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6 Surface integrals

I. Surface integrals

Let S be a surface with equation z = g(x, y) and let R be its projection onto the xy-plane. If

𝑔𝑔, 𝑔𝑔𝑥𝑥 , and 𝑔𝑔𝑦𝑦 are continuous on R and f is continuous on S, then the surface integral of f over

S is

2

� 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦, 𝑧𝑧) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = � 𝑓𝑓�𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦, 𝑔𝑔(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦)��1 + [𝑔𝑔𝑥𝑥 (𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦)]2 + �𝑔𝑔𝑦𝑦 (𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦)� 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

𝑆𝑆 𝑅𝑅

𝑥𝑥𝑦𝑦

𝑎𝑎) 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦, 𝑧𝑧) = ; 𝑆𝑆: 𝑧𝑧 = 𝑥𝑥 2 + 𝑦𝑦 2 , 4 ≤ 𝑥𝑥 2 + 𝑦𝑦 2 ≤ 16

𝑧𝑧

1

𝑏𝑏) 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦, 𝑧𝑧) = �𝑥𝑥 2 + 𝑦𝑦 2 + 𝑧𝑧 2 ; 𝑆𝑆: 𝑧𝑧 = �𝑥𝑥 2 + 𝑦𝑦 2 , (𝑥𝑥 − 1)2 + 𝑦𝑦 2 ≤ 1

For a surface S given by the vector-valued function r(u,v) = x(u,v)i + y(u,v)j + z(u,v)k defined

over a region D in the uv-plane, the surface integral of f(x, y, z) over S is given by

𝑆𝑆

2

Ex: Evaluate the surface integral of f over S

𝜋𝜋

𝑎𝑎) 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦) = 𝑥𝑥𝑦𝑦; 𝑆𝑆: 𝐫𝐫(𝑢𝑢, 𝑣𝑣) = 〈2 cos 𝑢𝑢 , 2 sin 𝑢𝑢 , 𝑣𝑣〉, 0 ≤ 𝑢𝑢 ≤ , 0 ≤ 𝑣𝑣 ≤ 1

2

𝑏𝑏) 𝑓𝑓(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦) = 𝑥𝑥 + 𝑦𝑦; 𝑆𝑆: 𝐫𝐫(𝑢𝑢, 𝑣𝑣) = 〈4𝑢𝑢 cos 𝑣𝑣 , 4𝑢𝑢 sin 𝑣𝑣 , 3𝑢𝑢〉, 0 ≤ 𝑢𝑢 ≤ 4, 0 ≤ 𝑣𝑣 ≤ 𝜋𝜋

3

III. Orientation of a surface

Unit normal vectors are used to induce an orientation to a surface S in space. A surface is called

orientable if a unit normal vector N can be defined at every nonboundary point of S in such a

way that the normal vectors vary continuously over the surface S. If this is possible, S is called

an oriented surface.

Definition: Let F(x, y, z) = Mi + Nj + Pk, where M, N, and P have continuous first partial

derivatives on the surface S oriented by a unit normal vector N. The flux integral of F across S

is given by

� 𝐅𝐅 ∙ 𝐍𝐍 𝑑𝑑𝑆𝑆

𝑆𝑆

Theorem: Let S be an oriented surface given by z = g(x, y) and let R be its projection onto the xy-

plane. If the surface is oriented upward, the flux integral of F across S is

� 𝐅𝐅 ∙ 𝐍𝐍 𝑑𝑑𝑆𝑆 =

𝑆𝑆

� 𝐅𝐅 ∙ 𝐍𝐍 𝑑𝑑𝑆𝑆 =

𝑆𝑆

𝐹𝐹(𝑥𝑥, 𝑦𝑦, 𝑧𝑧) = 𝑥𝑥𝑖𝑖 + 𝑦𝑦𝑗𝑗 ; 𝑆𝑆: 𝑧𝑧 = 6 − 3𝑥𝑥 − 2𝑦𝑦, first octant

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