by a metal locking rail.

E. Cellular Foam Seals: Extruded, compressible foam designed to function under


compression.

F. Elastomeric Concrete: Modified epoxy or polyurethane extended into a prepackaged


aggregate blend, specifically designed for bonding to concrete substrates.

G. Fire Barriers: Any material or material combination, when fire tested after cycling,
designated to resist the passage of flame and hot gases through a movement joint and to
meet performance criteria for required rating period.

H. Moisture Barrier: Flexible elastomeric material, PVC , minimum 30 mils thick, EPDM,
minimum 45 mils thick or Santoprene.

I. Accessories: Manufacturer's standard anchors, clips, fasteners, set screws, spacers, and
other accessories compatible with material in contact, as indicated or required for complete
installations.

2.2 ARCHITECTURAL JOINT SYSTEMS, GENERAL

A. General: Provide architectural joint systems of design, basic profile, materials, and
operation indicated. Provide units with capability to accommodate variations in adjacent
surfaces.

1. Furnish units in longest practicable lengths to minimize field splicing. Install with
hairline mitered corners where joint changes direction or abuts other materials.
2. Include factory-fabricated closure materials and transition pieces, tee-joints, corners,
curbs, cross-connections, and other accessories as required to provide continuous
joint systems.

B. Design architectural joint systems for the following size and movement characteristics:

1. Nominal Joint Width: As indicated on Drawings.

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2. Maximum Joint Width: As indicated on Drawings.


3. Minimum Joint Width: As indicated on Drawings.
4. Type of Movement: As indicated on Drawings.

2.3 ARCHITECTURAL JOINT SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING INTERIORS

A. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Architectural Art Mfg., Inc.


2. Balco, Inc.
3. Construction Specialties, Inc.
4. JointMaster/InPro Corporation.
5. Michael Rizza Company, LLC.
6. MM Systems Corporation.
7. Nystrom, Inc.
8. Watson Bowman Acme Corp.

B. Wall-to-Wall Joint Systems:

1. Type: Vertical cover plate unless otherwise indicated.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

2. Type: Elastomeric seal, Dual elastomeric seal or Accordion.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

b. Seal Material: Santoprene or PVC as directed and approved by Engineer.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

3. Type: Flat seal.

a. Seal Material: Santoprene.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

4. Fire-Resistance Rating: Provide joint system and fire-barrier assembly with a rating
not less than that indicated in fire zoning plans.
5. Moisture Barrier: Manufacturer's standard.

C. Wall Corner Joint Systems:

1. Type: Vertical cover plate unless otherwise indicated.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

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2. Type: Elastomeric seal, Dual elastomeric seal or Accordion.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

b. Seal Material: Santoprene or PVC as directed and approved by Engineer.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

3. Type: Flat seal.

a. Seal Material: Santoprene.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

4. Fire-Resistance Rating: Provide joint system and fire-barrier assembly with a rating
not less than that indicated in fire zoning plans.
5. Moisture Barrier: Manufacturer's standard.

D. Wall-to-Ceiling Joint Systems:

1. Type: Cover plate unless otherwise indicated.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

2. Type: Elastomeric seal, Dual elastomeric seal or Accordion.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

b. Seal Material: Santoprene or PVC as directed and approved by Engineer.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

3. Type: Flat seal.

a. Seal Material: Santoprene.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

4. Fire-Resistance Rating: Provide joint system and fire-barrier assembly with a rating
not less than that indicated in fire zoning plans.
5. Moisture Barrier: Manufacturer's standard.

E. Ceiling-to-Ceiling Joint Systems:

1. Type: Cover plate unless otherwise indicated.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

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2. Type: Elastomeric seal, Dual elastomeric seal or Accordion.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

b. Seal Material: Santoprene or PVC as directed and approved by Engineer.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

3. Type: Flat seal.

a. Seal Material: Santoprene.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

4. Fire-Resistance Rating: Provide joint system and fire-barrier assembly with a rating
not less than that indicated in fire zoning plans.
5. Moisture Barrier: Manufacturer's standard.

2.4 ARCHITECTURAL JOINT SYSTEMS FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS

A. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Architectural Art Mfg., Inc.


2. Balco, Inc.
3. Capital Services.
4. Construction Specialties, Inc.
5. EMSEAL Joint Systems, Ltd.
6. E-Poxy Engineered Materials, LLC.
7. Erie Metal Specialties.
8. JointMaster/InPro Corporation.
9. LymTal International, Inc.
10. Michael Rizza Company, LLC.
11. MM Systems Corporation.
12. Nystrom, Inc.
13. R. J. Watson, Inc.
14. Schul International, Inc.
15. Stellar-Mark, Inc.
16. Thermal-Chem.
17. Tremco Sealant/Weatherproofing Division.
18. Watson Bowman Acme Corp.
19. Williams Products, Inc.

B. Architectural Joint Systems for Exterior Walls and Soffits:

1. Type: Vertical cover-plate.

a. Exposed Metal: Aluminum.

1) Finish: Class I, clear anodic.

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b. Secondary Seal: Manufacturer's standard extruded-elastomeric seal designed


to prevent water and moisture infiltration.

2. Type: Flat seal.

a. Seal Material: Santoprene or Silicone as directed and approved by Engineer.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

b. Secondary Seal: Manufacturer's standard extruded-elastomeric seal designed


to prevent water and moisture infiltration.
c. Pantograph Mechanism: Manufacturer's standard nylon pantographic wind-
load support mechanism with stainless-steel fasteners.

3. Type: Preformed cellular foam.

a. Foam Material: Manufacturer's standard.

1) Color: As selected by Engineer from manufacturer's full range.

4. Fire-Resistance Rating: Provide joint system and fire-barrier assembly with a rating
not less than that indicated in fire zoning plans.

2.5 FINISHES

A. Comply with NAAMM's "Metal Finishes Manual for Architectural and Metal Products" for
recommendations for applying and designating finishes.

B. Protect mechanical finishes on exposed surfaces from damage by applying a strippable,


temporary protective covering before shipping.

C. Appearance of Finished Work: Noticeable variations in same piece are not acceptable.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 EXAMINATION

A. Examine surfaces and blockouts where architectural joint systems will be installed for
installation tolerances and other conditions affecting performance of work.

1. Proceed with installation only after unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.2 PREPARATION

A. Prepare substrates according to architectural joint system manufacturer's written


instructions.

B. Repair concrete slabs and blockouts using manufacturer's recommended repair grout of
compressive strength adequate for anticipated structural loadings.

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C. Coordinate and furnish anchorages, setting drawings, and instructions for installing joint
systems. Provide fasteners of metal, type, and size to suit type of construction indicated and
to provide for secure attachment of joint systems.

3.3 INSTALLATION

A. Comply with manufacturer's written instructions for storing, handling, and installing
architectural joint assemblies and materials unless more stringent requirements are
indicated.

B. Metal Frames: Perform cutting, drilling, and fitting required to install joint systems.

1. Install in true alignment and proper relationship to joints and adjoining finished
surfaces measured from established lines and levels.
2. Adjust for differences between actual structural gap and nominal design gap due to
ambient temperature at time of installation. Notify Engineer where discrepancies
occur that will affect proper joint installation and performance.
3. Cut and fit ends to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction of metal without
buckling of frames.
4. Locate in continuous contact with adjacent surfaces.
5. Heavy-Duty Systems: Repair or grout blockout as required for continuous frame
support and to bring frame to proper level. Shimming is not allowed.
6. Locate anchors at interval recommended by manufacturer, but not less than 75 mm
from each end and not more than 600 mm o.c.

C. Seals in Metal Frames: Install elastomeric seals and membranes in frames to comply with
manufacturer's written instructions. Install with minimum number of end joints.

1. Provide in continuous lengths for straight sections.


2. Seal transitions according to manufacturer's written instructions. Vulcanize or heat-
weld field-spliced joints as recommended by manufacturer.
3. Installation: Mechanically lock seals into frames or adhere to frames with adhesive
or pressure-sensitive tape as recommended by manufacturer.

D. Compression Seals: Apply adhesive or lubricant adhesive as recommended by


manufacturer to both frame interfaces before installing compression seals.

E. Foam Seals: Install with adhesive recommended by manufacturer.

F. Terminate exposed ends of joint assemblies with field- or factory-fabricated termination


devices.

G. Fire-Resistance-Rated Assemblies: Coordinate installation of architectural joint assembly


materials and associated work so complete assemblies comply with assembly performance
requirements.

1. Fire Barriers: Install fire barriers to provide continuous, uninterrupted fire resistance
throughout length of joint, including transitions and field splices.

H. Water Barrier: Provide water barrier at exterior joints and where called for on Drawings.
Provide drainage fittings at a maximum of 15.2 m or where indicated.

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3.4 PROTECTION

A. Do not remove protective covering until finish work in adjacent areas is complete. When
protective covering is removed, clean exposed metal surfaces to comply with manufacturer's
written instructions.

B. Protect the installation from damage by work of other Sections. Where necessary due to
heavy construction traffic, remove and properly store cover plates or seals and install
temporary protection over joints. Reinstall cover plates or seals prior to Substantial
Completion of the Work.

END OF SECTION 05811

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SECTION 06105 - MISCELLANEOUS CARPENTRY

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes the following:

1. Framing with dimension lumber.


2. Wood blocking, cants, and nailers.
3. Wood furring and grounds.
4. Interior wood trim.
5. Wood shelving and clothes rods.
6. Plywood backing panels.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.

1.3 DEFINITIONS

A. Dimension Lumber: Lumber of 38 mm actual or greater but less than 114 mm actual in
least dimension.

B. Lumber grading agencies, and the abbreviations used to reference them, include the
following:

1. NeLMA: Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers' Association.


2. NHLA: National Hardwood Lumber Association.
3. NLGA: National Lumber Grades Authority.
4. SPIB: The Southern Pine Inspection Bureau.
5. WCLIB: West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau.
6. WWPA: Western Wood Products Association.
7. TRADA-Timber Research And Development Association

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For each type of process and factory-fabricated product. Indicate component
materials and dimensions and include construction and application details.

1. Include data for wood-preservative treatment from chemical treatment manufacturer


and certification by treating plant that treated materials comply with requirements.
Indicate type of preservative used and net amount of preservative retained.
2. Include data for fire-retardant treatment from chemical treatment manufacturer and
certification by treating plant that treated materials comply with requirements.

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Include physical properties of treated materials based on testing by a qualified


independent testing agency.
3. For fire-retardant treatments specified to be High-Temperature (HT) type include
physical properties of treated lumber both before and after exposure to elevated
temperatures, based on testing by a qualified independent testing agency according to
ASTM D 5664.
4. For products receiving a waterborne treatment, include statement that moisture
content of treated materials was reduced to levels specified before shipment to Project
site.
5. Include copies of warranties from chemical treatment manufacturers for each type of
treatment.

B. Research/Evaluation Reports: For the following, showing compliance with building code in
effect for Project:

1. Preservative-treated wood.
2. Fire-retardant-treated wood.
3. Power-driven fasteners.
4. Powder-actuated fasteners.
5. Expansion anchors.
6. Metal framing anchors.

1.5 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Stack lumber flat with spacers between each bundle to provide air circulation. Provide for
air circulation around stacks and under coverings.

B. Deliver interior wood materials that are to be exposed to view only after building is
enclosed and weatherproof, wet work other than painting is dry, and HVAC system is
operating and maintaining temperature and humidity at occupancy levels.

PART 2 - PRODUCTS

2.1 WOOD PRODUCTS, GENERAL

A. Lumber: DOC PS 20 and applicable rules of grading agencies indicated. If no grading


agency is indicated, provide lumber that complies with the applicable rules of any rules-
writing agency certified by the ALSC Board of Review. Provide lumber graded by an
agency certified by the ALSC Board of Review to inspect and grade lumber under the rules
indicated.

1. Factory mark each piece of lumber with grade stamp of grading agency.
2. For exposed lumber indicated to receive a stained or natural finish, mark grade stamp
on end or back of each piece or omit grade stamp and provide certificates of grade
compliance issued by grading agency.
3. Where nominal sizes are indicated, provide actual sizes required by DOC PS 20 for
moisture content specified. Where actual sizes are indicated, they are minimum
dressed sizes for dry lumber.
4. Provide dressed lumber, S4S, unless otherwise indicated.

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2.2 WOOD-PRESERVATIVE-TREATED MATERIALS

A. Preservative Treatment by Pressure Process: AWPA C2, except that lumber that is not in
contact with the ground and is continuously protected from liquid water may be treated
according to AWPA C31 with inorganic boron (SBX).

1. Preservative Chemicals: Acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction and containing


no arsenic or chromium.
2. For exposed items indicated to receive a stained or natural finish, use chemical
formulations that do not require incising, contain colorants, bleed through, or
otherwise adversely affect finishes.

B. Kiln-dry lumber after treatment to a maximum moisture content of 19 percent. Do not use
material that is warped or does not comply with requirements for untreated material.

C. Mark lumber with treatment quality mark of an inspection agency approved by the ALSC
Board of Review.

1. For exposed lumber indicated to receive a stained or natural finish, mark end or back
of each piece or omit marking and provide certificates of treatment compliance issued
by inspection agency.

D. Application: Treat all miscellaneous carpentry, unless otherwise indicated.

1. Wood cants, nailers, curbs, equipment support bases, blocking, stripping, and similar
members in connection with roofing, flashing, vapor barriers, and waterproofing.
2. Wood sills, sleepers, blocking, furring, stripping, and similar concealed members in
contact with masonry or concrete.
3. Wood framing and furring attached directly to the interior of below-grade exterior
masonry or concrete walls.
4. Wood framing members that are less than 460 mm above the ground in crawl spaces
or unexcavated areas.
5. Wood floor plates that are installed over concrete slabs-on-grade.

2.3 FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED MATERIALS

A. General: Comply with performance requirements in AWPA C20 (lumber) and AWPA C27
(plywood).

1. Use treatment that does not promote corrosion of metal fasteners.


2. Use Exterior type for exterior locations and where indicated.
3. Use Interior Type A, High Temperature (HT) for enclosed roof framing, framing in
attic spaces, and where indicated.
4. Use Interior Type A, unless otherwise indicated.

B. Identify fire-retardant-treated wood with appropriate classification marking of testing and


inspecting agency acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction.

1. For exposed lumber indicated to receive a stained or natural finish, mark end or back
of each piece or omit marking and provide certificates of treatment compliance issued
by inspection agency.

C. For exposed items indicated to receive a stained or natural finish, use chemical formulations
that do not bleed through, contain colorants, or otherwise adversely affect finishes.

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D. Application: Treat all miscellaneous carpentry, unless otherwise indicated.

2.4 DIMENSION LUMBER FRAMING

A. Maximum Moisture Content: 15 percent for 38-mm actual thickness or less, 19 percent for
more than 38-mm actual thickness.

B. Non-Load-Bearing Interior Partitions: Construction or No. 2 grade and the following


species:

1. Mixed southern pine; SPIB.


2. Northern species; NLGA.
3. Eastern softwoods; NeLMA.
4. Western woods; WCLIB or WWPA.

C. Other Framing: Construction or No. 2 grade and the following species:

1. Hem-fir (north); NLGA.


2. Douglas fir-larch; WCLIB or WWPA.
3. Mixed southern pine; SPIB.
4. Spruce-pine-fir; NLGA.
5. Douglas fir-south; WWPA.
6. Hem-fir; WCLIB or WWPA.
7. Douglas fir-larch (north); NLGA.
8. Spruce-pine-fir (south); NeLMA, WCLIB, or WWPA.

2.5 MISCELLANEOUS LUMBER

A. General: Provide miscellaneous lumber indicated and lumber for support or attachment of
other construction, including the following:

1. Blocking.
2. Nailers.
3. Cants.
4. Furring.
5. Grounds.
6. Utility shelving.

B. For items of dimension lumber size, provide Construction or No. 2 grade lumber with 15
percent maximum moisture content and the following species:

1. Mixed southern pine; SPIB.


2. Western woods; WCLIB or WWPA.
3. Northern species; NLGA.
4. Eastern softwoods; NeLMA.

C. For exposed boards, provide lumber with 15 percent maximum moisture content and the
following species and grades:

1. Eastern white pine, Idaho white, lodgepole, ponderosa, or sugar pine; Premium or
2 Common (Sterling) grade; NeLMA, NLGA, WCLIB, or WWPA.
2. Mixed southern pine, No. 2 grade; SPIB.

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3. Hem-fir or hem-fir (north), Construction or No. 2 Common grade; NLGA, WCLIB,


or WWPA.
4. Spruce-pine-fir (south) or spruce-pine-fir, Construction or No. 2 Common grade;
NeLMA, NLGA, WCLIB, or WWPA.

D. For concealed boards, provide lumber with 15 percent maximum moisture content andthe
following species and grades:

1. Mixed southern pine, No. 2 grade; SPIB.


2. Eastern softwoods, No. 2 Common grade; NELMA.
3. Northern species, No. 2 Common grade; NLGA.
4. Western woods, Construction or No. 2 Common grade; WCLIB or WWPA.

E. For blocking not used for attachment of other construction Utility, Stud, or No. 3 grade
lumber of any species may be used provided that it is cut and selected to eliminate defects
that will interfere with its attachment and purpose.

F. For blocking and nailers used for attachment of other construction, select and cut lumber to
eliminate knots and other defects that will interfere with attachment of other work.

G. For furring strips for installing plywood or hardboard paneling, select boards with no knots
capable of producing bent-over nails and damage to paneling.

2.6 INTERIOR WOOD TRIM

A. General: Provide kiln-dried finished (surfaced) material without finger-jointing, unless


otherwise indicated.

B. Softwood Lumber Trim for Transparent (Stain or Clear) Finish: Provide one of the
following species and grade:

1. Grade Superior or C & Btr Finish Douglas fir-larch or Douglas fir-south; NLGA,
WCLIB, or WWPA.
2. Clear Heart western red cedar; NLGA, WCLIB, or WWPA.

C. Hardwood Lumber Trim for Transparent (Stain or Clear) Finish: Clear closed grain
hardwoods.

D. Lumber Trim for Opaque (Painted) Finish: Either finger-jointed or solid lumber, of the
following species and grades:

1. Grade Premium eastern white pine; NeLMA or NLGA.

E. Moldings: Made to patterns included in WMMPA WM 7 and graded according to


WMMPA WM 4.

1. Moldings for Transparent (Stain or Clear) Finish: N-grade closed grain hardwoods,
selected for compatible grain and color.
2. Moldings for Opaque (Painted) Finish: P-grade white pine.

2.7 SHELVING AND CLOTHES RODS

A. Shelving: Made from the following material, 19-mm thick.

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1. Medium-density fiberboard with radiused or solid-wood front edge.

B. Shelf Cleats: 19-by-140-mm boards with hole and notch to receive clothes rods, of same
species and grade indicated above for interior lumber trim for opaque finish.

C. Shelf Brackets: Prime-painted formed steel with provision to support clothes rod where rod
is indicated.

D. Clothes Rods: 32-mm- diameter, stainless-steel tubes.

E. Rod Flanges: Stainless steel.

2.8 PLYWOOD BACKING PANELS

A. Telephone and Electrical Equipment Backing Panels: DOC PS 1, Exterior, AC, fire-
retardant treated, in thickness indicated or, if not indicated, not less than 19-mm nominal
thickness.

2.9 FASTENERS

A. General: Provide fasteners of size and type indicated that comply with requirements
specified in this Article for material and manufacture.

1. Where carpentry is exposed to weather, in ground contact, pressure-preservative


treated, or in area of high relative humidity, provide fasteners with hot-dip zinc
coating complying with ASTM A 153/A 153M.

B. Nails, Brads, and Staples: ASTM F 1667.

C. Power-Driven Fasteners: NES NER-272.

D. Wood Screws: ASME B18.6.1.

E. Screws for Fastening to Cold-Formed Metal Framing: ASTM C 954, except with wafer
heads and reamer wings, length as recommended by screw manufacturer for material being
fastened.

F. Lag Bolts: ASME B18.2.3.8M.

G. Bolts: Steel bolts complying with ASTM F 568M, Property Class 4.6; with
ASTM A 563M hex nuts and, where indicated, flat washers.

H. Expansion Anchors: Anchor bolt and sleeve assembly of material indicated below with
capability to sustain, without failure, a load equal to 6 times the load imposed when installed
in unit masonry assemblies and equal to 4 times the load imposed when installed in concrete
as determined by testing per ASTM E 488 conducted by a qualified independent testing and
inspecting agency.

1. Material: Carbon-steel components, zinc plated to comply with ASTM B 633,


Class Fe/Zn 5.
2. Material for more corrosive environments and where directed by Engineer: Stainless
steel with bolts and nuts complying with ASTM F 738M and ASTM F 836M,
Grade A1 or A4.

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2.10 METAL FRAMING ANCHORS

A. Available Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering


products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the
following:

1. Cleveland Steel Specialty Co.


2. Harlen Metal Products, Inc.
3. KC Metals Products, Inc.
4. Simpson Strong-Tie Co., Inc.
5. Southeastern Metals Manufacturing Co., Inc.
6. USP Structural Connectors.

B. Galvanized Steel Sheet: Hot-dip, zinc-coated steel sheet complying with


ASTM A 653/A 653M, Z180 coating designation.

1. Use for interior locations where stainless steel is not indicated.

C. Stainless-Steel Sheet: ASTM A 666, Type 316.

1. Use for exterior locations and where indicated.

2.11 MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS

A. Adhesives for Gluing Furring to Concrete or Masonry: Formulation complying with


ASTM D 3498 that is approved for use indicated by adhesive manufacturer.

B. Flexible Flashing: Self-adhesive, rubberized-asphalt compound, bonded to a high-density,


polyethylene film to produce an overall thickness of not less than 0.6 mm.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.1 INSTALLATION, GENERAL

A. Set carpentry to required levels and lines, with members plumb, true to line, cut, and fitted.
Fit carpentry to other construction; scribe and cope as needed for accurate fit.
Locate furring, nailers, blocking, grounds, and similar supports to comply with requirements
for attaching other construction.

B. Where wood-preservative-treated lumber is installed adjacent to metal decking, install


continuous flexible flashing separator between wood and metal decking.

C. Framing Standard: Comply with AF&PA's "Details for Conventional Wood Frame
Construction," unless otherwise indicated.

D. Metal Framing Anchors: Install metal framing to comply with manufacturer's written
instructions.

E. Do not splice structural members between supports, unless otherwise indicated.

F. Provide blocking and framing as indicated and as required to support facing materials,
fixtures, specialty items, and trim.

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1. Provide metal clips for fastening gypsum board or lath at corners and intersections
where framing or blocking does not provide a surface for fastening edges of panels.
Space clips not more than 406 mm o.c.

G. Provide fire blocking in furred spaces, stud spaces, and other concealed cavities as indicated
and as follows:

1. Fire block furred spaces of walls, at each floor level, at ceiling, and at not more than
2438 mm o.c. with solid wood blocking or noncombustible materials accurately fitted
to close furred spaces.
2. Fire block concealed spaces of wood-framed walls and partitions at each floor level,
at ceiling line of top story, and at not more than 2438 mm o.c. Where fire blocking
is not inherent in framing system used, provide closely fitted solid wood blocks of
same width as framing members and 38-mm actual- thickness.
3. Fire block concealed spaces behind combustible cornices and exterior trim at not
more than 6 m o.c.

H. Sort and select lumber so that natural characteristics will not interfere with installation or
with fastening other materials to lumber. Do not use materials with defects that interfere
with function of member or pieces that are too small to use with minimum number of joints
or optimum joint arrangement.

I. Comply with AWPA M4 for applying field treatment to cut surfaces of preservative-treated
lumber.

1. Use inorganic boron for items that are continuously protected from liquid water.
2. Use copper naphthenate for items not continuously protected from liquid water.

J. Securely attach carpentry work to substrate by anchoring and fastening as indicated,


complying with the following:

1. NES NER-272 for power-driven fasteners.


2. Table 2304.9.1, "Fastening Schedule," in ICC's International Building Code.

K. Use common wire nails, unless otherwise indicated. Select fasteners of size that will not
fully penetrate members where opposite side will be exposed to view or will receive finish
materials. Make tight connections between members. Install fasteners without splitting
wood; do not countersink nail heads, unless otherwise indicated.

3.2 WOOD GROUND, BLOCKING, AND NAILER INSTALLATION

A. Install where indicated and where required for screeding or attaching other work. Form to
shapes indicated and cut as required for true line and level of attached work. Coordinate
locations with other work involved.

B. Attach items to substrates to support applied loading. Recess bolts and nuts flush with
surfaces, unless otherwise indicated.

C. Provide permanent grounds of dressed, pressure-preservative-treated, key-beveled lumber


not less than 38 mm wide and of thickness required to bring face of ground to exact
thickness of finish material. Remove temporary grounds when no longer required.

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3.3 WOOD FURRING INSTALLATION

A. Install level and plumb with closure strips at edges and openings. Shim with wood as
required for tolerance of finish work.

B. Furring to Receive Plywood or Hardboard Paneling: Install 19-by-63-mm actual- size


furring horizontally and vertically at 600 mm o.c.

C. Furring to Receive Gypsum Board: Install 19-by-38-mm actual- size furring vertically at
400 mm o.c.

3.4 WOOD TRIM INSTALLATION

A. Install with minimum number of joints practical, using full-length pieces from maximum
lengths of lumber available. Do not use pieces less than 610 mm long except where
necessary. Stagger joints in adjacent and related standing and running trim. Cope at returns
and miter at corners to produce tight-fitting joints with full-surface contact throughout
length of joint. Use scarf joints for end-to-end joints.

1. Match color and grain pattern across joints.


2. Install trim after gypsum board joint-finishing operations are completed.
3. Drill pilot holes in hardwood before fastening to prevent splitting. Fasten to prevent
movement or warping. Countersink fastener heads and fill holes.
4. Install to tolerance of 3 mm in 2438 mm for level and plumb. Install adjoining finish
carpentry with 0.8-mm maximum offset for flush installation and 1.6-mm maximum
offset for reveal installation.

3.5 PROTECTION

A. Protect wood that has been treated with inorganic boron (SBX) from weather. If, despite
protection, inorganic boron-treated wood becomes wet, apply EPA-registered borate
treatment. Apply borate solution by spraying to comply with EPA-registered label.

B. Protect rough carpentry from weather. If, despite protection, rough carpentry becomes wet,
apply EPA-registered borate treatment. Apply borate solution by spraying to comply with
EPA-registered label.

END OF SECTION 06105

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SECTION 06402 - INTERIOR ARCHITECTURAL WOODWORK

PART 1 - GENERAL

1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary
Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes the following:

1. Interior standing and running trim.


2. Interior frames and jambs.
3. Shop finishing of interior woodwork.

B. Related Sections include the following:

1. Division 1 Sections for contractual requirements.

1.3 DEFINITIONS

A. Interior architectural woodwork includes wood furring, blocking, shims, and hanging strips
for installing woodwork items unless concealed within other construction before woodwork
installation.

1.4 SUBMITTALS

A. Product Data: For panel products, fire-retardant-treated materials and finishing materials
and processes.

1. Include data for fire-retardant treatment from chemical treatment manufacturer and
certification by treating plant that treated materials comply with requirements.

B. Shop Drawings: Show location of each item, dimensioned plans and elevations, large-scale
details, attachment devices, and other components.

1. Show details full size.


2. Show locations and sizes of furring, blocking, and hanging strips, including
concealed blocking and reinforcement specified in other Sections.
3. Show veneer leaves with dimensions, grain direction, exposed face, and identification
numbers indicating the flitch and sequence within the flitch for each leaf.

C. Samples for Initial Selection:

1. Shop-applied transparent finishes.


2. Shop-applied opaque finishes.

INTERIOR ARCHITECTURAL WOODWORK