Rectificador Activo con Filtro Inductivi Capacitivo

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Rectificador Activo con Filtro Inductivi Capacitivo

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based algorithm

Dept. Electrical Eng. and CONICET and LEICI Inst. de Robòtica i Informàtica Industrial

Inst. Industrial and Control Eng. National University of La Plata Consejo Superior de Inv. Cientı́ficas

Polytechnical University of Catalonia CC91, 1900, La Plata, Argentina Polytechnical University of Catalonia

08028 Barcelona, Spain Marie Curie Fellow, IRI, CSIC-UPC 08028 Barcelona, Spain

Email: arnau.doria@upc.edu 08028 Barcelona, Spain Email: ckunusch@iri.upc.edu

Email: puleston@ing.unlp.edu.ar

Abstract—This paper presents a novel controller for an and the results are valid only locally.

active rectifier with an inductive-capacitive-inductive filter. The

proposed control scheme comprises two levels. The internal The use of control methodologies that rely on non-linear

level, is a current controller based on the second order sliding approaches allow a systematic design procedure of robust

mode Twisting algorithm, which robustly ensures an unity power controllers, guaranteeing stability and performance in extended

factor at the connection point. The slower external level is a PI operation ranges. One non-linear control technique specially

controller in charge of regulating the output DC voltage to a appropriate to switched power converters is the Sliding Mode

desired reference. The controller setup also includes a finite-time Control (SMC) approach [7]. Due to the fact that the control

observer of the current derivative that can be used to avoid direct action is commonly discontinuous, it is particularly suitable

(and sometimes problematic) numerical differentiation. Finally,

simulation results are presented to validate the proposed control

to deal with variable structure systems such as power con-

scheme. verters [8], resulting in controlled dynamical systems with

enhanced performance. However, one of the main problems

when implementing sliding mode based controllers is that the

I. I NTRODUCTION switching frequency is variable. A possible solution to obtain

The use of active rectifiers has beed widely increased in the a fixed switching frequency is to apply a control algorithm

last decades thanks to its ability to transform the AC electrical which synthesizes a continuous (or even discontinuous) control

power to a DC power. The advantages of using these power law and then process it by means of pulse-width modulation

converters are the power factor correction and its robustness to (PWM) devices.

guarantee the DC bus voltage for a large range of load values. In this framework, considering the system relative degree

However, the commutation of the set of switches implies an (RD) and specific design issues (variables differentiation, com-

undesired current ripple of the inductor filter. This effect can be putational burden, etc.) a Twisting Algorithm (TA) is proposed

considerably reduced using an inductive-capacitive-inductive to solve the rectifier control problem. This algorithm belongs to

(LCL) filter instead of the traditional first order inductance the so-called family of Second Order Sliding Mode (SOSM)

filter, and low total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current controllers and is specially intended for relative degree two

can be attained. systems, providing finite time convergence and insensibility to

The key goal of a single-phase active rectifier is to ensure coupled Lipschitz disturbances.

a given DC voltage with an unity power factor on the grid The main contribution of this paper is the development of a

side. These objectives are usually fulfilled by using control SOSM based control strategy for a single-phase active rectifier

algorithms that measure some of the variables (normally, with an LCL filter. The control setup comprises two levels,

voltage and current on the grid side and the DC voltage) namely a robust inner current control, designed using the

and process that information to provide a suitable switching Twisting Algorithm methodology, and an outer control level,

policy to reach the desired set points. Several control tech- in charge of regulating the DC voltage in the presence of load

niques, from classical proportional-integral-derivative (PID) variations. Additionally, a uniform robust exact differentiator

controllers to more advanced nonlinear methodologies, have for the current error is included in order to avoid numerical

been applied to different power converter topologies. However, problems during the implementation.

in the literature, mostly linear based controllers are used for

active rectifiers with an LCL filter, see examples in [1][2] The paper is organized as follows: in the next section, the

(classical PI controllers), [3][4] (deadbeat control), [5] (space- single-phase active rectifier is introduced, and its dynamical

state based PI controller), [6] (resonant PI control). The main model is given. In Section III the whole control scheme

disadvantages of using linear techniques are that the inherent is proposed. Then, Section IV presents the design of the

nonlinear behavior of the full-bridge rectifier is disregarded current controller based on the TA, and also includes, the zero

Fig. 3. Sliding variable block diagram.

Fig. 1. Simplified scheme of a single-phase rectifier with a LCL filter. SCHEME

d

voltage, vCo , to a desired value vCo and to have unity power

dynamics analysis and the observer for the time derivative

factor at the connection point. These two requirements can be

of the current error. In Section V the use of a PI controller

simultaneously attained by tracking an input current reference

for the regulation of the DC voltage is justified. Section VI

of the form idg = Ig sin(ωt). The amplitude Ig is then

shows the numerical simulations performed to validate and

computed by the outer loop to maintain the DC voltage at its

assess the performance of the proposed controller. Finally, the

desired value, while the sin(ωt) is obtained from the power

conclusions are stated in Section VII.

grid voltage vg .

Figure 2 shows a schematic representation of the proposed

AN INDUCTIVE - CAPACITIVE - INDUCTIVE FILTER

control setup, with the SOSM inner-loop controlling the grid-

side current ig . For the outer control, a PI controller is used to

d

Figure 1 shows a simplified scheme of a single-phase regulate the DC voltage, vCo , to its reference, vC o

. The control

rectifier with a LCL filter. The dynamics of this system is action generated by this external loop is, precisely, the required

described by amplitude of the grid current, Ig , while the grid voltage carrier

is obtained by means of a phase-locked loop (PLL). Then, the

dig current reference idg is constructed by direct multiplication.

Lg = −rg ig − vC + vg , (1)

dt

dvC

C = ig − if , (2) IV. S LIDING MODE CURRENT CONTROLLER DESIGN

dt

dif A. Control objective in terms of SMC

Lf = −rf if + vC − uvCo , (3)

dt The first step for the design of the sliding mode controller is

dvCo vCo to define an sliding variable s in terms of the current error e =

Co = uif − , (4)

dt R id −idg , taking into account that the ultimate current objective is

where ig , if are the input and output currents of the LCL to track the grid current reference, ensuring robust convergence

filter, respectively, vC is the voltage in the filter capacitor, to e = 0. Given that the error e is RD 3 with respect to u,

C, and vCo is the voltage in the DC link. The load has been it cannot be used as sliding variable by its own (note that

considered a pure resistance, R. The power grid voltage is classical SMC requires s to be RD 1). However, advantage

vg = Vg sin(ωt) (where Vg and ω are the voltage amplitude can be taken of SOSM techniques, which are capable to deal

and frequency, respectively) and u ∈ [−1, 1] is the control with relative degree 2. Then, a simple RD 2 sliding variable

signal and represents the duty cycle of the set of switches. can be defined just adding a derivative term

Lg and Lf are the LCL filter inductances, C and Co are the s = e + k ė, (6)

capacitances in the LCL filter and DC link, respectively, and

rg , rf represent the inductor loses. Equations (1) and (4) can where k > 0, is a design parameter. Notice that this SOSM

be rewritten in an affine in the control form as approach needs only one time differentiator in s (see Figure

3), while classical SMC would also required to include full

ẋ = f (x, t) + g(x, t)u(t), (5) information of the second time derivative into s, in order to

attain relative degree 1.

where xT = (ig , vC , if , vCo ),

1 Moreover, the time derivative of the current reference

− Lg (rg ig + vC )

required in (6) can be reconstructed using the PLL outputs

1 (ig − if ) cos(ωt) and ω. An schematic representation of the proposed

f (x, t) = C

L1 (vC − rf if ) ,

computation of s is depicted in Figure 4.

f

1

− RC o

vCo

B. Second order SMC design

and

0

At this point, with the current control objective adequately

0 embedded into s, a robust controller can be straightforwardly

g(x, t) =

− L1f vCo .

designed in the framework of second order sliding mode.

1 Considering the system characteristics and the proposed RD

Co if 2 sliding variable, a suitable SOSM control algorithm that

Fig. 2. Overall control scheme.

they simultaneously satisfy the following conditions

r1 > r2 > 0

Γ′m (r1 + r2 ) − Φ′ > Γ′M (r1 − r2 ) + Φ′

Γ′m (r1 − r2 ) > Φ′ .

Then, in the bounded region of operation, it is proved that the

Twisting controller (7) generates a second order sliding mode

that robustly attracts the trajectories of the system to s = ṡ = 0

in finite time [10].

Fig. 4. Modified scheme to compute the sliding variable, s. The zero dynamics (or ideal sliding dynamics) can be

interpreted as the dynamics that remains once the controller has

forced the system to reach and stay on the manifold s = ṡ = 0.

Its behavior completes the analysis of the closed loop system

defined by (5) with (7).

The constraint s = 0 establishes the following algebraic

dependence between ig and vC ,

kvC + (Lg Ig − kVg ) sin(ωt) + kωLg Ig cos(ωt)

ig = . (8)

Lg − krg

Fig. 5. Twisting Algorithm control scheme. Similarly, the second constraint ṡ = 0, relates the dynamics of

if with ig and vC , which together with (8) yields

vC = c1 if + c2 sin(ωt) + c3 cos(ωt), (9)

guarantees robust convergence to s = 0 in finite time (and con-

sequent fulfillment of the aforementioned current objective), is where c1 , c2 and c3 are (10), (11) and (12), respectively.

the so called Twisting Algorithm [9][10],

Finally, it is substituted the discontinuous control action u

u = −r1 sign(s) − r2 sign(ṡ). (7) with an equivalent control (i.e., a fictitious continuous control

that would make the sliding surface flow invariant), which can

Note that its implementation is considerably simple, requiring be obtained from s̈ = 0 and takes the form

low on-line computational burden (see Fig. 5). It has only 1

two constant parameters, r1 and r2 , tuned in accordance with ueq = (d2 if + d3 sin(ωt) + d4 cos(ωt)), (13)

d1 vCo

certain system bounds as stated in [10], which are obtained

off-line during the design phase. where d1 , d2 , d3 and d4 are given by (14), (15), (16) and (17),

respectively.

Specifically, given the sliding variable (6) and the affine

Substituting vC and u with (9) and (13) in the system (1)-

in the control form (5) of the active rectifier, the second time

(4), the order of the closed loop dynamics is reduced in two.

derivative of s can be written

It results

s̈ = ϕ′ (x, t) + γ ′ (x, t)u(t). dif d2 d3

Lf = − rf − c1 + i f + c2 − sin(ωt)

dt d d1

In a bounded region of operation ϕ′ (x, t) and γ ′ (x, t) are 1

uncertain (disturbed) but uniformly bounded functions, as d4

+ c3 − cos(ωt), (18)

follows d1

0 < Γ′m ≤ γ ′ (x, t) ≤ Γ′M , dvCo 1 if

Co = d2 if + d3 sin(ωt) + d4 cos(ωt)

dt d1 vCo

and vCo

|ϕ′ (x, t)| ≤ Φ′ . − . (19)

R

k(Lg − krg )

c1 = (10)

k 2 + C(Lg − krg )

(kLg ω 2 − rg )C(Lg − krg ) − kLg

c2 = Ig + Vg (11)

k 2 + C(Lg − krg )

ω(C(k 2 rg2 − L2g ) − k 2 Lg ) kCω(Lg − krg )

c3 = 2

Ig + 2 Vg . (12)

k + C(Lg − krg ) k + C(Lg − krg )

d2 = −(rf + rg )k 3 + (rf rg C + Lf + Lg )k 2 − C(Lf rg + Lg rf )k + Lg Lf C (15)

= rg Cω 2 (Lf − Lg )k 3 + (rg2 C + Cω 2 (Lg (Lg + Lf ) − rg2 CLf ) − Lf − Lg )k 2 + rg C(Lf − Lg )k Ig

d3

− CLg Lf (1 − Lg Cω 2 ) Ig + (1 − CLf ω 2 )(k 3 − rg Ck 2 + Lg Ck)Vg

(16)

d4 = (ω(C(Lg Lf ω 2 + rg2 ) − Lf − Lg )k 3 − Lg ω 3 C 2 Lf rg k 2 + Cω(CLf (L2g ω 2 + rg2 ) − Lg (Lg + Lf ))k − Lg rg C 2 Lf ω)Ig

+Cω(−rg k 3 + (Lf + Lg )k 2 − rg CLf k + Lg CLf )Vg . (17)

d2

d1 > 0, if is stable with oscillations at frequency ω. Then,

the remaining dynamics of (19) can be seen as

dvCo v2

vCo Co = − Co + h(t),

dt R

where h(t), due to the product of if (t) with sinusoidal

functions, is a periodic function with frequency 2ω. Assuming

vCo (t) > 0, it is transformed into the following linear ODE

with the change of coordinates ξ = 12 vC 2

o

(see [11] for further

details)

dξ 2 Fig. 6. Block diagram of the uniform robust exact differentiator.

Co = − ξ + h(t),

dt R

with stable solutions for Co , R > 0. This analysis reveals that Defining the error signal σ = z0 − η, the following

a perfect current tracking yields oscillations at frequency 2ω dynamical system can be constructed

in the vCo voltage, similar to the results presented in [11].

ż0 = −k1 φ1 (σ) + z1

D. Uniform robust exact differentiator ż1 = −k2 φ2 (σ) ,

The RD 2 expression of s designed in (6) depends on where

the time derivative of the current ig . However, in some

actual cases, it is preferred to avoid the implementation of 1 3

φ1 (σ) = |σ| 2 sign(σ) + |σ| 2 sign(σ)

direct differentiators, among other reasons due to practical

1 3

noise issues. Therefore, in this control proposal, the variable φ2 (σ) = sign(σ) + 2σ + µ2 |σ|2 sign(σ),

dig 2 2

dt can be computed by means of an uniform robust exact

differentiator (URED) [12], a time derivate observer based on and k1 and k2 are constant positive gains dependent on L.

the generalized super twisting algorithm reported in [13]. The variable z0 and z1 are the estimations of η0 and η̇0 ,

Let η(t) be a Lebesgue-measurable function defined on respectively. Indeed, z1 (t) converges exactly to η̇0 in finite-

[0, ∞) and take it as the input signal. Suppose that η(t) can time, with the convergence time independent of the initial dif-

be decomposed as ferentiation error (see [12] for details). See the block diagram

implementation in Figure 6.

η(t) = η0 (t) + v(t), di

Note that an observer for dtg based on the URED con-

where η0 (t) is the unknown base signal to be differentiated verges to its true value in finite-time. This is an important

and v(t) corresponds to a uniformly bounded noise signal. advantage, given that the current SOSM Twisting controller

Assuming that η0 (t) is twice continuously differentiable and can be connected once the convergence time of the URED

that the first derivative is Lipschitz with known Lipschitz has elapsed and, consequently, undesirable errors due to the

constant L > 0. observer transient are avoided.

V. PI OUTER - LOOP VOLTAGE CONTROL

480

vco

The slower DC bus voltage control loop is designed 470

d

vco

460

in fact guaranteed in finite time. In Section IV-C, the zero

dynamics was studied where idg = Ig sin(ωt) with Ig constant. 450

440

frequency appeared in the DC bus voltage, vCo . Consequently,

the control objective should be turned into the regulation of 430

the averaged value1 of the DC bus voltage, v̄Co , rather than of 420

390

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

time [s]

voltage at the desired value. Replacing (20) in (1), (2), (3)

and (4) one gets a complex dynamics with the oscillations Fig. 7. Simulation results: DC bus voltage after a reference step change,

from 400V to 450V.

predicted in Section IV-C and the (first, second and third) time

derivative of Ig (t). Then, averaging the resulting dynamics,

with the following coordinates change VI. S IMULATIONS

1 2 In order to validate the control algorithm presented in

ψ= v̄ , this paper numerical simulations have been performed using

2 Co

a fixed time step of5 · 10−8 s. The sliding variable has been

and assuming slow variations of Ig (t), one gets implemented using the URED to observe the time derivative

of ig and minimize possible numerical differentiation issues.

dψ 2

Co = − ψ − a2 Ig2 + a1 Ig − a0 , (21) In this section two different simulation tests are shown.

dt R

The first one consists in a change of the DC voltage reference,

where Ig can be used as a control action to regulate ψ at a from 400V to 450V, with a load of R = 50Ω. The second

desired value ψ d = 12 (vCo

d 2

) , and test consists in a sudden change of the load form R = 50Ω to

R = 20Ω. The parameters of the power converter are: Lg =

π(rf (ω 2 Lg C − 1)2 + ω 2 rg2 rf C 2 + rg ) 300µH, rg = 50mΩ, C = 20µF, Lf = 100µH, rf = 50mΩ

a2 = ,

ω and Co = 2mF. The control gains are: k = 10−4 , r1 = 0.7

πVg (1 + 2ω 2 rg rf C 2 ) and r2 = 0.3 (for the Twisting Algorithm), and kp = 0.75 and

a1 = , ki = 50 (for the external PI controller).

ω

a0 = πVg2 ωrf C 2 . In Figure 7, the DC voltage vCo and its reference value vC d

o

are depicted. The voltage is regulated after a short transient

Notice that since all the parameters are positive, a2 , a1 , a0 > 0. time, even when the oscillations predicted in Section IV-C

Replacing the parameters of the rectifier used in the simu- appear. Meanwhile, the grid current ig is in phase with the

lation stage (see Section VI), voltage grid vg as Figure 8 shows, implying an unity power

factor. The results of the second test are shown in figures 9 and

a2 = 9.9 · 10−5 10. In this case, the change of the load value implies a transient

a1 = 3.11 before the controller fulfills the control goals. Similarly to the

previous case, the average of the DC voltage is regulated with

a0 = 3.8 · 10−4

an unity power factor.

reveals that a1 is clearly dominating a2 and a0 , and (21) can

be approximated by the linear system VII. C ONCLUSIONS AND FINAL REMARKS

dψ 2

Co = − ψ + a1 Ig , inductive-capacitive-inductive filter was developed. Taking into

dt R account several features, such as the system relative degree,

which can be regulated by means of a PI controller robustness and implementation simplicity, a non-linear control

Z approach was proposed using a second order sliding mode

Ig = kp (ψ − ψ) + (ψ d − ψ)dt,

d Twisting algorithm in conjunction with an exact differentiator.

This results in a robust and relatively simple control structure

that particularly suits the current tracking problem. In addition,

with kp , ki > 0 and ψ d = 12 (v̄C

d 2

o

) . satisfactory zero dynamics analysis is provided for the current

loop. The controller setup is completed with an outer loop

1 The

R t function of a periodic signal f (t) of period T is calculated

averaged based on a PI controller for the regulation of the average output

as f¯(t) = T1 t−T f (τ )dτ . DC voltage.

The feasibility of the combined control strategy was as-

100

i

g

sessed by means of comprehensive numerical simulations

80

vg conducted on a benchmark model of an existing rectifier,

simulating realistic and exacting operating conditions. They

60

demonstrate that the proposed SOSM non-linear approach is a

40 highly efficient solution for the rectifier control problem under

20

study, establishing its viability for implementation in actual

single-phase active rectifiers with LCL filter. In accordance

i [A],v /4[V]

g

0

with these encouraging results, the following stage of this

g

−40

SOSM based controller in the laboratory experimental test

bench.

−60

−80 ACKNOWLEDGMENT

−100

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

This work was supported by the Spanish Government

time [s]

Research Project DPI2010-15110, Project Marie Curie FP7-

2011-IIF-299767/911767 ACRES (EU), CONICET and UNLP

Fig. 8. Simulation results: grid current, ig after a change of the DC bus (Argentina). The research of C. Kunusch has been supported

voltage reference, from 400V to 450V. by the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Com-

munity through the Marie Curie actions (GA: PCIG09-GA-

2011-293876), the Puma-Mind project (GA: FCH-JU-2011-

480 1-303419), the CICYT project DPI2011-25649 (MINECO-

vco

470

d

vco Spain) and the CSIC JAE-DOC Research Programme.

460

R EFERENCES

450

[1] J. Dannehl, C. Wessels, and F. Fuchs, “Limitations of voltage-oriented

PI current control of grid-connected PWM rectifiers with LCL filters,”

DC bus voltage [V]

440

IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 380–388,

430 2009.

420

[2] M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, and S. Hansen, “Design and control of an

LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier,” IEEE Trans. on Industry

410 Applications, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1281–1291, 2005.

[3] Y.-R. Mohamed, M. Rahman, and R. Seethapathy, “Robust line-voltage

400

sensorless control and synchronization of LCL-filtered distributed gen-

390 eration inverters for high power quality grid connection,” IEEE Trans.

on Power Electronics, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 87–98, 2012.

380

0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 [4] E. Wu and P. Lehn, “Digital current control of a voltage source

time [s]

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[5] J. Dannehl, F. Fuchs, and P. Thogersen, “PI state space current control

Fig. 9. Simulation results: DC bus voltage after a change of the load value,

of grid-connected PWM converters with LCL filters,” IEEE Trans. on

from R = 50Ω to R = 10Ω.

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100

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60 ical systems. Taylor & Francis, 1999.

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sertation (Ph.D.), California Institute of Technology, 1986.

20

[9] A. Levant, “Sliding order and sliding accuracy in sliding mode control,”

i [A],v /100[V]

0

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g

g

−20

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−40

3: Higher Order Sliding Modes, pp. 53-101.

[11] R. Griñó, E. Fossas, and D. Biel, “Sliding mode control of a full-bridge

−60 unity power factor rectifier,” Lecture Notes in Control and Information

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−80

[12] E. Cruz-Zavala, J. A. Moreno, and L. Fridman, “Uniform robust exact

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0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2

differentiator,” IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control, vol. 56, no. 11, pp.

time [s] 2727–2733, 2011.

[13] J. Moreno, Lyapunov approach for analysis and design of second order

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Fig. 10. Simulation results: grid current, ig after a change of the load value,

from R = 50Ω to R = 10Ω.

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