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August 2016

Systems Wide Climate Change Office

(DA-SWCCO) Adaptation and Mitigation
Initiative in Agriculture (AMIA)
Esteban Celeste Godilano, Ph.D.
ICCGIS Team Leader

Esteban “Steeve” C. Godilano, earned his Ph.D. in Environmental Information Science (EIS) and
International Agriculture, Cornell University, Ithaca New York. USA. MSc in Space Technology focusing
in Natural Resource Development and Management, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok,
Thailand. BS Agriculture: Agronomy, Central Philippine University, Iloilo City.

Maps used in this analysis were obtained from different sources and digitized in various
scales, in so doing, it is expected that errors could occur especially in political boundary
details. The DA-SWCCO-AMIA ICCGIS Team had minimized these errors through map
editing, rubber sheeting, or wrapping to a common base map the ICCGIS team developed
using GIS Technology and ESRI Satellite Imagery. All maps were rectified into one
common base maps and transformed into WGS 84 coordinate systems, however, no
ACCURACY STATEMENT has been made, or to verify its accuracy through ground



Copyright  2017: DA-SWCCO AMIA NCCAG Philippines. All Rights Reserved

No part of this resource book may be reproduced, stored in retrieval systems or

transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, scanning, or otherwise without the written permission of the DA Policy and
Planning Office and the DA-SWCCO.

Mention of trade name or proprietary products does not indicate endorsement by DA-
AMIA or by the ICCGIS Team and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other
products that may also be suitable.

Citation: DA-SWCCO-AMIA-NCCAG (2017). Department of Agriculture-Systems Wide

Climate Change Office. Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative in Agriculture, Methodology:
Crop Production Potential. 4th Floor, PCAF Bldg. Visayas Ave. Quezon City, Philippines.

Suggested citation for the Project:

Godilano, E.C. , J.B. Abunda, (2017). Department of Agriculture-Systems Wide Climate

Change Office. Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative in Agriculture. Methodology: Crop
Production Potential. 4th Floor, PCAF Bldg. Visayas Ave. Quezon City, Philippines.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 2


ADB Asian Development Bank

AMIA Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative in Agriculture
ANR Agriculture and Natural Resources
APEC Asia - Pacific Economic Cooperation
ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations
AWD Alternate-Wetting and Drying
BAI Bureau of Animal Industry
BAR Bureau of Agricultural Research
BFAR Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
BSWM Bureau of Soils and Water Management
CCCP Climate Change Congress of the Philippines
CPP Crop Production Potential
CRA Climate-Resilient Agri-Fisheries
CSA Climate Smart Agriculture
DA Department of Agriculture
DAR Department of Agrarian Reform
DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources
DRRM Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
EMB Environmental Management Bureau
EnRD Environment and Rural Development
EOS Earth Observing Satellites
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (UN)
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GlZ German International Cooperation
GIS Geographic Information Systems
GIGO Garbage In Garbage Out
GHG Green House Gas
GOP Government of the Philippines
HMU Hazards Management Unit (WB)
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IERRSS International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (USA)
IFPRI International Food and Policy Research Institute
IFSAR Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IRRI International Rice Research Institute
ISAAA International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications
LGU Local Government Unit
MDG Millennium Development Goals
NAST National Academy of Science and Technology
NCCAP National Climate Change Action Program
NCI National Convergence Initiative
NDRRMC National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council
NIA National Irrigation Administration
NIS National Irrigation Systems

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 3

NFS National Frameworks Strategies
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA)
NSCB National Statistical Coordinating Board
PAGASA Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Service
PAR Philippine Area of Responsibility
RFO Regional Field Office
RFU Regional Field Units
SAFDZ Strategic Agricultural Development Zone
SALT Sloping Agricultural Land Technology
SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
SDD Small Diversion Dam
SFR Small Farm Reservoir
SLA Simple Limitation Approach
SRD Sustainable Rural Development
SSIP Small Scale Irrigation Project
STW Shallow Tube Well
SWCCO Systems Wide Climate Change Office
SWIP Soil and Water Impounding Projects
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNISDR United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGS U.S. Geological Survey
WB World Bank
WGS World Geodetic Systems

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 4


No Title Number

1 Introduction 7
1.1 Agriculture as part of the solution 7
2 Country Vulnerability to Climate Change and Level of Poverty 7
3 Department of Agriculture Using Geospatial Technology 10
4 The DA Systems Wide Climate Change Office (DA SWCCO) Adaption 11
and Mitigation initiative in Agriculture (AMIA)
4.1. The Four Strategic Objectives 13
4.2 The Seven Systems-wide Programs on Climate Change 13
5 Adopting a Watershed Management Framework 14
6 Using GIS Technology in Mapping 16
7 GIS in Crop production Mapping 16
7.1 Suitability Mapping 17
7.2 Cartographic Model in Generating the Suitability and 18
Investment Map
7.3 Creating mango suitability 19
8 From Global to Local 22
9 Way Forward 23
10 Limitations in this Mapping Activity 23

Box 1. Philippine Population Projection 8


Appendix 1: Crop Production Criteria

Appendix 2: Pictures of Major Crops in the Philippines

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 5


No Title Page

1 Top five countries and ASEAN ranking on vulnerability to disaster. 8

2 Philippine destructive typhoons of more than 1B PhP annual total damage 9
3 Geostatistics of crop production under the AMIA-ICCGIS project 19
4 Mango suitability requirements 20
5 Mango national statistics. 21


No Title Page

1 Trends in land conversion in the Philippines 10

2 Watershed management framework 15
3 Location specific integration using GIS technology 16
4 Framework for crop production mapping 17
5 Cartographic model in generating the crop production map 18
6 Cartographic model in creating the mango suitability 20
7 Mango limitation map in the Philippines 21
8 Scaling down of crop production maps 22
9 Framework in the RFOs engagement in crop production mapping and 23

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 6


Climate change threatens the stability of agricultural production. In many areas of the
world where agricultural productivity is already low and the means of coping with
adverse events are limited, climate change is expected to reduce productivity to even
lower levels and make production more erratic (Stern Review 2006; Cline 2007; Fisher et
al. 2002; and IPCC 2007, 2013). Long term changes in the patterns of temperature and
precipitation, that are part of climate change, are expected to shift production seasons,
pest and disease patterns, and modify the set of feasible crops affecting production,
prices, incomes and ultimately, livelihoods and lives. Climate change impacts include
increased floods and droughts, soil degradation, water shortages, and possible increase
in the number of destructive pests and diseases.

Base on ADB’s and IFPRI (2009) studies on “Economics of Climate Change in Southeast
Asia” the benefits from avoided damage in agriculture and the coastal zones of Vietnam,
Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines could reach 1.9 % of Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) by 2100, as compared to the adaptation cost of 0.2 % of GDP. Without dramatic
mitigation and adaptation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the impacts and costs
caused by climate change are going to increase on a frightening scale. Those who are
responsible for most GHGs emissions in the atmosphere already have the capacity and
finance necessary to avoid most loss of life and livelihood from those impacts, but the
world’s poor who are least responsible for the emissions of GHGs emissions are the less

1.2 Agriculture as part of the solution

The Philippine economy is heavily based on agriculture; the development of the

agricultural sector is the most efficient poverty reduction measure. Yet agricultural
expansion for food production and economic development, which comes at the expense
of soil, water, biodiversity or forests, conflicts with national goals, often compromises
production and development in the longer term. Agriculture can be a part of the solution:
helping our people to feed themselves and adapt to changing conditions while mitigating
climate change. Agriculture is needed to strengthen food and water security, adaptation,
and mitigation. It is needed to contribute in sequestering GHG emissions and capturing
carbon in the soil.

Farmers are under the greatest threat from climate change, but they could also play a
major role in addressing it. It is possible for agriculture to actually sequester—or
absorb—carbon into the soil rather than emitting it. This can be done without the trade
off with productivity and yields. It is possible to have higher yields, more carbon in the
soil and greater resilience to droughts and heat. This is called the `triple win’
interventions that would increase yields (poverty reduction and food security), make
yields more resilient in the face of extremes (adaptation), and make the farm a solution
to the climate change problem rather than part of the problem (mitigation). These triple
wins are likely to require a package of interventions and can be geographically specific in
their application (World Bank 2011).

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The Philippines is an archipelago surrounded by the Philippine Sea and Pacific Ocean in
the east and the Philippine Sea in the west with a land area of 300,000 sq km and an
estimated population of 94 Million in 2010. The recent World Risk Report 2011
( reported that the Philippines
ranked third among the 173 countries in the world in terms of disaster risk index (Table
1). ASEAN countries are likewise included for comparison.

The Philippines, due to its location and natural Table 1. Top five countries and ASEAN
attributes, is prone to natural hazards. It is ranking on vulnerability to disaster.
situated in the Pacific Ring of Fire where two
Rank Country Risk (%)
major tectonic plates of the world, It is located
1 Vanuatu 32.00
along the typhoon belt on the Western North
2 Tonga 29.08
Pacific Basin where 66% of tropical cyclones 3 Philippines 24.32
enter or originate. Typhoons average 20 events 4 Solomon Islands 23.51
per year; five to seven of which can be very 5 Guatemala 20.88
destructive. Flooding has become the most 7 Timor-Leste 17.45
prevalent disaster since 2000. Areas along the 9 Cambodia 16.58
over 17,000 km coastline are vulnerable to 14 Brunei Darussalam 14.08
tidal surges due to high population density. 28 Indonesia 11.69
According to the United Nations International 34 Vietnam 11.21
Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR)— 57 Myanmar 8.54
reports that "the Philippines topped the 85 Thailand 6.86
disaster league of 2011 with 33 major reported 91 Malaysia 6.69
events, affecting 12.5% of the population. The 104 Lao PDR 5.80
People's Republic of China, United States and 153 Singapore 2.85
nd rd th
India ranked a distant 2 , 3 , and 4 with 21,
19 and 11 disasters, respectively (The CRED/OFDA-International Disaster Database
tables). In terms of Sea Level Rise (SLR), the Philippines is No.5 that could affect 14 M

Many highly populated areas are exposed to multiple hazards; 22.3% of the land area is
exposed to three or more hazards and in that area, 36.4% of the population are exposed.
Areas where two or more hazards are prevalent comprise 62.2% of the total area where
73.8% of the population are exposed (World Bank, 2005). Basic
statistics on poverty incidence, of which 75% of those affected Box 1. Philippine
Population Projection
by poverty are in the rural areas, 41% are fishers and 37% are
farmers. These are the sectors which are most vulnerable to the The Philippine
impacts of climate change (NSCB, 2010). Farmers’ income is population stands at
compromised because livelihoods in the farm and fishing 90 Million. Anchored
on a 1.8% annual
communities are threatened by the destructive effects of climate population growth
change target, by 2050
(when climate
impacts may be at
Climate change is one such risk that will complicate and their worst) we would
compound existing development problems in the country such have grown to 180
as population growth (Box 1), rapid urbanization, increasing Million.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 8

competition for natural resources, environmental degradation and, most importantly,
food insecurity. Already over the last fifty years the country has experienced a range of
observed climate changes including declining precipitation, increasing water scarcity,
rising average temperatures and growing frequency of extreme weather events such as
storm and flood. During the last decade alone, agriculture is incurring losses averaging
189 million USD with average 600 loss of lives who are mostly farmers and fisherfolk that
cannot be quantified in terms of economic losses. Extreme events even occurred twice a
year. In the last four years alone, extreme event occured in Mindanao, which is
considered to be the food basket of the country (Table 2). Economic damage and other
losses amounted to at least P799 billion, while around 10,000 people were killed due to
Typhoons Yolanda, Ondoy, Pepeng and Sendong (Rachel Kyte: WB 2014).

Table 2. Destructive typhoons of more than 1 B PhP annual total damage.


Damage (B
No Months/ PhP)
Year Name Affected Regions
Dates Total Agri
1 Oct 2 to 6 1993 Kadiang 8.75 7.19 NCR, CAR, regions I to 4
NCR, CAR, Regions I to 5
2 Oct 30 to Nov 4 1995 Rosing 10.80 9.04
and 8
3 Oct 20 to 23 1998 Loleng 6.79 3.70 CAR, Reg. I to VI and 8
NCR, Samar, Bicol,
4 Jun 20 to 23 2008 Frank 13.50 3.20
Mindoro, and Iloilo
NCR, Central Luzon,
5 Sep 25 to 27 2009 Ondoy 11.00 6.77
CAR, Pangasinan, Tarlac,
6 Oct 2 to 10 2009 Pepeng 27.30 6.53
NCR, CAR, Reg. 1, 2, 3,
7 Oct 18 to 21 2010 Juan 8.49 7.55
Rizal, Cavite
8 Sep 26 to 28 2011 Pedring 15.00 4.19 NCR,CAR, Reg. 3, 4, 5
Cagayan de Oro, Iligan,
9 Dec 16 to 17 2011 Sendong 2.07 1.00
Dumaguete, Negros Or.
Davao Or., Compostela,
10 Dec 2 to 9 2012 Pablo 36.95 26.53
CARAGA, Palawan
Leyte, Samar, Cebu,
11 Nov 8-10 2013 Yolanda 85.00 28.86 Iloilo, Romblon, Surigao,
Total (PhP) 225.65 95.92
Average (PhP) 18.70 9.51

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Food security is compromised by the impacts of climate in view of the changes in
weather patterns, pest and disease incidence, production areas are threatened by floods,
landslides, droughts, sea level rise, soil erosion, etc. Many have been blaming climate
change and other factors to poverty and food insecurity in the country; Land conversion
as part of the problem should be factored in. Illustrated in Figure 1, is the land
conversion data of the country in 1970 to 2000. Forest cover has been continually
decreasing over the years, from 26% in 1970 to only 18% in 2000. This implies that forest
land conversion into other land uses such as agricultural, residential, commercial, and
industrial uses have been very rapid in the last three decades. Increasing agricultural
production based on increasing cultivated areas is no longer an option.

Science is telling us that there are three considerations to increase food production: (1)
increase area for agriculture (2) increasing yield per unit area, and (3) increasing cropping
intensity. For the Philippines, options one is no longer possible. The Department of
Agriculture (DA) should therefore focus its programs to option 2 and 3 or continue to be
the number one rice exporter in the world.

Figure 1. Trends in Land Conversion in the Philippines


Established in 1898, the Philippines Department of Agriculture (DA) is the principal

agency of the Philippine government responsible for the promotion of agricultural
development growth. In pursuit of this, it provides the policy framework, helps direct
public investments, and provides the support services necessary in partnership with Local
Government units (LGUs) to make agriculture and agri-based enterprises profitable and
to help spread the benefits of development to the poor, particularly those in rural
areas. Corollary to this, the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) has been
implemented by the DA since 1999, a year after it was signed into law. However, since
then, the DA has not been able to fully implement AFMA in view of budgetary
constraints, its inability to transform its bureaucracy as indicated in the law, as well as
recurrent problems of negative-impacting types of political intervention. While the DA
has had considerable effort in attempting to enhance the environment for the agriculture
sector to compete under a globalize milieu, such has not been sufficient to sustain the
major undertakings for institutional reform. Fragmentation and overlapping of functions
still exist.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 10

Beyond the DA, the world economy is in the midst of a profound transformation, spurred
by globalization and supported by the rapid development of ICT. In addition to this, the
emergence geospatial technology such as Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information
Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and environmental modeling as a
planning tool in local governance has now become a necessity for local planners,
scientists, and policy makers. These new tools and new science provides new
opportunities and are changing the way we live, the way we govern, and redefining the
ways local government does fiscal planning, management, and enforcement. Geographic
targeting of agricultural programs and allocation of resources had improved fiscal
management and increased efficiency in local governance and to those who are familiar
with the technology. The rapid emergence of the Internet economy is also giving this
argument new impetus.

With great strides being made along the road toward a global economy and increased
awareness of technology and its role in society, the DA and its partners institution has
and must continue to develop in order to embrace these changing circumstances. The
effective use of resources requires that decisions be made on the best and most
complete information available. Using geospatial technology is one method that can be
use to clearly show interdependent and interagency information for decision-making.
The use of GIS to display and interrelate information for decision-makers, scientists, and
extensionist is an effective method that is now available. The use of GIS to share
information between government agencies, allowing stakeholders to see all pertinent
information in one format is now expected.

It is believed that our goal in achieving agricultural productivity, sustainability, and food
security in the future will in part depend on our ability to predict and manage changes in
our agricultural landscape and the effects of those changes on natural ecosystems. As our
agricultural landscape continues to change due to increasing human population, land
conversion, and demand for natural resources, more stressors are expected to affect
water quality, wildlife habitat, and ecosystem processes as a whole. Corollary to this,
decision-makers operating at different scales of interest and responsibility have to deal
with different types of agricultural problems and seek solutions to handle the complexity
of natural and human actions causing these problems. The linkage of agricultural
assessment tools and GIS technology and their capability in handling available geospatial
data sources to prepare valid model and input parameters for applications at various
spatial and temporal scales are in high demand. For example, the expansion and
concentration of rice areas led to drastic changes in land use as well as water and
sediment fluxes in our environment. Thus, this resulted in looking for innovative changes
and approaches in implementing agricultural development and in doing research and
extension programs.

On the other hand, there are a number of factors and trends, both technology and
market driven, that are influencing agricultural development today, and this will have
major impacts on the directions that will guide the DA into the next century. On this
premise, there are three increasingly shared perspectives within the National Agricultural
Research Systems (NARS), the academe, and development community: (1) with advance
Information and Communication Technology (ICT), organizations can manage vast

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 11

quantities of information with speed and flexibility; (2) geography matters, almost
all data stored have geographic locations; and (3) many government interventions will be
more successful if they were geographically targeted.


AMIA’s overall vision is for the Philippine agri-fisheries sector to build climate-resilient
livelihoods and communities. This would be achieved through Climate-Resilient Agri-
Fisheries (CRA) approach by enabling local communities manages climate risks while
pursuing sustainable livelihoods. This can be achieved by implementing technologies and
practices, introducing institutional and social innovations, and accessing climate-relevant
support services.

Following 2015-16 investments in mainstreaming AMIA within the Department of

Agriculture, the program is launching an integrated and multi-stakeholder effort to
operationalize CRA at the community level. AMIA’s 2016 framework provides overall
guidance in the planning and design of research and development interventions toward
building CRAs communities.

The framework consists of nine key clusters of inter-related activities, whose cumulative
and combined results are envisioned to help AMIA achieve its goal for 2016 and beyond.
For each cluster, a set of projects and activities would be designed towards
operationalizing the AMIA framework.

Cluster 1: Enabling environment

Provides integrated support to DA-wide capacity development, institutional

strengthening and mainstreaming of AMIA processes, practices and products. Major
focus is on strengthening the necessary regional-level systems to effectively introduce
CRA at scale. It also facilitates a cross-regional learning platform for peer-to-peer,
horizontal exchange of experiences and best practices among AMIA teams and partners.

Cluster 2: Vulnerability assessment and risk targeting

Assesses agri-fisheries communities’ overall vulnerability to climate risks based on their

exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. It guides AMIA in regional-level identification
and targeting of key climate risks – for landscapes, farms and commodity systems. It
builds on and expands prior AMIA efforts which were mainly oriented towards eco-
system disaster risks.

The assessment-targeting methodology combines multiple, complementary methods and

tools in analyzing climate-risk vulnerability – including geo-spatial profiling, climate
modeling and scenario analysis, biophysical assessment, socio-institutional appraisal, and
participatory methods to seek complementary knowledge and perspective by local

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Cluster 3: Developing knowledge pool of CRA options

Provides decision-support platform to AMIA planners, decision makers and implementing

teams on potential CRA options to address the targeted climate risks in the regions. It
establishes a comprehensive pool of field-validated CRA knowledge -- from local to
county-wide and global sources. It produces knowledge products and decision tools –
including online portals – to offer AMIA with locally customized, easy-access and ready-
to-use CRA options. This facilitates the planning of field activities to test CRA technologies
and other innovations across agro-ecologies, while seeking complementarity between
local knowledge and external science solutions.

Cluster 4: CRA community participatory action research initial phase

Establishes an initial set of proof-of-concept sites within each region, as focal point for
deriving preliminary evidence of CRA processes and outcomes at local level. It serves as
platform for learning and sharing with a wider range of communities within the region.
Its participatory action-oriented research agenda is driven by community-centered
mechanisms and farmer-to-farmer methods for introducing and promoting CRA within
and across agri-fisheries communities.

Cluster 5: Enhancing services and institutions

Enhances key climate services and institutions which are essential for agri-fisheries
communities to adopt and benefit from CRA practices. It equips regional DA offices and
other institutional stakeholders with capacities, guidelines and models for more client-
responsive services – including climate information advisory, risk insurance/transfer and
credit support, market development, and local climate governance.

Cluster 6: Integrating CRA in food systems and value chains

Integrates CRA within broader strategies for building climate-resilient food systems and
value chains. It links CRA’s livelihood goals for agri-fisheries communities with key
development outcomes that benefit a wider range of populations who are exposed to
climate risks. It promotes improved diets and nutrition for resource-poor consumers
despite climate risks. It also enables small-scale agri-fisheries households to gain better
access to markets while participating in climate-resilient value chains. Among its critical
elements are capacity building for business enterprise planning, and provision of financial
and other key support services.

Cluster 7: Implementing CRA on scale

Develops and tests strategies for delivering CRA outcomes at scale, in a sustainable and
social inclusive (including gender) manner. It draws from key findings, other experiences
and results of prior clusters to demonstrate the feasibility of CRA practices, processes
and resulting outcomes above individual communities. It also focuses on key challenges
for operationalizing CRA at multiple scales through regional innovation platforms,
spearheaded by DA and by engaging with diverse multi-sectoral institutional stakeholders

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 13

– including government agencies, universities, Non-governmental organizations (NGOs),
private-sector organizations, and civil society groups.

Cluster 8: Knowledge Management for Results

Develops and tests strategies for managing AMIA processes of knowledge production,
sharing and utilization across clusters. It includes: 1) establishing guidelines and
templates, including quality assurance, in packaging and developing CRA knowledge
products, 2) planning and executing communication strategies for public advocacy,
outreach/networking and media engagement, and 3) developing results-based
monitoring and evaluation systems for documenting AMIA outputs and outcomes which
meet the generally established standards of CRA evidence.

Cluster 9: Program Management and Partnership Platforms

Coordinates and harmonizes the overall planning and execution of AMIA projects and
activities through cost-effective and resource-efficient program management systems. It
integrates field-based results across clusters, while offering systematic feedback and
input to national policy development and investment planning. It also helps nurture
sustainable and creative partnership arrangements to foster joint action and benefit-
sharing among communities, institutions and stakeholders.

4.1. The four strategic objectives

1) To increase the adaptive capacity and productivity potentials of agriculture and

fisheries livelihood by modifying commodity combinations to better meet
weather issues and natural resource endowments.
2) To redefine or remap Strategic Agricultural Fisheries Development Zone (SAFDZ)
by including climate change vulnerabilities as part of mapping variables.
3) To redefine the agriculture development planning framework as basis for
agricultural planning by including key factors/variables associated with climate
change, and
4) To develop a new framework and plan for the provision of “new” government
agriculture services towards the accelerated development of climate smart
agriculture and fisheries industries.

4.2 The seven systems-wide programs on climate change

1) Mainstreaming AMIA, which aims to minimize DA’s institutional risks and protect
government investments and adjust development programs/projects and
approaches to address CC risks.
2) Climate Information System (CIS), which has the objective of having a common
database to generate timely and reliable data for disaster risk reduction,
planning, and management through the conduct of vulnerability and risk
assessments of productive areas, and the establishment of agro-meteorological
stations in highly vulnerable areas.
3) Philippine Adaptation and Mitigation in Agriculture Knowledge Toolbox that will

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 14

inventory, generate, and disseminate adaptive tools, technologies, and practices,
which users can readily use through the extension services of the country, while
research will pursue new tools and knowledge in partnership with the scientific
4) Climate-Smart Agriculture Infrastructure, that will support the development of
new designs and construction protocols for a g r i c u l t u r a l infrastructure to
withstand adverse effects of extreme weather events, repair of existing systems
to enhance resilience where necessary and improvement of the design and
management of irrigation systems to reduce leakage and optimize water use.
Likewise, production and postharvest facilities, including fishery infrastructure,
will be made more climate-resilient.
5) Financing and Risk Transfer Instruments that will develop new innovative
financing schemes to help the agriculture producers obtain financing,
insurance, and guarantees for climate change related projects and
events especially vulnerable stakeholders in the agriculture and fishery
sector. A quick response fund will be set up to provide emergency support to
farmers in affected production areas.
6) Climate-Smart Agriculture and Fisheries Regulations where regulatory agencies
will redesign their services to take into consideration new technologies towards
the promotion/development of climate-smart agriculture. This is to ensure,
among others, that new kinds of pesticides, fertilizers and other inputs,
as well as genetically modified crops and organisms, that may be created or
brought in to address the changing weather patterns will comply with
effectiveness and safety standards, and
7) Climate-Smart Agriculture Extension Systems, under the leadership of ATI and in
partnership with the LGUs, SCUs, NGOs, and the private sector, t h a t w i l l
m o b i l i z e the entire agriculture and fishery extension infrastructure to
develop and implement a national extension system that will educate and
equip the stakeholders to deal with climate change i n cl u d i n g adaptation
and mitigation measures available for the agriculture and fishery industries.

These core system’s wide programs will allow the Department to better address climate
change vulnerabilities and risks in crafting and implementing the nation’s agriculture and
fisheries modernization programs.


To address the impacts of climate change requires watershed as the planning domain.
This is embodied in Chapter 18 of the Agenda 21 for States Government: “Protection of
the quality and supply of freshwater resources: Application of integrated approaches to
the development, management and use of water resources”.

The National Convergence Initiative (NCI) composed by the DA, DENR, and Department
of Agrarian Reform (DAR) and headed by the DA Secretary adopted the watershed 1 and

(1) Watershed or catchment or basin or drainage area refers to any topographically delineated
area that can collect water and is drained by a river system with an outlet. It includes all land areas
extending from the ridge down to the stream for which water is collected (Brooks, et al., 1981). (2)

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 15

ecosystem management approach in the implementation of the NCI project. The German
International Cooperation (GIZ) strongly supports the NCI in adopting the integrated
ecosystem management approach through the Environment and Rural Development
(EnRD) Program.

A watershed approach in agriculture and natural resources (ANR) will allow stakeholders
to focus on issues that transcend administrative boundaries and greatly increase their
understanding of poverty and environment challenges. A watershed approach is needed
because planning and management decisions in one part of a watershed can have
significant impacts on natural resources elsewhere. Watershed and ecosystem
management is holistic, collaborative, multiple use, and sustainable management of all
resources within a watershed.

A successful community stewardship of a watershed requires “top down” interventions

such as (1) policy, (2) funding, (3) institution building, and (4) technical support, and (5)
enforcement. Illustrated in Figure 2 is a holistic framework on watershed management
that includes the coastal and marine ecosystems (from ridge-rivers-reef) and catchment
basin. The framework can be divided into three major pillars. Pillar one deals with the
green economy (land based), Pillar 2 deals with urban development where settlement
and urban agriculture could co-exist, and Pillar 3 on the blue economy (coastal and
marine ecosystems). For each pillar, major zones are identified and the possible
interventions that the community and LGUs can implement. One of the major benefits
that the stewards can derive is to have water rights which could provide income to the
community. Responsible mining is being advocated.

Figure 2.
Godilano, E.C.
2009, 2011)

A watershed is the land drained by a stream or fixed body of water and its tributaries having a
common outlet for surface runoff (PD 705 Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines).

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 16

The Green Pillar could be divided into six major components namely: (1) core zone, (2)
protection forest, (3) plantation forest, (4) upland ecosystems where responsible mining
could be located, (5) lowland ecosystems, and (6) water resources particularly sources of
fresh water for domestic consumption. Critical issues are anticipated on water rights once
the watershed is sustainably managed by the communities. The yellow pillar consists of
settlements in the urban and rural areas that form the catch basin of a watershed. They
are most vulnerable to impacts of sea level rise, storm surge, and coastal erosion. The
blue pillar consists of the coastal and marine ecosystems. We believed that the survival of
the communities living in the coastal areas as well as the ecosystems is dependent on a
well-managed watershed.


“No other technology synthesizes and displays complex agricultural, natural

resource, environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic information, and
relationships as completely or intuitively as GIS” (USDA, January 2002).

The agricultural sector is facing an unprecedented challenge, and only one technology is
poised to collect, manage, and analyze the myriad of climatic, physical, biological, and
poverty data describing the past, present, and future of agriculture. That technology is
Geographic Information Systems (GIS), commonly used today to view and manage
information about geographic places, analyze geographic relationships, and model
geographic processes.

GIS are powerful tools used to store, manage,

analyze, manipulate, and present spatial data (i.e.,
data that is location-specific), including both natural
resources and socio-economic phenomena (Figure
3). Today GIS technology is used by a variety of
professionals for a broad range of applications. For
example, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA) uses GIS to monitor the
world's storm activity; the U.S. Geological Survey
(USGS) uses GIS to collect and analyze data about
volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis; and the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) uses GIS to track Figure 3. Location specific
the effects of drought on the nation's crops. From integration using GIS technology
conservation organizations to international (source: ESRI)
agencies, scientists around the globe are using GIS as an integrative platform that gives
those researching and analyzing our environment and climate unprecedented vision and
flexibility. In the Philippines, the use of the geospatial technology is not widespread and
confined only in the academe and high-end consultants and firms.

While the advantages of GIS are apparent, there are also some disadvantages.
Commercial GIS software is typically expensive and requires technical skill to use. The
cross-cutting nature of climate change means that data collected by other departments is
likely to be of importance: for example, the availability of surface water

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 17

resources/hydrology, together with physical data such as ground height and shape.
Combined with the distribution of population, this could highlight hotspot flood risks.
While GIS is a nice tool, it requires robust and reliable data to be available, and needs
someone with have comprehensive knowledge of geographically distributed phenomena
and the processes that create and modify the geographic landscape. Likewise,
understanding of the nature and driving forces of vulnerability, to choose what to input
and manipulate – otherwise it runs the risk of “garbage in, garbage out” (GIGO). This is
particularly dangerous because it is easy to be uncritical of such technical outputs – and
poorly designed GIS maps can mask real vulnerabilities while overstating others.


Assessing the suitability of an area for crop and fishery production requires considerable
effort in terms of information collection that presents both opportunities and limitations
to decision-makers. For example, GIS has been use to create crop production based on
the biological requirements of the crop and the quality and characteristics of land. The
methodology adopted in this mapping project combines climate, and those land quality
attributes that most influence crop production (long-term average annual rainfall or total
annual rainfall, accumulated temperature, field capacity duration, and topography data).
Overall suitability is recognized by the Simple Limitation Approach (SLA) in preference to
a weighted GIS model that scores attributes (Ghaffari, et. al. 2000 and Rossiter 1996).
Conversely, the integration of climate-soil-site modeling using GIS is finding increasing
application in crop-specific modeling of agricultural production (Sys, et. al. 1991, and
Star, et. al. 1991). According to Huxhold (1991), GIS is one of the new technologies that
development planners and international agencies consider that could help developing
countries to leapfrog into the future. A GIS is a tool for human use, not a technological
end in itself; this fact is being lost too often in the heady rush of technical sophistication
Honea, et. al. (1991).

7.1 Crop Production Potential Mapping

Land management practices in agricultural areas need to be seriously considered and

researched before they are implemented. Maintaining the status quo can, in some
situations, be as damaging to the farmland as ill-thought, out-of-state policy decisions.
Either at the local farm level or at national scales, events outside of the control of the
farmer can have substantial impact on food security. Climatic change, increased
population pressure, and legislation controlling certain farming activities and commodity
prices are example of events that need to be considered.

Computer modeling and implementing a GIS consider natural variations found in any
piece of farmland. By mapping a farm's attributes at the field level and including
knowledge regarding input costs, potential returns for different crops, and probabilities
of climatic conditions, the researcher can build potential impact scenarios. By analyzing
these results, options can be provided to the farmer, based on a predetermined
acceptable level of risk. Agricultural crop modeling can be included to demonstrate
potential effects from events such as floods.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 18

The framework (Figure 4) of crop
production mapping could be
summarized into three steps (1)
developed strategic options using
expert criteria or science based
evidence to identify desirable ranges
of conditions that would most favor
successful commodity domain, (2)
the integration and convergence of
thematic maps and databases
determine suitability limitations, and
(3) those conditions exhibiting
important spatial dependency e.g.,
agricultural potential, population
density, access to infrastructure and
Figure 4. Framework for crop production
markets, and etc. are matched
Mapping (source: E.C. Godilano 2000).
against similarly characterized
spatially-referenced databases. The output of such analysis provides a “win-win”
situation between and among competing commodities and result to an effective and
efficient allocation of scarce resources.

Take note that 2020 does not connote the year but a clear vision of what the DA-AMIA
intends to achieve in this project.

7.2 Cartographic Model in Generating the Crop Production and Investment Map

Cartographic modeling is a computational methodology for the analytical use of GIS.

Initially developed by Professor Dana Tomlin as an extension of the overlay mapping
techniques pioneered by Professor Ian L. McHarg. Cartographic modeling involves the
use of an algebra-like language to express the complex geographic relationships that are
associated with tasks ranging from site analysis and simulation to plan development and
environmental assessment. The idea is that the user, when confronted by a problem
should not immediately rush to the nearest available keyboard but should first attempt
to work out for himself the data needed to provide the answer.

The purpose of the cartographic model is to locate the best area and to determine its
coincidence to other land uses. Though very different in scale and data requirements, the
way this problem gets solved is similar. For example, in the selection of suitability model,
characteristics are ranked by the suitability of each location based upon all variables. A
simple four step process is used to solve this problem: (1) stating the problem, (2)
breaking down the problem into a series of objectives to be solved, (3) assigning values of
suitability to the objectives, and (4) solving the problem. This process is well discussed
and illustrated in ESRI’s ArcView and ArcGIS Spatial Analyst.

Although cartographic modeling has become a powerful intermediate step in topological

overlay, it has also its own “blinders”. No GIS software is capable of evaluating whether

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 19

the coverages being used are functionally related. The technical experts know which
spatial variables are likely to be functionally related before they begin blindly overlaying
them. Illustrated in Figure 5 is the cartographic model in generating the crop production
potential map.

Figure 5. Cartographic model in generating crop production potential

map (source: E.C. Godilano 2000).

7.3 Creating crop production potential: the case of mango

The Mango suitability which was the prototype of this mapping activity has
demonstrated the enabling capability of the GIS technology to geographically target
suitability and limitation domain of mango. In so doing, the ICCGIS laboratory has
generated the same suitability maps for other commodities including a map compilation
and geostatistics. We will further use GIS analysis to generate a map index of all highly
suitable areas, i.e. areas highly suitable or with no limitation of the different commodities
showing mapping units of coincidence. The coincidence units can also be translated into
crop intensity units that will indicate conflict in crop suitability. In so doing, LGUs,
farmers and investors could select which crop to grow in a given location.

The crop production potential criteria were derived from literature reviews and from
commodity experts, and scientists in their respective field. These criteria were used in
the generation of the suitability map. In so doing, once the criteria are changed, the
output map and geostatistics will likewise differ. Listed in Annex 1 are the crops and their
suitability criteria based on science. Table 3 shows the generated suitability statistics for
the twenty priority crops at the national level. GIS technology could also generate maps
and statistics using administrative boundaries. GIS analysis needs to be generated in
making the coincidence map and statistics for all crops.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 20

A total of thirty three crops including sea grass were generated in this mapping initiative
but only 20 were downscaled based on the priority crops by the DA-AMIA.

For those who are not familiar of the various crops, illustrated in Annex 2 are pictures of
crops used in the suitability mapping.

Table 3. Geostatistics of Crop production under the AMIA-ICCGIS Project.

No Crops Hectares
1 Rice Ecosystems Total Area 3,714,636.70
Irrigated 1,911,001.78
Rainfed 1,770,911.87
Upland 32,723.05
2 Corn/Sorghum Total Area 1,777,972.82
Wet + Dry Season 460,552.63
Wet Season 693,141.40
Dry Season 624,278.78
3 Sweet Potato Total Area 1,639,527.13
Wet + Dry Season 369,623.64
Dry Season 148,556.04
Wet Season 1,121,347.46
4 Coffee Total Area 460,158.47
Robusta + Arabica 208.15
Robusta 374,029.19
Arabica 85,921.13
5 Legumes/Groundnut Total Area 2,926,354.12
Wet + Dry Season 277,066.48
Wet Season 333,218.73
Dry Season 2,316,068.91
6 Cacao 4,778,522.06
7 Cassava 3,810,768.66
8 Sugarcane 5,753,166.24
9 Yam 5,971,637.41
10 Taro 4,235,246.54
11 Mango 3,685,023.75
12 Coconut 6,432,992.00
13 Papaya 2,859,624.97
14 Abaca 1,333,901.31
15 Banana 3,390,108.45
16 Rubber 2,671,079.16
17 Palm Oil 5,179,831.12
18 Onions/Garlic 543,073.16
19 Vegetables (crucifiers, pepper, etc) Total Area 8,305,909.05

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 21

Temperate 327,380.18
Lowland 7,978,528.87
20 Pineapple 4,646,916.08

Let us take the case of Table 4. Mango Suitability Requirements

mango industry in the Variables Criteria
country given the - loamy, relatively high in organic matter
suitability criteria (Table 4) - good drainage
Edaphic (Soils) - good water holding capacity
provided by Dr. Rene
- pH 6.0-7.0
Espino, from UPLB and who - flat to rolling terrain
is the national team leader - distinct wet and dry season with at least
and expert in mango in the 4 months dry period
- temperature of 21-30 0C
Philippines. - no strong winds
- should be less than 400 meters above
The mango mapping unit sea level.
was generated using GIS
analysis techniques found in ArcGIS software. Illustrated in Figure 6 is the cartographic
model use in
the analysis.
Geostatistics on
suitability was
calculated and
this reflect
geogaphic areas
for the whole
province, and

Figure 6. Cartographic Model in Creating the Mango Suitability

(source: E.C. Godilano 2000).

The final map overlay shows the coincidence of the different themes that created unique
polygons which is equivalent to a mapping unit. Each mapping unit was then classified
into mango limitation units (MLU) that reflect the combination of all or some of the
suitable/unsuitable areas as defined in the criteria. For example, MLU (Code 3 = No
Limitation) contains all the suitable areas, while other mapping units will have one less or
more of the unsuitable criteria, e.g. soil and slope MLU contains unsuitable areas due to
soil and slope while elevation and climate are the favorable factors. The limiting factor(s)
that determine the unsuitability of mango in certain geographic location could then be
converted into a mango production potential class (MPPC), i.e., highly suitable,
moderately suitable, etc, the decision rule however, on how a MPPC will be defined will
be determined by the national team leader or experts in the industry. The expert rule

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 22

will indicate the suitability class. The table below illustrates the sample table generated
in the final map overlay. All columns in the table can be generated into a map. Shown in
Figure 7 is the mango limitation map in the Philippines.

Statistics were derived from

map calculation using
ArcGIS software. Area
calculation does not include
areas not suitable for
mango as indicated in the
cartographic model
including built-up areas and
water bodies. We have
considered slope and soils
as moderately suitable as
these constraints to
production can be
mitigated. Table 6 below
shows that 3.5 million
hectare of the country is
highly suitable for mango
and an additional area of 6
million hectares can be
further developed. The
national statistics were
further disaggregated into
the regional statistics.

Figure 7. Mango limitation map in the Philippines

(source: E.C. Godilano, and J. B. Abunda 2000).

Table 5. Mango National Geostatistics

Mango Limitation Suitability Hectares % Area

No Limitation Highly Suitable 3,486,322.25 14.72
Soil/slope Moderately Suitable 5,904,098.39 24.92
Climate Not Suitable 2,914,350.71 12.30
Elevation Not Suitable 259,983.37 1.10
Climate, Elevation Not Suitable 259,511.80 1.10
Soil/slope, Climate Not Suitable 6,920,882.71 29.21
Soil/slope, Elevation Not Suitable 3,946,306.14 16.66
Total 23,691,455.37 100.00

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 23


Scaling down: Scaling down the above results means incorporating site specific criteria in
the analysis. This could be successfully implemented at the regional/provincial level. This
also means that additional criteria is required that will further refine the target
environment for a specific crop which could be included in the GIS analysis. For example,
site specific climate data gathered in strategic experimental stations of the DA research
systems could further refine the climatic domain of a specific crop, or a detailed soil
mapping unit derived from local soil survey.

Incorporating socioeconomic data in the analysis or accessibility (networks, inputs, credit,

post harvest, market. value chain, and others) is also another way of scaling down the
results. This however, needs intensive data collection or simply data mining.
Since our basemap is up to the barangay level, socioeconomic data at this level could be
generated and included in the GIS analysis. For example, we can prioritize mango
extension programs or establishing mango plantations based on the number of farmers
who will benefit in such project (where impact of technology could be the greatest) or
spatially indexing road density by total suitability domain, which could be translated to
farm-to-market roads. The possibility at this level is up to your imagination.

Mapping activities involves two major activities which could be implemented by Phases.
Phase 1 is analysis and mapping at the national level leading to the creation of crop
production and coincidence statistics. Phase 2 is the “ground truthing” or field
verification/confirmation and the generation of statistics at various level of governance
(regional, river basin/watershed, provincial, municipal, and barangay). This also involves
the integration of socioeconomics, demographic, and support services data that will
specifically address the needs of stakeholders. Illustrated in Figure 8 shows the activities
and scale of analysis.

Figure 8.
Scaling Down
of Crop
Maps (source:
E.C. Godilano

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 24


The national scale crop production potential mapping could be further fine-tuned by the
Regional Field Units (RFUs) by providing them the GIS shape files of the ICGIS generated
crop production potential maps. The RFUs could then integrate their local knowledge
and provide inputs for regional and local planning. The RFUs can also implement ground
verification of the national output map and subsequently modify the output map.
Illustrated in Figure 9 is the framework on how the output map could be further refined
and manipulated by the Regional Field Offices (RFOs). There is however, a need to equip
the RFUs on the use of geospatial technology for them to implement the technology.

Figure 9. Framework in the RFUs engagement in Crop Production Potential Mapping and
Analysis (source: E.C. Godilano 2000)..


The constraints of this mapping project are the currentness of the maps available from
the various government agencies and instrumentalities. For example, the soil map is at
the reconnaissance level (1:50,000 scale) and was developed forty (40) years ago. This
needs to be updated to a detailed soil map at 1:10,000 scale. Secondly, government
agencies are reluctant in sharing with the AMIA ICCGIS the methodology on how their
maps are created. Lastly, the DA-AMIA has set limitations in sharing some of the GIS
shapefiles to RFUs as these are covered by a Exclusive Users License Agreement (EULA),
thus limiting the flexibility of RFUs GIS Team to implement detailed crop production
potential mapping.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 25


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DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 28

List of Crops and their Crop Production Potential Criteria Based on Science


MANGO - loamy, relatively high in organic - distinct wet and dry season with at - should be less
Mangifera indica L. matter least 4 months dry period than 400 meters
Source: Prof. Rene Espino. - good drainage - temperature of 21-30 oC above sea level (<
UPLB: 2002 - good water holding capacity - no strong winds: (1 to 5 meters per 400 masl)
- pH range 6.0-7.0 second)
- flat to rolling terrain
BANANA - Deep, loamy, well-drained, aerated - At least 1,200 mm per year with no
Musa paradisiaca L., and slightly to strongly acidic (pH more than three successive dry months - Low to medium
Source: Prof. Rene Espino. 5.5 to 6.5) to maintain favorable growth and high elevation <=600
UPLB: 2002 and Prof. Coronel, - River valley and well-drained alluvial yields masl
UPLB. 2005 soils are ideal for large-scale - Between 15 °C and 30 °C - Slope: 0-8%
commercial banana growing.
COCONUT - Sandy, loamy, and clayey grades - Between 1,500 mm and 2,500 mm - Lower than 500
Cocos nucifera L. provided organic matter of all soil annually, almost uniformly distributed. meters above sea
Source:S. Magat, PCA:2002 types constitutes at least 2%. No more than three successive dry level.
- Flat to slightly sloping, rolling to months. - Above 600 meters,
moderately sloping (below 20 % - Annual temperature of 27°C and palm flowering is
slope) monthly mean temperature of 20°C impaired and
- Well drained and always aerated. with diurnal variation between five and bunch production
- Soil pH between 5.5 and 6.5 seven degrees Celsius.- is irregular with
unstable yields.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 29

CITRUS - Sandy loam soils (loamy soils of - 1,000 mm and 1,800 mm distributed - At most 400 meters
Citrus sp. alluvial origin) annually above sea level
Source: (Magat, Severino. 2003 - Slope: between 0% and 8% - Between 23 °C and 30 °C
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer - Soil pH: between 5.5 and 6.5
management of tropical fruits).
(Prof. Coronel, UPLB 2005)
DURIAN - Well-drained, deep (1.5 - Well-distributed annual rainfall of - Sea level to 600 meters
Durio zibethinus L. meters), organic matter-rich, 1,500 mm to 2,000 mm above sea level
Source: (Magat, Severino. 2003 loamy soils - Between 25 °C and 30 °C
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer - Flat to slightly sloping (Slope 0-
management of tropical fruits). 8 %)
(Prof. Coronel, UPLB 2005) - - Soil pH: between 6 and 7
AVOCADO - Light-textured or loamy soils, - Grown in areas where annual rainfall is - 0 % to 18 % slope
Persea americana Mill. Well-drained soil as low as 300 mm (supplemented with - Sea level to 600 meters
Source: Magat, Severino. - Soil pH: between 5.7 and 6.5 irrigation) and in excess of 2,500 mm above sea level
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer - Between 1,000 mm and 3,000 mm
management of tropical fruits, annually
MANGOSTEEN - Sandy loam soil and other - Annual rainfall between 2,000 and - Between 450 meters
Garcinia mangostana L. medium textured soils 2,500 mm, uniformly distributed year- and 1,500 meters
Source: Magat, Severino. - Slope: 0 % to 18 % round above sea level
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer - With short dry period to induce
management of tropical fruits, flowering
2003. - Temperature: between 20 °C-35 °C
RAMBUTAN - Deep clay loam or sandy loam - Well-distributed annual rainfall - Sea level to 600 meters
Nephelium lappaceum L. - Slope: 0 % to 18 % between 2,000 mm and 3,000 mm, above sea level
Source: Magat, Severino. - Soil pH: between 5 and 6.5 with dry season not over three months
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer - Temperature: 22 °C to 35 °C
mngt of tropical fruits, 2003.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 30

LANZONES - Deep, soil nutrient-rich, well- - Between 2,000 mm and 3,000 mm - At most 750 meters
Lansium domesticum Corr. drained, loamy soils that are annually (Duku) above sea level
Source: Magat, Severino. slightly acidic to neutral and - Between 25 °C and 35 °C (Duku) (Langsat)
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer high in organic matter or - Tropical forest conditions, requiring
management of tropical fruits, humus shade in the early growth stages, with
2003). - At most 20 % (undulating areas) coconut, gliricida, and banana stands as
- Stable supply of soil moisture suitable shade trees
with a short dry spell period for
about three to four weeks to
induce flowering
GUAVA - Loamy and alluvial soils not - Between 1,000 mm and 2,000 mm - At most >1,500 meters
Psidium guajava L permanently water-logged. rainfall annually above sea level
Source: Magat, Severino. (Guava grows well in all types - Temperature: 23 °C to 28 °C
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer of soils, even on heavy clay,
management of tropical fruits, marly, light or coarse sand and
2003. gravelly soil)
- Slope: 0 % to 18%
- Soil pH: 4.5 to 5.9
PAPAYA - Well-drained, light-textured, - High rainfall or irrigation but proper - Low to medium
Carica papaya L porous, and rich in organic drainage elevation(Elevation:
Source: Magat, Severino. matter soil - Continuous flooding for 48 hours <=1500 masl
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer - Slightly to strongly acidic (pH of should be avoided
management of tropical fruits, 5.5 and 6.7) - Temperature: 21°C-33°C
2003. Prof. Coronel, UPLB - Slope: 0-8 % - Rainfall: 1200 mm-2500 mm annually

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COFFEE - Clay loam to sandy loam (Loamy - Between 1, 900 mm and 2, 000 mm - 900 meters to 2, 000
Coffea arabica L. soils) fairly drained rainfall distributed annually (needs meters above sea level
Coffea liberica Bull ex Hiern. - Soil pH: 5 to 6.5 irrigation during dry months) for Arabica robusta
Source: Magat, Severino. - Temperature: 13 °C to 26 °C - Less than 900 meters
Crop nutrient req. and fertilizer - Relative humidity: 70 % to 85 % above sea level for
management of tropical fruits, Liberica and Excelsa
2003. - Flat to slightly sloping
Prof. Rafae Creencia PLB 1998 (0-8 %)
CACAO - Nutrient-rich, highly organic, - Temperature: 18°C-32°C - Slope: - Flat to slightly
Theobroma cacao L. deep, well-drained, with - Rainfall: 1250 mm-2800 mm annually; sloping (0-8 %)
Philippine recommends: PCARRD enough moisture no drought exceeding three months - Elevation: <=300 masl
Prof. Rafae Creencia PLB 1998 - pH: 4.5-7
ABACA - Volcanic in origin, rich in organic - Evenly distributed rainfall - Less than 1,000 meters
Musa textilis matter, loose, friable, well- - Temperature: 20 °C to 25 °C above sea level
Source: FIDA. 2003 drained and friable, clay loam
- Slope: 0 % to 18 %
- Soil pH: between 6 and 7
- Ground water: water table 80
cm with 60 % to 80 %
RUBBER - Relatively insensitive to soil - Well-distributed annual rainfall of 1,800 - At most 600 meters
Hevea brasiliensis type but higher yields can be mm to 2,000 mm above sea level
Source: International Rubber expected if grown on fertile - Temperature: 20 °C to 28 °C - Flat or level lands are
Research and Development Board soils good for rubber only if
- Fairly deep, well-drained and they are well-drained.
acidic soil, with water table at Rubber does not like a
least one meter below the “wet foot.”
surface. - Undulating or rolling
- Clay loam to sandy loam land.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 32

SUGARCANE - Clay loams and in light textured - Requires about 1, 346.2 mm - Slope: 0%-18 %
Saccharum officinarum L. soils, fairly deep, over 50 cm, - Mean daily temperature between 22 °C - Elevation: Insignificant
Source: Tapay, Rodrigo: SRA- well-drained soils with good and 35 °C.
LGAREC, Prof. Coronel, UPLB physical condition - Full sunlight and high solar radiation to
- Slope: flat to rolling (0 % to 18 enhance sucrose accumulation
- Soil pH: Between 6 and 6.8
CASHEW - Deep, friable, well-drained, - Temperature: 24°C-35°C - Elevation: <=700 masl
Anacardium occidentale clay loams, sandy loam soils, - Rainfall: 1500 mm-3000 mm annually,
Philippine recommends: PCARRD and light textured soil, fairly well-distributed; dry season for two
deed,, over 50 cm, good months long
physical condition - Relative humidity: 65%-80%
- Soil pH is between 6 and 6.8
- Slope 0-18%
CASSAVA - Sandy to clay loam (generally, - Well distributed rainfall of 1,000 to - Lower than 900 meters
Manihot. Ultissima loamy soils) 3,000 mm during growth period above sea level
Source: Phil Root Crops. 2003 - Lowland to gently sloping to - Temperature: between 25 °C and 29 °C
undulating (At most 8 %)
- Soil pH: 5.5 to 6.5
CORN/SORGHUM - loamy, silt loam, sandy clay - 500-900 mm rainfall - slope between 0-3
Zea mays L. loam, and silt clay loam - temperature of 18-35 0C percent
Sorghum bicolor L. - limited erosion
Source: Prof Art Salazar and Dr.
Romeo Labios
SWEET POTATO - Sandy loam to clay loam - Well distributed rainfall between 750 - Up to 1,000 meters
Ipomoea batatas L. (Generally loamy) and 1, 000 mm per annum above sea level
Source: Phil Root Crops. 2003 - Upland plain to gently sloping - Optimum temperature is at least 24 °C
upland (0 % to 8 %)
- Soil pH: between 5.6 and 6.6

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 33

TARO - Loose and clay loam (Loamy - Generally high rainfall areas (Type 2, 3, - Up to 700 meters above
Colocasia esculenta L. soils) and 4. At least 2, 000 mm per year) sea level
Source: Phil Root Crops. 2003 - Rolling areas and hillsides (0- 18 - Temperature: between 24 °C - 30 °C
- Soil pH: 5.5 to 7
YAM - Loose and permeable (light- - At least 1, 300 mm per year - 100 meters to 500
Dioscorea batatas textured soils or loamy soils) - Between 25 °C and 30 °C meters above sea level
Source: Phil Root Crops. 2003 Well drained
- Flat, rolling or slightly rolling (0-
18 %)
MUNGBEAN - Fertile loam to sandy loam soil - Temperature: 24°C-33°C - Slope: 0%-8%
Vigna radiate with good internal drainage - Rainfall: 500 mm-1000 mm per season - Elevation: <600 masl
CIDA IPB: UPLB - Soil pH: 6.2-7.2
PEANUT - Light-textured, well-drained - Temperature: 24°C-33°C - Slope: 0%-8%
Arachis hypogaea L. sandy loam soil - Rainfall: 500-1000 mm per season - Elevation: <600 masl
Philippinwa Recommends:
ONIONS and GARLIC - does well in loose, dry, well - Temperature: 24°C-33°C - 0-18 percent slope
Onion: Allium cepa L. drained sandy loam soils in - Rainfall: 500-1000 mm per season - 100 meters to 500
Garlic: Allium sativum sunny locations meters above sea level
Source: - prefer to grow in a soil with a
http://www.rodalesorgani high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a
growing-guide wide range of soil conditions
and pH levels
- prefer a fairly neutral pH, 6.5
to 7.0

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 34

VEGETABLES - Fertile loam to sandy loam soil - FAO AEZ: Cool Tropics for temperate - 0-18 percent slope
Temperate and lowland with good internal drainage vegetatbles
cultivation - Soil pH: 6 -7 - FAO AEZ: Warm Humid and Subhumid
Philippine recommends: PCARRD Tropics for lowland vegetables
PINEAPPLE - Grows well in porous and well - Between 1000 mm and 1500 mm - At most 20 %
Ananas comosus L. drained soil. It does not thrive annually and evenly distributed during (undulating areas)
Source: S. Magat well in wet soil. the growing season - <250 meters above sea
Philippine recommends: PCARRD (Sandy loamy clayey soils) - Temperature should be mild at 20-30°C level
- Soil pH 4.5 to 5.5 (S. Magat) and relatively uniform throughout the
JACKFRUIT - Soil Texture: Friable loamy, Silty - Annual Rainfall (mm): 2000 – 2500 - Slope 0-30%
Artocarpus heterophyllus alluvium, well drained soil - Temperature: 25 – 27 oC - Elevation: <1200 masl
Source: RIARCS Region 8 Zonal
OIL PALM - Well drained soil loam soil and - Temperature: 22°C-33°C - Slope: 0%-18%
Elaeis guineensis Jacq. rich in organic matter - Rainfall: 1800 mm-2000 mm annually; - Elevation: <=400 masl
University of Southern Mindanao water deficit of less than 250 mm per
(USM) year
COTTON - Loamy and light textured soil - Temperature: 22°C-32°C - Slope: 0%-8%
Gossypium hirsutum - Ground water is readily - Rainfall: Type 1 & 4 or with at least 3-4 - Elevation: <=600 masl
Philippine Cotton Institute available for supplemental months dry periods
TOBACCO - Sandy loam or loamy soil - Temperature: 15°-30°C - Slope: 0-8%
Nicotiana tabacum L containing potash, iron and - Rainfall: 508 mm – 990.60 mm per - Elevation: <=600 masl
Mariano Marcos State Univerity phosphorous season (3-5 months)
- Ground water is readily available for
supplemental irrigation

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 35

BAMBOO - Land should be well drained; - Summer temperature is ideal but does - Level land is desirable
(Bambusa blumeana) bamboo can be grown in most not fall below 15° C. but a hillside will serve
Source types of soil provided they are - Rainfall: 800 mm – 1800 mm per if the slope is not more not rocky. The ideal soil is annum than about 7° or 8°; it
s/fw/bamboo either marly soil or a loam. A should not be greater sandy loam is fairly satisfactory than 30°.
for bamboo growth, but clayey - Bamboo grows from
loam produces the best quality low altitudes to as high
shoots. as 2,600 meters but the
ideal is <=800 masl

RICE Rice ecosystems from NIA and from NPAAAD (network of protected area for agriculture development) were
Oryza sativa L. integrated to show rice growing environment or ecosystems; i.e. irrigated, lowland rainfed, and upland.
(NIA and NPAAD Base map)
SEAWEEDS The ideal seaweed production sites should have gentle waves, balmy wind and clean water with the right
(Kappyhycus/Eucheuma) temperature, depth and salinity level. The following are the specific biophysical and climatic requirements of
Source: BFAR seaweeds production sites in the Philippines: (1) Presence of naturally growing seaweeds; (2) Constant tidal interchange for sufficient nutrient supply. Seawater is clear and free from pollution and supply of freshwater;
(3) Temperature of seawater is 27oC to 30oC with salinity of 30-35. Kappyhycus/Eucheuma are stenohaline
marine algae and salinite below 30 may have adverse affects on them; (4) Water movement is 20-50 m/min.
Water movement facilitates rapid nutrient absorption and prevents extreme fluctuations of other ecological
factors [temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved gasses]; (5) Seabed is rocky, firm and well protected from
strong waves. Firm substrate is essential for the support system. Presence of buffer zones is necessary to
minimize destructive effects to the plants; and (6) Water depth should not be less than 30 cm during the
lowest tide to prevent exposure and desiccation.

NOTE: Given the seaweeds suitability requirements above, the first step prior to GIS analysis is to generate the
thematic maps and database requirements for each theme, e.g. salinity level, coastal temperature, and others.

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 36

Since we do not have the maps and databases for the above criteria we have substituted the above themes
that would likely correlate to the suitable sites for seaweeds and mapping the potential areas within the 15 km
buffer zones from the shoreline. This corresponds to the delineation of the Municipal waters. We used eight
thematic maps in the analysis, namely: (1) temperature, (2) gustiness, (3) cyclone, (4) bathymetry, (5) major
rivers where the mouth of the river was buffered to 5 km distance and classified as low in salinity, (6) network
of integrated protected area systems [NIPAS], (7) existing seaweeds sites, and (8) regional and provincial

DA SWWCCO-AMIA Crop Production Potential 37

Knowing Thy Crop

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