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Public Sector the way we see it

The Government Cloud:

Time for Delivery
The Question is not “If”, but “How, Where & When”
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Public Sector the way we see it

Talk about cloud computing has become ubiquitous,

both in and outside government. The question for public
administrations is no longer if cloud is a tool for improve-
ment, but how to take action to maximize the advantage
of cloud to address contemporary challenges.

The marketing hype around cloud budgets and meet citizens’ expecta-
has left many skeptical, confused and tions. New approaches are needed
cautious about how to use cloud in that will deliver services that are
the public sector, and what using it ‘twice as good, in half the time, for
might mean in practice. With such half as much’ – or at least embrace
feelings, it is perhaps not surprising that same spirit.
that the response to cloud comput-
ing has been slow, and the evidence Like all enterprises, public agencies
of results is hard to come by. Like also face a series of game-changing
the meteorological clouds above us, technology shifts as a result of new
cloud computing is hard to pin down: technology infrastructures, devices
used either to re-brand an old offer- and behaviors. These are described in
ing or to conceal the lack of any real more detail in “Nine Game-Changing
solution. However, as more public Technology Shifts” (see end note).
and private enterprises make use
of the cloud, both the distinctive- Cloud has the potential to help gov-
ness of the offering and the reality ernments meet their challenges by
of the benefits are becoming clearer. offering increased agility and lower
costs. Of course, this potential
Many papers have focused on ex- will only be realized after govern-
plaining and advocating the techni- ments start taking the steps needed
cal features of the cloud. Here we to seize the cloud opportunity.
will take a different view – looking
at what cloud means for the overall The key questions for public sector
strategy of the organization. To do decision makers should now be:
this we will focus on how cloud can
be part of solutions to the challenges ƒƒHow to start using cloud?
government faces, rather than on the ƒƒWhere are the best opportunities
different types of cloud on offer, or for doing so?
the underlying technologies involved. ƒƒWhen can we realize benefits from
Many public institutions face challen­
ging times with reduced spending, This paper introduces some of the
more demanding citizens and sus- tools we can use to answer these
tained, profound demographic change. questions, so that public agencies
Governments are now acutely aware can start taking advantage of cloud
that doing the same things slightly – individually and collectively.
better will not be enough to control

The Government Cloud: Time for Delivery 3

What is cloud, as technology?

Cloud involves a change both in business and in technology. illustrated below. Capgemini believes this is a sound and
The business shift is enabled by technology that has a number pragmatic framework that facilitates agreement on the differ-
of essential features and service models: ent roles that suppliers might play in relation to an organiza-
tion’s approach.
Combined, these features represent a clear shift from Client-
Server Technology, which is:
Service Models
ƒƒClose Coupled; State-full and Deterministic…to Browser-
Cloud Technology, which is:
On-demand self-service

Infrastructure as a service
Essential Characteristics
ƒƒLoose Coupled; State-less and Non Deterministic

Software as a service

Platform as a service
Broad network access
Unsurprisingly, it is not really feasible to make an architectural
drawing illustrating what system is connected to what system,
Resource pooling
how and for what; connectivity and functionality can only
be attributed to a specific cloud.
Rapid elasticity
Individual cloud offerings fit into a broader array of technol-
ogy and services. The US National Institute of Standards and Measured service
Technology (NIST) has proposed the conceptual archi­tecture

Cloud Provider
Cloud Broker
Consumer Service Layer

SaaS Cloud Service

PaaS Intermediation
Cloud Business
Auditor IaaS Support


Resource Abstraction Provisioning/
and Control Layer Configuration
Privacy Arbitrage
Physical Resource Layer
Impact Audit Portability/
Hardware Interportability

Performance Facility

Cloud Carrier

Public Sector the way we see it

The “Inside-Out” and to the changes in customer demand. ƒƒ Increasing the flexibility of legacy
“Outside-In” Models for The quick answer is: ‘start small, be systems and reducing the cost of
the Government Cloud nimble, and remain innovative.’ introducing changes.
Cloud discussions too often rapidly
launch into technical features of “Inside-Out”: Using cloud to help An example of this evolutionary
the clouds on offer – private, public, with the inside-out is about: approach to existing systems can be
hybrid, or ‘X-as-a-service’ offer- seen in Capgemini’s work with the
ings. Instead, Capgemini adopts ƒƒStreamlining what is in place now Scottish pan-government procure-
a simpler description, with two ƒƒ Smooth migration, maintain- ment function, or the UK’s Royal
contrasting yet complementary ing reliability and consistency Mail. Royal Mail is migrating to a pay-
models for how cloud can help an ƒƒ Maintaining service levels within as-you-go model for its computing
organization or family of organiza- the same underlying process infrastructure over a 6-year period,
tions improve their operations. ƒƒ Moving through virtualization, to achieve better value than it has
consolidation (and potentially out- done from its traditional IT estate.
These two models aim to tackle sourcing), to cloud
the two broad classes of challenge
that face any organization deliver-
ing public services:
Royal Mail
“Inside-out” – what to do with
existing operations? Public agen-

cies deliver hundreds of services, I don’t want to buy cloud services directly from
many of which perform ostensibly
similar functions, yet they have
Amazon Web Services, and I don’t want to go to a
been designed and implemented systems integrator, who will build a custom system
in isolation – all with their own and host it in a traditional data centre. I want to go
systems, and with significant to a ‘services integrator’ who will provide me with a
investment. We need to radically
reduce the cost of these business
given set of services and with a given service level
processes and the IT that supports agreement associated with it. I don’t care, at the end

them. The quick answer is: ‘dis-
aggregate, consolidate, and share’.
“Outside-in” – how to respond to
of the day, where the underlying infrastructure is.

Stuart Curley (Quoted in Information Age)

change that is happening at the Royal Mail’s former chief technology architect
borders of, and outside the organi-
zation? The public sector also faces
pressure from outside; from the
changing shape of citizen behavior UK postal operator Royal Mail faces serious competitive challenges, and a burning
and demands. Citizens are commu- need to reduce costs and increase agility.
nicating with businesses and each Having already migrated its desktops to a cloud-based solution Royal Mail is now
other in new ways. Public agencies migrating a broader range of IT to a ‘pay-as-you-go’ cloud model.
just can’t ignore these changes: they
need the customer to collaborate This is an evolutionary migration to a solution that will be radically different to what
with them so that they can deliver Royal Mail has now. The evolutionary migration path is lower risk than a ‘big-bang’,
at lower cost. If agencies want to change everything now approach.
engage with customers, then they
need to be able to respond flexibly

The Government Cloud: Time for Delivery 5

“Outside-In”: Using cloud to
help with outside-in is about:

ƒƒEmbracing and innovating with

new delivery models
ƒƒEngaging and enrolling the cus-
“ We want to improve ‘connectedness’: making it
easier to find, approach, understand, and connect
tomer in the service delivery chain with others. We are looking for persistant virtual
ƒƒResponding to user demand, policy environments, in which participants can create,
change, and customer behavior organize and share information, as well as find,

ƒƒEnabling services that meet the cus-
tomer’s desire to experience joined
connect and interact with each other.
up services from government –
Johan Torbjörnsson
centered on events that make sense CIO KIC Innoenergy
to them rather than on the govern-
ment’s internal organization
ƒƒEnabling the blending of govern-
ment services with social networks InnoEnergy is a joint-venture between a number of pan-European technology,
or other private services energy and academic organizations.
ƒƒBeing agile in creating new solutions The goal of InnoEnergy is to connect more than 1500 energy scientists right across
using cloud Europe in order to encourage innovation and bring new research and ideas to
ƒƒComposing services from existing market to enable a climate-neutral Europe by 2050. In doing so, the aim is to help
elements new SME businesses emerge. This requires levels of pan-EU collaboration that
were not currently in place, and were not ICT-enabled. A cloud-based collaboration
An example of a new service created platform has recently been created to effectively connect this community.
out of cloud-based components in
an agile way is the InnoEnergy col-
laboration platform. InnoEnergy’s
goal is to support the generation and
commercialization of innovations cre-
ated by a large internationally-based Outside-In
scientific researcher community on
sustainable energy systems across
Europe. This cloud hosted platform
allows the community to connect and
collaborate in pursuit of its goal to New Demands Service Design
achieve climate neutrality by 2050.

These two models – inside-out and

outside-in – operate in tandem, each Cloud Offerings
addressing a different set of challenges.

New Services Composition

Public Sector the way we see it

The challenge is to work out

how to use both cloud per- “Inside-Out” cloud benefits “Outside-In” cloud benefits
spectives in the right context
The public sector covers an extraor-
dinarily wide range of services in ƒƒReduce the capital and operat- ƒƒShift the focus to customer-
different and distinct local and ing costs of existing systems centric joined-up services
situational contexts. Each organiza-
tion will need to tailor its approach ƒƒImprove operational perfor- ƒƒActively engage customers
to cloud to get the most out of mance of technology and
ƒƒReduce time, cost and com­
the opportunities it presents. business
plexity of providing all forms
ƒƒImprove manageability of services
To benefit from cloud an organization
will need to look at how both of the ƒƒIncrease flexibility and agility ƒƒReduce the cost of introducing
above approaches apply to their cir- to respond to change innovative models
cumstances. Maximizing the benefits ƒƒReduce the cost of systems ƒƒReduce cost to serve though
requires taking a holistic view across change to meet future require- new models that better fit with
all the functions of the organization, ments customers
and perhaps those of other public agen-
cies and partners. This may involve ƒƒRefine cost allocation ƒƒPay only for the computational
providing simpler access to services services needed when they are
ƒƒCreate possibilities for shar-
for customers over a shared platform, needed with automatic cost
ing services amongst common
embracing social media tools as part allocation
public agencies
of the set-up. It could involve provid- ƒƒImprove customer engagement
ing one version of common processes in pursuit of better outcomes
(like payments) across agencies. Or
consolidating many of the common
corporate functions and systems into
one cloud-provisioned service platform.
Cloud has the potential to impact the
Evolution or Revolution?
widest possible range of functions
and services. It offers a potentially
radical approach to transforming the
way in which organizations operate. Launched in 2002, eProcurement Scotland (ePS) is, in essence, a private cloud.

Over time ePS has evolved into a scalable, ‘as-a-service’, multi-tenant and partially
eProcurement Scotland illustrates
pay-per-consumption system. As a result it displays all of the five NIST cloud char-
how organizations can realize signifi-
acteristics; indeed it was a cloud before the term was widely used.
cant benefits by taking a multi-agency
approach. This procurement solution The ePS platform now processes more than £3.6bn per year, representing about
is used by a huge range of Scottish one third of total public procurement spend. According to Audit Scotland, the
public bodies, from council offices to system generated annual savings of £454m in 2008/9. Over 1.6 million transactions
hospitals and school kitchens. While go through the system annually, and it is used by over 65,000 registered users and
public bodies in Scotland are strongly more than 93,000 suppliers.
encouraged to use the system, it is not
This cloud platform has enabled ePS to take an evolutionary approach to replacing
enforced top down. Instead use of the
existing procurement arrangements. The idea of ePS was revolutionary in the way
system spread based on its effective-
it reconfigured existing practice, but wisely it did not demand an instant revolution
ness. This evolutionary approach has
for all of the Scottish public sector.
only been possible because the plat-
form was set up with an awareness of
the entire Scottish public sector eco-
system and the appreciation that not
all agencies would use it from the start.

The Government Cloud: Time for Delivery 7

Cloud is much more judgments about an organization’s needs to come all at once. The techni-
than just technology cloud adoption strategy. It changes cal migration will vary by area and, as
Cloud has an impact well beyond the user proposition; legal conditions in the Royal Mail example, may take
the narrow confines of technology. and risk exposure differ; policies years in some areas, yet happen over-
Cloud services have the potential to may need to be altered or created; night in others. In particular, inside-
embed themselves in the everyday working practices will change (for out and outside-in will have very
business and personal lives of users. instance aligning financial or HR different value propositions and times-
Services like Google search are such processes with other organizations cales. However, in planning for all the
an intrinsic part of everyday life in order to use similar cloud-pro- specific actions it is important to step
that it is hard to imagine a part of visioned processes); assets convert back and consider the bigger picture.
life they don’t affect in some way, from capital to operating legers; the
or what we did before they existed. whole economic basis can change A cloud strategy is far more than a
from ‘own’ to ‘pay as you consume’. technical strategy.
To work out how to make best use
of cloud we need to take a holistic Planning for the impact of cloud
view. Only by looking across the full across all these areas does not imply
spectrum of environmental condi- that this impact will come instanta-
tions is it possible to make the right neously or that the adoption of cloud

Cloud Strategy in Context Government Cloud Strategy

Governments are already work-

ing actively to understand how


cloud will change their context,



at a high level.

Pe l Capgemini is supporting cloud

r for ga
ma Le strategy development with a
e number of governments includ-
ing the UK, Netherlands and the
US, as well as with the European
Economics Organisational Commission.
Cloud Strategy

ets es
A ss s



Public Sector the way we see it

Five Things to Think About 1. Business roles: How do we 3. Data models: How do we
for Government Cloud make business and technol- make sure data remains safe
The following five perspectives ogy functions connect to and secure in the cloud?
help put cloud in context. For each, maximize value from cloud? 4. Contracting for cloud:
there are tools that enable orga- 2. Business applications and ser- What do we need in order
nizations to understand how to vices: What applications and to buy cloud services?
help them in their deliberations: business services exist in the 5. Technology fit: How will the
organization, and how suitable cloud technologies fit together?
are they for cloud provisioning?

Five Things to Think About

1 2 3 4 5

Roles Apps Data Contracts Tech

1. Business Roles
The Value of Cloud Spans Business and Technology
Cloud value comes about through
bringing business and technology
together, to address both inside-
out and outside-in potential.
Pressures It is thus imperative to consider
the different types of internal
users and stakeholders. We have
grouped them into a set of six
generic role types, each with their
own needs, views and challenges.
Value of
Technology Cloud Business
Overall we have identified three
roles that can be thought of as ‘front
office’ and three ‘back office’. These
are shown in the illustration here.

Inside-Out The front office is where the orga-

Pressures nization is exposed to externally-
driven change, and is home to the
outside-in approach to cloud:

The Government Cloud: Time for Delivery 9

1. Department Head – The executive the use of web-based ‘services’ on groups have distinctive application
and policy functions seek ways a wide variety of devices into their and IT needs. They are, in essence,
to deliver political objectives and government roles. inventing the future – and thus at
meet increasing user demands at 3. “Chief Innovation Officer” – times are cannibalizing the present.
lower costs. While the job has many different
2. Business Users and Managers – A titles, most government agencies The back office is the home of tra-
new generation of digital-savvy users have smaller groups trying to find ditional centralized IT and thus ad-
and their managers are importing new and innovative ways of deliv- dresses inside-out cloud challenges:
their knowledge and expectations in ering for customers. These small
4. CFO – The financial functions are
concerned with ensuring contin-
ued compliance and keeping a tight
rein on IT projects that could have
Business Roles expensive or unforeseen outcomes.
At present, budget cuts are the
dominant item on the CFO agenda.
5. CIO – The traditional IT function
is responsible for ensuring the con-
Chief Business
Innovation Users & sistent delivery of critical IT ser-
Officer Managers vices. Currently the CIO is under
pressure to deliver significant
savings to help control budgets.
6. Corporate Services – All func-
tions across the back office are
under pressure to reduce costs, and
Department Business
CFO in some countries to look at increas-
ing the levels of outsourcing.

The views, needs and concerns of these

Inside-In different perspectives must all be con-
sidered and built into a Government
Back Cloud strategy. And they are all users
Office of business applications and technolo-
gies, albeit in different ways and to
different extents. We must understand
how to map one to the other.

Public Sector the way we see it

2. Business applications functionality is provided in a highly 3. The CAR is a much more agile,
and services: efficient and standardized way. individualized means of transport.
All applications are not equal. They Many people will be affected when It can take a small group of people
serve different types of need and trains do not run. to most of the places they want to
require different levels of resil- go. There are many different types
ience. In order to understand how Example: The internal ERP system of cars to choose from and their
to make use of cloud for different of a large process-centric government owners will configure and adapt
applications or services, it helps to department would be a good example of them to reflect their individual, dif-
first group them into categories that this type of high reliability application. ferentiated styles and personalities.
reveal their different lifecycles.
2. The BUS is also a relatively stable Example: A job matching service for
Capgemini has developed a simple mode of mass transportation, but those seeking work needs this kind of
metaphor based on five differ- clearly with more flexibility. A bus customization and flexibility. Job hunt-
ent modes of transport to better can take a detour if circumstances ers will use a set of different approaches
understand five different styles of require, and it can be used for and each type of job is different.
application (or application service): alternative purposes on top of the
fixed schedule. Moreover, it usu- 4. The SCOOTER is a lightweight,
1. The TRAIN is a stable, robust ally connects directly with the extremely flexible and individual
mode of mass transportation. It train system. method of transport. It can be used
is not flexible but reaches its goal for the “last mile,” bringing you to
in a predictable, straightforward Example: A benefits payment system places even cars cannot reach. In
way. It is based on an infrastruc- would be a good example of a service crowded areas, scooters are faster
ture that is designed and built to that must be reliable but still needs than any other means of transport.
last for decades, and everybody to be adjusted from time to time as It is easy to rent a scooter – just for a
who uses that train travels in benefit rules and payment amounts day or so – and explore parts of the
the same way from A to B. The change in response to policy. city in a flexible, cost-effective way.

Five Different Styles of Application

Lifecycle Train Bus Hub Car Scooter

Rhythm Year Season Month Week Day

CRM, R&D, Data Market, Apps

ERP, Legacy Core Product Market, Mobile Portal, Mashups,
Application Areas Analytics, ECM,
Application Management, Services, Security Site Builder, Wiki
Supply Chain Services

Central IT or
IT/Business Business/
Governance Outsourced/Business IT/Business Needs Business
Requirements IT-Supported

Predictability, Reliability, Ease of Use,

Predictability, Simplicity,
Sustainability, Openness, Flexibility,
Architecture Agility, Configurability,
Standardization, Service-Oriented, Speed to Market,
Model-Driven Speed to Market
Simplification Aligned Re-use

Formal, Business Exploratory No Harm,

Testing Industrial Strength
Regression Case- Driven Integration Legal Testing

Linear, Agile, Agile, Agile, BT Tools, End-User Tools

>80% Offshore >65% Offshore Services Integration <35% Offshore <10% Offshore

AM, Continual SOA, Cloud, Business Analysis, Mashup Building,
Key Capabilities Management, Agile
Rationalization Integration Orchestration Web 2.0

The Government Cloud: Time for Delivery 11

Example: An example of this light- 3. Data Models – “is my types of data it uses and how to
weight flexible approach would be information safe and secure?” handle each type appropriately.
where a department sets up a web- The key concerns of all potential
site to meet a specific short-term cloud users in the public sector are For over twenty years the C-I-A model
need. For example a local labor data security and compliance. This has been used help define three key
agency might set up a service for concern can lead to the belief that aspects of information security in the
former employees of a large busi- no public sector services can safely technical design of systems:
ness that has recently gone bust. make use of cloud at all. However,
not all data is personal, and the ƒƒConfidentiality – that data is only
5. All of these modes of transport level and type of sensitivity varies seen by those who are authorized
are tied together through a HUB, considerably. If an organization is ƒƒIntegrity – that data can’t be altered
best seen as a modern train sta- to benefit from cloud, it will need by those who aren’t allowed to
tion with carefully provided to keep an open mind, and find ƒƒAvailability – that access is timely
additional services. Such a hub is ways to ensure that it has a sophisti- and reliable for those who are
truly multi-modal in that trains, cated understanding of the different supposed to have access
buses, cars and scooters can all
conveniently “dock” and people
can easily change their means
of transport, while benefiting Information Pool (iPool)
from a host of add-on services.

Example: A HUB service would enable

Information Pool is an example of a security-sensitive cloud implementation,
all the individual Labor Ministry app­
currently in pilot in the Netherlands. Rather than being an everyday use system,
lications described above to co-exist
Information Pool is designed for use in emergency situations. The system enables
and co-ordinate with each other. For
multiple public agencies to exchange their data on a single platform to enable high
example it enables data to pass from
speed information sharing ‘on the fly’ at times of crisis. It creates “one truth in the
job seekers profile to benefits payments
cloud” instead of multiple versions as a result of uncoordinated communications
to ERP.
between agencies and their professionals. In emergencies the facility quickly and
uniformly shares all necessary data with all the involved parties. This data might
A good Government Cloud approach
include the extent and number of causalities, environmental effects, measurement
deals with the resulting matrix of
details, location of first responders and their assets, and weather conditions. It
role and application type. Getting
thus creates one common operational picture and improved situational awareness.
to this position, however, takes
An agent-based cloud facility called ASK Community supports location-based
debate and time. This time must be
rapid deployment of additional forces and first responders, thus dramatically sim-
recognized and planned for. It is as
plifying and shortening traditional labor intensive joint up-scaling processes from
much an ‘awareness and alignment’
the dispatch center.
exercise as it is a rational ‘engineer-
ing’ study – perhaps more so.

Public Sector the way we see it

When thinking about the An organization should aim to under- transition plan with a tailor-made
risks of principles being stand the key features, such as the contractual approach guaranteeing
legal issues, data lifespan and security continuity of service. When using
breached or what the concerns, associated with each data cloud for outside-in the emphasis
consequences of such type. The paradigms of data security will be on making use of pre-existing
a breach might be, it is are changing rapidly: social media and services as quickly as possible and
helpful to consider the the net-generation will have a major establishing nimbleness and flexibil­
impact. The public sector is far less ity into ongoing buying decisions.
different types of data in control than in the past; people are
the public sector uses. taking control of their own information. For inside-out more traditional busi-
Many are choosing to open it up, and ness models of contracting with IT
regardless of whether this is good or suppliers may still work, although
The matrix below illustrates two ways bad, the reality is that it is happening. there is still likely to be a shift towards
of segmenting data according to how Offering user choice around different performance-based contracts.
it needs to be handled: levels of security for records is perhaps
something that public administration However for outside-in it will require a
i. Who or what the data con- needs to consider more seriously. new faster cheaper way to do business,
cerns – the question here is who and business models will be different
is the subject of the data and By understanding such things it should and change faster. Success for such an
who is it being used by or for? be possible to design appropriate secu- approach will be delivered through:
–– Personal data concerns an indi- rity protocols into the architecture of a
vidual citizen. Personal data solution that uses the cloud. ƒƒSimple and expeditious approaches.
is used when the government ƒƒSeeking time & cost saving in the
needs data on just that individ- 4. Contracting for cloud: business engagement process.
ual and usually when providing model, commercial, and legal ƒƒ A single set of terms and conditions
a service to that individual – considerations for each service on the menu.
such as paying their benefits. The two approaches to cloud (inside- ƒƒSimpler contractual systems
–– Community data concerns a out and outside-in) will require two with clear accountability, and the
group of people; in government distinctive approaches to contract- prime taking the risk on behalf of
this might be a set of public ing for cloud services. When using the client.
servants – such as the data cloud to help inside-out it will be
used by police officers at a sta- important to develop a smooth
tion or nurses in a hospital.
–– Public data is that which con-
cerns the widest set of cus-
tomers and is used by public Example Data Types
administrations to look at
issues at the macro level. For Subject or Public Community Personal
example, it might include User
demographic statistics used Concerning the Concerning only Concerning just
in planning for services. public at large or a small group one individual or
the whole nation such as a group of family
Sensitivity public servant
ii. The sensitivity of the data –
here the question is how sensi-
tive is the information involved? Published Name
Non-Confidential Nursing rota
–– Non-confidential data is in the statistics Address
public domain and can be
safely shared with anyone.
–– Confidential data is not to be Medical record
Departmental Police operational
shared unless there is a good Confidential Public servant’s
budget proposals data
operational reason to do so. HR file
–– Classified data can only
be shared with those who National
have passed security checks Army unit
Classified security threat Security status
and must be treated with assessments
the highest level of care.

The Government Cloud: Time for Delivery 13

5. Technology fit: How will the To remain agile and to get the massive – to access whatever they
cloud technologies fit together? maximum benefit from cloud both need using REST (Representational
The development of any cloud strategy now and in the future, there are State Transfer), which is a visual
takes place against the background three simple design principles that image of the record. Any changes
of technology change. Governments should be incorporated into any are managed separately. As an
are living in a world of new devices, government cloud architecture: example, think of using Google
such as the iPhone or iPad, which maps – anyone can use the map
represent a new focus on the people, ƒƒLoose coupled – Traditional client and place it in a ‘mash up’, however
rather than on technology, and server systems are tight coupled, you never hold the data in your
on intuitive usability. At the same which means that there is a computer or device, it is merely an
time, new cloud products open up a fixed predetermined relationship image to use when you are online
constantly expanding and adapting between each system. In contrast and connected to the service.
range of services that governments web architecture is loose coupled ƒƒNon-deterministic – Systems are
can potentially exploit. The end with no predetermined fixed rela- deterministic where it is easy
note “Nine game-changing technol- tionship between devices or servers. to determine exactly how many
ogy shifts” offers more detail on the The connection is made only if and users, records, instructions per
current changes in the surrounding when there is a demand to con- second etc. will be needed. In
technology landscape – the pace of sume the service. A simple example contrast, in web architecture it
which is only going to accelerate. of this is browsing the web. is not known how many users
ƒƒState-less – State-full means that or other demands on the system
there is only one version of the there will be in advance.
each data record maintained and
as each transaction happens the Embracing these principles in build-
‘state’ of the record is updated. ing cloud solutions, in contrast to
State-less is used to allow any traditional client server IT, will
number of users – and it can be massively increase the ease of suc-
cessfully integrating the best cloud
services and benefiting rather than
incurring cost from future changes.

Public Sector the way we see it

A Roadmap for services. Governments need a which its operations and services
Government Cloud strategy to take advantage of the will work. This then creates a basis
“All good in theory – so how to turn opportunities this offers for getting for making specific decisions about
it into reality?”: that is the ques- customer feedback and informing particular initiatives.
tion that so many public admin- the public. Without this strategy
istration leaders are asking. The such social media will become an Crucially, approaching this in the
temptation to delay should be unmanaged source of false infor- traditional manner with “boards,
resisted for two simple reasons: mation and aggressive criticism. chairs, and briefing papers” is not as
effective as taking a far more engag-
ƒƒThose that are in the vanguard of Recognizing that this involves a ing visual and story-telling (use case)
this initiative – and who are tack- mindset change as much as it does approach. To that end Capgemini
ling it competently – will benefit any other, Capgemini believes that has developed an outline framework
earliest. With the potential for very a leadership community (frequently (see note below) for the “Journey to
substantial savings (it is not unusual involving people and roles from Cloud in the Public Sector”. It will:
to show a business case with sav- more than one public organization)
ings of around 25%1), they will needs to come together collectively. ƒƒAccelerate the awareness building,
remain in financially far healthier This community should re-evaluate learning, and decision making for
positions. And thus they will be able the context, share views and con- an organization or group of agencies
to service their core role far better. cerns, and re-set the context within ƒƒPersonalize generic, internation-
ƒƒChange will continue regardless ally relevant public sector material
and it risks engulfing those public and make it specific, relevant and
administrations that resist, particu- meaningful
Three key actions from today
larly with reference to the outside- ƒƒEnable the business and its constit-
in model. You only have to look uent services to be broken down
at the extent to which the public into manageable components;
are taking things into their own 1. Appoint a leader for cloud allow the evaluation of options and
hands, individually and collectively. –– Or one for inside-out and priorities to take place; and sup-
For example, people (including one for outside-in port decision making to phase the
public servants and politicians reconstitution of services in poten-
2. Set out a strategic roadmap
themselves) are using social net- tially different (cloud) models,
–– Involving business and
works like Facebook to comment with potentially different partners
on and find out about government ƒƒProvide a framework for learning,
3. Select a place to pilot cloud and leading practice sharing,
between public agencies.
1 For instance, Capgemini’s “Messaging as a Service”
solution offers its customers a 50% overall cost
reduction in the (client-generated) business case.

Cloud is here. The technology has matured at an exceptionally

challenging time for public administrations. How they choose to
use it will help determine how successfully they address these
challenges in the years to come.

The Government Cloud: Time for Delivery 15

Nine Game-Changing Technology Shifts

1. People rather than IT are the new focus. 5. Tight-coupled computers to loose-coupled people.
What people want is contextually relevant information, and the Computers and applications ‘push’ structured process data. In
ability to trigger processes to do something with this informa- contrast, people interact and ‘pull’ contextual information. The
tion where and when they want it. Popular demand has led to former was and still is supported by technology-based integra-
the creation of a plethora of new tools which provide individuals tion of the systems through enterprise architecture. For the latter,
with near real-time communication and data. The technology to the user and devices become the focus, with management of
enable these tools is based on Internet, web services and cloud ‘services’ the new integration issue. The difference between the
services and is very different from the technology of client- two can be seen in the experience of using the web, where you
server application-centric IT systems. chose where to go, versus the experience of using an applica-
tion, which offers a pre-determined path.
2. Intuitive presentation and usability.
There has been a radical change in the way data is presented 6. Next generation data centers.
to users, driven by the consumerization of IT. New devices – There is a shift from deterministic numbers of applications and
like the iPad or Windows 7 phone – have interfaces designed to systems to use of infinite resources and services. The move
make the user’s life easy. The design success of these devices to the next generation data centre involves a radical shift in
has ratcheted up users’ expectations. People-centricity and the requirements towards participation in a common environment
new devices of the consumer technology revolution mean that with other data centers through hybrid clouds and new genera-
the way we write and deploy software has to change, for exam- tion of users/devices.
ple by making use of visually based development techniques.
7. Context-aware rich internet applications
3. From Big to Small IT. are changing everything.
The way in which new services can be developed is hugely dif- The proliferation of online data sources in the everyday environ-
ferent from big complex transactional enterprise applications. ment is providing a wide range of new opportunities for innova-
Large numbers of small services can be rapidly orchestrated into tive online applications. People-centric applications can select
chosen processes, and equally quickly changed again. Solutions location and context-relevant information that is passed to us
can be small, experimental and innovative, while deployments as part of the rich environment in which we will work and live.
don’t have to be big-bang everyone-at-once affairs. These new
8. An additional functional environment.
services will present new challenges and organizations need to
The old client-server functional environment will continue to
make sure they don’t underestimate the numbers of services or
exist, but alongside a new cloud based one. The new functional
the complexity of managing this environment.
environment is justified by providing increased value, rather
4. User-driver decisions on user-driven ICT. than cost reduction. The users of this new environment will be
The enterprise has seen the rise of a new decentralized busi- decentralized and customer facing.
ness technology system alongside the old centralized systems.
9. New technology has enabled smart business innovation.
With the old centralized IT the emphasis is on keeping costs
Achieving both low cost and high efficiency with old IT struc-
low in both the compliance systems and those that support the
tures meant a trade-off with flexibility. As such, any new busi-
core operations of the business. New technologies have pro-
ness activity had to be aligned to the current activity. Now, new
vided the freedom to decentralize, to adapt to the market and
quickly deployed technologies at the edge of the organization
internal users in new ways. The decentralized technologies are
can exploit the strengths of the core systems without requiring
focused on differentiating the business and personalizing ser-
them to be customized.
vices for customers. They are driven by those in contact with
customers, rather than those sitting in the back office.


About Capgemini and the

Collaborative Business Experience

Capgemini, one of the to get the right balance of the best

world’s foremost providers talent from multiple locations, working
of consulting, technology and outsourc- as one team to create and deliver the
ing services, enables its clients to trans- optimum solution for clients. Present
form and perform through technologies. in 40 countries, Capgemini reported
Capgemini provides its clients with 2010 global revenues of EUR 8.7
insights and capabilities that boost their billion and employs around 112,000
freedom to achieve superior results people worldwide.
through a unique way of working, the
Collaborative Business Experience™. More information about our services,
The Group relies on its global delivery offices and research is available at
model called Rightshore®, which aims

For further information on our point of view, and to learn how to apply this
approach to respond to what is a game-changing and irreversible shift,
please contact

Andy Mulholland Shelley Oldham

Global Chief Technology Officer Head of Public Sector, Australia
& Corporate Vice President Tel: +61396133251
Tel: +44 870 238 8980
Sean Rhody
Graham Colclough Principal, Capgemini Government
Vice President, Global Public Sector, Solutions, North America
Cities & European Commission Tel: +1 571 336 1690
Tel: +44 870 238 2425