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Learning outcomes ATP is one ofthe most important molecules you will earn about in Biology as it is the molecule used by all organisms for energy transfers Figure 1.2.1 ‘On completion of this section, you shows the molecular structure of ATP which is a should be able to: nucleotide. The base adenine and sugar ribose together form the nucleoside 1 state that ATP isthe universal adenosine. With a phosphate added this becomes a nucleotide energy currency within cells in all Nee organisms. I © describe the structure of ATP as @ phosphorylated nucleotide explain how ATP is produced outline how oxidation/reduction reactions are involved in ATP production list the roles of ATP in cals. @ Study focus aderosne monophosphate You shouldbe able to make a simple diagram of ATP using shapes to eae ger 12:1 alacate? represent the adenine, ribose and ‘enosine Uphosphete sucture of ATP each phosphate group. See Summary arp i. the energy transfer molecule within cells. It is highly suited to this question 1. role as itis small and solubl@so diffuses through a cell easily from sites, — __ofproduction to sites of use. The bonds berwecn the phosphate groupe proteins within cells recognise the BO Link ee ee Remember what you learnt in Unit 1 unstable, it has a low activation energy so transfers one or two phosphate sboutocivestes ATP isnt te UP ery eas The brats of an ATP moles saps saan active sites of many enzymes. See 3 &¢¥8y for an individual step of most anabolic reactions of Module 1 in Unit 1, Remember ‘There is very little ATP in a cell. The ATP is constantly recycled as also that anabolic reactions are shown in Figure 1. 2.2, The great advantage is that when hydrolysed it ‘those that make larger molecules, releases small ‘packets’ of energy rather than the energy released by ‘such as protein from amino acids, ‘oxidising glucose or a triglyceride molecule. Also ‘energy is transferred starch from glucose or nucleic acids ‘fom ATP in a single reaction, to transier energy from glucose in fen nnee ‘manageable ‘packets’ and not a mini explosion requires many reactions ‘Nein bariasitaiseaithemper acai ‘48 you will see on pages 20 to 29. Although phototrophs absorb light, the ‘energy is converted into ATP and not used directly to drive processes in es cells. Even when they produce their own light (bioluminescence) ove tyaoiaset organisms use ATP as the source of energy. = are vThasonat /7ADP*P\ prone ‘There are two ways in which ATP is produced Sa( Symes," Substratecinked phosphorylation, in which ATP is produced by direct ATP. eee ae synthesis in a reaction in which energy in chemical bonds is reorganised repeater = ® chemiosmotic phosphorylation, in which a proton gradient is ign aaa responsible for synthesis of ATP - this occurs in mitochondria and ‘ Protons chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells figure 1.2.2 ATP is hydrolysed when it ATP is produced in some reactions that occur on the surface of an enzyme. ee ren eee ADE cos hye ompound ony th esi of sm nye becreensBPandepreprete Engrs’ Aphosphate group tansiets om th compound io ADD Tie ‘catalyze the formation ofATE ‘ycolysis [see page 22) and the Krebs eycle (see pase 26) ‘Most ATP is produced using a proton gradient. This gradient is established by pumping protons from one side of a membrane to another using a form of active transport. The protons can only return down that ‘gradient by diffusing through the membrane protein ATP synthetase. As the protons diffuse through, the enzyme changes shape to accept ADP and inorganic phosphate to form ATP. The energy comes from the gradient of protons. In photosynthesis, light provides the energy to ‘maintain this gradient; in respiration, the energy is provided by the oxidation of organic compounds, The energy for proton pumping is made {available by oxtdation/reduction reactions that occur between compounds in the membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Use the glossary on Page 180 to find definitions of oxidation and reduction, ATP functions by binding to: “proteins for movement, e.g, muscle contraction, movement of cilia and flagella © carrier proteins for active transport ® inactive enzymes to activate them = enzymes, so reactions can take place. ATP transfers: ® anhosphate group to a molecule so increasing its reactivity, ¢. to slucose to form glucose 6-phosphate in glycolysis (see page 22) and to alycerate phosphate (GP) in the Calvin eycle (see page 1) "= enough energy to provide activation energy for most reactions in cells = AMP to a molecule to increase its reactivity, eg, to amino acids when activated by attaching to tRNA. Points to note about ATP: ® ATPis not stored. The polysaccharides glycogen and starch are short-term stores of energy; lipids are long-term stores of energy. ‘There is mot enough ATP in a cell to act asa store, ® ATPis not transported between cells. It is produced by cells when they need it. This is why very active cells, such as liver and muscle cells, have many mitochondria ATP does not have ‘high-energy bonds’. This is a concept that you will find in older textbooks and in some websites. The energy released when ATP is hydrolysed comes from the whole molecule, not the ‘bonds between the phosphate groups. "= ATP is not a high-energy compound, For its molecular mass it has an intermediate energy level. Ic is small and soluble, which makes it good for energy transfer Summary questions 1 Make a simple diagram of ATP. Label the parts and annotate with their functions. 2 Make simple drawings ofa bacterium, a mitochondrion and a chlroplast. Indicate on each diagram a the direction in which hydrogen ions are Pumped, and b where ATP is produced, 3. Define the terms: oxdadion, reduction, phosphorylation, eneray currency, hemiosmesis,substrate-inked phosphorylation, Module Bioenergetics I Did you know? pe ea Animals such as squid, cuttlefish and deep sea fish use bioluminescence fora variety of functions: as lures to attract prey; for signalling during courtship and as camouflage. Search for bioluminescence and see some examples. een oe Didyou know? een eae ‘The total quantity of ATP in a human is about 50 grams. There is not ‘enough to constitute a store as the whole lot is tumed over ina few seconds. The turnover is estimated £25 8000 grams per hour @ Study focus Note that ATP synthetase is also known as ATP synthase. There are mary synthetase enzymes; another ‘example is glycogen synthetase (see page 105) Substrate-inked hosphoryaton is also known as Substrate-level phosphorylation SO Link CChemiosmotic phosphorylation occurs across bacterial membranes, in chloroplasts and in mitochondria, The processes are essentially the same (see page 23) @ Study focus ‘There is always some ATP inside cells, but the quantity is too small to Power an activity without being recycled. You could probably swing a golf club on the ATP in your muscles; Yyou certainly could not do anything ‘more strenuous. Introduction to respiration Learning outcomes (On completion ofthis section, you should be able to: ‘© state that in cellular respiration ‘chemical energy in organic ‘compounds i transferred to chemical energy in ATP and is transferred as heat 1 state that cellular respiration involves the stepwise breakdown of orgenic molecules, each step catalysed by an enzyme '& name the four stages of respiration of glucose © outline the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. [@ Study focus Cellular respiration is the chemical breakdown of organic molecules that ‘occurs inside all living cells. Do not confuse it with breathing. From now ‘onwards we will refer to cellular respiration simply as respiration SO Link Remind yourself about the structure ‘and roles of ATP. See pages 4-5. adjective that literally means ‘requiring ar, but in Biology itrefers to requiring the oxygen in air. See page 36 for a comparison of aerobic and anaerobic respiration Cellular respiration is the transfer of chemical energy from organic molecules so that itis availabe for ces in a useable form. As we have seen, that useable form is ATP oyrew Structure The organic molecules are oxidised in order that energy is made available for ATP synthesis. These molecules are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Carbohydrates are a short-term store of energy. Fats are long-term stores. Protein may be used as a source of energy if present in langer quantities than required for growth, repair and replacement. Carnivores respire ‘more protein in their diet than herbivores, as their diet consists mostly of ‘meat. The energy that can be harnessed from these compounds is shown in the table. Respiratory substrate Energy/kl g* carbohydrates, eg. starch, glycogen, glucose, sucrose and 16 lactose lipids, eg, triglycerides 39 proteins v ‘The oxidation of respiratory substrates is coupled with the reduction of the coenzyme NAD. There are very few of these molecules available in each cell, so they have to be continually oxidised to be recycled. This happens in mitochondria in the process of oxidative phosphorylation, Hydrogens from reduced NAD are split into electrons and protons. Electrons pass to a series of carriers and protons are moved into the intermembrane space to create a gradient. The pathway of carriers is called the electron transport chain (ETC). The proton gradient is involved in the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP in ust the same way as in photosynthesis, ‘Oxygen is the final electron acceptor and on being reduced it forms water, ‘one of the products of respiration. Oxygen is required to respire glucose completely to carbon dioxide and ‘water so the whole process is aerobic respiration. If oxygen is not available, respiration can still continue but without the use of the ‘processes that occur in mitochondria. NAD is recycled in a diferent way and this process is anaerobic respiration, oxygen is not available then pyruvate does not enter mitochondria Instead it acts as the electron acceptor in animals and some bacteria, ‘with the formation of lactate. In plants and fungi e.g. yeast it is converted to ethanal that acts as an electron acceptor to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. Gyeolysis is therefore common to both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The link reaction, Krebs eycle and oxidative phosphorylation occur in aerobic respiration only.